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The word motivation is coined from the Latin word "movere", which means to move. Motivation is as an internal drive that activates behavior and gives it direction. Motivation is defined as an urge in an individual to perform goal directed behavior. cannot be Therefore, motivation
inflicted from outside but it is an intrinsic desire in a man to achieve the target goal through performance or activity. Motives are expression of person’s need. Hence, they are personal and Motivation is a reason or set of reasons for engaging in a particular behavior, especially human behavior. The reasons may include basic needs (e.g., food, water, shelter) or an object, goal, state of being, or ideal that is desirable, which may or may not be viewed as "positive," such as seeking a state of being in which pain is absent. Motivation is essential to be successful in any endeavor you undertake. It can be positive or negative, subtle or obvious, tangible or intangible. It is very important in workplaces as it plays a key role in the effective performance of employees. In industry, managers play a significant role in employee motivation. They use different motivation techniques to improve productivity, thereby promoting cooperation between employees and employers.
CONCEPTS OF MOTIVATION
REWARD AND REINFORCEMENT A reward is that which follows an occurrence of a specific behavior with the intention of acknowledging the behavior in a positive way. A reward often has the intent of encouraging the behavior to happen again.There are two kinds of rewards, extrinsic and intrinsic. Extrinsic rewards are external to, or outside of, the individual; for example, praise or money. Intrinsic rewards are internal to, or within, the individual; for example, satisfaction or accomplishment. Some authors distinguish between two forms of intrinsic motivation: one based on enjoyment, the other on obligation. In this context, obligation refers to motivation based on what an individual thinks ought to be done. For instance, a feeling of responsibility for a mission may lead to helping others beyond what is easily observable, rewarded, or fun. A reinforcer is different from reward, in that reinforcement is intended to create a measured increase in the rate of a desirable behavior following the addition of something to the environment. INTRINSIC AND EXTRINSIC MOTIVATION
Intrinsic motivation is evident when people engage in an activity for its own sake, without some obvious external incentive present. A hobby is a typical example. Intrinsic motivation has been intensely studied by educational psychologists since the 1970s, and numerous studies have found it to be associated with high educational achievement and enjoyment by students. There is currently no "grand unified theory" to explain the origin or elements of intrinsic motivation. Most explanations combine elements of Bernard Weiner's attribution theory, Bandura's work on self-efficacy and other studies relating to locus of control and goal orientation. Thus it is thought that students are more likely to experience intrinsic motivation if they:
Attribute their educational results to internal factors that they can control Believe they can be effective agents in reaching desired goals (eg. the Are motivated towards deep 'mastery' of a topic, instead of just rote-
(eg. the amount of effort they put in, not 'fixed ability').
results are not determined by dumb luck.)
learning 'performance' to get good grades. Note that the idea of reward for achievement is absent from this model of intrinsic motivation, since rewards are an extrinsic factor.In knowledge-sharing communities and organizations, people often cite altruistic reasons for their participation, including contributing to a common good, a moral obligation to the group, mentorship or 'giving back'. This model of intrinsic motivation has emerged from three decades of research by hundreds of educationalists and is still evolving.In work environments, money is typically viewed as an important goal (having food, clothes etc.) may well be more powerful than the direct motivation provided by an enjoyable workplace.
The most obvious form of motivation is coercion, where the avoidance of pain or other negative consequences has an immediate effect. Extreme use of coercion is considered slavery. While coercion is considered morally reprehensible in many philosophies, it is widely practiced on prisoners, students in mandatory schooling, within the nuclear family unit (on children), and in the form of conscription. Critics of modern capitalism charge that without social safety networks, wage slavery is inevitable. However, many capitalists such as Ayn Rand have been very vocal against coercion. Successful coercion sometimes can take priority over other types of motivation. Self-coercion is rarely substantially negative (typically only negative in the sense that it avoids a positive, such as undergoing an expensive dinner or a period of relaxation), however it is interesting in that it illustrates how lower levels of motivation may be sometimes tweaked to satisfy higher ones. SELF CONTROL The self-control of motivation is increasingly understood as a subset of emotional intelligence; a person may be highly intelligent according to a more conservative definition (as measured by many intelligence tests), yet unmotivated to dedicate this intelligence to certain tasks. Drives and desires can be described as a deficiency or need that activates behaviour that is aimed at a goal or an incentive. These are thought to originate within the individual and may not -4-
require external stimuli to encourage the behaviour. Basic drives could be sparked by deficiencies such as hunger, which motivates a person to seek food; whereas more subtle drives might be the desire for praise and approval, which motivates a person to behave in a manner pleasing to others. By contrast, the role of extrinsic rewards and stimuli can be seen in the example of training animals by giving them treats when they perform a trick correctly. The treat motivates the animals to perform the trick consistently, even later when the treat is removed from the process.
