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MODULE 2

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS
& QUADRATIC
FUNCTIONS
MODUL
PROGRAM IBNU SINA
ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS
Terbitan :-
YAYASAN PELAJARAN JOHOR
JABATAN PELAJARAN NEGERI JOHOR
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
MODULE 2
IBNU SINA
TOPIC : QUADRATIC EQUATIONS & QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS
Express Note :
Genera !or"
2
ax +
bx + c = 0 , where a , b and c are constants , a ≠ 0
Propert#es
! Equation must be in one unknown only
2! The highest power of the unknown is 2
Exa"pes
!2x
2
+ 3x ! = 0 is a quadratic equation
2!"x
2
# = 0 is a quadratic equation
"!$x
3
"x
2
= 0 is not a quadratic equation
Deter"#n#n$ roots o! a %&a'rat#( e%&at#on
i% factorisation
ii completing the square
iii% formula & =
a
ac b b
2
#
2
− ± −
For"#n$ QE !ro" $#)en roots *+ expans#on
'() =
a
b −
, *() =
a
c
&
2
+ ,'()-& + ,*()- = 0
T+pes o! roots !or QE
i% two distict . different roots / b
2
+"ac 0 0
ii% two equal roots / b
2
+"ac = 0
iii% no roots / b
2
+"ac 1 0
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page 2
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
S,apes o! $rap, o! Q&a'rat#( F&n(t#on
2 f,&- = a&
2
+ b& + c 3
4f a 0 0 4f a10
mak 5
5 min
Reat#on *et-een t,e pos#t#on o! Q&a'rat#( F&n(t#on Grap,s an' #ts roots
i% graph intersects the &+a&is at two points
b
2
+"ac 0 0
ii graph does not intersects the &+a&is
b
2
+"ac 1 0
iii graph touches the &+a&is at one point
b
2
+"ac = 0
i6 graph touches the &+a&is
b
2
+"ac 7 0
F#n'#n$ t,e "#n . "ax )a&e o! QF &s#n$ t,e (o"pet#n$ t,e s%&are "et,o'
f,&- = a&
2
+ b& + c 8eneral form
= a,& + p -
2
+ q 9fter completing the square
4f a00 min 6akue = q
a&is of symmetry / & = +p
min point = ,+p, q-
4f a10 nilai ma& 6alue = q
a&is 0f symmetry / & = +p
mak point% = ,+p, q- 3
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page "
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
S/et(,#n$ Q&a'rat#( F&n(t#on Grap,
i :etermine the shape ,identify a-
ii :etermine the position ,e6aluate b
2
+"ac-
iii% ;ompleting the square ,find ma&< min point and a&is of symmtery-
i6% 'ol6e f,&- = 0 ,find point of intersection with &+a&is-
6% =ind f,0- ,find point of intersection with y+a&is-
6i *lot the points and connect them with a smooth cur6e
Q&a'rat#( Ine%&a#t#es
)ange of >uadratic 4nequalities
?sing line number
i% =actorise
ii 'tate two 6alues of &
ii ?se suitable method to find the correct position . area
iii 'tate the range
a b
& 1 a & 0 b
a 1 & 1 b
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page #
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
PAPER 0
!% 'ol6e the following quadratic equations% 8i6e your answer correct to " significant
figures%
,a- x
2
+ @x + ! = 0
,b- x, x + A- = A%
,c- x,2 + x- = !0
,d- 2x,2 x- = 2x !
2% E&press 2x
2
A& 2 = 0 in the form of a,x p-
2
+ q = 0% Bence, sol6e the quadratic
equation
2
A
2
2
x x = + %
3%,a- 8i6en that α and β are the roots of the quadratic x
2
+ "x + @ = 0% =orm a quadratic
equation with roots α – ! and β ! %
,b- 8i6en that α and β are the roots of the quadratic 2x
2
+ Ax + !0 = 0% =orm a quadratic
equation with roots α + ! and β + ! %
,c - 8i6en that α and β are the roots of the quadratic 3x
2
+ Cx + ! = 0% =orm a quadratic
equation with roots
2
α
and
2
β
%
"%,a- 8i6en the quadratic equation 2x
2
Cx = 3p&
2
+ p % =ind the range of 6alues of p if
the quadratic equation has two distinct roots%
,b- 8i6en the quadratic equation "x
2
+ p = 3,2& !-% =ind the range of 6alues of p if the
quadratic equation has no roots%
,c- 8i6en the quadratic equation x
2
= 2,2+m-& + " + m
2
% =ind the range of 6alues of p if
the quadratic equation has two different roots%
A%
=ind the 6alues of k if the quadratic equation 0
#
A
2
= + − +
k
x kx kx has two equal
roots%
C%,a-
8i6en that A and
3
A
− are the roots of the quadratic equation 0 ! 2 3
2
= + − + n mx x %
=ind the 6alue of m and n%
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page $
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
,b-
8i6en that 3 and
#
"
are the roots of the quadratic equation % 2 & " 2
2
= + − + n mx x %
=ind the 6alue of m and n%
,c-
8i6en that +2 and C are the roots of the quadratic equation % ' $
2
= − + + n kx x %
=ind the 6alue of k and n%
@%
(ne of the roots of quadratic equation 0 2 - A ,
2
= + + − x k kx is reciprocal of the other
root% =ind the 6alues of k and the roots of the quadratic equation%
$%
=orm the quadratic function " # 3 - ,
2
+ − = x x x f in the form of ( ) q p x a x f + − =
2
- , ,
hence, find the minimum or ma&imum point%
#% =ind the minimum or ma&imum point of the graph of quadratic function
C 3 2 - ,
2
− + = x x x f %
!0%,a-
!0,b-
The diagram shows a graph of quadratic function q p x x f + − − =
2
- , 2 - , , where p
and q are constant% =ind the 6alue of p, q and k% Bence, state the equation of the
a&is of symmetry of the graph%
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page (
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
The diagram shows a graph of quadratic function q p x x f + + − =
2
) * " ) * , where p
and q are constant% =ind the 6alue of p, q and n%
!!% =ind the range of x in each of the following
,a-
0 - A 2 -, 3 , ≥ − + x x
,b-
0
- " ,
- A -, 3 2 ,
<

