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Copyright 2005 e-Gizmo Mechatronix Central
You always wanted wireless control of your project with a PC. e-Gizmo now brings you your building
block module-
8/16-bit RF Wireless Remote Output
that you can control using your PC!
Designed and Written by Henry Chua
I met a lot of students and enthusi-
asts who build or are trying to build
gadgets that they hope can be re-
motely controlled by RF (Radio Fre-
quency). Because of the unavailabil-
ity of any locally-built RF remote cir-
cuit boards, the moneyed ones sim-
ply purchase this stuff from overseas
suppliers, spending 12,000 pesos,
perhaps a bit more.
Others resort to buying RC (Radio
Controlled) cars, tearing it apart, tak-
ing only the much needed RF remote
parts. A cheap RC car with two output
functions can cost as little as 600 pe-
sos. This seems to be attractive enough to jump into
this solution, except that:
• Unless you are an experienced electronics geek, find-
ing the correct output and matching it with your circuit
can be very tricky.
• Most R/C toys operate on 27MHz to 49MHz frequen-
cies. If you are planning to use a microcontroller or mi-
croprocessor with your wireless, then you have a prob-
lem. As those who already tried this found out,
microcontroller circuits generate all sorts of RF noise
interference within these frequency bands. This severely
affects the reception ability of the receiver circuit, re-
ducing the control distance range to only a couple of
meter or so. Of course, a wireless controlling distance
within your arm's reach will not look impressive at all.
Our wireless kit is designed to be free from these prob-
lems. It operates at 433MHz unlicensed ISM (Industrial
Scientific Medical) frequency, far from the interfering sig-
nal frequencies coming out of your microcontroller cir-
cuits. It is easy to use, fully documented. All available
Typical Performance
Frequency: 433MHz nominal
430-439 MHz
Transmitter Side:
Output Power:
0dBm (1mW)
Harmonics:
2nd < -15dB
3rd up < -25db
Receiver Side:
Sensitivity:
8uV @ 2.4Khz 80%mod
RF Bandwidth (-6db):
2.4 MHz typ
Adjacent Frequency Rejection fo +/- 5MHz:
- 55dB
Control Distance:
> 100ft in open space
Copyright 2005 by e-Gizmo Mechatronix Central
All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the written consent of e-Gizmo Mechatronix. Content subject to change without prior notice.
All informations contained herein are believed to be correct and reliable.
Before using this document, you must agree with the following terms and conditions:
1. e-Gizmo Mechatronix and the author cannot be held liable for any damage that may occur with the use or misuse of any information contained in this document.
2. You are allowed to reproduce this publication and the product it describes for personal use only. Commercial reproduction is prohibited!
8/16-bit Wireless Remote Output
Page 2
Figure 1. Complete schematic diagram of the transmitter unit.
Power to the transmitter is directly drawn from the RS-
232C lines. With pin 4 (DTR) output permanently stay-
ing at the V+ side, the transmitter can be switched ON
and OFF through pin 3's (TX) output of the serial port.
In other words, the serial data output itself turns ON
and OFF the transmitter, effecting a Amplitude Modu-
lated system. D1 keeps the voltage to the transmitter
from exceeding 5.1V, at the same time, limits the volt-
Figure 2. The receiver circuit functional block diagram
I/Os are fully explained with some interfacing examples.
The transmitters plugs into one of your PC serial com
port. It is Visual Basic friendly, 10 lines of code is enough
to operate it.
CIRCUIT EXPLAINED
The wireless kit consists of two subsystems, the trans-
mitter circuit, and the receiver/decoder circuit.
The circuit schematic of the transmitter is shown on Fig.
1. The circuit is remarkably simple, thanks to the RF
module UC1817. I used this module because (after
some modification) of its good frequency stability over
temperature and time, although it contains no saw filter
component at all. Of course, a 433 MHz saw filter-stabi-
lized oscillator circuit would give much better frequency
stability, but you'll need a load of luck to find one in the
local hobby market.
J2
CON1
1
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CONN DSUB 9-R
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age to -0.6V in case pin 4's output suddenly decides to
go negative.
The receiver circuit is a bit more complicated, it will make
more sense if we describe the circuit in its block dia-
gram form as shown in Figure 2. The complete sche-
matic of the receiver is shown on Figure 2a on page 3.
Page 3
Copyright 2005 e-Gizmo Mechatronix Central
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8/16-bit Wireless Remote Output
Page 4
We all know the function of the antenna; it grabs what-
ever radio signal wanders in its reach. Because of its
finite length, it favors radio signals with frequencies that