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Jeremy Bentham’s “The Carrot and the Stick Approach”:
Possibly the essence of the traditional view of people at work can be best appreciated by a brief look at the work of this English philosopher, whose ideas were also developed in the early years of the Industrial Revolution, around 1800. Bentham’s view was that all people are self-interested and are motivated by the desire to avoid pain and find pleasure. Any worker will work only if the reward is big enough, or the punishment sufficiently unpleasant. This view - the ‘carrot and stick’ approach - was built into the philosophies of the age and is still to be found, especially in the older, more traditional sectors of industry. The various leading theories of motivation and motivators seldom make reference to the carrot and the stick. This metaphor relates, of course, to the use of rewards and penalties in order to induce desired behavior. It comes from the old story that to make a donkey move, one must put a carrot in front of him or dab him with a stick from behind. Despite all the research on the theories of motivation, reward and punishment are still considered strong motivators. For centuries, however, they were too often thought of as the only forces that could motivate people.
At the same time, in all theories of motivation, the inducements of some kind of ‘carrot’ are recognized. Often this is money in the form of pay or bonuses. Even though money is not the only motivating force, it has been and will continue to be an important one. The trouble with the money ‘carrot’ approach is that too often everyone gets a carrot, regardless of performance through such practices as salary increase and promotion by seniority, automatic ‘merit’ increases, and executive bonuses not based on individual manager performance. It is as simple as this : If a person put a donkey in a pen full of carrots and then stood outside with a carrot, would the donkey be encouraged to come out of the pen ? The ‘stick’, in the form of fear–fear of loss of job, loss of income, reduction of bonus, demotion, or some other penalty–has been and continues to be a strong motivator. Yet it is admittedly not the best kind. It often gives rise to defensive or retaliatory behavior, such as union organization, poor-quality work, executive indifference, failure of a manager to take any risks in decision making or even dishonesty. But fear of penalty cannot be overlooked. Whether managers are first-level supervisors or chief executives, the power of their position to give or with hold rewards or impose penalties of various kinds gives them an ability to control, to a very great extent, the economic and social well-being of their subordinates.
Abraham Maslow’s “Need Hierarchy Theory” :
One of the most widely mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forth by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and he concluded that when one set of needs is satisfied, this kind of need ceases to be a motivator.
As per his theory these needs are: (i) Physiological needs: These are important needs for sustaining the human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are the basic physiological needs which fall in the primary list of need satisfaction. Maslow was of an opinion that until these needs were satisfied to a degree to maintain life, no other motivating factors can work. (ii) Security or Safety needs: These are the needs to be free of physical danger and of the fear of losing a job, property, food or shelter. It also includes protection against any emotional harm. (iii) Social needs: Since people are social beings, they need to belong and be accepted by others. People try to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance and friendship. (iv) Esteem needs: According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige status and self-confidence. It includes both internal esteem factors like self-respect, autonomy and achievements and external esteem factors such as states, recognition and attention. (v) Need for self-actualization: Maslow regards this as the highest need in his hierarchy. It is the drive to become what one is capable of becoming, it includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. It is to maximize one’s potential and to accomplish something. As each of these needs are substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. From the standpoint of motivation, the theory would say that although no need is ever fully gratified, a substantially satisfied need no longer motivates. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what level of the hierarchy that person is on and focus on satisfying those needs or needs above
that level. Maslow’s need theory has received wide recognition, particularly among practicing managers. This can be attributed to the theory’s intuitive logic and ease of understanding. However, research does not validate these theory. Maslow provided no empirical evidence and other several studies that sought to validate the theory found no support for it. “Theory X and Theory Y” of Douglas McGregor :
McGregor, in his book “The Human side of Enterprise” states that people inside the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, which falls under the category X and the other is basically positive, which falls under the category Y. After viewing the way in which the manager dealt with employees, McGregor concluded that a manager’s view of the nature of human beings is based on a certain grouping of assumptions and that he or she tends to mold his or her behavior towards subordinates according to these assumptions.
