Department of Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering

THE NATIONAL UNIVERIT!
of IN"A#ORE
Chemical Engineering La$orator%
E&periment '(
'ilter #re))
Name *
+etric No, *
"roup *
Date of E&pt, *
Demon)trator-) *
)ignature
"RADE *
Intro.uction*
Many process operations produce SLURRY of solid particles suspended in a liquid which
must be separated into the solid and liquid phases. The simplest method is to FILTR the
slurry throu!h a fine mesh FILTR "L#T$ so that the solid FILTR "%& is deposited on
the cloth whilst the clear liquid FILTR%T flows throu!h. ither the "%& or the
FILTR%T or both may be the useful products of this operation. %s the ca'e builds up on the
cloth the resistance to flow increases and a !reater pressure would be required to force the
liquid throu!h the ca'e itself. In a (acuum filter the ca'e can be scrapped off the cloth
continuously but this is slow and produces a (ery loose ca'e. $i!h pressure filtration is
faster and produces denser ca'es but it is necessary to contain the system within a )RSS
which must then be opened to remo(e the ca'e. This method is therefore only suitable for
batch operations.
The basic filtration equation can be e*pressed as+
R A v V
P A
dt
dV
µ µα +

=
,
-./
where 01 (olume of filtrate collected2 m
3
t 1 time2 s
% 1 filtration area2 m
,
4 ) 1 pressure drop2 )a
5 1 (iscosity of the filtrate
6 1 specific resistance of the ca'e2 m
7,
R 1 filter medium resistance2 m
7.
v 1 (olume of ca'e of unit (olume of filtrate
For a filtration at constant pressure2 equation -./ can be rearran!ed as

-&.08&,/ d01 dt -,/

where
/ -
.
,
P A
v
K

=
αµ
and
/ -
,
P A
R
K

=
µ
.
Inte!ration of the equation -,/ !i(es
, / -
,
.
K Vi V
K
Vi V
ti t
+ + =


-3/
where ti and 0i are the startin! time of the constant pressure filtration and the correspond
(olume of filtrate. 9y plottin! -t7ti/:-070i/ (s. -080i/2 a linear line can be obtained. &. and
&, can be calculated form the slope and intercept
E&periment /Ne0 )etup1*
This ri! consists of a multi7plate FILTR )RSS fed with water based slurry which is
pumped from a stora!e tan' usin! a pro!ressin! ca(ity pump. The slurry flow rate is
measured by a di!ital flowmeter and the pressure with pressure transmitter. The filtrate
-water in this case/ is allowed to run to waste or a collection tan'.
#roce.ure*
a) Familiarisation
Study and s'etch the layout of this plant so that you are familiar with its operation and the
purpose of each item. You must !et appro(al of the super(isor before proceedin! to the ne*t
sta!e.
b) Operation
"hec' that 90.2 90, and 90; are at the open position and 9032 90<2 =0.2 =0, and =03
are closed. Ma'e sure that there is no built up on the sealin! rims of the filter plates and that
filter sheets han! close to the plates without folds. Shift the filter plates from the shiftin!
plate side to the head side. "lose the release (al(e at the hand pump and pump the hydraulic
closure to ,>>bar. nsure feed tan' is filled up to the mar'ed le(el and the filtrate tan' le(el
is abo(e the low le(el sensor.
Turn on the main supply. Reset the system by to!!lin! the reset button to the ri!ht hand side
and hold until the red li!ht is ?#FF@. Run the system in auto mode. Start the mi*er and allow
it to run for ,> minutes. Set conditions for the filtration on the control panel. Switch on the
feed pump and start recordin! the pressure and flow rate. #bser(e any chan!es in clarity of
the filtrate. You should allow the process to continue until the feed le(el is lower than the
propeller or the feed pressure is fluctuatin! (iolently. Switch off the pump and stirrer.