falls within half wavelength, which, by design, is
433MHz.
The receiver is more picky. It will work only on 433MHz
signals, totally ignoring all others. The very weak signal
from the antenna is greatly amplified, at the same time
demodulated in this block, resulting in the recovered
data signal from the receiver output. The receiver block
consists of components Q1, R1 to R4, C1 to C7, L1, L2
and D1.
The recovered data signal however is still too weak and
is mixed with all sorts of noise. The amplifier stage
boosts the signal to a more usable level, using to its
advantage its inability to amplify high frequency noise,
thereby improving its signal to noise ratio. Then, this
preconditioned signal is fed to a pulse shaper where
data signal is reconstructed into nice digital signals the
microcontroller can now understand. The amplifier cir-
cuit consists of U2A and associated components, the
pulse shaper is formed by U2B and associated parts
wired as Schmitt trigger.
The microcontroller then assembles the received data
into an 8-bit data format. As wireless transmission is
very prone to error due to unaccountable external influ-
ences, extra bits are transmitted and received as a form
of error checking. If everything matches the error-check-
ing code, then the received data is fed to its 8-bit output
port. A successful data transmission is indicated by a
flashing LED indicator in the receiver board. Data trans-
mission format is discussed in detail in the Program-
ming section. The microcontroller section is based on a
Z86E02 microcontroller U1. U3 converts the DC supply
input into a stable 5V source to supply the whole circuit.
ASSEMBLY INSTRUCTIONS
Part of the circuit, the receiver circuit in particular, works
at a very high RF frequency (UHF 433 MHz). The choice
of components becomes very important. At this fre-
quency, the PCB layout becomes very much part of the
circuit. Each component is carefully laid out to minimize
unwanted interaction against each other. Merely repo-
sitioning these components can have an astonishing
effect on the performance of the circuit. Many people
who do not understand this suspects that RF design is
engineering mixed with witchcraft, or maybe the other
way around.
Figure 3. Component side of the receiver module.
Figure 4. Bottom side of the receiver module. Four
components are soldered on this side; U1, U3, Q1, and
D1.
Receiver Board Assembly
Use a PCB layout pattern which is a faithful reproduc-
tion of the pattern shown in the downloads. If you choose
not to, you may be buying yourself into trouble you
must be certain you know what you are doing.
Treat each component with reasonable care. The ICs
are particularly susceptible to damage due to ESD (Elec-
trostatic Discharge) and must be handled properly. Sol-
dering workmanship is very important, this project must
be built by a soldering iron master!
Recommended reading:
General PCB Assembly procedure
www.e-gizmo.com/ARTICLES/ProjectB/Assembly.htm
Page 5
Copyright 2005 e-Gizmo Mechatronix Central
Mount and solder the components in the following or-
der : resistor, capacitors, coils, transistor, diode, ICs,
and whatever component is left out of this list. Keep all
components lead as short as possible. Q1, U1, U3 and
D1 are surface mount components - they are soldered
directly on the copper side of the PCB.
Figure 5. Components with leads soldered on the compo-
nent side.
1 - C18
2 - C15
3 - R14
4 - C12
5 - R13
6 - Crystal Can
7 - C16
8 - U2 pin 4
9 - C6
10 - R1
Form the antenna by cutting an AWG25 solid insulated
hook up wire 35cm long. Note that this length corre-
sponds to the half wavelength of the 433MHz RF sig-
nal. Making this wire any longer or shorter will not im-
prove reception, in fact, it will do just the opposite. One
problem we noticed though is the antenna does not like
to be touched (i.e. hand effect). Grabbing the antenna
with one hand will detune the receiver and can alto-
gether stop reception. Swaying the antenna, will also
have the same effect, although to a much lesser extent.
Figure 6. The receiver module antenna.
Double side layout is used for the receiver board, with
the component side copper used mainly as a ground
plane. Some components must be soldered on the com-
ponent side copper trace ( if the PCB you are using is
not a plated through hole type), these are shown and
are listed as follows:
This phenomena is caused by insufficient isolation of
the receiver's tuned circuit with the input port.
We can easily solve this problem by winding the base
portion of the antenna 8 turns around a 5mm diameter
temporary form, forming it as shown in the picture be-
low. Of course, this solution is a compromise, we do
this at the expense of reduced transmission distance.
But still, the control distance goes more than 100 feet in
an open field.
8/16-bit Wireless Remote Output
Page 6
Transmitter Board Assembly
Building the transmitter board is a breeze! You only have
