# Signals and Systems_Simon

Haykin & Barry Van Veen
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Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems
CHAPTER
3.1 3.1 Introduction Introduction
1. A signal can be represented as a weighted superposition of complex
sinusoids.
2. LTI system:
LTI System
x(t) or x[n] y(t) or y[n]
Output = A weighted superposition
of the system response to each
complex sinusoid.
3. Four distinct Fourier representations
3.2 3.2 Complex Sinusoids and Frequency Response of LTI Complex Sinusoids and Frequency Response of LTI
Systems Systems
+ Frequency response ÷ The response of an LTI system to a sinusoidal input.
1. Impulse response of discrete-time LTI system = h[n], input = x[n] = e
j On
2. Output:
| | | | | | | |
( )
¯ ¯
·
÷· =
·
÷· =
÷ O
= ÷ =
k k
k n j
e k h k n x k h n y
+ Discrete-time LTI system
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CHAPTER
Figure 3.1 (p. 196) Figure 3.1 (p. 196)
The output of a complex sinusoidal input to an LTI system is a complex sinusoid of
the same frequency as the input, multiplied by the frequency response of the system.
| | | | ( )
j n j k j j n
k
y n e h k e H e e
·
O ÷ O O O
=÷·
= =
¯
3. Frequency response:
( ) [ ]
j j
k
H e h k e
·
O ÷ O
=÷·
=
¯
(3.1)
A function of frequency O
+ Continuous-time LTI system
1. Impulse response of continuous-time LTI system = h(t), input = x(t) = e
j e t
2. Output:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
j t j t j
j t
y t h e d e h e d
H j e
e t e et
e
t t t t
e
· ·
÷ ÷
÷· ÷·
= =
=
l l
(3.2)
Complex scaling factor
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Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems
CHAPTER
3. Frequency response:
( ) ( )
j
H j h e d
et
e t t
·
÷
÷·
=
l
(3.3)
+ Polar form complex number c = a + jb:
arg{ } j c
c c e = where
( )
2 2 1
and arg{ } tan
b
a
c a b c
÷
= + =
+ Polar form for H (je):
arg{ ( )}
( ) ( )
j H j
H j H j e
e
e e =
where { } ( ) Magnitude response and arg ( ) Phase respnse H j H j e e = =
( ) ( )
( ) { } ( ) arg j t H j
y t H j e
e e
e
+
=
Example 3.1 RC Circuit: Frequency response
The impulse response of the system relating to the input voltage to the voltage
across the capacitor in Fig. 3.2 Fig. 3.2 is derived in Example 1.21 as
/
1
( ) ( )
t RC
h t e u t
RC
÷
=
Find an expression for the frequency response, and
plot the magnitude and phase response.
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CHAPTER
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Figure 3.2 (p. 197) Figure 3.2 (p. 197)
RC circuit for Example 3.1.
( ) ( ) t t e
et
t
d e u e
RC
j H
j
RC
÷
·
· ÷
÷
l
=
1
t
t e
d e
RC
RC
j
l
·
|
.
|

\
|
+ ÷
=
0
1
1
1
0
1 1
1
j
RC
e
RC
j
RC
e t
e
·
| |
÷ +
|
\ .
÷
=
| |
+
|
\ .
( ) 1 0
1
1 1
÷
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=
RC
j
RC
e
RC
j
RC
1
1
+
=
e
Frequency response:
Magnitude response:
( )
2
2
1
1
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
RC
RC
j H
e
e
Phase response:
( ) { } ( ) RC j H e e arctan arg ÷ =
Fig. 3.6 (a) and (b) Fig. 3.6 (a) and (b)
Signals and Systems_Simon
Haykin & Barry Van Veen
5
2
t
4
t
2
t
÷
4
t
÷
e
( ) { } arg H je
e
( ) H je
Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems
CHAPTER
Figure 3.3 (p. 198) Figure 3.3 (p. 198)
Frequency response of the RC circuit in Fig. 3.2. (a) Magnitude response.
(b) Phase response.
+ Eigenvalue and eigenfunction of LTI system
[A] Continuous-time case:
1. Eigenrepresentation: Fig. 3.4 (a) Fig. 3.4 (a) ( ) { } ( ) t t H ìv v =
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Figure 3.4 (p. 198)
Illustration of the eigenfunction property of linear systems. The action of
the system on an eigenfunction input is multiplication by the corresponding
eigenvalue. (a) General eigenfunction +(t) or +[n] and eigenvalue ì.
(b) Complex sinusoidal eigenfunction e
jet
and eigenvalue H(je).
(c) Complex sinusoidal eigenfunction e
jOn
and eigenvalue H(e
jO
).
( ) [ ] n ìv
H
( ) t v
( ) [ ] n v
( ) t ìv ( )
j t
H j e
e
e
H
j t
e
e
H
j n
e
O ( )
j j n
H e e
O O
Eigenfunction: ( )
j t
t e
e
v =
Eigenvalue: ( ) H j ì e =
2. If e
k
is an eigenvector of a matrix A with eigenvalue ì
k
, then
k k k
ì = Ae e
Arbitrary input = weighted superpositions of eigenfunctions
Convolution operation Convolution operation ¬ ¬ Multiplication Multiplication
Ex. Input:
( )
¯
=
=
M
k
t j
k
k
e a t x
1
e
Output:
( ) ( )
¯
=
=
M
k
t j
k
k
e j H a t y
1
e
e
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[B] Discrete-time case:
1. Eigenrepresentation: Fig. 3.4 (c) Fig. 3.4 (c) ( [ ]) [ ] H n n v ìv =
Eigenfunction: [ ]
j n
n e v
O
=
Eigenvalue: ( )
j
H e ì
O
=
2. Input:
1
[ ]
k
M
j n
k
k
x n a e
O
=
=
¯
Output:
( )
1
[ ]
k
M
j n j
k
k
y n a H e e
O O
=
=
¯
3.3 3.3 Fourier Representations for Four classes of Signals Fourier Representations for Four classes of Signals
+ Four distinct Fourier representations: Table 3.1 Table 3.1.
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CHAPTER
0 0
is the th harmonic of .
jk t j t
e k e
e e
+
3. The complex sinusoids exp(jkO
o
n) are N-periodics in the frequency index k.
< <pf.> pf.> ( ) n jk n jN n K N j
e e e
0 0 0
O O O +
=
n jN n j
e e
0
2 O
=
t n jk
e
0
O
=
There are only N distinct complex sinusoids of the form exp(jkO
0
n)
should be used in Eq. (3.4).
Eq. (3.4)
0
1
0
( ) [ ]
N
jk n
k
x t A k e
÷
O
=
=
¯
(3.6)
+ Symmetries in x[k]:
3.3.1 3.3.1 Periodic Signals: Fourier Series Representations Periodic Signals: Fourier Series Representations
1. x[n] = discrete-time signal with fundamental period N. DTFS of x[n] is
0
[ ] [ ]
jk n
k
x n A k e
O
=
¯ (3.4)
O
o
= 2t/N ÷ Fundamental
frequency of x[n]
2. x(t) = continuous-time signal with fundamental period T. FS of x(t) is
0
( ) [ ]
jk t
k
x t A k e
e
=
¯ (3.5)
e
o
= 2t/T ÷ Fundamental
frequency of x(t)
+ “^” denotes approximate value. A[k] = the weight applied to the k
th
harmonic.
k = ÷ (N ÷ 1)/2 to (N ÷ 1)/2
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CHAPTER
4. Continuous-time complex sinusoid exp(jke
0
t) with distinct frequencies ke
0
are always distinct.
FS of continuous-time periodic signal x(t) becomes
0
( ) [ ]
jk t
k
x t A k e
e
·
=÷·
=
¯
(3.7)
+ + Mean Mean- -square error (MSE) between the signal and its series representat square error (MSE) between the signal and its series representation: ion:
Discrete-time case:

1
2
0
1
[ ] [ ]
N
n
MSE x n x n dt
N
÷
=
= ÷
¯
(3.8)
Continuous-time case:

2
0
1
( ) ( )
T
MSE x t x t dt
T
= ÷
l
(3.9)
3.3.2 3.3.2 Nonperiodic Nonperiodic Signals: Fourier Signals: Fourier- -Transform Representations Transform Representations
1. FT of continuous-time signal:
( ) ( )
1
2
j t
x t X j e d
e
e e
t
. ·
÷·
=
l
X(je)/(2t) = the weight applied to a sinusoid
of frequency e in the FT representation.
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2. DTFT of discrete-time signal:
| | ( )
1
2
j j n
x n X e e de
t
. ·
O O
÷·
=
l
X(e
j O
)/(2t) = the weight applied to the
sinusoid e
j On
in the DTFT representation.
3.4 3.4 Discrete Discrete- -Time Periodic Signals Time Periodic Signals: : The Discrete The Discrete- -Time Time
Fourier Series Fourier Series
1. DTFS pair of periodic signal x[n]:
0
1
0
[ ] [ ]
N
jk n
k
x n X k e
÷
O
=
=
¯
(3.10)
0
1
0
1
[ ] [ ]
N
jk n
n
X k x n e
N
÷
÷ O
=
=
¯
(3.11)
Fundamental period = N;
Fundamental frequency = O
o
= 2t/N
+ Notation:
| | | |
0
; DTFS
x n X k
O
÷÷÷÷÷
Fourier coefficients; Frequency domain
representation
Example 3.2 Determining DTFS Coefficients
Find the frequency domain representation of the signal depicted in Fig. 3.5 Fig. 3.5.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Period: N = 5 O
o
= 2t/5
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CHAPTER
2. Odd symmetry
Figure 3.5 (p. 203) Figure 3.5 (p. 203)
Time-domain signal for Example 3.2.
n = ÷ 2 to n = 2
3. Fourier coefficient:
| | | |
2
2 / 5
2
1
5
jk n
n
X k x n e
t ÷

=
¯
| | | | | | | | | | { }
5 / 4 5 / 2 0 5 / 2 5 / 4
2 1 0 1 2
5
1
t t t t jk jk j jk jk
e x e x e x e x e x
÷ ÷
+ + + ÷ + ÷ =
2 / 5 2 / 5
1 1 1
[ ] {1 }
5 2 2
1
{1 sin( 2 / 5)}
5
jk jk
X k e e
j k
t t
t
÷
= + ÷
= +
(3.12)
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+ One period of the DTFS coefficients X[k], k = ÷ 2 to k = 2:
| |
( )
531 . 0
232 . 0
5
5 / 4 sin
5
1
2
j
e j X
÷
= ÷ = ÷
t
| |
( )
760 . 0
276 . 0
5
5 / 2 sin
5
1
1
j
e j X
÷
= ÷ = ÷
t
| |
0
2 . 0
5
1
0
j
e X = =
| |
( )
760 . 0
276 . 0
5
5 / 2 sin
5
1
1
j
e j X = + =
t
| |
( )
531 . 0
232 . 0
5
5 / 4 sin
5
1
2
j
e j X = + =
t
3. Calculate X[k] using n = 0 to n = 4:
Eq. (3.11)
| | | | | | | | | | | | { }
5 / 8 5 / 6 5 / 4 5 / 2 0
4 3 2 1 0
5
1
t t t t jk jk jk jk j
e x e x e x e x e x k X
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + + =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ ÷ =
÷ ÷ 5 / 8 5 / 2
2
1
2
1
1
5
1
t t jk jk
e e
Fig. 3.6. Fig. 3.6.
8 / 5 2 2 / 5 2 / 5 jk jk jk jk
e e e e
t t t t ÷ ÷
= =
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Figure 3.6 (p. 204) Figure 3.6 (p. 204)
Magnitude and phase of the DTFS coefficients for the signal in Fig. 3.5.
[ ] Magnitude spectrum of [ ] X k x n ÷
[ ] X k Even function
{ } arg [ ] Phase spectrum of [ ] X k x n ÷
{ } arg [ ] X k
Odd function
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Example 3.3 Computation of DTFS by Inspection
Determine the DTFS coefficients of x[n] = cos (nt/3 + o), using the method of
inspection.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Period: N = 6 O
o
= 2t/6 = t/3
2. Using Euler’s formula, x[n] can be expressed as
( ) ( )
3 3
3 3
1 1
[ ]
2 2 2
j n j n
j n j n
j j
e e
x n e e e e
t t
o o
t t
o o
+ ÷ +
÷
÷
+
= = +
(3.13)
3. Compare Eq. (3.13) with the DTFS of Eq. (3.10) with O
o
= t/3, written by
summing from k = ÷ 2 to k = 3:
| |
3
/ 3
2
2 / 3 / 3 / 3 2 / 3
[ ]
[ 2] [ 1] [0] [1] [2] [3]
jk n
k
j n j n j n j n j n
x n X k e
X e X e X X e X e X e
t
t t t t t

÷ ÷
=
= ÷ + ÷ + + + +
¯
(3.14)
Equating terms in Eq.(3.13) with those in Eq. (3.14) having
equal frequencies, kt/3, gives
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CHAPTER
| | | |
;
3
/ 2, 1
/ 2, 1
0, otherwise on 2 3
j
DTFS
j
e k
x n X k e k
k
o
t
o
÷
¦ = ÷
¦
÷÷÷÷÷ = =
´
¦
÷ s s
¹
4. Magnitude spectrum and phase spectrum of X[k]: Fig. 3.8 Fig. 3.8.
Figure 3.8 (p. 206) Figure 3.8 (p. 206)
Magnitude and phase
of DTFS coefficients
for Example 3.3.
o
÷ o
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Example 3.4 DTFS Representation of An Impulse Train
Find the DTFS coefficients of the N-periodic impulse train
| | | |
l
x n n lN o
·
=÷·
= ÷
¯
< <Sol.> Sol.>
It is convenient to evaluate Eq.(3.11) over the interval n = 0 to n = N ÷ 1 to obtain
| | | |
1
2 /
0
1 1
N
jkn N
n
X k n e
N N
t
o
÷
÷
=
= =
¯
as shown in Fig. 3.9 Fig. 3.9.
Figure 3.9 (p. 207) Figure 3.9 (p. 207)
A discrete-time impulse train with period N.
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CHAPTER
+ The Inverse DTFS
The similarity between Eqs. (3.10) and (3.11) indicates that the same
mathematical methods can be used to find the time-domain signal
corresponding to a set of DTFS coefficients.
Example 3.5 The Inverse DTFS
Use Eq. (3.10) to determine the time-domain signal x[n] from the DTFS
coefficients depicted in Fig. 3.10 Fig. 3.10.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Period of DTFS coefficients = 9 O
o
= 2t/9
2. It is convenient to evaluate Eq.(3.11) over the interval k = ÷ 4 to k = 4 to obtain
| | | |
( ) ( )
4
2 / 9
4
2 / 3 6 / 9 / 3 4 / 9 / 3 4 / 9 2 / 3 6 / 9
2 1 2
2cos 6 / 9 2 / 3 4cos 4 / 9 / 3 1
jk n
k
j j n j j n j j n j j n
x n X k e
e e e e e e e e
n n
t
t t t t t t t t
t t t t

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
= + ÷ + +
= ÷ + ÷ ÷
¯
Example 3.6 DTFS Representation of A Square Wave
Find the DTFS coefficients for the N-periodic square wave given by
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18
t
t/3
÷ t/3
÷ t
Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems
CHAPTER
Figure 3.10 (p. 208) Figure 3.10 (p. 208)
Magnitude and phase of
DTFS coefficients for
Example 3.5.
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CHAPTER
| |
¹
´
¦
÷ < <
s s ÷
=
M N n M
M n M
n x
, 0
, 1
That is, each period contains 2M + 1 consecutive ones and the remaining
N ÷ (2M +1) values are zero, as depicted in Fig. 3.11 Fig. 3.11. Note that this definition
requires that N > 2M +1.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Figure 3.11 (p. 209) Figure 3.11 (p. 209)
Square wave for Example 3.6.
1. Period of DTFS coefficients = N O
o
= 2t/N
2. It is convenient to evaluate Eq.(3.11) over the interval n = ÷ M to n = N ÷ M ÷ 1.
0
0
1
1
[ ] [ ]
1

N M
jk n
n M
M
jk n
n M
X k x n e
N
e
N
÷ ÷
÷ O

÷ O

=
=
¯
¯
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CHAPTER
0
0 0
2
( )
0
2
0
1
[ ]
1

M
jk m M
m
M
jk M jk m
m
X k e
N
e e
N
÷ O ÷
=
÷ O ÷ O
=
=
=
¯
¯
(3.15)
Change of variable on the
index of summation: m = n + M
3. For k = 0, ± N, ± 2N, …, we have
1
o o
jk jk
e e
O ÷ O
= =
(3.15) | |
2
0
1 2 1
1 , 0, , 2 ,
M
m
M
X k k N N
N N
=
+
= = = ± ±
¯

3. For k = 0, ± N, ± 2N, …, we may sum the geometric series in Eq. (3.15) to
obtain
0 0
0
(2 1)
1
[ ] , 0, , 2 , ......
1
jk M jk M M
jk
e e
X k k N N
N e
O O +
÷ O
| | ÷
= = ± ±
|
÷
\ .
(3.16)
| |
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0
2 1 / 2 2 1 2 1 / 2 2 1 / 2
/ 2 / 2 / 2
1 1 1
1
jk M jk M jk M jk M
jk jk jk jk
e e e e
X k
N e e N e e
O + O + O + ÷ O +
O O O ÷ O
| | | | | |
÷ ÷
= =
| | |
÷ ÷
\ \ \ . . .
0, , 2 , ...... k N N = ± ±
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| |
( ) ( )
( )
( )
sin 2 1 /
1
, 0, , 2 ,
sin /
2 1 / , 0, , 2 ,
k M N
k N N
X k N k N
M N k N N
t
t
¦ +
= ± ±
¦
=
´
¦
+ = ± ±
¹

Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems
CHAPTER
| |
( ) ( )
( )
,
2 / sin
2 / 1 2 sin 1
0
0
O
+ O
=
k
M k
N
k X 0, , 2 , k N N = ± ±
The numerator and
denominator of above Eq. are
divided by 2j.
4. Substituting O
o
= 2t/N, yields
( ) ( )
( )
0, , 2 ,
sin 2 1 /
1 2 1
lim
sin /
k N N
k M N
M
N k N N
t
t
÷ ± ±
+
+
=

