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# LECTURE NOTES I

## HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division

Chapter 1

Potential Energy of Surface Water

Every particle of water that appear, either as precipitation or as ground water, on the surface
or in the ground disposes of a definite potential energy, the magnitude of which depends upon
the elevation above sea level of the ground where it reaches the surface or where it emerges
from ground.

The flowing water has a kinetic energy as well which is V
2
/2g, which is comparably high at
the steep areas usually in uplands around 5 6 m/sec and decreases to 1 2 m/sec in lowland
areas, or at the mouth of the river.

When descending from the high elevations to the sea or the lake, the surface flow as rivers,
potential and kinetic energies are converted to non-usable energy, the kinetic energy loss
being negligible as compared to the potential energy.

The potential energy is dissipated to overcome internal friction of turbulent flow, to supply
energy to whirls, eddies and spiral flows, to scour the material of the river bed and to transport
bed load, while the water is descending to a body of water. The mechanical work, wasted in
overcoming frictional resistance (bed resistance), is converted entirely into heat and lost.

The fundamental principle of water power development is to reduce the amount of energy
dissipated as heat without paralyzing the flow of water.

Friction (energy) losses can be reduced in principle by three methods:

1. In any stretch of the river, the energy loss required for the conveyance of water is
reduced by decreasing the velocity of flow.

L S h
R
n V
S
S R
n
V
loss 0
3 4
2 2
0
2 1
0
3 2
1
= =
=

loss
h V S
0

This can be achieved by increasing the depth of water through building dams. Thus at the
dam, between backwater level and the natural surface of the stream, a certain head H is
formed. For creating head H, backwater should be produced with a non-uniform flow curve
(M1) extending to distance L
0
. Out of the total water level difference H
0
, on a river section L
0
,
with channel slope S
0
, the head available for utilization is H, while the potential energy H
1
is
dissipated in overcoming the reduced frictional resistance in the stream. The degree of
utilization of potential energy in any section L
0
relating to an assumed head H, for any given
discharge Q, is expressed by,

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
1
0
H
H
m
=

If a second dam is constructed at the downstream of the same backwater curve, the utilization
is around 50%.

By erecting a series of dams and weirs, a considerable portion of potential energy in any
stream or in an entire river basin can be utilized.

Let us examine two dams at an arbitrary distance x from each other, which does not exceed L
0

and staying in the same backwater curve.

It is assumed that the backwater can be substituted by a quadratic parabola. The head created
at the upper dam at distance x from the lower one can be expressed as;

y x L
H
y x S

=
0
0
0

When taking into consideration that,

2
0
0
2
cL
H
=
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
2

For the rise y of the backwater parabola, we get,

2
2
0
0 2
2
x
L
H
cx y = =

The total head created by both dams is,

2
2
0
0
0
0 0 0
2 2 2
x
L
H
x
L
H H
y
H
H + = + =

As the utilization of the above head refers to section (L
0
+x), the mean hydraulic slope
available for utilization,

x L
x
L
H
x
L
H H
S
u
+
+
=
0
2
2
0
0
0
0 0
2 2

The maximum value of J
u
is determined by,

( )
( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
0 0 0 0
2
0
2
0 0
2 , 1
2
0 0
2
2
0
2
0
2
0 0 0
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
0
0
2
0
2
0 0 0
2
0 0
414 . 0 1 2 2 2
2
4 4 2
0 2
0
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
0
L L L L x
L L L
x
L x L x
x L
x x L L x L x L
dx
dS
x L
x x L L
L
H
dx
d
dx
dS
x L L
x H x L H L H
S
dx
dS
u
u
u
u
= = + =
+
=
= +
=
+
+ +
=

+
=
+
+
=
=

( )
0
0
0
0
max
0 0
2
0
2
0
0
0
0
0 0
max
586 . 0
414 . 1
828 . 0
414 . 0
414 . 0
2
414 . 0
2
L
H
L
H
S
L L
L
L
H
L
L
H H
S
u
u
= =
+
+
=

The degree of utilization is,

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
3
586 . 0 =
m

It can be proved that, by increasing the number of dams, the degree of head utilization can be
raised hydraulically, but it is questionable whether or not this solution is economical as far as
construction costs are concerned. If three dams are installed on the same backwater curve, the
degree of utilization is 0.670 while in case of four dams this value is increased to 0.725.
Whereas the ratio between developments with two and four dams amounts to 0.725/0.586=
0.24 increase in the degree of utilization, the costs of investment go up excessively and may
reach almost the double. It can be concluded that by a series of dams, not more than 60% of
the total head can be developed.

B) Another method of reducing the head required for the conveyance of water is to divert the
whole part of the flow into an artificial bypass, usually termed power canal, the slope of
which is considered flatter than that of the original water course. The difference in elevation
between the power canal and the original watercourse is thus gradually increased and a head
available for power generation at the most suitable site is created.