to solder a couple of resistor R1 and R2, a zener diode
D1, the transmitter module, a DB-9 female connector,
Figure 7a. Transmitter component side.
Figure 7b. The RF module is soldered on
the copper side.
TEST and ALIGNMENT
EQUIPMENT NEEDED:
a) Personal Computer (PC) with microsoft Visual Basic
6 software installed.
b) Non metal screwdriver alignment tool.
c) 9V Battery with Battery Snap.
Alignment Procedure:
1. Download and run the Visual Basic test program.
2. Install the transmitter to serial communication port1
(com1) of your PC.
3. You will be moving around with the receiver module
as you align it for the farthest control distance. Use a
9V battery to temporarily power it while doing the
alignment. Solder the battery snap red wire to the +
pin of C14, with the black wire going to - pin of the
same capacitor.
4. Working close to your transmitter, tune coil L2 using
the screwdriver alignment tool until the receiver LED
indicator D4 flashes. Hold the PCB module near the
and the antenna and its done. The antenna is formed
out of solid AWG 16 tw wire cut to 35cm length.
data terminal connector J1 and keep your fingers
away from the high frequency receiver area as you
do the adjustments.
5. Keeping an eye on the LED, move farther away from
the transmitter until the LED stops flashing.
6. Slowly readjust L2 until the LED flashes again.
7. Repeat steps 5 and 6 until no further improvements
can be obtained.
You should have moved at least 100 feet away (open
space) from the transmitter by the time the LED stops
flashing if L2 is properly adjusted. Final distance will
vary considerably if you do the alignment indoors, but it
should not be less than 50 feet when obstructed with
two concrete walls in between.
Page 7
Copyright 2005 e-Gizmo Mechatronix Central
USING THE WIRELESS SYSTEM
Wireless control is accomplished by sending a stream
of data from the PC to the transmitter through the serial
communications port (com1, com2,.. and so on). The
serial data is then picked-up from a remote location by
the receiver module and then reconstructed to appear
as an 8 or 16 bit parallel data on its output.
But serial transfer cannot be reliably accomplished in
wireless realm by simply throwing data all by itself. A lot
of things could happen as signal travels through space
towards the receiver side. And when these things hap-
pens, it always leads to a erroneous data appearing on
the receiver side.
Obviously, we have to devise some way for the receiver
to recognized whether the data it receives is intact or
invalid. We can easily do this by transmitting extra data
used mainly for error checking.
Communications Format
Aside from the 8-bit data of interest, we have to throw
in two extra bytes of data preceding and succeeding
the 8 bit data. Let us call these extra bytes as the Header
and the Checksum. The communications format is then
more clearly described as:
[Header] + [Data] + [Checksum]
This is a three byte transmission. Each data set en-
closed with bracket is 8-bit wide.
Header - The header is used mainly to tell the receiver
that data transmission is started. This is a fixed
data with a valid hexadecimal value of 54
(&H54 in Visual Basic format) or 55.
Data - This is the actual 8 bit data you are sending.
Checksum - 8-bit Sum of [Header] + [Data] (results
truncated to 8 bits)
Upon reception, the receiver checks the integrity of the
header and proceeds to compute its own checksum and
compares it with the received checksum. If the checksum
matches, a valid data reception is assumed and the 8-
bit data is outputted on the receiver output port. Other-
wise, if error is found in either header or checksum, the
receiver rejects the data set by ignoring it.
This data transmission scheme is very easy to imple-
mented in Visual Basic. The downloadable test program
source code serves as a sample showing how to do it.
Output interfacing
All outputs are 5V TTL/CMOS compatible, and follow-
ing the specifications of the IC, each output is capable
of directly driving two TTL loads only. Do not connect
any inductive load to the outputs directly, unless it is
really your intent to kill the IC U1. Examples of highly
inductive loads are solenoids, relays, and motors.
An output interfacing circuit example is shown in figure
8. The transistor circuit allows on/off control of loads
and is capable of sinking up to 100mA. D1 is necessary
when the load is inductive. It prevents the switch-off tran-
sient of the load from frying Q1.
Figure 8. A switching transistor circuit should be used when
driving inductive loads, such as a relay.
8/16-bit Wireless Remote Output
Page 8
MEASURED PERFORMANCE NOTES
Performance test setup:
View of the test bench and equipment used to
evaluate the transmitter and receiver.
Instruments used:
- Advantest R3261C 9khz-2.6GHz Spectrum
Analyser.
- Hewlett Packard HP8647A 1GHz RF Signal
Generator
- Tektronix TDS754A 500MHz 2Gs/S Digital
Oscilloscope
- Tektronix 2465B 400MHz Analog Oscilloscope