L’Hôpital’s
Rule
For this reason, the expression for X[k] is commonly written as
| |
( ) ( )
( ) N k
N M k
N
k X
/ sin
/ 1 2 sin 1
t
t +
=
The value of X[k] for k = 0, ± N, ± 2N, …,
is obtained from the limit as k ÷0.
Fig. 3.12. Fig. 3.12.
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CHAPTER
Figure 3.12 (p. 211) Figure 3.12 (p. 211)
The DTFS coefficients for the square
wave shown in Fig. 3.11, assuming a
period N = 50: (a) M = 4. (b) M = 12.
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CHAPTER
+ Symmetry property of DTFS coefficient: X[k] = X[÷ k].
1. DTFS of Eq. (3.10) can be written as a series involving harmonically related
cosines.
2. Assume that N is even and let k range from ÷ ( N/2 ) + 1 to N/2. Eq. (3.10)
becomes
| | | |
¯
+ ÷ =
O
=
2 /
1 2 /
0
N
N k
n jk
e k X n x
| | | | | | | | | | ( )
¯
÷
=
O ÷ O O
÷ + + + =
1 2 /
1
2 /
0 0 0
2 / 0
N
m
n jk n jk n jk
e m X e m X e N X X n x
3. Use X[m] = X[÷ m] and the identity NO
o
= 2t to obtain
| | | | ( ) | | ( )
/ 2 1
0
1
0 / 2 cos 2 cos
N
m
X X N n X m m n t
÷
=
= + + O
¯
| | | | | | | |
0 0 / 2 1
1
0 / 2 2
2
jm n jm n N
j n
m
e e
x n X X N e X m
t
O ÷ O ÷
=
| | +
= + +
|
\ .
¯
e
jtn
= cos(tn)
since sin(tn) =
0 for integer n.
4. Define the new set of coefficients
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| |
| |
| |
, 0, / 2
2 , 1, 2, , / 2 1
X k k N
B k
X k k N
= ¦
=
´
= ÷
¹

and write the DTFS for the square wave in terms of a series of harmonically
related cosines as
/ 2
0
0
[ ] [ ]cos( )
N
k
x n B k k n
=
= O
¯
(3.17)
+ A similar expression may be derived for N odd.
Example 3.7 Building a Square Wave From DTFS Coefficients
The contribution of each term to the square wave may be illustrated by defining
the partial-sum approximation to x[n] in Eq. (3.17) as

0
0
[ ] [ ]cos( )
J
J
k
x n B k k n
=
= O
¯
(3.18)
where J s N/2. This approximation contains the first 2J + 1 terms centered on k
= 0 in Eq. (3.10). Assume a square wave has period N = 50 and M = 12. Evaluate
one period of the Jth term in Eq. (3.18) and the 2J + 1 term approximation

[ ] J x n
for J = 1, 3, 5, 23, and 25.
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Figure 3.14a (p. 213) Figure 3.14a (p. 213)
Individual terms in the DTFS expansion of a square wave (left pa Individual terms in the DTFS expansion of a square wave (left panel) nel)
and the corresponding partial and the corresponding partial- -sum approximations sum approximations
J J
[ [n n] (right panel). ] (right panel).
The The J J = 0 term is = 0 term is
0 0
[ [n n] = ] = ½ ½ and is not shown. (a) and is not shown. (a) J J = 1. (b) = 1. (b) J J = 3. (c) = 3. (c) J J = =
5. (d) 5. (d) J J = 23. (e) = 23. (e) J J = 25. = 25.
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Figure 3.14b (p. 213) Figure 3.14b (p. 213)
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< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Fig. 3.14 Fig. 3.14 depicts the J
th
term in the sum, B[J] cos(JO
o
n), and one period of

[ ] J x n for the specified values of J.
2. Only odd values for J are considered, because the even-indexed coefficients
B[k] are zero when N = 25 and M = 12.
3. The approximation improves as J increases, with x[n] represented exactly
when J = N/2 = 25.
4. The coefficients B[k] associated with values of k near zero represent the low-
frequency or slowly varying features in the signal, while the coefficients
associated with values of k near ± N/2 represent the high frequency or
rapidly varying features in the signal.
Example 3.8 Numerical Analysis of the ECG
Evaluate the DTFS representations of the two electrocardiogram (ECG)
waveforms depicted in Figs. 3.15 (a) and (b). Figs. 3.15 (a) and (b). Fig. 3.15 (a) Fig. 3.15 (a) depicts a normal ECG,
while Fig. 3.15 (b) Fig. 3.15 (b) depicts a heart experiencing ventricular tachycardia. The
discrete-time signals are drawn as continuous functions, due to the difficulty of
depicting all 2000 values in each case. Ventricular tachycardia is a series
cardiac rhythm disturbance (i.e., an arrhythmia) that can result in death.
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Figure 3.15 (p. 214) Figure 3.15 (p. 214)
Electrocardiograms
for two different
heartbeats and the
first 60 coefficients of
their magnitude
spectra.
(a) Normal heartbeat.
(b) Ventricular
tachycardia.
(c) Magnitude
spectrum for the
normal heartbeat.
(d) Magnitude
spectrum for
ventricular
tachycardia.
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Figure 3.15
(p. 214)
Electrocardiograms
for two different
heartbeats and the
first 60 coefficients
of their magnitude
spectra.
(c) Magnitude
spectrum for the
normal heartbeat.
(d) Magnitude
spectrum for
ventricular
tachycardia.
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It is characterized by a rapid, regular heart rate of approximately 150 beats per
minute. Ventricular complexes are wide (about 160 ms in duration) compared
with normal complexes (less than 110 ms) and have an abnormal shape. Both
signals appear nearly periodic, with only slight variations in the amplitude and
length of each period. The DTFS of one period of each ECG may be computed
numerically. The period of the normal ECG is N = 305, while the period of the
ECG showing ventricular tachycardia is N = 421. One period of each waveform
is available. Evaluate the DTFS coefficients of each, and plot their magnitude
spectrum.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. The magnitude spectrum of the first 60 DTFS coefficients is depicted in Fig. Fig.
3.15 (c) and (d). 3.15 (c) and (d).
2. The normal ECG is dominated by a sharp spike or impulsive feature.
3. The DTFS coefficients of the normal ECG are approximately constant,
exhibiting a gradual decrease in amplitude as the frequency increase.
Fairly small magnitude!
4. The ventricular tachycardia ECG contains smoother features in addition to
sharp spikes, and thus the DTFS coefficients have a greater dynamic range,
with the low-frequency coefficients containing a large proportion of the total
power.
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3.5 3.5 Continuous Continuous- -Time Periodic Signals Time Periodic Signals: : The Fourier Series The Fourier Series
1. Continuous-time periodic signals are represented by the Fourier series (FS).
2. A signal with fundamental period T and fundamental frequency e
o
= 2t/T,
the FS pair of x(t) is
0
( ) [ ]
jk t
k
x t X k e
e
·
=÷·
=
¯
(3.19)
0
0
1
[ ] ( )
T
jk t
X k x t e dt
T
e ÷
=
l
(3.20)
3. Notation:
( ) | |
0
; FS
x t X k
e
÷÷÷÷
Frequency domain
representation of x(t)
The variable k determines the
frequency of the complex sinusoid
associated with X[k] in Eq. (3.19).
+ Fourier series pair ÷Exponential FS
+ Mean-square error (MSE)
1. Suppose we define
( ) | |
ˆ
o
jk t
k
x t X k e
e
·
=÷·
=
¯
and choose the coefficients X[k] according to Eq.(3.20.)
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2. If x(t) is square integrable,
( )
l
· <
T
dt t x
T
0
2 1
then the MSE between x(t) and ( ) ˆ x t is zero, or, mathematically,
( ) ( )
l
= ÷
.
T
dt t x t x
T
0
2
0
1
at all values of t; it simply implies that there is zero power ( ) ˆ ( ) x t x t =
in their difference.
3. Pointwise convergence of ( ) ˆ ( ) x t x t = is guaranteed at all values of t
except those corresponding to discontinuities if the Dirichlet conditions are
satisfied:
+ x(t) is bounded.
+ x(t) has a finite number of maximum and minima in one period.
+ x(t) has a finite number of discontinuities in one period.
+ If a signal x(t) satisfies the Dirichlet conditions and is not continuous, then
( ) ˆ x t converges to the midpoint of the left and right limits of x(t) at each
discontinuity.
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Example 3.9 Direct Calculation of FS Coefficients
Determine the FS coefficients for the signal x(t) depicted in Fig. 3.16 Fig. 3.16.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. The period of x(t) is T = 2,
so e
o
= 2t/2 = t.
Figure 3.16 (p. 216)
Time-domain signal for Example 3.9.
2. One period of x(t): x(t) = e
÷ 2t
,
0 s t s 2.
3. FS of x(t):
| |
( )
2 2
2 2
0 0
1 1
2 2
jk t t jk t
X k e e dt e dt
t t ÷ + ÷ ÷
= =
l l
| |
( )
( )
( )
2
4
2 4 2
0
1 1 1
1
2 2 4 2 4 2
jk t jk
e
X k e e e
jk jk jk
t t
t t t
÷
÷ + ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= = ÷ =
+ + +
e
÷ jk2t
= 1
Fig. 3.17. Fig. 3.17.
+ The Magnitude of X[k] ÷ the magnitude spectrum of x(t);
the phase of X[k] ÷ the phase spectrum of x(t).
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Figure 3.17
(p. 217)
Magnitude
and phase
spectra for
Example 3.9.
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Example 3.10 FS Coefficients for An Impulse Train
Determine the FS coefficients for the signal x(t) defined by
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Fundamental period of x(t) is T = 4, each period contains an impulse.
( ) ( ) 4
l
x t t l o
·
=÷·
= ÷
¯
2. By integrating over a period that is symmetric about the origin ÷ 2 < t s 2, to
obtain X[k]:
| | ( )
( )
2
/ 2
2
1 1
4 4
jk t
X k t e dt
t
o
÷
÷
= =
l
3. The magnitude spectrum is constant and the phase spectrum is zero.
+ Inspection method for finding X[k]: Whenever x(t) is expressed in terms of
sinusoid, it is easier to obtain X[k] by inspection. The method of inspection is
based on expanding all real sinusoids in terms of complex sinusoids and
comparing each term in the resulting expansion to the corresponding terms
of Eq. (3.19).
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Example 3.11 Calculation of FS Coefficients By Inspection
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Determine the FS representation of the signal
( ) ( ) 4 / 2 / cos 3 t t + = t t x
1. Fundamental period of x(t) is T = 4, and e
o
= 2t/4 = t/2. Eq. (3.19) is written
as
/ 2
( ) [ ]
jk t
k
x t X k e
t
·
=÷·
=
¯
(3.21)
( )
( ) ( ) / 2 / 4 / 2 / 4
/ 4 / 2 / 4 / 2
3 3
3
2 2 2
j t j t
j j t j j t
e e
x t e e e e
t t t t
t t t t
+ ÷ +
÷ ÷
+
= = +
2. Equating each term in this expression to the terms in Eq. (3.21) gives the FS
coefficients:
/ 4
/ 4
3
, 1
2
3
[ ] , 1
2
0, otherwise
j
j
e k
X k e k
t
t
÷ ¦
= ÷
¦
¦
¦
= =
´
¦
¦
¦
¹
(3.22)
Magnitude and
phase spectrum:
Fig. 3.18 Fig. 3.18.
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÷ t/4
t/4
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Figure 3.18 (p. 219)
Magnitude and phase spectra for Example 3.11.
+ Time-domain representation obtained from FS coefficients
Example 3.12 Inverse FS
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Find the time-domain signal x(t) corresponding to the FS coefficients
| | ( )
20 /
2 / 1
t jk k
e k X = Assume that the fundamental period is T = 2.
1. Fundamental frequency: e
o
= 2t/T = t. From Eq. (3.19), we obtain
( ) ( ) ( )
/ 20 / 20
0 1
1/ 2 1/ 2
k k
jk jk t jk jk t
k k
x t e e e e
t t t t
· ÷·
÷
= =÷
= +
¯ ¯
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( ) ( )
¯ ¯
·
=
÷ ÷
·
=
+ =
1
20 /
0
20 /
2 / 1 2 / 1
l
t jl jl l
k
t jk jk k
e e e e
t t t t
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
2 / 1 1
1
2 / 1 1
1
20 / 20 /
÷
÷
+
÷
=
+ ÷ + t t t t t j t j
e e
t x
2. Putting the fraction over a common denominator results in
( )
( ) 20 / cos 4 5
3
t t + ÷
=
t
t x
Example 3.13 FS for A Square Wave
Determine the FS representation of the square wave depicted in Fig. 3.21 Fig. 3.21.
Figure 3.21 (p. 221) Figure 3.21 (p. 221)
Square wave for Example 3.13. Square wave for Example 3.13.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
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1. Fundamental frequency: e
o
= 2t/T.
2. X[k]: by integrating over ÷ T/2 s t s T/2
| | ( )
( )
0
0 0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
/ 2
/ 2
0
0
0 0
0
1 1
1
, 0
2
, 0
2
2sin
, 0
T T
jk t jk t
T T
T
jk t
T
jk T jk T
X k x t e dt e dt
T T
e k
Tjk
e e
k
Tk j
k T
k
Tk
e e
e
e e
e
e
e
e
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
= =
÷
= =
| | ÷
= =
|
\ .
= =
l l
For k = 0, we have
| |
l
÷
= =
0
0
0
2 1
0
T
T
T
T
dt
T
X
3. By means of L’Hôpital’s rule, we have
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( )
T
T
Tk
T k
k
0
0
0 0
0
2 sin 2
lim =
÷
e
e
| |
( )
0
0 0
sin 2
e
e
Tk
T k
k X =
4. X[k] is real valued. Using e
o
= 2t/T gives X[k] as a function of the ratio T
o
/T:
0
2sin( 2 / )
[ ]
2
k T T
X k
k
t
t
= (3.23)
5. Fig. 3.22 (a)-(c) depict X[k], ÷ 50 s k s 50, for T
o
/T =1/4, T
o
/T =1/16, and T
o
/T =
1/64, respectively.
+ Definition of Sinc function:
sin( )
sinc( )
u
u
u
t
t
= (3.24) Fig. 3.23. Fig. 3.23.
1) Maximum of sinc function is unity at u = 0, the zero crossing occur at
integer values of u, and the amplitude dies off as 1/u.
2) The portion of this function between the zero crossings at u = ± 1 is
manilobe of the sinc function.
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Figure 3.22a&b
(p. 222)
The FS
coefficients, X[k], –
50 s k s 50, for
three square
waves. (see Fig.
3.21.) (a) T
o
/T =
1/4 . (b) T
o
/T =
1/16. (c) T
o
/T =
1/64.
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Figure 3.22c
(p. 222)
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Figure 3.23 (p. 223)
Sinc function sinc(u) = sin(tu)/(tu)
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3) The smaller ripples outside the mainlobe are termed sidelobe.
4) The FS coefficients in Eq. (3.23) are expressed as
| |
0 0
2 2
sinc
T T
X k k
T T
| |
=
|
\ .
+ Fourier series pair ÷Trigonometric FS
1. Trigonometric FS of real-valued signal x(t):
0 0
1
( ) [0] [ ]cos( ) [ ]sin( )
k
x t B B k k t A k k t e e
·
=
= + +
¯
(3.25)
FS coefficients:
0
1
[0] ( )
T
B x t dt
T
=
l
0
0
2
[ ] ( ) cos( )
T
B k x t k t dt
T
e =
l
0
0
2
[ ] ( ) sin( )
T
A k x t k t dt
T
e =
l
(3.26)
B[0] = X[0] represents the time-
averaged value of the signal.
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2. Relation between exponential FS and trigonometric FS coefficients:
[ ] [ ] [ ] B k X k X k = + ÷
[ ] ( [ ] [ ]) A k j X k X k = ÷ ÷
for k = 0 (3.27)
Euler’s Formula
Ex. Ex. Find trigonometric FS coefficients of the square wave studied in Example Example
3.13. 3.13.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Substituting Eq. (3.20) into Eq. (3.27), gives
0
[0] 2 / B T T =
0
2sin( 2 / )
[ ] , 0
k T T
B k k
k
t
t
= =
[ ] 0 A k =
(3.28)
Because x(t) is an even function
2. Trigonometric FS expression of x(t):
0
0
( ) [ ]cos( )
k
x t B k k t e
·
=
=
¯
(3.29)
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Example 3.14 Square Wave Partial-Sum Approximation
Let the partial-sum approximation to the FS in Eq. (3.29), be given by
( ) | | ( )
¯
=
.
=
J
k
J t k k B t x
0
0
cos e
This approximation involves the exponential FS coefficients with indices ÷ J s
k s J. Consider a square wave with T = 1 and T
o
/T = ¼. Depict one period of the
Jth term in this sum, and find
( ) for 1, 3, 7, 29, and 99. J x t J
.
=
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. The individual terms and partial-sum approximation are depicted in Fig. 3.25 Fig. 3.25.
2. Each partial-sum approximation passes through the average value (1/2) of
the discontinuity, the approximation exhibits ripple.
3. This ripple near discontinuities in partial-sum FS approximations is termed
the Gibbs phenomenon.
4. As J increase, the ripple in the partial-sum approximations becomes more
and more concentrated near the discontinuities.
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Figure 3.25a (p. 225)
Individual terms (left panel) in the FS expansion of a square wave and the
corresponding partial-sum approximations
J
(t) (right panel). The square
wave has period T = 1 and T
s
/T = ¼. The J = 0 term is
0
(t) = ½ and is not
shown. (a) J = 1.
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Figure 3.25b-3 (p. 226)
(b) J = 3. (c) J = 7. (d) J = 29.
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Figure 3.2 (p. 197) Figure 3.2 (p. 197)
RC circuit for Example 3.1.
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CHAPTER
Figure 3.25e (p. 226)
(e) J = 99.
Example 3.15 RC Circuit: Calculating The Output By Means of FS
Let us find the FS representation for the output y(t) of the RC circuit depicted in
Fig. 3.2 Fig. 3.2 in response to the square-wave input depicted in Fig. 3.21 Fig. 3.21, assuming
that T
o
/T = ¼, T = 1 s, and RC = 0.1 s.
Figure 3.21 (p. 221) Figure 3.21 (p. 221)
Square wave for
Example 3.13.
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< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. If the input to an LTI system is expressed as a weighted sum of sinusoid,
then the output is also a weighted sum of sinusoids.
2. Input:
( ) | |
¯
·
÷· =
=
k
t jk
e k X t x
0
e
3. Output:
( ) ( ) | |
¯
·
÷· =
=
k
t jk
e k X jk H t y
0
0
e
e
4. Frequency response of the system H(je):
( ) | | ( ) | |
0
;
0
FS
y t Y k H jk X k
e
e ÷÷÷÷ =
5. Frequency response of the RC circuit:
( )
RC j
RC
j H
/ 1
/ 1
+
=
e
e
6. Substituting for H(jke
o
) with RC = 0.1 s and e
o
= 2t, and T
o
/T = ¼, gives
| |
( )
t
t
t k
k
k j
k Y
2 / sin
10 2
10
+
=
7. We determine y(t) using the approximation
0
100
100
( ) [ ]
jk t
k
y t Y k e
e