How can this gain in elevation be obtained? Again through the reduction of frictional losses,
that is, through improving conveyance conditions by shaping the canal according to a design
of a suitable cross-section, by removing aquatic growth from the bed and by lining the canal.
The resulting head can be especially high if there are rapids in the original water course.

The diversion of water into power canal is affected by a diversion dam or weir built across the
river bed. The head created for the purposes of utilization on any river L
0
+ L is,

( )L S S H H
d 1
+ =

Out of which,

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
4
( )L S S
1

Is the gain in head attributable to the power canal of length L.

In case of developments with power canals, the degree of utilization varies very wide limits
and under average conditions a value
m
= 0.80 can be assumed.

C) If the river is sinuous and especially if the valley itself is characterized by sharp or
horseshoe bends, they can readily cut by a channel or a tunnel. With this of development, a
difference in elevation capable of being utilized is obtained.

In power utilization the above mentioned possibilities of developing the available fall are
usually combined.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
5
LECTURE NOTES II

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division
CHAPTER 2

MEASURES

In the field of hydroelectric development, work and energy (output of a power plant) are
expressed generally in kilowatt-hours (kWh).

Power (capacity of a power plant) is usually expressed in kilowatts (kW) and sometimes the
power of hydraulic machinery is in horsepower (HP).

1 megawatt (MW) = 1000 kW
1 megawatt-hours (MWh) = 1000 kWh
1 gigawatt-hours (GWh) = 10
6
kWh

1 HP = 75 kgm/sec = 736 watts = 0.736 kW
75 kgm/sec = 759.81 736 Nm/sec = Joule/sec = Watt
1 kW = 1.36 HP
1 kW = 102
736 . 0
75
= kgm/sec

1 HP-hour = 0.736 kWh
1 HP-hour = 753600 = 270000 kgm
1 HP-hour = 759.813600 = 2648700 Nm (Joule)
1Kwh = =
736 . 0
270000
367000 kgm = 3.6 10
6
Joule
1 kgm = 9.81 joules (Nm)
1 kgm/sec = 9.81 joules/sec = 9.81 watt

In the field of thermal power generation, work and energy are also measured in kilogram-
calories (Cal).

1 Cal = 427 kgm
1kWh = =
427
367000
860 Cal

Example 2.1: Calculate the quantity in kWh of the energy generated from 1 kg of coal of
4000 calories by a thermal power plant having an overall efficiency of 24%.

Solution: Considering that = 0.24, from 1 kg of coal of 4000 calories, the thermoelectric
plant generates a quantity of electric energy that corresponds to,

960 4000 24 . 0 = Calories

As,
1 kWh = 860 Cal

The electric energy generated from 1 kg of coal is,

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
1
kWh 12 . 1
860
960
=

Example 2.2: Compute in kg weight of coal saved per annum by a hydroelectric plant
operating at an annual average capacity of 8000 kW, supposing the fuel consumption of the
substituting thermal plant is 3500 Cal/kWh, and the quality of coal is characterized by 4000
Cal/kg.

Solution: The hydroelectric produces an annual output of,

kWh
6
10 70 24 365 8000 =

When generating the same quantity of energy, the consumption of the substituting thermal
plant would be,

Cal kWh kWh Cal
10 6
10 5 . 24 10 70 3500 =

Accordingly, the annual saving in coal attained by operating the hydroelectric plant amounts
to,

ton kg 61200 10 12 . 6
10 4
10 5 . 24
7
3
10
= =

Example 2.3: How long does it take a 100 W bulb to consume the same quantity of energy as
is required for a tourist of 70 kg in weight carrying an outfit of 35 kg to climb a mountain of
970 m in height? The tourist is assumed to set out on his way to the top of the 970 m
mountain from a hostel situated 340 m above sea level.

Solution: The work done by the tourist is,

( ) ( )
) ( 648932 81 . 9 66150
66150 35 70 340 970
Joule Nm
kgm
=
= +

The hourly consumption of a 100 W bulb is 0.10 kWh,

kgm Kwh 367000
81 . 9
3600 1000
1

=

The electric energy consumed per hour by the bulb is equivalent to a mechanical work of
0.1367000 = 36700 kgm. Accordingly, the electric energy equivalent to the work done by
the tourist is consumed in,

hours 80 . 1
36700
66150
=

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
2
Example 2.4: A laborer working at an average capacity shovels 8 m
3
of earth a day up to a
vertical distance of 1.60 m from a material having specific weight of 1.8 ton/m
3
. Compute in
kg the quantity of coal of 4200 Cal required for obtaining the same work if the thermal station
operates at an efficiency of 24%.

Solution: The work done daily by the laborer is,

) ( 226000 81 . 9 23040
23040 04 . 23 6 . 1 8 . 1 8
Nm Joule
kgm tm

= =

Cal
kgm Cal
54
427
23040
427 1

=

In case of a 24% efficiency, from the coal having a calorific value of 4200,

gr kg 54 054 . 0
4200 24 . 0
54
= =

Coal is required to substitute the work done in 1 day by the laborer.