- Hewlett Packard HP6633A System Power
Supply
- Wavetek model 166 50MHz Function and
Pulse Generator.
IF EIGHT IS NOT ENOUGH
Throw in a couple of 374s and connect them as shown
in the figure below and you get a 16-bit output. You can
use 74LS374, or its HC and HCT equivalent. Power pins
connections of the ICs (pin 10 - GND, pin 20 - Vcc) are
not shown in the schematic, but you should connect
them to the supply lines! For best results, add a 0.1uF
multilayer capacitor across the Vcc to GND lines clos-
est to the ICs.
To output an 8 bit data on U1, use a hexadecimal &H54
header value in the data communications (see Com-
munications Format). To output an 8 bit data on U2,
use a header value of &H55.
Figure 9. Adding a pair of 374 latches
allows you to control up to 16 outputs.
Page 9
Copyright 2005 e-Gizmo Mechatronix Central
Close up view of the receiver module under test.
Tetronix probe P6137 were used.
To measure receiver sensitivity, the signal generator
output is reduced until noise starts to show up on the
digital pulse shaper output. The upper trace shows
the output of signal amplifier U2A (1V/div) while the
lower trace displays the pulse shaper output U2B. An
analog oscilloscope is used to monitor the output so
that all high frequency noise and artifacts can be
seen, something a digital oscilloscope is not good at.
Under the test criteria described above, and with the
signal generator externally modulated with a 2.4kHz
square wave signal at 80% modulation depth, the
signal generator reveals a respectable 18dBu (7.94
uV) receiver input sensitivity.
The 6dB RF bandwidth measured 2.7MHz, not
impressive actually, but it is not fair either to expect
more for this type of receiver circuit.
The measured RF bandwidth is much wider than we
need. We don't want excessive bandwidth because it
makes the receiver more susceptible to noise and in-
terference. On the other hand, we could make use of
this excessive bandwidth to our advantage. Remem-
ber, our transmitter is not saw filter controlled, mean-
ing, the frequency can wander a bit. The excess re-
ceiver bandwidth actually makes it tolerant to this kind
of deficiency, ensuring a good data transmission even
if the transmitter frequency alignment stray by as much
as 1MHz.
8/16-bit Wireless Remote Output
Page 10
Adjacent frequency rejection at +/- 5MHz and +/-10MHz
frequency were also measured. Results are as follows:
431.2MHz + 5MHz - 62dB
431.2MHz - 5MHz - 58dB
431.2MHz + 10MHz - 78dB
431.2MHz - 10MHz - 65dB
The nominal operating voltage of the receiver is 9V.
At this supply voltage, it consumes 18mA current
(0.162W). It will work with supply voltage as low as
7V to as high as 16VDC.
The transmitter was evaluated using a spectrum
analyzer. The transmitter is both powered and
modulated by the model 166 function generator
output set at 20Vp-p 2.4KHz square wave. This test
condition is chosen to simulate the working condi-
tion when it is finally connected to an RS-232 PC
communications port. A 20dB attenuator is used at
the analyzer input to prevent input overloading.
The picture on the right shows the resulting trace
scan at 100kHz span.
Antenna hand effect was also measured and turned
out to be less than 30KHz.
The transmitter output scanned to 1MHz span. Here,
it also indicates a 0dbm (1mW) output for the trans-
mitter. This low output makes it less likely to cause
harmful interference to an appliance or equipment
operating near it.
Page 11
Copyright 2005 e-Gizmo Mechatronix Central
The transmitter output at full 2.6GHz span shows its
spurious output signals. The second harmonic is 18db
below the fundamental. The remaining harmonics are
at least 30db below.
We are currently measuring the short term and long
term frequency drift, and how it behaves with chang-
ing temperature. We will publish the results when data
becomes available.
8 PARALLEL INPUTS
REMOTE CONTROLLER
If your application do not require a PC (such as
microcontroller based circuits ), or you just need a
remote controller with push button functions, an 8-
input remote controller transmitter is also available.
The operation of the controller is straightforward.
The z8 microcontroller constantly read the inputs, if
a change is detected, the new input states is
transmitted via the UC1817 transmitter module
into the correct communications format.
The receiver module then perfoms the action, as
described in the Circuit Explained section of this
article (page 2), turning ON or OFF its output port
corresponding to the inputs of this controller.
The remote controller inputs can, at your option, be
configured in push-on/push-off mode : push to turn
it on, push a second time to turn it off, a very
useful feature with push button operation.
The board comes complete with 8 push button
switches (soldered on the copper side). A snap-on
wafer connector connects it to a controller circuit of
your choice.
The full schematic diagram of the controller is
shown in figure 12.