~
¯
(3.30)
The magnitude and phase spectra for the
range ÷ 25 s k s 25: Fig. 3.26 (a) and (b). Fig. 3.26 (a) and (b).
Waveform of y(t): Fig. 3.26(c). Fig. 3.26(c).
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Figure 3.26 (p. 228)
The FS coefficients
Y[k], –25 s k s 25,
for the RC circuit
output in response to
a square-wave input.
(a) Magnitude
spectrum. (b) Phase
spectrum. c) One
period of the input
signal x(t) dashed
line) and output
signal y(t) (solid line).
The output signal y(t)
is computed from the
partial-sum
approximation given
in Eq. 3.30).
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Figure 3.26 (p. 228)
The FS coefficients
Y[k], –25 s k s 25,
for the RC circuit
output in response to
a square-wave input.
(a) Magnitude
spectrum. (b) Phase
spectrum. c) One
period of the input
signal x(t) dashed
line) and output
signal y(t) (solid line).
The output signal y(t)
is computed from the
partial-sum
approximation given
in Eq. (3.30).
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8. The circuit attenuates the amplitude of X[k] when |k|> 1.
The degree of attenuation increases as the frequency ke
o
increases.
The circuit also introduces a frequency-dependent phase dependent shift.
Example 3.16 DC-to-AC Conversion
A simple scheme for converting direct current (dc) to alternating current (ac)
is based on applying a periodic switch to a dc power source and filtering out
or removing the higher order harmonics in the switched signal. The switch in
Fig. 3.27 Fig. 3.27 changes position every 1/20 second. We consider two cases: (a) The
switch in either open or closed; (b) the switch reverses polarity. Fig. 3. 28 (a) Fig. 3. 28 (a)
and (b) and (b) depict the output waveforms for these two cases. Define the
conversion efficiency as the ratio of the power in the 60-Hz component of the
output waveform x(t) to the available dc power at the input. Evaluate the
conversion efficiency for each case.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. The FS for the square wave x(t) with T = 1/60 second and e
o
= 2t/T = 120t
rad/s: Fig. 3.28(a), Fig. 3.28(a), where
| | 0
2
A
B = | |
( )
0 ,
2 / sin 2
= = k
k
k A
k B
t
t
| | 0 = k A
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Figure 3.27 (p. 229) Figure 3.27 (p. 229)
Switching power supply for DC Switching power supply for DC- -to to- -AC conversion. AC conversion.
Figure 3.28 (p. 229) Figure 3.28 (p. 229)
Switching power supply Switching power supply
output waveforms with output waveforms with
fundamental frequency fundamental frequency
e e
0 0
= 2 = 2t t/ /T T = 120 = 120t t. (a) On . (a) On- -
off switch. (b) Inverting off switch. (b) Inverting
switch. switch.
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2. The harmonic at 60 Hz in the trigonometric FS representation of x(t) has
amplitude given by B[1] and contains power B[1]
2
/2.
The dc input has power A
2
.
3. Conversion efficiency for Fig. 3.28 (a): Fig. 3.28 (a):
| | ( )
20 . 0 / 2
2 / 1
2
2
2
~ = = t
A
B
C
eff
4. The FS for the signal x(t) shown in Fig. 3.28(b): Fig. 3.28(b):
| | 0 0 = B
| |
( )
0 ,
2 / sin 4
= = k
k
k A
k B
t
t
| | 0 = k A
5. Conversion efficiency for Fig. 3.28 (b): Fig. 3.28 (b):
| | ( )
81 . 0 / 8
2 / 1
2
2
2
~ = = t
A
B
C
eff
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3.6 3.6 Discrete Discrete- -Time Time Nonperiodic Nonperiodic Signals Signals: : The Discrete The Discrete- -Time Time
Fourier Transform Fourier Transform ( (DTFT DTFT) )
1. The DTFT is used to represent a discrete-time nonperiodic signal as a
superposition of complex sinusoids.
2. DTFT representation of time-domain signal x[n]:
(3.31)
1
[ ] ( )
2
j j n
x n X e e d
t
t
t
O O
÷
= O
l
( ) [ ]
j j n
n
X e x n e
·
O ÷ O
=÷·
=
¯
(3.32)
DTFT
pair
3. Notation:
| | ( )
DTFT j
x n X e
O
÷÷÷÷
Frequency-domain representation x[n]
4. Condition for convergence of DTFT:
If x[n] is of infinite duration, then the sum converges only for certain classes
of signals. If x[n] is absolutely summable, i.e.,
| |
n
x n
·
=÷·
< ·
¯
The sum in Eq. (3.32) converges uniformly to a
continuous function of O.
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+ If x[n] is not absolutely summable, but does satisfy (i.e., if x[n] has finite
energy),
| |
¯
·
÷· =
· <
n
n x
2
It can be shown that the sum in Eq. (3.32)
converges in a mean-square error sense,
but does not converge pointwise.
Example 3.17 DTFT of An Exponential Sequence
Find the DTFT of the sequence x[n] = o
n
u[n].
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. DTFT of x[n]:
( ) | |
n j
n
n n j
n
n j
e e n u e X
O ÷
·
=
O ÷
·
÷· =
O
¯ ¯
= =
0
o o
This sum diverges for 1 o >
2. For o < 1, we have
( )
0
1
( ) , 1
1
n
j j
j
n
X e e
e
o o
o
·
O ÷ O
÷ O
=
= = <
÷
¯
(3.33)
3. If o is real valued, Eq. (3.33) becomes
( )
O + O ÷
=
O
sin cos 1
1
o o j
e X
j Euler’s Formula
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4. Magnitude and phase spectra:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 / 1
2
2 / 1
2 2 2
cos 2 1
1
sin cos 1
1
O ÷ +
=
O + O ÷
=
O
o o o o
j
e X
( ) { } |
.
|

\
|
O ÷
O
÷ =
O
cos 1
sin
arctan arg
o
o
j
e X
Fig. 3.29 Fig. 3.29 for o = 0.5 and o = 0.9.
Even
function
Odd
function
Example 3.18 DTFT of A Rectangular Pulse
as depicted in Fig. 3.30 (a). Find the DTFT of x[n].
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Let
| |
1,
0,
n M
x n
n M
s ¦
=
´
>
¹
1. DTFT of x[n]:
( )
1 .
M
j j n
n M
X e e
O ÷ O

=
¯
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Figure 3.29
(p.232)
The DTFT of an
exponential signal
x[n] = (o)
n
u[n]. (a)
Magnitude
spectrum for o =
0.5. (b) Phase
spectrum for o =
0.5. (c) Magnitude
spectrum for
o = 0.9. (d) Phase
spectrum for o =
0.9.
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Figure 3.30
(p. 233)
Example 3.18.
(a) Rectangular
pulse in the time
domain. (b)
DTFT in the
frequency
domain.
p ÷ t
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( )
2 2
( )
0 0
2( 1)
1
, 0, 2 , 4 ,
1
2 1, =0, 2 , 4 ,
M M
j j m M j M j m
m m
j M
j M
j
X e e e e
e
e
e
M
t t
t t
O ÷ O ÷ O ÷ O
= =
÷ O +
O
÷ O
= =
¦ ÷
O= ± ± ¦
=
÷ ´
¦
+ O ± ±
¹
¯ ¯

Change of variable
m = n + M
0, 2 , 4 , t t O= ± ± 2. The expression for X(e
j O
) when
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 1 / 2 2 1 / 2 2 1 / 2
/ 2 / 2 / 2
2 1 / 2 2 1 / 2
/ 2 / 2
( )
j M j M j M
j j M
j j j
j M j M
j j
e e e
X e e
e e e
e e
e e
÷ O + O + ÷ O +
O O
÷ O O ÷ O
O + ÷ O +
O ÷ O
÷
=
÷
÷
=
÷
( ) ( )
( )
sin 2 1 / 2
( )
sin 2
j
M
X e
O
O +
=
O
( ) ( )
( )
0, 2 , 4 , ,
sin 2 1 / 2
lim 2 1;
sin 2
M
M
t t O÷ ± ±
O +
= +
O

L’Hôptital’s Rule
With understanding that X(e
j O
) for
is obtained as
limit.
0, 2 , 4 , t t O = ± ±
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3. Graph of X(e
j O
): Fig. 3.30(b). Fig. 3.30(b).
Find the inverse DTFT of
Example 3.19 Inverse DTFT of A Rectangular Pulse
( )
1,
,
0,
j
W
X e
W n t
O
O s ¦
=
´
< <
¹
which is depicted in Fig. 3.31 (a). Fig. 3.31 (a).
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Figure 3.31 (p. 234) Figure 3.31 (p. 234)
Example 3.19. (a) Rectangular Example 3.19. (a) Rectangular
pulse in the frequency domain. (b) pulse in the frequency domain. (b)
Inverse DTFT in the time domain. Inverse DTFT in the time domain.
1. Note that X(e
j O
) is specified only for ÷ t < O s t.
2. Inverse DTFT x[n]:
| |
1
2
W
j n
W
x n e d
t
O
÷
= O
l
p ÷ t
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1
, 0
2
j n W
W
e n
nj t
O
÷
= =
( )
1
sin , 0. Wn n
n t
= =
3. For n = 0, the integrand is unity and we have x[0] = W/t. Using L’Hôpital’s
rule, we easily show that
( )
0
1
lim sin ,
n
W
Wn
nt t
÷
=
and thus we usually write
| | ( )
1
sin x n Wn
n t
=
as the inverse DTFT of X(e
j O
), with the understanding that the value at n =
0 is obtained as limit.
4. We may also write
| | ( ) sin / ,
W
x n c Wn t
t
= Fig. 3.31 (b). Fig. 3.31 (b).
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Example 3.20 DTFT of The Unit Impulse
Find the DTFT of x[n] = o[n].
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. DTFT of x[n]:
( ) | | 1
j j n
n
X e n e o
·
O ÷ O
=÷·
= =
¯
2. This DTFT pair is depicted in Fig. 3. 32 Fig. 3. 32.
| | 1.
DTFT
n o ÷÷÷÷
Figure 3.32 (p. 235) Figure 3.32 (p. 235)
Example 3.20. (a) Unit impulse Example 3.20. (a) Unit impulse
in the time domain. (b) DTFT of in the time domain. (b) DTFT of
unit impulse in the frequency unit impulse in the frequency
domain. domain.
Example 3.21 Inverse DTFT of A Unit Impulse Spectrum
Find the inverse DTFT of X(e
j O
) = o(O), ÷ t < O s t.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Inverse DTFT of X(e
j O
):
p ÷ t
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| | ( )
1
.
2
j n
x n e d
t
t
o
t
O
÷
= O O
l
( )
1
,
2
DTFT
o
t
÷÷÷÷ O . t t ÷ < Os
Sifting property of impulse function
2. This DTFT pair is depicted in Fig. 3. 33 Fig. 3. 33.
+ We can define X(e
j O
) over all O by writing it as an infinite sum of delta
functions shifted by integer multiples of 2t.
Figure 3.33 (p. 236) Figure 3.33 (p. 236)
Example 3.21. (a) Unit impulse in the Example 3.21. (a) Unit impulse in the
frequency domain. (b) Inverse DTFT in frequency domain. (b) Inverse DTFT in
the time domain. the time domain.
+ Dilemma: The DTFT of x[n] = 1/(2t) does not converge, since it is not a
square summable signal, yet x[n] is a valid inverse DTFT!
p ÷ t
( ) ( ) 2 .
j
k
X e k o t
·
O
=÷·
= O÷
¯
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Example 3.22 Moving-Average Systems: Frequency Response
Consider two different moving-average systems described by the input-output
equations
| | | | | | ( )
1
1
1
2
y n x n x n = + ÷ | | | | | | ( )
2
1
1
2
y n x n x n = ÷ ÷ and
The first system averages successive inputs, while the second forms the
difference. The impulse responses are
| | | | | |
1
1 1
1
2 2
h n n n o o = + ÷ | | | | | |
2
1 1
1
2 2
h n n n o o = ÷ ÷ and
Find the frequency response of each system and plot the magnitude responses.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. The frequency response is the DTFT of the impulse response.
2. For system # 1 ÷h
1
[n] :
Frequency response:
1
1 1
( )
2 2
j j
H e e
O ÷ O
= +
2 2
2
1
( )
2
j j
j
j
e e
H e e
O O
÷
O
÷
O
+
=
2
cos .
2
j
e
O
÷
O | |
=
|
\ .
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Magnitude response:
( )
1
cos ,
2
j
H e
O
O | |
=
|
\ .
Phase response:
{ }
1
arg ( ) .
2
j
H e
O
O
= ÷
3. For system # 2 ÷h
2
[n] :
Frequency response:
2 2
2 2
2
1 1
( ) sin .
2 2 2 2
j j
j j
j j
e e
H e e je je
j
O O
÷
O O
÷ ÷
O ÷ O
÷ O| |
= ÷ = =
|
\ .
Magnitude response: Phase response:
( )
2
sin ,
2
j
H e
O
O | |
=
|
\ .
{ }
2
2 , 0
2
arg ( )
2 , 0
2
j
H e
t
t
O
O ¦
÷ O>
¦
¦
=
´
O
¦
÷ ÷ O<
¦
¹
4. Fig. 3.36 (a) and (b) Fig. 3.36 (a) and (b) depict the
magnitude responses of the two
systems on the interval ÷ t < O s t.
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Figure 3.36 (p. 239) Figure 3.36 (p. 239)
The magnitude responses of two simple discrete The magnitude responses of two simple discrete- -time systems. time systems.
(a) A system that averages successive inputs tends to attenuate (a) A system that averages successive inputs tends to attenuate high high
frequencies. (b) A system that forms the difference of successiv frequencies. (b) A system that forms the difference of successive inputs e inputs
tends to attenuate low frequencies. tends to attenuate low frequencies.
Example 3.23 Multipath Communication Channel: Frequency Response
The input-output equation introduced in Section 1.10 Section 1.10 describing a discrete-time
model of a two-path propagation channel is
| | | | | | 1 . y n x n ax n = + ÷
In Example 2.12, we identified the impulse response of this system as h[n] = o[n]
+ ao[n ÷ 1] and determined that the impulse response of the inverse system was
h
inv
[n] = (÷ a)
n
u[n]. The inverse system is stable, provided that |a|< 1.
p ÷ t
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Compare the magnitude responses of both systems for a = 0.5 e
jt/3
and a =
0.9 e
j2t/3
.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. The frequency response is the DTFT of the impulse response.
2. Frequency response of the system modeling two-path propagation:
( )
1 .
j j
H e ae
O ÷ O
= +
( )
{ } ( ) arg
1 .
j a j
H e a e
÷ O÷ O
= +
( )
{ } ( ) arg
1 .
j a j
H e a e
÷ O÷ O
= +
Using
{ } arg j a
a a e =
( ) { } ( ) { } ( )
1 cos arg sin arg .
j
H e a a j a a
O
= + O÷ ÷ O÷
Apply Euler’s formula
3. Magnitude response:
( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
{ } ( ) ( )
1 2
2
2
2
1 2
2
1 cos arg sin arg
1 2 cos arg ,
j
H e a a a a
a a a
O
= + O÷ + O÷
= + + O÷
2 2
cos sin 1 u u + =
4. The frequency response of the inverse system may be obtained by replacing
o with ÷ a in Eq. (3.33).
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( )
1
, 1
1
inv j
j
H e a
ae
O
÷ O
= <
+
( ) { } ( ) ( ) { } ( )
( )
{ } ( )
( )
1 2
2
2
2
1 2
2
1 cos arg sin arg
1 2 cos arg ,
inv j
H e a a a a
a a a
÷
O
÷
= + O÷ + O÷
= + + O÷
Expressing a in polar form
+ The frequency response of the inverse system is the inverse of the frequency
response of the original system.
5. Magnitude response of the inverse system:
( )
{ } ( )
( )
1 2
2
1
.
1 2 cos arg
inv j
H e
a a a
O
=
+ + O÷
6. Fig. 3.37 Fig. 3.37 depicts the magnitude response of H(e
j O
) for both a = 0.5 e
jt/3
and
a = 0.9 e
j2t/3
on the interval ÷ t < O s t.
7. The magnitude response approaches a maximum of 1 + |a| when O = arg{a}
and a minimum of 1 ÷ |a| when O = arg{a} ÷ t.
8. The magnitude response of the corresponding inverse system: Fig. 3.38. Fig. 3.38.
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Figure 3.37 (p. 241) Figure 3.37 (p. 241)
Magnitude response of the system in Example 3.23 describing Magnitude response of the system in Example 3.23 describing multipath multipath
propagation. (a) Echo coefficient propagation. (a) Echo coefficient a a = 0.5 = 0.5e e
j jt t/3 /3
. (b) Echo coefficient . (b) Echo coefficient a a = 0.9 = 0.9e e
j j2 2t t/3 /3
. .
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Figure 3.38 (p. 241) Figure 3.38 (p. 241)
Magnitude response of the inverse system for Magnitude response of the inverse system for multipath multipath propagation in propagation in
Example 3.23. (a) Echo coefficient Example 3.23. (a) Echo coefficient a a = 0.5 = 0.5e e
j jt t/3. /3.
(b) Echo coefficient (b) Echo coefficient a a = 0.9 = 0.9e e
j jt t/3 /3
+ If |a| = 1, then the multipath model applies zero gain to any sinusoid with
frequency O = arg{a} ÷ t.
+ The multipath system cannot be inverted when |a|= 1.
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3.7 3.7 Continuous Continuous- -Time Time Nonperiodic Nonperiodic Signals Signals: : The Fourier The Fourier
Transform Transform ( (FT FT) )
1. The Fourier transform (FT) is used to represent a continuous-time non-
periodic signal as a superposition of complex sinusoids.
2. FT representation of time-domain signal x(t):
1
( ) ( )
2
j t
x t X j e d
e
e e
t
·
÷·
=
l
(3.35)
( ) ( )
j t
X j x t e dt
e
e
·
÷
÷·
=
l
(3.36)
Frequency-domain representation of
the signal x(t)
3. Notation for FT pair:
( ) ( ).
FT
x t X je ÷÷÷
4. Convergence condition for FT:
1) Approximation:
( ) ( )
1
ˆ ,
2
j t
x t X j e d
e
e e
t
·
÷·
=
l
2) Squared error between x(t) and : the error energy, given by ( ) ˆ x t
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( ) ( )
2
ˆ , x t x t dt
·
÷·
÷
l
is zero if x(t) is square integrable, i.e., if
( )
2
. x t dt
·
÷·
< ·
l
+ Zero squared error does not imply pointwise convergence [i.e., ] ( ) ( ) ˆ x t x t =
at all values of t.
3. Pointwise convergence of ( ) ˆ ( ) x t x t = is guaranteed at all values of t
except those corresponding to discontinuities if x(t) satisfies the Dirichlet
conditions for nonperiodic signals:
+ x(t) has a finite number of maximum, minima, and discontinuities in any
finite interval.
+ The size of each discontinuity is finite.
There is zero energy in the difference of ( ) ˆ ( ) and x t x t
+ x(t) is absolutely integrable:
( ) . x t dt
·
÷·
< ·
l
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Example 3.24 FT of A Real Decaying Exponential
Find the FT of x(t) = e
÷ a t
u(t), shown in Fig. 3.39(a). Fig. 3.39(a).
1. For a s 0, since x(t) is not absolutely integrable, i.e.,
< <Sol.> Sol.>
0
, 0
at
e dt a
·
÷
= · s
l
The FT of x(t) does not converge for a s 0.
2. For a > 0, the FT of x(t) is
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
0
1 1
a j t at j t
a j t
X j e u t e dt e dt
e
a j a j
e e
e
e
e e
· ·
÷ + ÷ ÷
÷·
÷ + ·
= =
= ÷ =
+ +
l l
3. Magnitude and phase of X(je):
( )
( )
1
2 2
2
1
X j
a
e
e
=
+
( ) { } ( ) arg arctan , X j a e e = ÷
Fig. 3.39 (b) and (c). Fig. 3.39 (b) and (c).
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Figure 3.39 (p. 243) Figure 3.39 (p. 243)
Example 3.24. (a) Example 3.24. (a)
Real time Real time- -domain domain
exponential signal. exponential signal.
(b) Magnitude (b) Magnitude
spectrum. spectrum.
(c) Phase spectrum. (c) Phase spectrum.
arg{X(je)}
e
e
÷ t/4
÷ t/2
t/4
t/4
|X(je) |
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Example 3.25 FT of A Rectangular Pulse
Find the FT of x(t).
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Consider the rectangular pulse depicted in Fig. 3.40 (a) and defined as
( )
0 0
0
1,
0,
T t T
x t
t T
÷ < <
¦
=
´
>
¹
1. The rectangular pulse x(t) is absolutely integrable, provided that T
o
< ·.
2. FT of x(t):
( ) ( )
( )
0
0
0
0
0
1 2
sin , 0
T
j t j t
T
T j t
T
X j x t e dt e dt
e T
j
e e
e
e
e e
e e
·
÷ ÷
÷· ÷
÷
÷
= =
= ÷ = =
l l
3. For e = 0, the integral simplifies to 2T
o
.
( )
0 0
0
2
lim sin 2 . T T
e
e
e
÷
= ( ) ( )
0
2
sin , X j T e e
e
=
With understanding that
the value at e = 0 is
obtained by evaluating
a limit.
4. Magnitude spectrum:
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( )
( )
0
sin
2 ,
T
X j
e
e
e
=
5. Phase spectrum:
( ) { }
( )
( )
0
0
sin 0 0,
arg
sin 0 ,
T
X j
T
e e
e
e e t
> ¦
=
´
<
¹
6. X(je) in terms of sinc function:
( ) ( )
0 0
2 sinc . X j T T e e t =
Fig. 3. 40 (b). Fig. 3. 40 (b).
Figure 3.40 (p. 244) Figure 3.40 (p. 244)
Example 3.25. (a) Rectangular pulse in the Example 3.25. (a) Rectangular pulse in the
time domain. (b) FT in the frequency domain. time domain. (b) FT in the frequency domain.
v ÷ e; p ÷ t
As T
o
increases, the nonzero time
extent of x(t) increases, while X(je)
becomes more concentrated about
the frequency origin.
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Example 3.26 Inverse FT of A Rectangular Pulse
Find the inverse FT of the rectangular spectrum depicted in Fig. 3. 42 (a) Fig. 3. 42 (a) and
given by
( )
1,
0,
W W
X j
W
e
e
e
÷ < <
¦
=
´
>
¹
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Figure 3.42 (p. 246) Figure 3.42 (p. 246)
Example 3.26. (a) Rectangular spectrum in Example 3.26. (a) Rectangular spectrum in
the frequency domain. the frequency domain.
(b) Inverse FT in the time domain. (b) Inverse FT in the time domain.
v ÷ e; p ÷ t
1. Inverse FT of x(t):
( )
1 1 1
sin( ), 0
2
W
j t j t W
W
W
x t e d e Wt t
j t t
e e
e
t t t
÷
÷
= = ÷ = =
l
2. When t = 0, the integral simplifies to W/t, i.e.,
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( )
0
1
lim sin ,
t
Wt W
t
t
t
÷
=
3. Inverse FT is usually written as
( ) ( )
1
sin , x t Wt
t t
= or ( ) sinc ,
W Wt
x t
t t
| |
=
|
\ .
Fig. 3. 42 (b). Fig. 3. 42 (b).
With understanding that the value
at t = 0 is obtained as a limit.
As Wincreases, the frequency-domain reprsentation becomes less
concentrated about e = 0, while the time-domain representation X(je)
becomes more concentrated about t = 0.
+ Duality between Example 3.25 and 3.26. Duality between Example 3.25 and 3.26.
Example 3.27 FT of The Unit Impulse
Find the FT of x(t) = o(t).
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. x(t) does not satisfy the Dirichlet conditions, since the discontinuity at the
origin is infinite.
2. FT of x(t):
( ) ( ) 1
j t
X j t e dt
e
e o
·
÷
÷·
= =
l
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+ Notation for FT pair: ( ) 1,
FT
t o ÷÷÷
Example 3.28 Inverse FT of An Impulse Spectrum
Find the inverse FT of X(je) = 2to(e).
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Inverse FT of X(je):
( ) ( )
1
2 1
2
j t
x t e d
e
to e e
t
·
÷·
= =
l
2. Notation of FT pair:
( ) 1 2
FT
to e ÷÷÷
Duality between Duality between
Example 3.27 and 3.28 Example 3.27 and 3.28
Example 3.29 Characteristic of Digital Communication Signals
In a simple digital communication system, one signal or “symbol” is
transmitted for each “1” in the binary representation of the message, while a
different signal or symbol is transmitted for each “0”. One common scheme,
binary phase-shift keying (BPSK), assumes that the signal representing “0” is
the negative of the signal and the signal representing “1” is the positive of the
signal. Fig. 3.44 Fig. 3.44 depicts two candidate signals for this approach: a rectangular
pulse defined as
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( )
0
0
, / 2
0, / 2
r
A t T
x t
t T
< ¦
=
´
>
¹
and a raised-cosine pulse defined as
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
0
/ 2 2cos 2 / , / 2
0, / 2
c
c
A t T t T
x t
t T
t ¦ + <
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
Figure 3.44 (p. 249)
Pulse shapes used in
BPSK communications.
(a) Rectangular pulse.
(b) Raised cosine pulse.
The transmitted BPSK signals for communicating a sequence of bits using each
pulse shape are illustrated in Fig. 3.45 Fig. 3.45. Note that each pulse is T
o
seconds long,
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so this scheme has a transmission rate of 1/T
o
bits per second. Each user’s
signal is transmitted within an assigned frequency band, as depicted in Chapter
5. In order to prevent interference with users of other frequency bands,
governmental agencies place limits on the energy of a signal that any user
transmits into adjacent frequency bands. Suppose the frequency band
assigned to each user is 20 kHz wide. Then, to prevent interference with
adjacent channels, we assume that the peak value of the magnitude spectrum
of the transmitted signal outside the 20-kHz band is required to be ÷ 30 dB
below the peak in-band magnitude spectrum. Choose the constant A
r
and A
c
so
that both BPSK signals have unit power. Use the FT to determine the maximum
number of bits per second that can be transmitted when the rectangular and
raised-cosine pulse shapes are utilized.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. BPSK signals are not periodic, but their magnitude squared is T
o
periodic.
2. Powers in rectangular pulse and raised-cosine pulse:
0
0
/ 2
2 2
/ 2
0
1
T
r r r
T
P A dt A
T
÷
= =
l
and
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Figure 3.45 (p. 249) Figure 3.45 (p. 249)
BPSK signals constructed by using (a) rectangular pulse shapes a BPSK signals constructed by using (a) rectangular pulse shapes and (b) nd (b)
raised raised- -cosine pulse shapes. cosine pulse shapes.
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( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0
0
0
0
2 2
2
2
0
2
2
0 0
2
0
2
1
4 1 2cos 2 2
1 2cos 2 1 2 1 2cos 4
4
3
8
T
c c
T
T
c
T
c
P A t dt
T
A
t T t T dt
T
A
t
t t
÷
÷
= +
= + + +