Under the assumptions of theory X : -9-
Employees inherently do not like work and whenever possible, will attempt Because employees dislike work, they have to be forced, coerced or Employees avoid responsibilities and do not work fill formal directions are Most workers place a greater importance on security over all other factors
to avoid it.
threatened with punishment to achieve goals.
and display little ambition. In contrast under the assumptions of theory Y :
Physical and mental effort at work is as natural as rest or play. People do exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are Average human beings are willing to take responsibility and exercise
committed to those goals.
imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving the problems of the organization.
That the way the things are organized, the average human being’s
brainpower is only partly used. On analysis of the assumptions it can be detected that theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that is run on Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature, the word “authoritarian” suggests such ideas as the “power to enforce obedience” and the “right to command.” In contrast Theory Y organizations can be described as “participative”, where the aims of the organization and of the individuals in it are integrated; individuals can achieve their own goals best by directing their efforts towards the success of the organization. However, this theory has been criticized widely for generalization of work and human behavior.
Frederick Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory
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Frederick has tried to modify Maslow’s need Hierarchy theory. His theory is also known as two-factor theory or Hygiene theory. He stated that there are certain satisfiers and dissatisfiers for employees at work. Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. He devised his theory on the question : “What do people want from their jobs ?” He asked people to describe in detail, such situations when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad. From the responses that he received, he concluded that opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Removing dissatisfying characteristics from a job does not necessarily make the job satisfying. He states that presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation. However, their non presence leads to demotivation. In similar manner there are certain factors, the absence of which causes no dissatisfaction, but their presence has motivational impact.
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Examples of Hygiene factors are : Security, status, relationship with subordinates, personal life, salary, work conditions, relationship with supervisor and company policy and administration. Examples of Motivational factors are : Growth prospectus job advancement, responsibility, challenges, recognition and achievements.
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MOTIVATION AT WORKPLACE
Having a well motivated staff is essential to a productive and pleasant work environment. As a manager, or leader, motivation must be one of your chief concerns. Every one is motivated by something. When you go to the supermarket, you are motivated by hunger; when you run, you are motivated by the desire to be healthy, etc. So what motivates a person to work? Not just work, but work efficiently and loyally? That depends on that individual’s personality. For people with an alpha personality, recognition might be what drives them. Being the best at what you do is worth nothing unless someone is there to see it. For others it could be money, others still responsibility. Sometimes, it’s even as simple as acknowledging when someone has done a good job. It makes them feel appreciated, and if they don’t get that at your place of business, then they are just a commodity. Employees are your internal customers, in a sense. You want the service and support to be the best in the world, because that’s how it needs to be to keep your customers returning to you. Many business managers today are not aware of the effects that motivation can (and does) have on their business, and it is therefore important they learn and understand the factors that determine positive motivation in the workplace. The size of your business is irrelevant: whether you are trying to get the best out of
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fifty of your staff or just one, everyone needs some form of motivation. Motivation is something that is approached differently by different businesses and the responsibility of its integration lies with all immediate supervisors of staff. However, it is the business owner who must initiate motivation as a strategy to attain corporate goals.