c) Dismantling
#pen the release (al(e at the hand pump. The sprin! in the sin!le actin! cylinder will pull
bac' the piston rod. )ush bac' the shiftin! plate. "arefully lift out the frame containin! the
filter ca'e and the filter cloth. The ca'e2 which should be firm and compact2 can be pushed
out of the frame into the buc'et. Slide the ne*t plate and lift out the ne*t frame and so on.
Ahen all the frames ha(e been remo(ed wash them carefully to remo(e all traces of filter
ca'e from the surfaces. )ut the filter ca'e bac' into the tan' and fill up the tan' to the
mar'ed le(el.
f/ "arry out a set of constant pressure filtration e*periments on the slurry and apply the
filtration theory to interpret the data.
E&periment /Ol. )etup1*
This ri! consists of a multi7plate FILTR )RSS fed with water based slurry which is
pumped from a stora!e tan' usin! a positi(e displacement -M#B#/ pump. The slurry flow
rate is measured by collectin! the filtrate and the pressure with a 9ourden tube )RSSUR
C%UC. The filtrate -water in this case/ is allowed to run to a collection tan'.
#roce.ure*
a) Familiarisation
Study and s'etch the layout of this plant so that you are familiar with its operation and the
purpose of each item. You must !et appro(al of the super(isor before proceedin! to the ne*t
sta!e.
b) Operation
"hec' that the )RSS is ti!htly closed by tryin! to turn the R%T"$T %RM cloc'wise.
"hec' that the tan' is filled to the correct le(el2 two 9)7)%SS 0%L0S are open2 and
)RSS IBLT 0%L0 is closed. Switch on the )UM) and STIRRR. "hec' that slurry is
flowin! bac' to the tan'. %llow the pump to run for .> minutes.
c) Testing
In quic' succession2 close one of the two by7pass (al(es2 start the ST#)A%T"$ and open
the press inlet (al(e. Record the FL#A R%T and )RSSUR at one minute inter(als and
obser(e any chan!es in clarity of the filtrate. You should allow the process to continue until
the feed le(el is lower than the propeller. Switch off the pump and stirrer.
d) Dismantling
9F#R =ISM%BTLIBC T$IS UBIT Y#U MUST #9T%IB % )RMIT T# A#R&
FR#M T$ SU)R0IS#R A$# AILL L#"& #FF T$ L"TRI"%L SU))LYDD
Slac'en the press by usin! the ratchet le(er and then open it completely usin! the smaller
handle. Startin! from the bac' -near the ratchet handle/2 lift out the M#0%9L $%=
)L%T carryin! the first filter cloth. "arefully lift out the ne*t element2 which is a hollow
FR%M containin! the filter ca'e. The ca'e2 which should be firm and compact2 can be
pushed out of the frame into the buc'et. Slide the ne*t )L%T alon! and lift out the ne*t
FR%M and so on. Ahen all the FR%MS ha(e been remo(ed2 ta'e them to the sin' and
wash them carefully to remo(e all traces of filter ca'e from the surfaces2 the four holes at
the corners of each plate and the small passa!es connectin! these holes with the plate
surface. Remo(e the filter cloths notin! that there is a stiff 9%"&IBC "L#T$ which
pro(ides support for the finer mesh FILTR "L#T$. %lso note that there are two sin!le7
side cloths on the FIE= $%= )L%T and the M#0%9L $%= )L%T. Aash the
filter plates and cloths carefully in the sin' as before. Remo(e any filter ca'e from the inlet
passa!e of the fi*ed head plate and the surfaces of both head plates.
e) Reassembly
Replace the filter plates between the frames and fit the cloths startin! at the fi*ed head end
and slidin! each element up to this end as it is complete. It is important that you ensure that
the cloths are fitted the ri!ht way round !i(in! a continuous hole for the inlet and filtrate
portsDDD $a(e the assembly chec'ed by the super(isor and then replace the ma'e7up pieces
and ti!hten the press with the ratchet handle. )ut the filter ca'e bac' into the tan' and fill up
the tan' to the mar'ed le(el usin! the nearest water hose. $ose down any filtrate on the
floor ta'in! care not to soa' the electrical supply to the motor. Fill the press with tap water
and carry out the lea' test before ne*t run.
f/ "arry out a set of constant pressure filtration e*periments on the slurry and apply the
filtration theory to interpret the data.
Re)ult) an. Di)cu))ion)*
S'etch the plant layout and draw cross7sections of the plate and frame elements to show the
internal flow patterns. )lot !raphs of pressure and flow rate a!ainst time and comment on
their shape. =escribe briefly one other technique for filtration.
Ahat is the practical si!nificance of the filtration equationsF "alculate 62 the a(era!e
specific ca'e resistance and R2 the filter7medium resistance2 and fit an empirical equation to
the results for 6.
Conclu)ion)*
Reference)*
.. "oulson GM and Richardson GF2 "hemical n!ieerin! 0ol,2 Bew Yor'+ )er!amon )ress2
.HH>.
,. )urchas =92 Industrial Filtration of Liquids2 Leonard $ill2 .HI..
3. )erry R$2 "hemical n!ineers $andboo'2 McCraw7$ill2 .HJ,.
<. Mc"abe2 Smith and $arriott2 Unit #perations of "hemical n!ineerin!2 McCraw7$ill2
.HJK.
;. Aa'eman RG and Tarleton S2 Filtration quipment Selection2 Modellin! and )rocess
Simulation2 lse(ier %d(anced Technolo!y2 .HHH

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