=
l
l
Hence, unity transmission power is obtained by choosing A
r
= 1 and A
c
= . 8/ 3
3. FT of the rectangular pulse x
r
(t):
( )
( )
0
sin 2
2
r
T
X j
e
e
e
=
In terms of Hz rather than rad/sec (e = 2tf): ( ) ( )
r r
X j X jf e ' ÷
( )
( )
0
sin
2
r
fT
X jf
f
t
t
'
=
{ }
10
Normalized Spectrum of 20log ( ) / dB:
r o
X jf T '
Fig. 3.46. Fig. 3.46.
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Figure 3.46 Figure 3.46
(p. 250) (p. 250)
Spectrum of Spectrum of
rectangular rectangular
pulse in dB, pulse in dB,
normalized by normalized by
T T
0 0
. .
The
normalized by
T
o
removed the
dependence of
the magnitude
on T
o
.
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4. From Fig. 3.46 Fig. 3.46, we must choose To so that the 10 th zero crossing is at 10 kHz
in order to satisfy the constraint that the peak value of the magnitude
spectrum of the transmitted signal outside the 20-kHz band allotted to this
user be less than ÷ 30 dB.
f = k/T
o
1000 = 10/T
o
T
o
= 10
÷ 3
Data transmission rate = 1000 bits/sec.
5. FT of raised-cosine pulse x
c
(t):
( ) ( ) ( )
0
0
2
0
2
1 8
1 2cos 2
2 3
T
j t
c
T
X j t T e dt
e
e t
÷
÷
= +
l
( )
( ) ( )
0 0 0
0 0
0 0 0
2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 1 2 1 2
3 2 3 2 3
T T T
j T t j T t j t
c
T T T
X j e dt e dt e dt
e t e t e
e
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= + +
l l l
Euler’s formula
Each of three integrals is of the form
0
0
2
2
T
j t
T
e dt
¸ ÷
÷
l
( )
0
sin 2
2
T ¸
¸
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0 0 0
0 0
sin 2 2 sin 2 2 sin 2 2 2 2
2
3 3 2 3 2
c
T T T T T
X j
T T
e t e t e
e
e e t e t
÷ +
= + +
÷ +
Substituting the appropriate
value of ¸ for each integral
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In terms of f (Hz), the above equation becomes
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
0 0 0 0 0
0 0
sin 1 sin 1 sin 2 2 2
0.5 0.5
3 3 1 3 1
c
f T T f T T fT
X jf
f f T f T
t t t
t t t
÷ +
' = + +
÷ +
1) First term corresponds to the spectrum of the rectangular pulse.
2) The second and third terms are the versions of 1st term shifted by ± 1/T
o
.
Fig. 3.47 for Fig. 3.47 for T T
o o
= 1. = 1.
{ }
10
Normalized Magnitude Spectrum of 20log ( ) / dB:
c o
X jf T '
Fig. 3.48. Fig. 3.48.
The normalized by T
o
removed the dependence of the magnitude on T
o
.
f = k/T
o
10,000 = 2/T
o
T
o
= 2 × 10
÷ 4
seconds.
Data transmission rate = 5000 bits/sec.
3) In this case, the peak value of the first sidelobe is below ÷ 30 dB, so we may
satisfy the adjacent channel interference specifications by choosing the
mainlobe to be 20 kHz wide:
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Figure 3.47 (p. Figure 3.47 (p.
252) 252)
The spectrum of The spectrum of
the raised the raised- -cosine cosine
pulse consists of pulse consists of
a sum of three a sum of three
frequency frequency- -shifted shifted
sinc sinc functions. functions.
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Figure 3.48 Figure 3.48
(p. 252) (p. 252)
Spectrum of Spectrum of
the raised the raised- -
cosine pulse in cosine pulse in
dB, normalized dB, normalized
by by T T
0 0
. .
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3.8 3.8 Properties of Properties of Fourier Representation Fourier Representation
1. Four Fourier
representations:
Table 3.2 Table 3.2.
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2. Signals that are periodic in time have discrete frequency-domain
representations, while nonperiodic time signals have continuous frequency-
domain representations: Table 3.3 Table 3.3.
3.9 3.9 Linearity and Symmetry Linearity and Symmetry Properties Properties
1. Linearity property for four Fourier representations:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) | | | | | |
| | | | | | ( ) ( ) ( )
| | | | | | | | | | | |
;
;
o
o
FT
FS
DTFT j j j
DTFS
z t ax t by t Z j aX j bY j
z t ax t by t Z k aX k bY k
z n ax n by n Z e aX e bY e
z n ax n by n Z k aX k bY k
e
e e e
O O O
O
= + ÷÷÷ = +
= + ÷÷÷÷ = +
= + ÷÷÷÷ = +
= + ÷÷÷÷÷ = +
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Example 3.30 Linearity in The FS
Suppose z(t) is the
periodic signal depicted
in Fig. 3.49(a). Fig. 3.49(a). Use the
linearity and the results
of Example 3.13 Example 3.13 to
determine the FS
coefficients Z[k].
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Signal z(t):
( ) ( ) ( )
3 1
2 2
z t x t y t = +
where x(t) and y(t):
Fig. 3.49(b) and (c). Fig. 3.49(b) and (c).
2. X[k] and Y[k]:
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( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( )
;2
;2
1 sin 4
1 sin 2
FS
FS
x t X k k k
y t Y k k k
t
t
t t
t t
÷÷÷÷ =
÷÷÷÷ =
From Example 3.13.
3. FS of z(t):
( ) | | ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
;2
3 2 sin 2 1 2 sin 2
FS
z t Z k k k k k
t
t t t t ÷÷÷÷ = +
Linearity
3.9.1 3.9.1 Symmetry Properties: Real and Imaginary Signals Symmetry Properties: Real and Imaginary Signals
+ Symmetry property for real-valued signal x(t):
1. FT of x(t):
*
* *
( ) ( ) ( )
j t j t
X j x t e dt x t e dt
e e
e
· ·
÷
÷· ÷·

= =

l l
(3.37)
2. Since x(t) is real valued, x(t) = x
-
(t). Eq. (3.37) becomes
( ) ( )
* ( ) j t
X j x t e dt
e
e
·
÷ ÷
÷·
=
l
*
( ) ( ) X j X j e e = ÷ (3.38)
X(je) is complex-conjugate symmetric
{ } { } { } { } Re ( ) Re ( ) and Im ( ) Im ( ) X j X j X j X j e e e e = ÷ = ÷ ÷
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+ The conjugate symmetry property for DTFS:
*
[ ] [ ] X k X N k = ÷
Because the DTFS coefficients are N periodic, and thus
[ ] [ ] X k X N k ÷ = ÷
+ The symmetry conditions in all four Fourier representations of real-valued
signals are indicated in Table 3.4 Table 3.4.
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+ Complex-conjugate symmetry in FT:
A simple characterization of the output of an LTI system with a real-
valued impulse response when the input is a real-valued sinusoid.
1. Input signal of LTI system:
( ) ( ) cos x t A t e o = ÷
2. Real-valued impulse response of LTI system is denoted by h(t).
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
/ 2 / 2
j t j t
x t A e A e
e o e o ÷ ÷ ÷
= +
Euler’s formula
3. Output signal of LTI system:
( ) ( ) ( ) { } ( )
cos arg y t H j A t H j e e o e = ÷ +
{ } { } ( arg ( ) ) ( arg ( ) )
( ) ( ) ( / 2) ( ) ( / 2)
j t H j j t H j
y t H j A e H j A e
e o e e o e
e e
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
= + ÷
Applying Eq. (3.2)
and linearity
Exploiting the symmetry conditions:
( ) ( ) H j H j e e = ÷
{ } { } arg ( ) arg ( ) H j H j e e = ÷ ÷
+ Continuous-time case:
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+ The LTI system modifies the amplitude of the input sinusoid by |H(je)|and
the phase by arg{H(je)}.
Fig. 3.50. Fig. 3.50.
Figure 3.50 (p. 257) Figure 3.50 (p. 257)
A sinusoidal input to an LTI system results in a sinusoidal outp A sinusoidal input to an LTI system results in a sinusoidal output of the ut of the
same frequency, with the amplitude and phase modified by the sys same frequency, with the amplitude and phase modified by the system tem’ ’s s
frequency response. frequency response.
v ÷ e; f ÷ o
+ Discrete-time case:
1. Input signal of LTI system:
x[n] = Acos(On ÷ o)
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2. Real-valued impulse response of LTI system is denoted by h[n].
3. Output signal of LTI system:
| | ( ) ( ) { } ( )
cos arg
j j
y n H e A n H e o
O O
= O ÷ +
+ The LTI system modifies the amplitude of the input sinusoid by |H(e
jO
)|and
the phase by arg{H(e
jO
)}.
+ x(t) is purely imaginary:
1. x
-
(t) = ÷ x(t).
2. Eq.(3.37) becomes
( ) ( )
* ( ) j t
X j x t e dt
e
e
·
÷ ÷
÷·
= ÷
l
*
( ) ( ) X j X j e e = ÷ ÷ (3.39)
{ } { } { } { } Re ( ) Re ( ) and Im ( ) Im ( ) X j X j X j X j e e e e = ÷ ÷ = ÷
3.9.2 3.9.2 Symmetry Properties: Even and Odd Signals Symmetry Properties: Even and Odd Signals
1. x(t) is real valued and has even symmetry.
x
-
(t) = x(t) and x (÷ t) = x(t)
x
-
(t) = x(÷ t)
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2. Eq.(3.37) becomes
( ) ( )
* ( ) j t
X j x t e dt
e
e
·
÷ ÷
÷·
= ÷
l
( ) ( ) ( )
* j
X j x e d X j
et
e t t e
·
÷
÷·
= ÷ =
l
3. Conclusion:
1) The imaginary part of X(je) = 0: ( ) ( ) X j X j e e
-
=
If x(t) is real and even, then X(je) is real.
2) If x(t) is real and odd, then X
-
(je) = ÷ X(je) and X(je) is imaginary.
3.10 3.10 Convolution Properties Convolution Properties
+ The convolution property is a consequence of complex sinusoids being
eigenfunctions of LTI system.
3.10.1 3.10.1 Convolution of Convolution of Nonperiodic Nonperiodic Signals Signals — — Continuous Continuous- -time case time case
Change of variable t = ÷ t
1. Convolution of two nonperiodic continuous-time signals x(t) and h(t):
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) y t h t x t h x t d t t t
·
÷·
= - = ÷
l
2. FT of x(t ÷ t):
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( ) ( )
( )
1
2
j t
x t X j e d
e t
t e e
t
·
÷
÷·
÷ =
l
3. Substituting this expression into the convolution integral yields
The inner integral over t as the FT of h(t), or H(je). Hence, y(t) may be written
as
( ) ( ) ( )
1
2
j t
y t H j X j e d
e
e e e
t
·
÷·
=
l
and we identify H(je)X(je) as the FT of y(t).
( ) ( ) * ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
FT
y t h t x t Y j X j H j e e e = ÷÷÷ = (3.40)
Example 3.31 Solving A Convolution Problem in The Frequency Domain
Let x(t) = (1/(tt))sin(tt) be the input to a system with impulse response h(t) =
(1/(tt))sin(2tt). Find the output y(t) = x(t) - h(t).
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1
2
1
2
j t j
j j t
y t h X j e e d d
h e d X j e d
e et
et e
t e e t
t
t t e e
t
· ·
÷
÷· ÷·
· ·
÷
÷· ÷·