SOME COMMON MYTHS ABOUT EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 1. Myth Number One: "I can motivate people" Not really -- they have to motivate themselves. You can't motivate people anymore than you can empower them. Employees have to motivate and empower themselves. However, you can set up an environment where they best motivate and empower themselves. The key is knowing how to set up the environment for each of your employees. 2. Myth Number Two: -- "Money is a good motivator" Not really. Certain things like money, a nice office and job security can help people from becoming less motivated, but they usually don't help people to become more motivated. A key goal is to understand the motivations of each of your employees. 3. Myth Number Three: "Fear is a damn good motivator" Fear is a great motivator -- for a very short time. That's why a lot of yelling from the boss won't seem to "light a spark under employees" for a very long time. 4. Myth Number Four: "I know what motivates me, so I know what motivates my employees" Not really. Different people are motivated by different things. I may be greatly motivated by earning time away from my job to spend more time my family. You might be motivated much more by recognition of a job well
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done. People are not motivated by the same things. Again, a key goal is to understand what motivates each of your employees. 5. Myth Number Five: "Increased job satisfaction means increased job performance" Research shows this isn't necessarily true at all. Increased job satisfaction does not necessarily mean increased job performance. If the goals of the organization are not aligned with the goals of employees, then employees aren't effectively working toward the mission of the organization. 6. Myth Number Six: "I can't comprehend employee motivation -- it's a science" Nah. Not true. There are some very basic steps you can take that will go a long way toward supporting your employees to motivate themselves toward increased performance in their jobs. (More about these steps is provided later on in this article.)
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Unmotivated employees have rightly been called "the black holes of the business universe." Fortunately, motivation is not something a person is born with or without. Here are a few basics to try at your workplace to ensure that you are doing everything you can to motivate your staff: 1. Ask:- Ask them how they like their job, they will tell you. If you notice a reoccurring theme, you might want to address it. 2. Listen:- Don’t just hear them talking. Active listening is a vital skill to the survival of any workplace. The vast majority of resignations are a result of employees not feeling appreciated. 3. Recognize Regularly:-Show them that you notice their hard work. Let them know that you appreciate what they’ve done, and do it publicly. People want others to know when they have worked hard, because it gives them a feeling of satisfaction to know that they had a hand in shaping the team's environment. It also raises the bar for the rest of the team. 4. Don’t Be Cheap:- Buy them something. It doesn’t have to be expensive; lunch will do in a pinch or doughnuts and coffee in the morning. If they perform well, get them a gift certificate to the local mall, or their favorite video store. 5. Have A Little Fun:- Don’t lock your ability to have fun behind your suits. Let them play around a little. If it starts to get out of hand, that’s why you are there. Bring it back to being productive fun. Make a game out of accomplishing a task, tape a picture of a dog driving a mini-van on someone’s computer screen. Enjoy yourself; you spend more time at work than you do awake in your own home. If you find a job you love, you will never work a day in your life. 6. Foster Friendly Competition:- It’s in our genes. We need to compete against one another, to prove to ourselves and everyone out there that we can do it, and - 16 -
do it the best. The Olympics are a good example, with the vast majority of the countries on the face of the planet competing against one another. 7. Be Friendly With Everyone, But Don’t Become Friends:- Favoritism is a hard accusation to live down, especially if it’s true. Don’t put yourself in a position that could result in an environment of favoritism. Giving preferential treatment to a person, on a non-work related basis, is unfair. Unfairness in the workplace leads to turn-over. 8. Share: -Don’t keep all the information to yourself. Let them know where they stand often; this will keep them in the loop. One of the most common downfalls of any organization is a lack of communication. It’s tough trying to be motivated in the face of goals that you can’t measure. 9. Coach, And Accept Coaching:- Nothing will take your legs out from under you quicker than thinking you are doing a great job, only to find out later that you aren’t. Also, don’t make the mistake of thinking you always have the best idea. When managers don’t listen to their employees and include them in the action planning process, they feel like their opinions don’t matter. When your employees feel like their opinions don’t matter, start putting up the “Now Hiring” signs. Everyone likes to feel like they can effect change, too. 10. Additional Responsibility: - There are definitely employees in your organization who are begging for and can handle additional responsibility. Our job as managers is to identify who they are and if possible match responsibilities to their strengths and desires.