− +
x
x x
,c- !C 2 3 - ,
2
− − = x x x f and f,x- is always positi6e%
,d-
% ) " )* " * ≤ + − x x
!2%
=ind the range of x if the quadratic function " ) 2 * ) *
2
− + + + = k x k kx x f ne6er
touches the x+a&is%
PAPER 2
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page &
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
!%
y
&
0 9,3,m-
D

:iagram ! shows the cur6e of a quadratic function f,&- = +&
2
n& +"% The cur6e has a
ma&imum point at 9,3,m- and intersects that f,&-+a&is at point D%
,a- 'tate the coordinates of point D%
,b- Dy using the method of completing the square , find the 6alue of m and n%
2% y
&
0

>,k, m-
:iagram 2 shows the cur6e of a quadratic function f,&- = &
2
+ A& + 3% The cur6e has a
minimum point at >,k, m-% Dy using the method of completing the square , find the
6alue of k and m%
END OF MODULE 2
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page '
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
MODULE 2 1 ANS2ERS
TOPIC : QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS

PAPER 0
!% a-
2
- ! -, ! , " @ @
2
− ± −
= x
!"A# % 0 − = x or '$# ! ( − = x
b-
0 A A
2
= − + x x
2
- A -, ! , " A A
2
− − ± −
= x
$A"! % 0 = x or A$A" % 0 − = x
c-
0 !0 2
2
= − + x x
2
- !0 -, ! , " 2 2
2
− − ± −
= x
" ! 2 = x or "& ! # − = x
d-
0 ! 2 2
2
= + + − x x
- 2 , 2
- ! -, 2 , " 2 2
2
− − ± −
= x
3CC0 % 0 − = x or "(( ! = x
2%
0
$
A@
"
A
2
2
= − 





− x
"& ! " = x or C3@A % 0 − = x
3%,a-
% 2 (
2 ) )* *
( ) * ) *
& + #
2
= + +
= − −
− = − + −
= − = +
x x
β α
β α
αβ β α
% & 2
2
&
) )* *
2

) * ) *
$ +
2
$
2
= + +
= − −
− = + + +
= − = +
x x
β α
β α
αβ β α
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page ,
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
,b-
,c -
% ( (
(

)
2
)*
2
*

2 2
"

+ 2
2
= + +
=
− = +
= − = +
x x
β α
β α
αβ β α
"%,a-
,b-
,c -
2
$
% ) " )* 2 * # ) ( *
2
<
> − − −
p
p
,+C-
2
+","-,p+3-10
p0
#
2
,2m+"-
2
+",!-,m
2
+"-00
m02
A%
3 E !A
0 "A !$
0
#
- , " - A ,
2
2
= =
= + −
= 





− −
k k
k k
k
k k
C%,a-
,b-
'%(%) =
3 3
A
A
m
= 





− +
m = !0
*%(%) =
3
! 2
3
A
A

− = 





− ×
n
n = !3
'%(%) =
2
"
#
"
"
m −
= 





+
m =
2
$ −
*%(%) =
2
2 &
#
"
"
+ −
= 





×
n
n =
#
$ −
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page %
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
,c-
'%(%) = +2 + C =
$
k −
k = +20
*%(%) =
$
'
( 2

= × −
n
n =
'
$, −
@%
roots =
a
a
!
E
'%(%)
2 E
2
!
0 2 A 2
2
A !
2
=
= + −
= +
a
a a
a
a
roots = 3%!$C and 0%3!3#
*%(%)
2
2 !
= ∴
= ×
k
k a
a
$%
"
!!
2
3
3
3
"
3 3 - ,
2
2
− 





− =






+ − =
x
x x x f
minimum point ,







"
!!
,
2
3
#%
f,x- =
$
A@
"
3
2
3
2
3
2
2
2
− 





+






− +
x
x x
minimum point E






− −
$
A@
,
"
3
!0%,a-
,b-
p = 2 E q = A
k = + 3
p = +2, q = 3,
n = +#
!!% a-
3 − ≤ x and
2
A
≥ x
b-
2
3
− < x and A " < < x
c-
2 − < x and
3
$
> x
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page
QUADRATIC EQUATIONS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS FORM 4
d- % ) " )* " * ≤ + − x x
"
"

≤ ≤

x
!2%
(

% (
% ) " * # 2 ) 2 *

>
< +
< − − +
x
k
k k k
PAPER 2
!%
2%
,a-
,b-
D,0,"-
+,&2 + n& "-
m = !3, n= +C
k=
2
$ −
, m =
#
"& −
END OF MODULE 2
PROGRAM IBNU SINA TAHUN 2010(ALL A’s) Page 2