=

=

l l
l l
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< <Sol.> Sol.>
h(t)
y(t) = (1/(tt))sin(tt)
y(t) = x(t) - h(t)
Time domain ÷Extremely Difficult
Frequency domain ÷Quite Simple
1. Solving problem:
Convolution property
2. From Example 3.26, we have
( ) ( )
1,
0,
FT
x t X j
e t
e
e t
< ¦
÷÷÷ =
´
>
¹
( ) ( )
1, 2
0, 2
FT
h t H j
e t
e
e t
< ¦
÷÷÷ =
´
>
¹
and
Since ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
FT
y t h t x t Y j X j H j e e e = - ÷÷÷ =
( )
1,
0,
Y j
e t
e
e t
< ¦
=
´
>
¹
x(t) = (1/(tt))sin(tt)
Example 3.32 Finding Inverse FT’s by Means of The Convolution Property
Use the convolution property to find x(t), where
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
4
sin
FT
x t X je e
e
÷÷÷ =
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< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Write X(je) = Z(je) Z(je), where ( ) ( )
2
sin Z je e
e
=
2. Convolution property:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
FT
z t z t Z j Z j e e - ÷÷÷ -
( ) ( ) ( ) x t z t z t = -
3. Using the result of Example 3.25:
Fig. 3.52 (a) Fig. 3.52 (a)
( ) ( )
1, 1
0, 1
FT
t
z t Z j
t
e
< ¦
= ÷÷÷
´
>
¹
4. Performing the convolution with itself gives the triangular waveform depicted
in Fig. 3.52 (b) Fig. 3.52 (b) as the solution for x(t).
Figure 3.52 (p. 261) Figure 3.52 (p. 261)
Signals for Signals for
Example 3.32. (a) Example 3.32. (a)
Rectangular pulse Rectangular pulse
z z( (t t). (b) ). (b)
Convolution of Convolution of z z( (t t) )
with itself gives with itself gives x x( (t t). ).
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+ + Convolution of Convolution of Nonperiodic Nonperiodic Signals Signals — — Continuous Continuous- -time case time case
If | | ( )
DTFT j
x n X e
O
÷÷÷÷ | | ( )
DTFT j
h n H e
O
÷÷÷÷ and
[ ] [ ]* [ ] ( ) ( ) ( )
DTFT j j j
y n x n h n Y e X e H e
O O O
= ÷÷÷÷ = (3.41)
3.10.2 3.10.2 Filtering Filtering
1. Multiplication in frequency domain ÷ Filtering Filtering.
2. The terms “filtering filtering” implies that some frequency components of the input
are eliminated while others are passed by the system unchanged.
3. System Types of filtering:
1) Low-pass filter
2) High-pass filter
3) Band-pass filter
Fig. 3.53 (a), (b), and (c) Fig. 3.53 (a), (b), and (c)
The characterization of DT filter is
based on its behavior in the
frequency range ÷ t < O s t because
its frequency response is 2 t-periodic.
4. Realistic filter:
1) Gradual transition band
2) Nonzero gain of stop band
5. Magnitude response of filter: ( ) 20log H je
( )
20log
j
H e
O
or [dB]
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Figure 3.53 (p. 263) Figure 3.53 (p. 263)
Frequency response of ideal continuous- (left panel) and discrete-time (right
panel) filters. (a) Low-pass characteristic. (b) High-pass characteristic. (c) Band-
pass characteristic.
v ÷ e; p ÷ t
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6. The edge of the passband is usually defined by the frequencies for which
the response is ÷ 3 dB, corresponding to a magnitude response of (1/ ).
2
+ Unity gain = 0 dB
7. Energy spectrum of filter: ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
Y j H j X j e e e =
The ÷ 3 dB point corresponds to frequencies at which the filter
passes only half of the input power.
÷ 3 dB point Cutoff frequency
Example 3.33 RC Circuit: Filtering
For the RC circuit depicted in Fig. 3.54 Fig. 3.54, the impulse response for the case where
y
C
(t) is the output is given by
( ) ( )
1
t RC
C
h t e u t
RC
÷
=
Since y
R
(t) = x(t) ÷ y
C
(t), the impulse response for
the case where y
R
(t) is the output is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
1
t RC
R
h t t e u t
RC
o
÷
= ÷ Figure 3.54 (p. 264) Figure 3.54 (p. 264)
RC circuit with input x(t) and outputs y
c(t)
and y
R
(t).
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Plot the magnitude responses of both systems on a linear scale and in dB, and
characterize the filtering properties of the systems.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Frequency response corresponding to h
C
(t): ( )
1
1
C
H j
i RC
e
e
=
+
2. Frequency response corresponding to h
R
(t): ( )
1
R
i RC
H j
i RC
e
e
e
=
+
3. Magnitude response in linear scale: Fig. 3 Fig. 3- -55 (a) and (b). 55 (a) and (b).
Magnitude response in dB scale: Fig. 3 Fig. 3- -55 (c) and (d). 55 (c) and (d).
( ) ( ) and
C R
H j H j e e
4. System corresponding to y
C
(t):
Low-pass filter
Cutoff frequency = e
c
= 1/(RC)
System corresponding to y
R
(t):
High-pass filter
Cutoff frequency = e
c
= 1/(RC)
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Figure 3.55 (p. 265) Figure 3.55 (p. 265)
RC circuit magnitude responses as a function of normalized frequency eRC. (a)
Frequency response of the system corresponding to y
C
(t), linear scale.
(b) Frequency response of the system corresponding to y
R
(t), linear scale.
v ÷ e
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Figure 3.55a&c (p. 265) Figure 3.55a&c (p. 265)
RC circuit magnitude responses as a function of normalized frequency eRC.
(c) Frequency response of the system corresponding to y
C
(t), dB scale.
(d) Frequency response of the system corresponding to y
R
(t), dB scale, shown on
the range from 0 dB to –25 dB.
v ÷ e
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+The convolution property implies that the frequency response of a system
may be expressed as the ratio of the FT or DTFT of the output to the input .
For CT system:
( )
( )
( )
Y j
H j
X j
e
e
e
=
(3.42)
For DT system:
( )
( )
( )
j
j
j
Y e
H e
X e
O
O
O
= (3.43)
Frequency response
Example 3.34 Identifying a System, Given Its Input and Output
The output of an LTI system in response to an input x(t) = e
÷ 2 t
u(t) is y(t) =
e
÷ t
u(t) . Find the frequency response and the impulse response of this system.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. FT of x(t) and y(t): ( )
1
2
X j
j
e
e
=
+
( )
1
1
Y j
j
e
e
=
+
and
2. Frequency response:
( )
( )
( )
Y j
H j
X j
e
e
e
= ( )
2
1
j
H j
j
e
e
e
+
=
+
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3. Impulse response:
( )
1 1 1
1
1 1 1
j
H j
j j j
e
e
e e e
| | +
= + = +
|
+ + +
\ .
( ) ( ) ( )
t
h t t e u t o
÷
= +
+ Recover the input of the system from the output:
( ) ( ) ( )
inv
X j H j Y j e e e = and ( ) ( ) ( )
inv j j j
X e H e Y e
O O O
=
CT case DT case
where ( )
inv
1/ ( ) H j H j e e =
ɌAn inverse system is also known as an equalizer, and the process of
recovering the input from the output is known as equalization.
ɌCausality restriction ÷An exact inverse system is difficult or impossible
to be implemented!
Ex. Time delay in communication system need an equalizer to introduce a time
and
Equalizer is a noncausal system and
cannot in fact be implemented!
Approximation!
( )
inv
1/ ( )
j j
H e H e
O O
=
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Example 3.35 Multipath Communication Channel: Equalization
Consider again the problem addressed in Example 2.13. In this problem, a
distorted received signal y[n] is expressed in terms of a transmitted signal x[n]
as
| | | | | | 1 , 1 y n x n ax n a = + ÷ <
Use the convolution property to find the impulse response of an inverse
system that will recover x[n] from y[n].
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. In Example 2.13, we have y[n] = x[n] - h[n], where the impulse response is
1, 0
[ ] , 1
0, otherwise
n
h n a n
= ¦
¦
= =
´
¦
¹
2. The impulse response of an inverse system, h
inv
[n], must satisfy
| | | | | |
inv
h n h n n o - =
DTFT
÷÷÷÷ ( ) ( )
inv
1
j j
H e H e
O O
=
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( )
( )
inv
1
j
j
H e
H e
O
O
=
Frequency response of inverse system Frequency response of inverse system
3. DTFT of h[n]:
| | ( )
1
DTFT j j
h n H e ae
O ÷ O
÷÷÷÷ = +
( )
inv
1
1
j
j
H e
ae
O
÷ O
=
+
The frequency response of the inverse system is then obtained as
3.10.3 3.10.3 Convolution of Periodic Signals Convolution of Periodic Signals
Periodic h
+ Basic Concept:
Unstable system
| | ( ) | |
inv
n
h n a u n = ÷
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1. Define the periodic convolution of two CT signals x(t) and z(t), each having
period T, as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
T
y t x t z t x z t d t t t = = ÷
l
ʶ
where the symbol # denotes that integration is performed over a single period
of the signals involved.
2
;
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] [ ] [ ]
FS
T
y t x t z t Y k TX k Z k
t
= ÷÷÷÷ = ʶ
(3.44)
ɌConvolution in Time-Domain ÷Multiplication in Frequency-Domain
Example 3.36 Convolution of Two Periodic Signals
Evaluate the periodic convolution of the sinusoidal signal
( ) ( ) ( ) 2cos 2 sin 4 z t t t t t = +
with the periodic square wave x(t) depicted in Fig. 3.56 Fig. 3.56.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Both x(t) and z(t) have fundamental period T = 1.
2. Let ( ) ( ) ( ) y t x t z t = ʶ
2
;
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] [ ] [ ]
FS
T
y t x t z t Y k TX k Z k
t
= ÷÷÷÷ = ʶ
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Figure 3.56 (p. 268) Figure 3.56 (p. 268)
Square wave for Example 3.36.
3. Coefficients of FS representation of z(t):
| |
( )
( )
1, 1
1 2 2
1 2 2
0 otherwise
k
j k
Z k
j k
= ± ¦
¦
=
¦
=
´
÷ = ÷
¦
¦
¹
Coefficients of FS representation of x(t):
| |
( ) 2sin 2
2
k
X k
k
t
t
=
Example 3.13
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3. FS Coefficients of y(t):
| | | | | |
1/ 1
0 otherwise
k
Y k X k Z k
t = ± ¦
= =
´
¹
( ) ( ) ( ) 2 cos 2 y t t t t =
+ Explanation for the origin of the Gibbs phenomenon:
Example 3.14:
1. A partial-sum approximation to the FS representation for x(t) may be obtained
by using the FS coefficients
| | | | | |
ˆ
J
X k X k W k =
where
| |
1
0 otherwise
J k J
W k
÷ s s ¦
=
´
¹
T = 1
( )
( ) ( )
( )
sin 2 1
sin
t J
w t
t
t
t
+
=
2. In the time domain, is the periodic convolution of x(t) and ˆ ( )
j
x t
T = 1
(3.45)
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Figure 3.57 (p. 270) Figure 3.57 (p. 270)
The signal z(t) defined in Eq. (3.45) when J = 10.
4. The periodic convolution
of x(t) and w(t) is the area
under time-shifted version
of w(t) on |t|< ½ .Time-
shifting the sidelobes of w(t)
into and out of the interval
|t|< ½ introduces ripples
the partial-sum
approximation .
ˆ ( )
j
3. One period of the
signal w(t) is depicted
in Fig. 3.57 Fig. 3.57 for J = 10.
x t
5. As J increases, the mainlobe
and sidelobe widths in w(t)
decrease, but the size of the
sidelobe does not change.
This is why the ripples in becomes more concentrated near
discontinuity of x(t), but remain the same magnitude.
ˆ ( )
j
x t
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Define the discrete-time convolution of two N-periodic sequences x[n] and
z[n] as
| | | | | | | | | |
1
0
N
k
y n x n z n x k z n k
÷
=
= = ÷
¯
ʶ
2
;
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
DTFS
N
y n x n z n Y k NX k Z k
t
= ÷÷÷÷÷ = ʶ
DTFS of DTFS of y[n y[n] ]
ɌConvolution in Time-Domain ÷Multiplication in Frequency-Domain
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
FT
x t z t X j Z j e e - ÷÷÷÷
0
;
( ) ( ) [ ] [ ]
FS
x t z t TX k Z k
e
÷÷÷÷÷ Җ
[ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
FT j j
x n z n X e Z e
O O
- ÷÷÷÷
0
;
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
DTFS
x n z n NX k Z k
O
÷÷÷÷÷ Җ
Table 3.5 Convolution Properties
ɌThe convolution properties of all four Fourier representation are summarized
in Table 3.5 Table 3.5.
(3.46)
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3.11 3.11 Differentiation and Integration Properties Differentiation and Integration Properties
+ + Differentiation and integration are operations that apply to co Differentiation and integration are operations that apply to continuous functions. ntinuous functions.
3.11.1 3.11.1 Differentiation in Time Differentiation in Time
1. A nonperiodic signal x(t) and its FT, X(je), is related by
( ) ( )
l
·
· ÷
= e e
t
e
d e j X t x
t j
2
1
Differentiating both
sides with respect to t
( ) ( )
l
·
· ÷
= e e e
t
e
d e j j X t x
dt
d
t j
2
1
( ) ( )
l
·
· ÷
= e e e
t
e
d e j j X t x
dt
d
t j
2
1
( )
( )
FT at
d j
e u t
dt a j
e
e
÷
÷÷÷÷
+
ɌDifferentiation of x(t) in Time-Domain ÷(je) × X(je) in Frequency-Domain
Example 3.37 Verifying the Differentiation Property
The differentiation property implies that
( ) ( )
FT
d
x t j X j
dt
e e ÷÷÷÷
Verify this result by differentiating and
taking the FT of the result.
0
0
( ) ( ) ( ) 0
d
x t j X j
dt
e
e
e e
=
=

= × =

˙
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< <Sol.> Sol.> 1. Using the product rule for differentiation, we have
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
at at at at
d
e u t ae u t e t ae u t t
dt
o o
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ + = ÷ +
2. Taking the FT of each term and using linearity, we may write
( ) ( )
1
FT at
d a
e u t
dt a je
÷
÷
÷÷÷÷ +
+
FT
j
a j
e
e
÷
÷÷÷÷
+
+ Frequency response of a continuous system
1. System equation in terms of differential equation:
( ) ( ) t x
dt
d
b t y
dt
d
a
k
k M
k
k k
k N
k
k ¯ ¯
= =
=
0 0
Taking FT of
both sides
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) e e e e j X j b j Y j a
k
M
k
k
k
N
k
k ¯ ¯
= =
=
0 0
( )
( )
( )
( )
¯
¯
=
=
=
N
k
k
k
M
k
k
k
j a
j b
j X
j Y
0
0
e
e
e
e
2. Frequency response of the system:
( )
( )
( )
¯
¯
=
=
=
N
k
k
k
M
k
k
k
j a
j b
j H
0
0
e
e
e
(3.47)
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Example 3.38 MEMS Accelerometer: Frequency Response and Resonance
The MEMS accelerometer introduced in Section 1.10 is described by the
differential equation
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t x t y t y
dt
d
Q
t y
dt
d
n
n
= + +
2
2
2
e
e
Find the frequency response of this system and plot the magnitude response
in dB for e
n
= 10,000 rads/s for (a) Q = 2/5, (b) Q = 1, and (c) Q = 200.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Frequency response:
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
1
n
n
j
Q
j
j H
e e
e
e
e
+ +
=
2. Magnitude response for (a) Q = 2/5, (b) Q = 1, and (c) Q = 200: Fig. 3.58 Fig. 3.58.
+ Discussion: Refer to textbook, p. 273.
e
n
= 10,000 rads/s ÷ Resonant condition!
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Figure 3.58 (p. 273) Figure 3.58 (p. 273)
Magnitude of frequency response in dB for MEMS accelerometer for e
n
= 10,000
rad/s, Q = 2/5, Q = 1, and Q = 200.
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+ The Differentiation property for a periodic signal
1. The FS representation of a periodic signal x(t):
( ) | |
0
jk t
k
x t X k e
e
·
=÷·
=
¯
Differentiating both
sides with respect to t
( ) | |
t jk
k
e jk k X t x
dt
d
0
0
e
e
¯
·
÷· =
=
2. Differentiation property of a periodic signal:
( ) | |
0
;
0
FS
d
x t jk X k
dt
e
e ÷÷÷÷÷
ɌDifferentiation of x(t) in Time-Domain ÷(jke
0
) × X[k] in Frequency-Domain
0
0
0
( ) ( ) [ ] 0
k
k
d
x t jk X k
dt
e
=
=

= × =

˙
Example 3.39 Differentiation Property
Use the differentiation property to find the FS representation of the triangular
wave depicted in Fig. 3. 59 (a) Fig. 3. 59 (a).
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Define a waveform:
( ) ( )
d
z t y t
dt
=
Fig. 3. 59 (b) Fig. 3. 59 (b)
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Figure 3.59 (p. 274) Figure 3.59 (p. 274)
Signals for Example 3.39. (a) Triangular wave y(t). (b) The derivative of y(t) is the
square wave z(t).
2. Comparing z(t) in Fig. 3. 59 (b) Fig. 3. 59 (b) and the sqare wave x(t) with T
0
/T = ¼ in
Example 3.13, we have
( ) 4 ( ) 2 z t x t = ÷ [ ] 4 [ ] 2 [ ] Z k X k k o = ÷
( ) | |
0
;
0, 0
4sin
2
, 0
FS
k
k
z t Z k
k
k
e t
t
= ¦
¦
¦
| |
÷÷÷÷÷ =
´
|
\ . ¦
=
¦
¹
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3. The differentiation property implies that
0
[ ] [ ] Z k jk Y y e =
0
1
[ ] [ ] Y y Z k
jke
=
The quantity Y[0] is the average value of y(t) and is determined by
inspection Fig. 3.59 (b) Fig. 3.59 (b) to be T/2.
Therefore,
( ) | |
0
;
2 2
/ 2, 0
2 sin
2
, 0
FS
T k
k
y t Y k T
k
jk
e t
t
= ¦
¦
¦ | |
÷÷÷÷÷ =
´ |
\ .
¦
=
¦
¹
3.11.2 3.11.2 Differentiation in Frequency Differentiation in Frequency
1. FT of signal x(t):
( ) ( ) dt e t x j X
t je
e
÷
·
· ÷
l
=
Differentiating both
sides with respect to e
( ) ( )
l
·
· ÷
÷
÷ = dt e t jtx j X
d
d
t je
e
e
2. Differentiation property in frequency domain:
( ) ( )
FT
d
jtx t X j
d
e
e
÷ ÷÷÷÷
Except for k = 0
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ɌDifferentiation of X(je) in Frequency-Domain ÷(÷ jt) × x(t) in Time-Domain
Example 3.40 FT of a Gaussian Pulse
Use the differentiation-in-time and differentiation-in-frequency properties to
determine the FT of the Gaussian pulse, depicted in Fig. 3.60 Fig. 3.60 and defined by
( )
2
/ 2
( ) 1/ 2
t
g t e t
÷
=
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. The derivative of g(t) with respect to t:
2
/ 2
( ) ( / 2 ) ( )
t
d
g t t e tg t
dt
t
÷
= ÷ = ÷ (3.48)
Figure 3.60 (p. 275) Figure 3.60 (p. 275)
Gaussian pulse g(t).
2. Differentiation-in-time property:
( ) ( )
FT
d
g t j G j
dt
e e ÷÷÷÷
(3.48) ( ) ( )
FT
tg t j G j e e ÷ ÷÷÷
3. Differentiation-in-time property:
( ) ( )
FT
d
jtg t G j
d
e
e
÷ ÷÷÷÷
D.E. of g(t)
(3.49)
p ÷ t
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1
( ) ( )
FT
d
tg t G j
j d
e
e
÷ ÷÷÷
Since the left-hand sides of Eqs. (3.49) and (3.50) are equal, then we have
( ) ( ) e e e
e
j G j G
d
d
÷ =
D.E. of G(je)
( )
2
2
e
e
÷
= ce j G
4. The integration constant c is determined by noting that (see Appendix A-4)
( )
( )
2
/ 2
0 1/ 2 1
t
G j e dt t
·
÷
÷·
= =
l
( )
2 2
/ 2 / 2
1/ 2
FT t
e e
e
t
÷ ÷
÷÷÷÷
The FT of a Gaussian pulse is The FT of a Gaussian pulse is
also a Gaussian pulse! also a Gaussian pulse!
3.11.3 3.11.3 Integration Integration
+ + The operation of integration applies only to continuous The operation of integration applies only to continuous dependent dependent variables. variables.
In both FT and FS, we may integrate with respect to time.
In both FT and DTFT, we may integrate with respect to frequency.
(3.50)
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+ Case for nonperiodic signal
1. Define
( ) ( ) t t d x t y
t
l
· ÷
= ( ) ( )
d
y t x t
dt
= (3.51)
2. By differentiation property, we have
1
( ) ( ) Y j X j
j
e e
e
=
(3.52)
Indeterminate at Indeterminate at e e = 0 = 0 X(j0) = 0
3. When the average value of x(t) is not zero, then it is possible that y(t) is not
square integrable.
FT of y(t) may not converge!
W can get around this problem by including impulse in the transform, i.e.
1
( ) ( ) ( ) Y j X j c
j
e e o e
e
= +
c can be determined by
the average value of x(t)
C = t X(j0)
4. General form of integration property:
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1
( ) ( ) ( 0) ( )
t
FT
x d X j X j
j
t t e t o e
e
÷·
÷÷÷ +
l
(3.53)
Ex. Demonstration for the integration property by deriving the FT of the unit step
1. Unit step signal:
( ) ( ) t t o d t u
t
l
· ÷
=
2. FT of o (t):
( ) 1
FT
t o ÷÷÷÷
3. Eq. (3.53) suggests that: ( ) ( ) ( )
1
FT
u t U j
j
e to e
e
÷÷÷÷ = +
+ Check:
1. Unit step:
1 1
( ) sgn( )
2 2
u t t = +
2. Signum function:
( )
1, 0
sgn 0, 0
1, 0
t
t t
t
÷ < ¦
¦
= =
´
¦
>
¹
Fig. 3.61 Fig. 3.61
(3.54)
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Figure 3.61 (p. 279)
Representation of a step function as the sum of a constant and a signum function.
3. Using the results of Example 3.28:
1
( )
2
FT
to e ÷÷÷÷
The transform of sgn(t) may be derived using the differentiation property
because it has a zero time-average value.
Let
sgn( ) ( )
FT
t S e ÷÷÷÷
( ) ( ) t t
dt
d
o 2 sin = ( ) 2 = e e j S j
We know that S(j0) = 0. This knowledge removes the indeterminacy at e =
0 associated with differentiation property, and we conclude that
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( )
2 , 0
0, 0
j
S j
e e
e
e
= ¦
=
´
=
¹
This relationship can be written as S S( (j je e) = ) =
2/ 2/j j e e with the understanding that S(j0) = 0.
4. Applying the linearity property to Eq. (3.54) gives the FT of u(t):
( ) ( ) ( )
1
FT
u t U j
j
e to e
e
÷÷÷÷ = +
This agrees exactly with the transform of the unit This agrees exactly with the transform of the unit
step obtained by using the integration property. step obtained by using the integration property.
Table 3.6 Commonly Used Differentiation and Integration Properties.
( ) ( )
FT
d
x t j X j
dt
e e ÷÷÷÷