Z8
Microcontroller
UC1817
Transmitter
8 inputs
Figure 10. 8 parallel inputs remote controller
module.
Figure 11. Block diagram of the remote controller
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N
2
12
R
1
5
1
0
K
F
i
g
u
r
e

1
2
.

S
c
h
e
m
a
t
i
c

d
i
a
g
r
a
m

o
f

t
h
e

8

p
a
r
a
l
l
e
l

i
n
p
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t
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r
e
m
o
t
e

c
o
n
t
r
o
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.
Page 13
Copyright 2005 e-Gizmo Mechatronix Central
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
R16
U1
U2
U3
Y1
ANT
220 1/4 watt carbon film resistor
Z86E04 - RFW Microcontroller IC
LM358 OPAMP IC
L7805/TO220 Voltage Regulator IC
3.583MHZ Crystal
PCB - receiver
AWG #25 solid insulated wire, 35cm long
Transmitter Assembly
1
2
3
4
5
6
2
1
1
1
1
1
R1,R2
D1
JDR1
ANT
27 ohms 1/4 watt carbon film resistor
5V1 1/2W Zener Diode
UC1817 (Modified) RF Module
PCB
Dsub-9 Female, PC Mount
AWG # 16 solid TW wire, 35cm Long
BILL OF MATERIALS
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
17
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
2
1
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
9
1
1
2
1
1
C1
C2,C5
C3,C18
C4
C6
C7,C9
C8
C11,C12
C13
C14
C15,C16
C17
D1
D4
J1
J3
L1
L2
Q1
R1
R2,R5,R7,R9,R11,R13,
R14, R15,R17
R3
R4
R6,R8
R10
R12
ITEM QUANTITY REFERENCE PART
Receiver Module
0.5pF Ceramic NPO
330pF Ceramic SL
1n Ceramic SL
1pF Ceramic NPO
4n7 Ceramic SL
47u/10V Electrolytic
4u7 Electrolytic
27p Ceramic SL
220u/6v3 Electrolytic
100u/16V Electrolytic
0u1 Multilayer Ceramic
39p Ceramic SL
1N4148 Signal Diode
LED 3 or 5mm diameter
9 pin header connector with lock
CROWN JACK
2u2H
Adjustable Coil
2SC3707
5k6 1/4 watt carbon film resistor
10K 1/4 watt carbon film resistor
6K2 1/4 watt carbon film resistor
22K 1/4 watt carbon film resistor
1M2 1/4 watt carbon film resistor
56 1/4 watt carbon film resistor
220K 1/4 watt carbon film resistor
8/16-bit Wireless Remote Output
Page 14
Transmitter Component Layout
Transmitter Copper pattern (shown on
component side)
PCB ARTWORKS
Important: For personal use only. Commercial reproduction
is strictly prohibited!
Page 15
Copyright 2005 e-Gizmo Mechatronix Central
Receiver Component Layout
Receiver Component side
Receiver Copper pattern (shown on compo-
nent side)
PCB ARTWORKS
Important: For personal use only. Commercial reproduction
is strictly prohibited!
8/16-bit Wireless Remote Output
Page 16
Remote controller component Layout Remote Controller component side
(Jumper)
Remote Controller Copper pattern (shown
on component side)
PCB ARTWORKS
Important: For personal use only. Commercial reproduction
is strictly prohibited!