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STRATEGIES OF EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION
Giving employees more responsibility and decision-making authority increases their realm of control over the tasks for which they are held responsible and better equips them to carry out those tasks. As a result, feelings of frustration arising from being held accountable for something one does not have the resources to carry out are diminished. Energy is diverted from self-preservation to improved task accomplishment. • CREATIVITY & INNOVATION
At many companies, employees with creative ideas do not express them to management for fear that their input will be ignored or ridiculed. Company approval and toeing the company line have become so ingrained in some working environments that both the employee and the organization suffer. When the power to create in the organization is pushed down from the top to line personnel, employees who know a job, product, or service best are given the opportunity to use their ideas to improve it. The power to create motivates employees and benefits the organization in having a more flexible work force, using more wisely the experience of its employees, and increasing the exchange of ideas and information among employees and departments. These improvements also create an openness to change that can give a
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company the ability to respond quickly to market changes and sustain a first mover advantage • ONE MINUTE MANAGER
A contemporary bestseller aimed at managers who seek to make star performers of their subordinates. To start with, the manager sets a goal, e.g. one page read in one minute, and it is seen to be achieved by 'one minute' of praising or reprimand as the case may be. But to be effective, these must be given (a) promptly, (b) in specific terms, and the behavior, rather than the person, should be praised or reprimanded. The concept is basic and it makes sense, although the book seeks to 'dramatize' it. 'One minute' praising is seen to be the motivating force. Everyone is considered a winner, though some people are disguised as losers, and the manager is extolled not to be fooled by such appearances
MINIMIZE RULES & POLICIES
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Every person is motivated. The challenge at work is to create an environment in which people are motivated about work priorities. Too often, organizations fail to pay attention to the employee relations, communication, recognition, and involvement issues that are most important to people. The first step in creating a motivating work environment is to stop taking actions that are guaranteed to demotivate people. Identify and take the actions that will motivate people. It’s a balancing act. Employers walk a fine line between meeting the needs of the organization and its customers and meeting the needs of its internal staff. Do both well and thrive.
We’ve got employees who, left to their own devices, will choose to do bad things. You can’t trust supervisors to treat employees fairly and consistently either. • MONETARY INCENTIVES
For all the championing of alternative motivators, money still occupies a major place in the mix of motivators. The sharing of a company's profits gives incentive to employees to produce a quality product, perform a quality service, or improve the quality of a process within the company. What benefits the company directly benefits the employee. Monetary and other rewards are being given to employees for generating cost-savings or process-improving ideas, to boost productivity and reduce absenteeism. Money is effective when it is directly tied to an employee's ideas or accomplishments. Nevertheless, if not coupled with other, non monetary motivators, its motivating effects are shortlived. Further, monetary incentives can prove counterproductive if not made available to all members of the organization. • OTHER INCENTIVES Study after study has found that the most effective motivators of workers are non
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monetary. Monetary systems are insufficient motivators, in part because expectations often exceed results and because disparity between salaried individuals may divide rather than unite employees. Proven non monetary positive motivators foster team spirit and include recognition, responsibility, and advancement. Managers, who recognize the "small wins" of employees, promote participatory environments, and treat employees with fairness and respect will find their employees to be more highly motivated. One company's managers brainstormed to come up with 30 powerful rewards that cost little or nothing to implement. The most effective rewards, such as letters of commendation and time off from work, enhanced personal fulfillment and selfrespect. Over the longer term, sincere praise and personal gestures are far more effective and more economical than awards of money alone. In the end, a program that combines monetary reward systems and satisfies intrinsic, self-actualizing needs may be the most potent employee motivator.
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Motivated employees are crucial to a company's success-this has never been truer than today, when margins are thin (or nonexistent) and economic recovery remains elusive. These hard bottom-line realities may also mean that managers can't rely as much as they might have in the past on using financial incentives to drive employee engagement. But, if the company has a solid approach to talent management, a bad manager can undermine it in his unit. On the flip side, smart and empathetic managers can overcome a great deal of corporate mismanagement while creating enthusiasm and commitment within their units. While individual managers can't control all leadership decisions, they can still have a profound influence on employee motivation. The most important thing is to provide employees with a sense of security, one in which they do not fear that their jobs will be in jeopardy if their performance is not perfect and one in which layoffs are considered an extreme last resort, not just another option for dealing with hard times. But security is just the beginning. When handled properly, each of the above mentioned practices will play a key role in supporting your employees' goals for achievement, equity, and camaraderie, and will enable them to retain the enthusiasm they brought to their roles in the first place.
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