( ) | |
0
;
0
FS
d
x t jk X k
dt
e
e ÷÷÷÷÷
( ) ( )
FT
d
jtx t X j
d
e
e
÷ ÷÷÷÷
| | ( )
DTFT j
d
jnx n X e
d
O
÷ ÷÷÷÷
O

1
( ) ( ) ( 0) ( )
t
FT
x d X j X j
j
t t e t o e
e
÷·
÷÷÷ +
l
ɌThe differentiation
and integration
properties of Fourier
representation are
summarized in
Table 3.6 Table 3.6.
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3.12 3.12 Time Time- - and Frequency and Frequency- -Shift Properties Shift Properties
3.12.1 3.12.1 Time Time- -Shift Property Shift Property
1. Let z(t) = x(t ÷ t
0
) be a time-shifted version of x(t).
2. FT of z(t):
( ) ( ) dt e t z j Z
t je
e
÷
·
· ÷
l
= ( ) dt e t t x
t je ÷
·
· ÷
l
÷ =
0
3. Change variable by t = t ÷ t
0
:
( ) ( )
( )
l
·
· ÷
+ ÷
= t t e
t e
d e x j Z
t j
0
( )
l
·
· ÷
÷ ÷
= t t
et e
d e x e
j t j
0
( ) e
e
j X e
t j
0
÷
=
ɌTime-shifting of x(t) by t
0
in Time-Domain
÷(e
÷ jet0
) × X(je) in Frequency-Domain
and ( ) ( ) Z j X j e e =
0
arg{ ( )} arg{ ( )} Z j X j t e e e = ÷
ɌThe time-shifting properties of four Fourier representation are summarized
in Table 3.7 Table 3.7.
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Table 3.7 Time-Shift Properties of Fourier Representations
( ) ( )
0
0
j t FT
x t t e X j
e
e
÷
÷ ÷÷÷
( ) ( )
0 0 0
;
0
FT jk t
x t t e X k
e e ÷
÷ ÷÷÷÷÷
| | ( )
0
0
j n DTFT j
x n n e X e
÷ O O
÷ ÷÷÷÷
| | | |
0 0 0
;
0
DTFS jk n
x n n e X k
O ÷ O
÷ ÷÷÷÷÷
Example 3.41 Finding an FT Using the Time-Shift Property
Use the FT of the rectangular pulse x(t) depicted in Fig. 3.62 (a) Fig. 3.62 (a) to determine
the FT of the time-shift rectangular pulse z(t) depicted in Fig. 3. 62 (b) Fig. 3. 62 (b).
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Note that z(t) = x(t ÷ T
1
).
2. Time-shift property:
1
( ) ( )
j T
Z j e X j
e
e e
÷
=
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3. In Example 3.25, we obtained
( ) ( )
0
sin
2
T j X e
e
e = ( ) ( )
0
sin
2
1
T e j Z
T j
e
e
e
e ÷
=
+ Frequency response of a discrete-time system
1. Difference equation:
| | | |
¯ ¯
= =
÷ = ÷
M
k
k
N
k
k
k n x b k n y a
0 0
Taking DTFTof both
sides of this equation
| | ( )
DTFT jk j
z n k e Z e
÷ O O
÷ ÷÷÷÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
¯ ¯
=
O O ÷
=
O O ÷
=
M
k
j
k
j
k
N
k
j
k
j
k
e X e b e Y e a
0 0
( )
( )
( )
( )
¯
¯
=
÷
=
O ÷
O
O
=
N
k
k
j
k
M
k
k
j
k
j
j
e a
e b
e X
e Y
0
0
e
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2. Frequency response:
( )
( )
( )
¯
¯
=
÷
=
O ÷
O
=
N
k
k
j
k
M
k
k
j
k
j
e a
e b
e H
0
0
e
(3.55)
3.12.2 3.12.2 Frequency Frequency- -Shift Property Shift Property
1. Suppose that:
( ) ( )
FT
x t X je ÷÷÷ ( ) ( )
FT
z t Z je ÷÷÷ and
The problem is to
express the inverse
FT of Z(je) = X(j(e ÷ ¸ ))
in terms of x(t).
2. By the definition of the inverse FT, we have
( ) ( )
l
·
· ÷
= e e
t
e
d e j Z t z
t j
2
1
( ) ( )
l
·
· ÷
÷ = e ¸ e
t
e
d e j X
t j
2
1
Substituting variables n = e ÷ ¸ into above Eq. gives
( ) ( )
( )
l
·
· ÷
+
= n n
t
¸ n
d e j X t z
t j
2
1
( )
l
·
· ÷
= n n
t
n ¸
d e j X e
t j t j
2
1
( ) t x e
t j¸
=
ɌFrequency-shifting of X(je) by ¸ in Frequency-Domain [i.e. X(j(e ÷ ¸ ))]
÷(e
÷ ¸ t
) × x(t) in Time-Domain
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ɌThe frequency-shift properties of Fourier representations are
summarized in Table 3.8 Table 3.8.
Table 3.8 Frequency-Shift Properties of Fourier Representations
( ) ( ) ( )
FT j t
e x t X j
¸
e ¸ ÷÷÷ ÷
( ) | |
0 0 0
;
0
jk t FS
e x t x k k
e e
÷÷÷÷ ÷
( )
[ ]
j DTFT j n
e x n X e
O÷ I I

÷÷÷÷

| |
0 0 0
;
0
[ ]
jk n FS
e x n X k k
O O
÷÷÷÷ ÷
Example 3.42 Finding an FT by Using the Frequency-Shift Property
Use the frequency-shift property to determine the FT of the complex sinusoidal
pulse:
< <Sol.> Sol.>
( )
¹
´
¦
>
<
=
t
t
t
t e
t z
t j
, 0
,
10
1. Express z(t) as the product of a complex sinusoid e
j10t
and a rectangular pulse
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( )
¹
´
¦
>
<
=
t
t
t
t
t x
, 0
, 1
2. Use the results of Example 3.25, we have
( ) ( ) ( )
2
sin
FT
x t X je et
e
÷÷÷ =
Frequency-shift property
( ) ( ) ( )
2
sin
FT
x t X je et
e
÷÷÷ =
3. FT of z(t):
( ) ( ) ( )
10
10
FT j t
e x t X j e ÷÷÷ ÷
Example 3.43 Using multiple Properties to Find an FT
Find the FT of the signal
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { } 2 *
3
÷ =
÷ ÷
t u e t u e
dt
d
t x
t t
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. To solve this problem, it needs to use three properties: differentiation in time,
convolution, and time shifting.
( ) ( ) ( )
2
sin 10
10
FT
z t e t
e
÷÷÷ ÷
÷
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2. Let
3
( ) ( )
t
w t e u t
÷
= ( ) ( 2)
t
v t e u t
÷
= ÷ and
( ) ( ) ( ) { } t v t w
dt
d
t x * =
Convolution and differentiation property
( ) ( ) ( ) { } e e e e j V j W j j X =
( ) ( ) ( ) { } e e e e j V j W j j X =
3. From the transform pair:
( )
1
FT at
e u t
a je
÷
÷÷÷
+
( )
e
e
j
j W
+
=
3
1
4. Use the same transform pair and the time-shift property to find V(je) by first
writing
( )
( )
( ) 2
2 2
÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷
t u e e t v
t
( )
e
e
e
j
e
e j V
j
+
=
÷
÷
1
2
2
5. FT of x(t):
( )
( )( ) e e
e
e
e
j j
e j
e j X
j
+ +
=
÷
÷
3 1
2
2
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3.13 3.13 Finding Inverse Fourier Transforms by Using Partial Finding Inverse Fourier Transforms by Using Partial- -
Fraction Expansions Fraction Expansions
Frequency response
A ratio of two
polynomials in je or e
j O
3.13.1 3.13.1 Inverse Fourier Transform Inverse Fourier Transform
1. FT X(je) in terms of a ratio of polynomials in je:
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) e
e
e e e
e e
e
j A
j B
a j a j a j
b j b j b
j X
N
N
N
M
M
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
÷
÷ 0 1
1
1
0 1

Assume that M < N. If M > N, then we may use long division to express X(je)
in the form
( ) ( )
( )
( ) e
e
e e
j A
j B
j f j X
N M
k
k
k ¯
÷
=
+ =
0
Partial-fraction expansion
is applied to this term
Applying the differentiation property
and the pair to these
terms
( ) 1
FT
t o ÷÷÷
2. Let the roots of the denominator
A(je) be d
k
, k = 1, 2, …, N. These
roots are found by replacing je
with a generic variable v and determining the roots of the polynomial
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0
0 1
1
1
= + + + +
÷
÷
a v a v a v
N
N
N

5. For M < N, we may the write
( )
( )
( )
I
¯
=
=
÷
=
N
k
k
M
k
k
k
d j
j b
j X
1
0
e
e
e
Assuming that all the roots d
k
, k = 1, 2, …, N, are distinct, we may write
( )
¯
=
÷
=
N
k k
k
d j
C
j X
1
e
e
C
k
, k = 1, 2, …, N are determined
by the method of residues
Appendix B
In Example 3.24, we derived the transform pair
( )
1
FT dt
e u t
j d e
÷÷÷
÷
This pair is valid even if d is complex,
provided that Re{d} < 0.
Assuming that the real part of each d
k
, k = 1, 2, …, N, is negative, we use
linearity to write
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( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
k
N N
d t FT k
k
k k k
C
x t C e u t X j
j d
e
e
= =
= ÷÷÷ =
÷
¯ ¯
Find the impulse response for the MEMS accelerometer introduced in Sec. 1.10,
assuming that e
n
= 10,000 rads/s, and (a) Q = 2/5, (b) Q = 1, and (c) Q = 200.
Example 3.44 MEMS Accelerometer: Impulse Response
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Case (a): e
n
= 10,000 rads/s and Q = 2/5
+ Frequency response for the MEMS accelerometer:
( )
( ) ( )
2
2
1
n
n
H j
j j
Q
e
e
e e e
=
+ +
1. Frequency response:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
10000 25000
1
+ +
=
e e
e
j j
j H
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2. Partial-fraction expansion:
( ) ( ) ( ) 5000 20000 10000 25000
1
2 1
2 2
+
+
+
=
+ + e e e e j
C
j
C
j j
The roots of the denominator polynomial are d
1
= ÷ 20,000 and d
2
= ÷ 5,0000.
Coefficients C
1
and C
2
:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 2
20,000
20,000
1
20, 000
25000 10000
1
1/15000
5, 000
j
j
C j
j j
j
e
e
e
e e
e

= +
+ +
= = ÷
+
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
5,000
5,000
1
5000
25000 10000
1
1/15, 000
20, 000
j
j
C j
j j
j
e
e
e
e e
e

= +
+ +
= =
+
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( )
5000
15000 / 1
20000
15000 / 1
+
+
+
÷
=
e e
e
j j
j H
3. Impulse response:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
5000 20000
1/15000
t t
h t e e u t
÷ ÷
= ÷
Case (b): e
n
= 10,000 rads/s and Q = 1
1. Frequency response:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
10000 10000
1
+ +
=
e e
e
j j
j H
2. Partial-fraction expansion:
The roots of the denominator polynomial are
1
5000 5000 3 d j = ÷ +
2
5000 5000 3 d j = ÷ ÷
( )
( ) ( )
3 5000 5000
3 10000 /
3 5000 5000
3 10000 /
j j
j
j j
j
j H
+ +
+
÷ +
÷
=
e e
e
3. Impulse response:
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( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
5000 5000 3 5000 5000 3
5000
10000 3
1/ 5000 3 sin 5000 3
t j t t j t
t
h t j e e e e
e t u t
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ ÷
=
Case (c): e
n
= 10,000 rads/s and Q = 200
1. Frequency response:
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
10000 50
1
+ +
=
e e
e
j j
j H
2. Impulse response:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) t u t e t h
t
10000 sin 10000 / 1
25 ÷
=
The roots of the denominator
polynomial are
1
2
25 10, 000
25 10, 000
d j
d j
= ÷ +
= ÷ ÷
+ Impulse response for (a) Q = 2/5, (b) Q = 1, and (c) Q = 200: Fig. 3.64 (a) ~ (c) Fig. 3.64 (a) ~ (c). .
1. For both Q = 2/5 and Q = 1, the impulse response is approximately zero for
t > 1 ms.
2. When Q = 200, the accelerometer exhibits resonant nature.
A sinusoidal oscillation of e
n
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Figure 3.64 (p. 289) Figure 3.64 (p. 289)
Impulse response of MEMS
accelerometer.
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3.13.2 3.13.2 Inverse Discrete Inverse Discrete- -Time Fourier Transform Time Fourier Transform
1. Suppose X(e
j O
) is given by a ratio of polynomial in e
j O
, i.e.
( )
( )
1
1
1
1
0 1
+ + + +
+ + +
=
O ÷ ÷ O ÷
÷
O ÷
O ÷ O ÷
O
j N j
N
N j
N
j M j
M j
e e e
e e
e X
o o o
þ þ þ

Normalized to 1
2. Factor the denominator polynomial as
( )
( )
I
=
O ÷ O ÷ ÷ O ÷
÷
O ÷
÷ = + + + +
N
k
j
k
j N j
N
N j
N
e d e e e
1
1
1
1
1 1 o o o
Replace e
j O
with the generic variable v:
0
1
2
2
1
1
= + + + + +
÷
÷ ÷
N N
N N N
v v v v o o o o
Find d
k
, the roots of
this polynomial
3. Partial-fraction expansion:
Assuming that M < N and all the d
k
are distinct, we may express X(e
j O
)as
( )
¯
=
O ÷
O
÷
=
N
k
j
k
k j
e d
C
e X
1
1
Since
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( ) | |
1
1
n
DTFT
k j
k
d u n
d e
÷ O
÷÷÷÷
÷
The linearity property implies that
| | ( ) | |
¯
=
=
N
k
n
k k
n u d C n x
1
Expansions for
repeated roots are
treated in Appendix B.
Example 3.45 Inverse by Partial-Fraction Expansion
Find the inverse DTFT of
< <Sol.> Sol.>
( )
O ÷ O ÷
O ÷
O
÷ +
+ ÷
=
2
6
1
6
1
1
5
6
5
j j
j
j
e e
e
e X
1. Characteristic polynomial:
0
6
1
6
1
2
= ÷ + v v
2. The roots of above polynomial: d
1
= ÷ 1/2 and d
2
= 1/3.
3. Partial-Fraction Expansion:
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O ÷ O ÷ O ÷ O ÷
O ÷
÷
+
+
=
÷ +
+ ÷
j j j j
j
e
C
e
C
e e
e
3
1
1
2
1
1
6
1
6
1
1
5
6
5
2 1
2
Coefficients C
1
and C
2
1
2
2 2
5 5
5 5
1
6 6
1 4
1 1 1
2
1 1
6 6 3
j j
j j
j
j j j
e e
e e
C e
e e e
÷ O ÷ O
÷ O ÷ O
÷ O
÷ O ÷ O ÷ O
=÷ =÷
÷ + ÷ +
| |
= + = =
|
\ .
+ ÷ ÷
2
2
3 3
5 5
5 5
1
6 6
1 1
1 1 1
3
1 1
6 6 2
j j
j j
j
j j j
e e
e e
C e
e e e
÷ O ÷ O
÷ O ÷ O
÷ O
÷ O ÷ O ÷ O
= =
÷ + ÷ +
| |
= ÷ = =
|
\ .
+ ÷ +
| | ( ) | | ( ) | | n u n u n x
n n
3 / 1 2 / 1 4 + ÷ =
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3.14 3.14 Multiplication Property Multiplication Property
+ Non-periodic continuous-time signals
1. Non-periodic signals: x(t), z(t), and y(t) = x(t)z(t). Find the FT of y(t).
2. FT of x(t) and z(t):
( ) ( )
l
·
· ÷
= dv e jv X t x
jvt
t 2
1
( ) ( )
l
·
· ÷
= n n
t
n
d e j Z t z
t j
2
1
and
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
l l
·
· ÷
·
· ÷
+
= dv d e j Z jv X t y
t v j
n n
t
n
2
2
1
Change variable: n = e ÷ v
Inner Part: Z(je) - X(je)
Outer Part: FT of y(t)
3. FT of y(t):
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
2 2
j t
y t X jv Z j v dv e d
e
e e
t t
· ·
÷· ÷·

= ÷

l l
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) * ( )
2
FT
y t x t z t Y j X j Z j e e e
t
= ÷÷÷ = (3.56)
Scaled by 1/2t
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where ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
l
·
· ÷
÷ = dv v j Z jv X j Z j X e e e *
ɌMultiplication of two signals in Time-Domain
÷Convolution in Frequency-Domain × (1/2t)
+ Non-periodic continuous-time signals
1. Non-periodic DT signals: x[n], z[n], and y[n] = x[n]z[n].
Find the
DTFT of
y[n].
2. DTFT of y[n]:
1
[ ] [ ] [ ] ( ) ( ) ( )
2
DTFT j j j
y n x n z n Y e X e Z e
t
O O O
= ÷÷÷÷ = ʶ (3.57)
ɌMultiplication of two signals in Time-Domain
÷Convolution in Frequency-Domain × (1/2t)
where the symbol # denotes periodic convolution.
Here, X(e
j O
) and X(e
j O
) are 2t-periodic, so we evaluate the convolution over
a 2t interval:
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
j j
X j Z j X e Z e d
u u
e e u
·

÷·
=
l
ʶ
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Figure 3.65a (p. 293) Figure 3.65a (p. 293)
The effect of windowing.
(a) Truncating a signal in time by
using a window function w(t).
+ Multiplication property can
be used to study the effects
of truncating a time-domain
signal on its frequency-
domain.
Windowing !
+ Truncate signal x(t) by a
window function w(t) is
represented by
y(t) = x(t)w(t)
Fig. 3. 65 (a) Fig. 3. 65 (a)
0 0
Time Interval
T t T ÷ < <
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Figure 3.65b (p. 293) Figure 3.65b (p. 293)
(b) Convolution of the signal
and window FT’s resulting from
truncation in time.
1. FT of y(t):
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
*
2
FT
y t Y j X j W j e e e
t
÷÷÷ =
p ÷ t ; v ÷ e
2. If w(t) is the rectangular window depicted
in Fig. 3. 65 (b), we have
( ) ( )
0
sin
2
T j W e
e
e =
Smoothing the details
in X(je) and introducing
oscillation near
discontinuities in X(je).
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+ The smoothing is a consequence of the 2t/T
0
width of the mainlobe of W(je),
while the oscillations near the discontinuities are due to the oscillations in
the sidelobes of W(je).
Example 3.46 Truncating the Impulse Response
The frequency response H(e
jO
) of an ideal discrete-time system is depicted in
Fig. 3. 66 (a). Describe the frequency response of a system whose impulse
response is the ideal system impulse response truncated to the interval ÷ M s
n s M.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. The ideal impulse response is the inverse DTFT of H(e
jO
).
Using the result of Example 3.19, we write
| |
1
sin
2
n
h n
n
t
t
| |
=
|
\ .
2. Let h
t
[n] be the truncated impulse response:
| |
| |,
0, otherwise
t
h n n M
h n
s ¦
=
´
¹
[ ] [ ] [ ]
t
h n h n w n =
| |
1,
0, otherwise
n M
w n
s ¦
=
´
¹
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Figure 3.66 (p. 294) Figure 3.66 (p. 294)
The effect of truncating the impulse
response of a discrete-time system.
(a) Frequency response of ideal system.
(b) F
O
(u) for O near zero.
v ÷ e, u ÷ u
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Figure 3.66 (p. 294) Figure 3.66 (p. 294)
The effect of truncating the impulse response of a discrete-time
system. (c) F
O
(u) for O slightly greater than t/2.(d) Frequency
response of system with truncated impulse response.
v ÷ e, u ÷ u
H
t
(e
jO
) is the area under
F
O
(u ) between u = ÷ t/2
and u = t/2.
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3. Let [ ] ( )
DTFT j
t t
h n H e
O
÷÷÷÷
Using the multiplication property in Eq. (3.57), we have
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1
2
j j j
t
H e H e W e d
t
u u
t
u
t
÷ O O
÷
=
l
4. Since
| |
¹
´
¦
< <
<
=
t u t
t u
u
2 / , 0
2 / , 1
j
e H
( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
sin 2 1 / 2
sin / 2
j
M
W e
u
u
u

O÷ +
=

On the basis of
Example 3.18
and
( ) ( )
l
÷
O
O
=
2 /
2 /
2
1
t
t
u u
t
d F e H
j
t
where we have defined
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
, / 2
0, / 2
j
j j
W e
F H e W e
u
u u
u t
u
u t

O
¦
<
¦
= =
´
>
¦
¹
Discussion: refer to
p. 295 in textbook.
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+ Multiplication of periodic time-domain signals corresponds to convolution
of the Fourier representations.
; 2 /
( ) ( ) ( ) [ ] [ ]* [ ]
FT T
y t x t z t Y k X k Z k
t
= ÷÷÷÷÷ =
where
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
m
X k Z k X m Z k m
·
=÷·
- = ÷
¯
Non-periodic convolution
of the FS coefficients
Same fundamental Same fundamental
periods of periods of x x( (t t) and ) and z z( (t t) )
+ x x( (t t) ) ᆶ ᆶ z z( (t t) )୷ҁຼයόӕਔǴFS߯ኧX[k]ᆶZ[k]ሡڗٿߞဦ୷ҁຼයޑനλ
Ϧ७ኧ(Least common multiple)ຼයΖ
Example 3.47 Radar Range Measurement: Spectrum of RF Pulse Train
The RF pulse train used to measure the range and introduced in Section 1.10
may be defined as the product of a square wave p(t) and a sine wave s(t), as
shown in Fig. 3.68 Fig. 3.68. Assume that s(t) = sin (1000tt/T). Find the FS coefficients of
x(t).
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Suppose that s(t) = p(t) x(t).
Multiplication property
[ ] [ ] [ ] X k P k S k = -
(3.58)
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Figure 3.68 (p. 297) Figure 3.68 (p. 297)
The RF pulse is expressed as the product of a periodic square wave and a sine wave.
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2. Fundamental period:
For p(t): e
0
= 2t/T. s(t) = sin (1000tt/T) = sin(500e
0
t ).
Fundamental frequency Fundamental frequency
3. FS coefficients of s(t):
1/(2 ), 500
[ ] 1/(2 ), 500
0, otherwise
j k
S k j k
= ¦
¦
= ÷ = ÷
´
¦
¹
[ ] 1/(2 ) [ 500] 1/(2 ) [ 500] S k j k j k o o = ÷ ÷ +
4. FS coefficients of p(t):
sin( )
[ ]
o o
jkT o o
k T
P k e
k
e
e
t
÷
=
1) 1) Result of Example 3.13 Result of Example 3.13
2) 2) Time Time- -shift property shift property
5. FS coefficients of x(t):
( 500) ( 500)
sin(( 500) ) sin(( 500) ) 1 1
[ ] .
2 ( 500) 2 ( 500)
o o o o
j k T j k T o o o o
k T k T
X k e e
k k
e e
e e
t t
÷ ÷ ÷ +
÷ +
= ÷
÷ +
6. Fig. 3.69 Fig. 3.69 depicts the magnitude spectrum for 0 s k s 1000.
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Figure 3.69 Figure 3.69
(p. 298) (p. 298)
FS magnitude
spectrum for
0 s k s 1000.
The result is
depicted as a
continuous
curve, due to
the difficulty
of displaying
1000 stems
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+ Multiplication property for discrete-time periodic signals:
; 2 /
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
DTFT T
y n x n z n Y k X k Z k
t
= ÷÷÷÷÷÷ = ʶ
where
1
0
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
N
m
X k Z k X m Z k m
÷
=
= ÷
¯
ʶ
(3.59)
Periodic convolution of
DTFS coefficients
ɌFundamental period = N.
ɌThe multiplication properties of all four Fourier representations are
summarized in Table 3.9 Table 3.9.
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
FT
x t z t X j Z j e e
t
÷÷÷ -
;
( ) ( ) [ ] [ ]
o
FS
x t z t X k Z k
e
÷÷÷÷÷ -
1
[ ] [ ] ( ) ( )
2
DTFT j j
x n z n X e Z e
t
O O
÷÷÷÷ ʶ
;
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ]
o
DTFT
x n z n X k Z k
e
÷÷÷÷÷ ʶ
Table 3.9 Multiplication Properties of Fourier Representations
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3.15 3.15 Scaling Property Scaling Property
1. Let z(t) = x(at).
2. FT of z(t) :
( ) ( ) ( )
j t j t
Z j z t e dt x at e dt
e e
e
· ·
÷ ÷
÷· ÷·
= =
l l
Changing variable: Changing variable:
t t = = at at
( / )
( / )
(1/ ) ( ) , 0
( )
(1/ ) ( ) , 0
j a
j a
a x e d a
Z j
a x e d a
e t
e t
t t
e
t t
·
÷
÷·
÷·
÷
·
¦
>
¦
=
´
¦ <
¹
l
l
( / )
( ) (1/ ) ( ) ,
j a
Z j a x e d
e t
e t t
·
÷
÷·
=
l
( ) ( ) (1/ ) ( / ).
FT
z t x at a X j a e = ÷÷÷
ɌScaling in Time-Domain ÷ Inverse Scaling in Frequency-Domain
Signal expansion or compression! Signal expansion or compression!
Refer to Fig. 3.70 Fig. 3.70.
(3.60)
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Figure 3.70 (p. 300)
The FT scaling property. The figure assumes that 0 < a < 1.
v ÷ e
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Example 3.48 Scaling a Rectangular Pulse
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Let the rectangular pulse
1, 1
( )
0, 1
t
x t
t
¦ <
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
Use the FT of x(t) and the scaling property to
find the FT of the scaled rectangular pulse
1, 2
( )
0, 2
t
y t
t
¦ <
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
1. Substituting T
0
= 1 into the result of Example 3. 25 gives
2
( ) sin( ) X je e
e
=
2. Note that y(t) = x(t/2).
2 2
( ) 2 ( 2 ) 2 sin(2 ) sin(2 )
2
Y j X j e e e e
e e
| |
= = =
|
\ .
Scaling property and a = 1/2
Fig. 3.71 Fig. 3.71
+ Substituting T
0
= 2 into the result of Example 3.25 can also give the answer!
Example 3.49 Using Multiple Performance to Find an Inverse FT
Find x(t) if
2
( )
1 ( / 3)
j
d e
X j j
d j
e
e
e e
¦ ¹
=
´ `
+
¹ )
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Figure 3.71
(p. 301)
Application of the
FT scaling
property in
Example 3.48. (a)
Original time
signal. (b)
Original FT. (c)
Scaled time
signal y(t) = x(t/2).
(d) Scaled FT
Y(je) = 2X(j2e).
v ÷ e
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< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Differentiation in frequency, time shifting, and scaling property to be used to
solve the problem.
2. Transform pair:
{ }
2
( ) ( / 3)
j
d
X j j e S j
d
e
e e
e
=
1
( ) ( ) ( )
1
FT t
s t e u t S j
j
e
e
÷
= ÷÷÷ =
+
3. Treatment procedure: scaling ÷time-shift ÷differentiation
Define Y(je) = S(je/3).
( ) 3 (3 ) y t s t =
3
3 (3 )
t
e u t
÷
=
3
3 ( )
t
e u t
÷
=
Define W(je) = e
j2e
Y(je/3).
( ) ( 2) w t y t = +
3( 2)
3 ( 2)
t
e u t
÷ +
= +
Since
( ) ( )
d
X j j W j
d
e e
e
= ( ) ( ) x t tw t =
3( 2)
3 ( 2)
t
te u t
÷ +
= +
Differentiation
property
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+ Scaling property in FS:
1. If x(t) is a periodic signal, then z(t) = x(at) is also periodic.
2. If x(t) has fundamental period T, then z(t) has fundamental period T/a.
3. If the fundamental frequency of x(t) is e
0
, then the fundamental frequency of
z(t) is e
0
/a.
/
0
[ ] ( )
o
T a
jka t
a
Z k z t e dt
T
e ÷
=
l
4. FS coefficients of z(t):
+ Scaling property in Discrete-Time Domain: z[n] = x[pn]
1. First of all, z[n] = x[pn] is defined only for integer values of p.
2. If |p|> 1, then scaling operation discards information.
Refer to Problem 3.80.
0
;
( ) ( ) 2 [ ] [ ], 0
FS a
z t x at Z k X k a
e
= ÷÷÷÷÷ = > (3.61)
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3.16 3.16 Parseval Parseval Relationships Relationships
+ The energy or power in the time-domain representation of a signal is equal to
the energy or power in the frequency-domain representation.
ɌCase for CT nonperiodic signal: x(t)
1. Energy in x(t):
2
( )
x
W x t dt
·
÷·
=
l
2. Note that
2
( ) ( ) ( ) x t x t x t = -
Express x*(t) in terms of its FT X(je):
1
( ) ( )
2
j t
x t X j e d
e
e e
t
·
- - ÷
÷·
=
l
1
( ) ( )
2
j t
x
W x t X j e d dt
e
e e
t
· ·
- ÷
÷· ÷·

=

l l
The integral inside
the braces is the FT
of x(t).
1
( ) ( )
2
x
W X j X j d e e e
t
·
-
÷·
=
l
{ }
1
( ) ( )
2
j t
x
W X j x t e dt d
e
e e
t
· ·
- ÷
÷· ÷·
=
l l
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2 2 1
( ) ( )
2
x t dt X j d e e
t
· ·
÷· ÷·
=
l l
(3.62)
ɌEnergy in Time-Domain Representation
÷Energy in Frequency-Domain Representation × (1/2t)
Normalization! Normalization!
ɌThe Parseval Relationships of all four Fourier representations are
summarized in Table 3.10 Table 3.10.
Table 3.10 Parseval Relationships for the Four Fourier Representations
Representations Parseval Relationships
FT
2 2 1
( ) ( )
2
x t dt X j d e e
t
· ·
÷· ÷·
=
l l

FS
2 2
0
1
( ) [ ]
T
k
x t dt X k
T
·
=÷·
=
¯
l

DTFT
2
2 1
[ ] ( )
2
j
n
x n X e d
t
t
t
·
O
=÷·
÷
= O
¯
l
DTFS
1 1 2 2
0 0
1
[ ] [ ]
N N
n k
x n X k
N
÷ ÷
= =
=
¯ ¯

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Example 3.50 Calculating Energy in a Signal
Let
sin( )
[ ]
Wn
x n
n t
=
Use Parseval’s theorem to evaluate
2 1
( )
2
j
X e d
t
t
;
t
O
÷
= O
l
2
2
2 2
sin ( )
[ ]
n n
Wn
x n
n
;
t
· ·
=÷· =÷·
= =
¯ ¯
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Using the DTFT Parseval relationship in Table 3.10 Table 3.10, we have
2. Since
1,
[ ] ( )
0,
DTFT j
W
x n X e
W t
O
O s ¦
÷÷÷÷ =
´
< O <
¹
1
1 /
2
W
W
d W ; t
t
÷
= O =
l
Direct calculation in time Direct calculation in time- -domain domain
is very difficult! is very difficult!
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3.17 3.17 Time Time- -Bandwidth Product Bandwidth Product
1. Preview:
1,
( ) ( ) 2sin( ) /
0,
o FT
o
o
t T
x t X j T
t T
e e e
s ¦
= ÷÷÷ =
´
>
¹
Figure 3.72 (p. 305)
Rectangular pulse illustrating the inverse relationship between the time and
frequency extent of a signal.
Fig. 3.72 Fig. 3.72
2. x(t) has time extent 2T
0
. X(je) is actually of infinite extent frequency.
v ÷ e, p ÷ t
3. The mainlobe of sinc function is fallen in the interval of |e|< t/T
0
, in which
contains the majority of its energy.
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4. The product of the time extent T
0
and mainlobe width 2t/T
0
is a constant.
5. Compressing a signal in time leads expansion in the frequency domain and
vice versa.
Signla Signla’ ’s s time time- -bandwidth product ! bandwidth product !
6. Bandwidth: The extent of the signal’s significant frequency content.
1) 1) A A mainlobe mainlobe bounded by nulls. bounded by nulls.
Ex. Ex. Lowpass Lowpass filter filter ÷ ÷ One half the width of One half the width of mainlobe mainlobe. .
2) 2) The frequency at which the magnitude spectrum is The frequency at which the magnitude spectrum is 1/ 1/\ \2 2 times its peak values. times its peak values.
7. Effective duration of signal x(t):
1/ 2
2
2
2
( )
( )
d
t x t dt
T
x t dt
·
÷·
·
÷·

=

l
l
(3.63)
8. Effective bandwidth of signal x(t):
1/ 2
2
2
2
( )
( )
w
X j d
B
X j d
e e e
e e
·
÷·
·
÷·

=

l
l
(3.64)
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9. The time-bandwidth product for any signal is lower bounded according to
the relationship
1/ 2
d w
T B > (3.65)
We cannot simultaneously decrease the duration and bandwidth of
a signal.
Uncertainty principle !
Example 3.51 Bounding the Bandwidth of a Rectangular Pulse
< <Sol.> Sol.>
Let
1,
( )
0,
o
o
t T
x t
t T
¦ s
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
Use the uncertainty principle to place a lower
bound on the effective bandwidth of x(t).
1. T
d
of x(t):
1/ 2
2
o
o
o
o
T
T
d T
T
t dt
T
dt
÷
÷

=

l
l
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1/ 2
2
3 1/ 2
[(1/(2 ))(1/ 3) ] / 3
o
o o
o o
o
T
T T
d o T d T
T
t dt
T T t T
dt
÷
÷
÷

= = =

l
l
2. The uncertainty principle given by Eq. (3.65) states that
1/(2 )
w d
B T > 3 /(2 )
w o
B T >
3.18 3.18 Duality Duality
3.18.1 3.18.1 The Duality Property of the FT The Duality Property of the FT
1. FT pair:
1
( ) ( )
2
j t
x t X j e d
e
e e
t
·
÷·
=
l
( ) ( )
j t
X j x t e dt
e
e
·
÷
÷·
=
l
and
Difference in the factor 2 Difference in the factor 2t t and the and the
sign change in the complex sinusoid. sign change in the complex sinusoid.
2. General equation:
1
( ) ( )
2
jv
y v z e dv
n
n
t
·
÷·
=
l
(3.66)
Choose v = t and n = e the Eq. (3.66) implies that
Rectangular in time-domain ÷sinc
function in frequency-domain
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Figure 3.73 (p. 307)
Duality of rectangular pulses and sinc functions.
v ÷ e; p ÷ t
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3. Interchange the role of time and frequency by letting v = ÷ e and n = t, then
Eq. (3.66) implies that
1
( ) ( )
2
j t
y t z e d
e
e e
t
·
÷·
=
l
( ) ( )
FT
y t z e ÷÷÷ (3.67)
1
( ) ( )
2
j t
y z t e dt
e
e
t
·
÷
÷·
÷ =
l
( ) 2 ( )
FT
z t y t e ÷÷÷ ÷ (3.68)
4. If we are given by an FT pair
( ) 2 ( )
FT
z t y t e ÷÷÷ ÷ (3.69) ( ) ( )
FT
f t F je ÷÷÷ ÷ (3.70)
Example 3.52 Applying Duality
Find the FT of
1
( )
1
x t
jt
=
+
Fig. 3.74 Fig. 3.74
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Figure 3.74 (p. 309)
The FT duality property.
v ÷ e; p ÷ t
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< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Note that:
1
( ) ( ) ( )
1
FT t
f t e u t F j
j
e
e
÷
= ÷÷÷ =
+
2. Replacing e by t, we obtain
1
( )
1
F jt
jt
=
+
x x( (t t) has been expressed as ) has been expressed as F F( (jt jt). ).
3. Duality property:
( ) 2 ( ),
FT
F jt f t e ÷÷÷ ÷
( ) 2 ( ) 2 ( ) X j f e u
e
e t e t e = ÷ = ÷
3.18.2 3.18.2 The The Duality Property of the DTFS Duality Property of the DTFS
1. DTFS Pair for x[n]:
1
0
[ ] [ ]
O
N
jk n
k
x n X k e
÷
O
=
=
¯
1
0
1
[ ] [ ]
O
N
jk n
n
X k x n e
N
÷
÷ O
=
=
¯
and
Difference in the factor Difference in the factor
N N and the sign change and the sign change
in the complex in the complex
sinusoidal frequency. sinusoidal frequency.
2. The DTFS duality is stated as follows: if
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2
;
[ ] [ ]
DTFS
N
x n X k
t
÷÷÷÷÷
(3.71)
2
;
1
[ ] [ ]
DTFS
N
X n x k
N
t
÷÷÷÷÷ ÷ (3.72)
N N = time index; = time index; k k = =
frequency index frequency index
3.18.3 3.18.3 The The Duality Property of the DTFT and FS Duality Property of the DTFT and FS
1. FS of a periodic continuous time signal z(t):
( ) [ ]
o
jk t
k
z t Z k e
e
·
=÷·
=
¯
2. DTFT of an nonperiodic discrete-time signal x[n]:
( ) [ ]
j j n
k
X e x n e
·
O ÷ O
=÷·
=
¯
3. Duality relationship between z(t) and X(e
jO
)
Require Require
T = 2t
O In the DTFT ÷t in the FS
n In the DTFT ÷÷ k in the FS
Assumption: e
0
= 1
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4. FS coefficients Z[k]:
1
[ ] ( )
2
jkt
Z k z t e dt
t
t
t
÷
÷
=
l
5. DTFT representation of x[n]:
1
[ ] ( )
2
j j n
x n X e e d
t
t
t
O O
÷
= O
l
O In the DTFT ÷t in the FS
n In the DTFT ÷÷ k in the FS
6. Duality property between the FS and the DTFT: if
[ ] ( )
DTFS j
x n X e
O
÷÷÷÷ (3.73)
; 1
( ) [ ]
FS jt
X e x k ÷÷÷÷ ÷ (3.74)
ɌThe Duality Properties of Fourier representations are summarized in
Table 3.11 Table 3.11.
Example 3.53 FS-DTFT Duality
Use the duality property and the results of Example 3.39 to determine the
inverse DTFT of the triangular spectrum X(e
jO
) depicted in Fig. 3. 75 (a) Fig. 3. 75 (a). .
< <Sol.> Sol.>
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Table 3.11 Duality Properties of Fourier Representations
FT ( ) ( )
FT
f t F je ÷÷÷ ( ) 2 ( )
FT
F jt f t e ÷÷÷ ÷
DTFS
; 2 /
[ ] [ ]
DTFS N
x n X k
t
÷÷÷÷÷÷
; 2 /
[ ] (1/ ) [ ]
DTFS N
X n N x k
t
÷÷÷÷÷÷ ÷
FS-DTFT [ ] ( )
DTFS j
x n X e
O
÷÷÷÷
; 1
( ) [ ]
FS jt
X e x k ÷÷÷÷ ÷
Figure 3.75 (p. 311)
Example 3.53. (a) Triangular spectrum. (b) Inverse DTFT.
1. Define a time function z(t) =X(e
jt
).
2. Duality property of Eq. (3.74): if
p ÷ t
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; 1
( ) [ ]
FS
z t Z k ÷÷÷÷ [ ] [ ] x n Z n = ÷
Hence, we seek the FS coefficients Z[k] associated with z(t).
3. Assuming that T = 2t, z(t) is a time-shifted version of the triangular wave y(t),
i.e.
( ) ( / 2) z t y t t = +
/ 2
1
2
, 0
[ ] [ ]
4 sin( / 2)
, 0
jk
k
k
Z k e Y k
j k
k
k
t
t
t
t
÷
= ¦
¦
= =
´÷
=
¦
¹
4. From x[n] = Z [÷ n], we obtain
1
2
, 0
[ ]
4( ) sin( / 2)
, 0
n
n
x n
j n
n
n
t
t
t
+
= ¦
¦
=
´÷ ÷
=
¦
¹
Fig. 3.75 (b)
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3.19 3.19 Exploring Concepts with MATLAB Exploring Concepts with MATLAB
3.19.1 3.19.1 Frequency Response of LTI Systems from Impulse Response Frequency Response of LTI Systems from Impulse Response
LTI System
h[n]
+ Discrete-time system
x[n]
y[n]
1. The frequency response of a discrete-time LTI system with finite-duration
impulse response may be determined with the use of a finite-duration input
sinusoid that is sufficiently long drive the system to a steady state.
2. Suppose that h[n] = 0 for n < k
h
and n > l
h
.
Let input be the finite-duration sinusoid:
( ) [ ] [ ] [ ]
j n
v
v n e u n u n l
O
= ÷ ÷
3. System output: [ ] [ ]* [ ] y n h n v n =
( )
[ ] ,
b
b
l
j n k
b h v
k k
h k e l n k l
O ÷
=
= s < +
¯
[ ]* ,
j n
b h v
h n e l n k l
O
= s < +
( ) ,
j j n
b h v
H e e l n k l
O O
= s < +
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Hence, the system output in response to a finite-duration sinusoidal input
corresponds to the output in response to an infinite-duration sinusoidal
input on the interval l
h
s n < k
h
+ l
v
.
4. The magnitude and phase response of the system are determined from y[n],
l
h
s n < k
h
+ l
v
, by noting that
{ }
( arg ( ) )
[ ] ( ) ,
j
j n H e
j
b b b
y n H e e l n k l
O
O +
O
= s < +
1) Magnitude: [ ] ( ) ,
j
h h v
y n H e l n k l
O
= s < +
2) Phase: { } { }
arg [ ] arg ( ) ,
j
h h v
y n n H e l n k l
O
÷O = s < +
Example
Consider the system with impulse response
2
1 1
[ ] [ ] [ 1]
2 2
h n n n o o = ÷ ÷
Let us determine the frequency response and 50 values of the steady-state
output of this system for the input frequencies O = t/4 and 3t/4.
< <Sol.> Sol.>
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1. k
h
= 0 and l
h
= 1. to obtain 50 values of the sinusoidal steady-state response,
we require that l
v
> 51.
2. MATLAB commands:
>> omega1=pi/4;omega2=3*pi/4;
>> v1=exp(j*omega1*[0:50]);
>> v2=exp(j*omega2*[0:50]);
>> h=[0.5,-0.5];
>> y1=conv(v1,h);y2=conv(v2,h);
Obtaining the
output signals
3. Plots for the output signals:
1) MATLAB commands for plotting the real and imaginary components of y1:
>> subplot(2,1,1)
>> stem([0:51],real(y1))
>> xlabel('Time');ylabel('Amplitude');
>> title('real(y1)')
>> subplot(2,1,2)
>> stem([0:51],imag(y1))
>> xlabel('Time');ylabel('Amplitude');
>> title('imag(y1)')
Fig 3. 76 (a) and (b)
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0 10 20 30 40 50 60
-0.5
0
0.5
Time
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
real(y1)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
-0.5
0
0.5
Time
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
imag(y1)
Figure 3.76
(p. 314)
Sinusoidal
response
computed with
the use of
MATLAB. The
values at times 1
through 50
represent the
state response.
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2) MATLAB commands for obtaining the magnitude and phase components from
any element of the vectors of y1 and y2:
Ex. Find the fifth element:
>> H1mag=abs(y1(5))
H1mag =
0.3827
>> H2mag=abs(y2(5))
H2mag =
0.9239
>> H1phs=angle(y1(5))-omega1*5
H1phs =
-5.8905
>> H2phs=angle(y2(5))-omega2*5
H2phs =
-14.5299
The phase response The phase response
is measured in is measured in
+ The angle command always returns a value between ÷ t and t radians.
+ Command: angle(y1(n))-omega1*n may result in answers that differ by integer
multiples of 2t when different values of n are used.
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3.19.2 3.19.2 The DTFS The DTFS
1. DTFS pair:
0
1
0
[ ] [ ]
N
jk n
k
x n X k e
÷
O
=
=
¯
(3.10)
0
1
0
1
[ ] [ ]
N
jk n
n
X k x n e
N
÷
O
=
=
¯
(3.11)
2. MATLAB commands fft and ifft may be used to evaluate the DTFS.
1) Given a length-N vector x representing one period of an N periodic signal x[n n],
the command
>> X=fft(x)/N
produces a length-N vector X containing the DTFS coefficients X[k].
MATLAB run from 0 to N ÷ 1
ɌThe division by N is necessary because fft evaluates the sum in Eq. (3.11) without
dividing by N.
2) Given DTFS coefficients in a vector X, the command
>> x=ifft(X)*N
and
produces a length-N vector x that represents one period of the time-domain
waveform.
Fast Fourier transform
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Example
Consider using MATLAB to solve Problem 3.3 (a) for the DTFS coefficients.
The signal is
3
[ ] 1 sin /12
8
x n n
t
t
| |
= + +
|
\ .
< <Sol.> Sol.>
1. Period = 24. 2. MATLAB command:
>> x=ones(1,24)+sin([0:23]*pi/12+3*pi/8);
>> X=fft(x)/24
X =
Columns 1 through 5
1.0000 0.4619 - 0.1913i 0.0000 + 0.0000i -0.0000 + 0.0000i -0.0000 + 0.0000i
Columns 6 through 10
-0.0000 - 0.0000i 0.0000 - 0.0000i 0.0000 - 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i -0.0000 - 0.0000i
Columns 11 through 15
-0.0000 - 0.0000i -0.0000 - 0.0000i 0 -0.0000 + 0.0000i -0.0000 + 0.0000i
Columns 16 through 20
-0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 - 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i 0.0000 + 0.0000i -0.0000 + 0.0000i
Columns 21 through 24
-0.0000 - 0.0000i -0.0000 - 0.0000i 0.0000 - 0.0000i 0.4619 + 0.1913i
Output:
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3. Explicit answer in rectangular form:
1, 0
0.4619 0.1913, 1
[ ]
0.4619 0.1913, 23
0, otherwise on 0 23
k
j k
X k
j k
k
= ¦
¦
÷ =
¦
=
´
+ =
¦
¦
s s
¹
Problem 3.3 (a)
+ Using indices ÷ 11s k s 12, we may also write the answer by specifying one period
as
1, 0
0.4619 0.1913, 1
[ ]
0.4619 0.1913, 1
0, otherwise on 11 12
k
j k
X k
j k
k
= ¦
¦
÷ =
¦
=
´
+ = ÷
¦
¦
÷ s s
¹
4. Using ifft, we may reconstruct the time-domain signal and evaluate the first four
values of the reconstructed signal with the command:
>> xrecon=ifft(X)*24;
>> xrecon(1:4);
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ans =
1.9239-0.0000i 1.9914+0.0000i 1.9914+0.0000i 1.9239-0.0000i
Example
The partial-sum approximation used in Example 3.7 is easily evaluated in MATLAB:
>> k=1:24;
>> n=-24:25;
>> B(1)=25/50; % coeff for k=0
>> B(2:25)=2*sin(k*pi*25/50)./(50*sin(k*pi/50));
>> B(26)=sin(25*pi*25/50)./(50*sin(25*pi/50)); % coeff for k =N/2
>> xjhat(1,:)=B(1)*cos(n*0*pi/25);
% term in sum for k=0
%accumulate partial sums
>> for k=2:26
xjhat(k,:)=xjhat(k-1,:)+B(k)*cos(n*(k-1)*pi/25);
end
+ This set of commands produces a matrix xjhat whose (J + 1)st row corresponds to
ˆ [ ]
J
x n
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3.19.3 3.19.3 The FS The FS
+ Trigonometric FS expression of x(t) in Example 3.14:
0
0
( ) [ ]cos( )
k
x t B k k t e
·
=
=
¯
(3.29)
where
0
[0] 2 / B T T =
0
2sin( 2 / )
[ ] , 0
k T T
B k k
k
t
t
= = (3.28)
Let the partial-sum approximation to the FS in Eq. (3.29), be given by
( ) | | ( )
0
0
cos
J
J
k
x t B k k t e
.
=
=
¯
1. We must use sufficiently closely spaced samples to capture the details in
ˆ ( )
J
x t
2. Requirement:
max 0
cos( ) J t e
max 0
cos( )
s
J nT e
The highest-frequency term in sum: is well approximated by the
sampled signal:
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3. With plot command, a good approximation to continuous cosine can be achieved
by the order of 20 samples per period.
max
/(20 )
s
T T J =
Note that the total number of samples in one period is then 20 J
max
.
4. Assuming J
max
= 99 and T = 1, the MATLAB command for computing the partial-
sum from the given B[k] is as below:
>> t=[-(10*jmax-1):10*jmax]*(1/(20*99));
>> xjhat(1,:) = B(1)*cos(t*0*2*pi/T);
>> for k=2:100
xjhat(k,:) = xjhat(k-1,:)+B(k)*cos(t*(k-1)*2*pi/T);
end
5. The row of xjhat represents samples of a continuous-valued function.
We should use plot instead of stem to display xjhat.
The partial-sum for J = 5 can be displayed by the command:
plot(t, xjhat(6,:))
ፂ৫ ፂ৫ڶԫࠄᙑᎄ ڶԫࠄᙑᎄ! !
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3.19.4 3.19.4 Frequency Response of LTI Systems Described by Differential or Frequency Response of LTI Systems Described by Differential or
Difference Equations Difference Equations
1. MATLAB commands:
freqs Frequency response of LTI system described by differential eq.
freqz Frequency response of LTI system described by difference eq.
2. MATLAB command:
h=freqs(b,a,w) returns the values of the CT system frequency response given by
Eq. (3.47) at the frequencies specified in the vector w, where
1 0
b [ , ,..., ]
M M
b b b
÷
=
1 0
a [ , ,..., ]
N N
a a a
÷
=
Coefficients of the differential equation.
( )
( )
( )
0
0
M
k
k
k
N
k
k
k
b j
H j
a j
e
e
e
=
=
=
¯
¯
(3.47)
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x 10
4
-200
-195
-190
-185
-180
-175
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-165
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Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems Fourier Representations of Signals & LTI Systems
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Example
The frequency response of the MEMS accelerometer depicted in Fig. 3.58 Fig. 3.58 for Q =1
is obtained via the MATLAB commands:
>> w=[0:100:100000];
>> b=1;
>> a=[1 10000 10000*10000];
>> H=freqs(b,a,w);
>> plot(w,20*log10(abs(H)))
h=freqz(b,a,w) returns the
values of the DT system
frequency response given
by Eq. (3.55) at the
frequencies specified in the
vector w, where
3. MATLAB command:
1 0
b [ , ,..., ]
M M
b b b
÷
=
1 0
a [ , ,..., ]
N N
a a a
÷
=
Coefficients of the difference equation.
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( )
( )
( )
0
0
M
k
j
k
j k
N
k
j
k
k
b e
H e
a e
e
÷ O
O =
÷
=
=
¯
¯
(3.55)
+ The entries of w must lie between 0 and 2t.
3.19.5 3.19.5 Time Time- -Bandwidth Product Bandwidth Product
1. Command fft can be used to evaluate DTFS and explore the time-bandwidth
product property.
DT periodic DT periodic
signals signals
2. Example 3.6
1) Time-domain signal:
1,
[ ]
0,
n M
x n
M n N M
¦ s
=
´
< < ÷
¹
2) DTFS coefficients:
1,
[ ]
0,
n M
x n
M n N M
¦ s
=
´
< < ÷
¹
3) Parameter definitions:
T
d
= 2M +1 =the nonzero portion of one period of x[n]
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B
w
~ N/(2M +1) = Bandwidth = the “frequency” of the first null of X[k]
+ The time-bandwidth product for the square wave, T
d
B
w
~ N, is independent of M.
4) MATLAB command:
>> N=50;
>> M=12;
>> x=[ones(1,M+1),zeros(1,N-2*M-1),ones(1,M)];
>> X=fft(x)/N;
>> k=[0:N-1]; %frequency index
>> stem(k,real(fftshift(X)))
0 10 20 30 40 50
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Fig. 3. 12 (b) Fig. 3. 12 (b)
fft ÷find DTFS coefficients
stem ÷display the results
real ÷suppress any small
imaginary components
fftshift ÷reorder the elements of
the vector X to generate
the DTFS coefficients
centered on k = 0
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>> N=50;
>> M=4;
>> x=[ones(1,M+1),zeros(1,N-2*M-1),ones(1,M)];
>> X=fft(x)/N;
>> k=[0:N-1]; %frequency index
>> stem(k,real(fftshift(X)))
0 10 20 30 40 50
-0.05
0
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
Fig. 3. 12 (a) Fig. 3. 12 (a)
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3. Effective duration and bandwidth for the discrete-time periodic signals:
1
( 1) / 2
2
2
2
( 1) / 2
( 1) / 2
2
( 1) / 2
[ ]
[ ]
N
n N
d N
n N
n x n
T
x n
÷
=÷ ÷
÷
=÷ ÷

=

¯
¯
1
( 1) / 2
2
2
2
( 1) / 2
( 1) / 2
2
( 1) / 2
[ ]
[ ]
N
k N
w N
n N
k X k
B
X k
÷
=÷ ÷
÷
=÷ ÷

=

¯
¯
(3.75) (3.76)
+ MATLAB function for
computing the product
T
d
B
w
:
>> function TBP=TdBw(x)
>> %Compute the Time-Bandwidth product using the DTFS
>> %One period must be less than 1025 points
>> N=1025;
>> M=(N-max(size(x)))/2;
>> xc=[zeros(1,M),x,zeros(1,M)];
>> % center pulse within a period
>> n=[-(N-1)/2:(N-1)/2];
>> n2=n.*n;
>> Td=sqrt((xc.*xc)*n2'/(xc*xc'));
>> X=fftshift(fft(xc)/N); % evaluate DTFS and center
>> Bw=sqrt(real((X.*conj(X))*n2'/(X*X')));
>> TBP=Td*Bw;
1) The length of input vector
x = odd and centers on
middle
2) .* = element-by-element
product
3) * = inner product
4) ' = complex-conjugate
transpose
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4. Use the function TdBw to evaluate the time-bandwidth product for two
rectangular, raised cosine, and Gaussian pulse train as follows:
>> x=ones(1,101); % 101 point rectangular pulse
>> TdBw(x)
ans =
788.0303
>> x=ones(1,301); % 301 point rectangular pulse
>> TdBw(x)
ans =
1.3604e+003
>> x=0.5*ones(1,101)+cos(2*pi*[-50:50]/101); % 101 point rectangular pulse
>> TdBw(x)
ans =
277.7327
>> x=0.5*ones(1,301)+cos(2*pi*[-150:150]/301); % 301 point rectangular pulse
>> TdBw(x)
ans =
443.0992
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>> n=[-500:500];
>> x=exp(-0.001*(n.*n)); % Narrow Gaussian pulse
>> TdBw(x)
ans =
81.5669
>> x=exp(-0.0001*(n.*n)); % Broad Gaussian pulse
>> TdBw(x)
ans =
81.5669
+ Note that the Gaussian pulse trains have the smallest time-bandwidth product.
+ Time-bandwidth product is identical for both the narrow and broad Gaussian pulse
trains .