Example 2.5: Determine the quantity of heat generated by braking and stopping a goods train
consisting of 50 wagons and traveling at a velocity of 36 km/hour. Calculate the time required
for a small hydroelectric power plant of 15 kW capacity to generate an equivalent amount of
electric energy. The average weight of each wagon is 20 ton.

Solution: The mass of goods train amounts to,

m kg
2
sec 102000
81 . 9
20000 50

In the process of braking the goods train running at a speed of 36 km/hour = 10 m/sec, the
kinetic energy converted into heat equals,

kWh
kgm
mV
9 . 13
367000
10 1 . 5
10 1 . 5
2
10 102000
2
6
6
2 2
=

=

Consequently, the small hydroelectric plant of 15 kW capacity is capable of producing an
equivalent electric energy in,

min 56 926 . 0
15
9 . 13
= = hour
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
3
LECTURE NOTES III

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division
CHAPTER 3

Power in Flowing Water

Power is the proportion of performed work in unit time. N = Power, E = Energy,

dt
dE
N =

p
0
/
h
2
=p
2
/
h
1
H.D.
G V

The total energy of any water particle of weight G, under pressure p, and moving at a velocity
V, at an elevation h
1
above a horizontal datum is, according to Bernoulli theorem,

+ + =

p
g
V
h G E
2
2
1
(kgm, Nm, Joule)

With the substitution,

+ + =
+ =

0
2
2
0
2
p
g
V
h G E
h
p p

Working with gage pressure,

+ =
g
V
h G E
2
2

Total mechanical energy of any water mass of 1 kg in weight amounts to,

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
1
g
V
h
2
2
+ (m)

The total potential energy of the volume of water V stored in the reservoir is,

0
VH E =

While its inherent energy is,
C i
VH E =

H
C
= the height of the center of gravity of the volume of stored water above the chosen
datum.

The energy consumed in emptying the reservoir is exactly equal to inherent energy of the
entire mass as imagined to be in the center of gravity. The total energy of water discharging
from the reservoir is subject to constant change and equals the inherent energy pertaining to
the momentary water surface. Accordingly, the work performed during emptying the reservoir
is not the sum of the total energy of water particles stored in the full reservoir, but is the
inherent potential energy of the water mass.

If the surface of water in the reservoir is kept constant level by balanced inflow and outflow,
both total energy and inherent energy in any volume of effluent water of weight G are equal
for any arbitrary time.

0 0
GH VH E E
i
= = = (kgm, Nm, Joule)

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
2
If the discharge at a velocity V
1
through any section of a stream amounts to Q (m
3
/sec), the
power of the flowing mass per second, with reference to any datum at a depth H
1
below the
surface,

+ =
g
V
H Q
dt
dE
2
2
1
1
1
(kgm/sec, watt)

The energy per second of the body of water flowing through section 2 located downstream
from section 1 and having a height of water level H
2
above the datum is,

+ =
g
V
H Q
dt
dE
2
2
2
2
2

Accordingly, with any discharge Q flowing steadily between constant levels by a difference in
elevation H = H
1
H
2
, the energy dissipated in section 1-2 in every second,

+ =

+
g
V V
H Q
g
V
H Q
g
V
H Q
2 2 2
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
1

The overall potential power for the considered stretch is,

+ =
g
V V
H Q N
p
2
2
2
2
1
(kgm/sec, watt)

The portion of power that originates from changes in velocity is generally negligible as
against the potential power from the differences in elevation.

The theoretical potential power in any river stretch with a difference in elevation H is,

QH N
p
= (kgm/sec, watt)
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
3
LECTURE NOTES IV

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division

CHAPTER 4

Potential Water Power

For any stretch of a watercourse, characterized by a difference in level of H meters, conveying
a discharge of Q (m
3
/sec), the theoretical (potential) power,

( )
( )
( ) kW QH QH N
HP QH QH N
kgm QH QH N
p
p
p
8 . 9 736 . 0 3 . 13
3 . 13
75
1000
sec 1000
= =
= =
= =

If the rate of flow changes along a stretch, the mean value of the discharges pertaining to the
two terminal sections of the stretch is to be substituted in the equation, , ( ) 2 /
2 1
Q Q Q + =

The theoretical power resources of any river or river system are given by the total of the
values computed for the individual stretches,

( ) kW QH
QH
N
p
= = 8 . 9 736 . 0
75
1000

Potential water power resources can be characterized by different values according to the
discharge taken as basis of computation. The conventional discharges are,

Figure. Discharges used for characterising
potential water power resources

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
1
1. Minimum potential power, or theoretical capacity of 100%, is the term for the value
computed from the minimum flow observed. N
p100

2. Small potential power. The theoretical capacity of 95% can be derived from the
discharge of 95% duration as indicated by the average flow duration curve. N
p95
.

3. Median or average potential power. The theoretical capacity of 50% can be
computed from the discharge of 50% duration as represented by the average flow
duration curve. N
p50
.
4. Mean potential power. The value of theoretical mean capacity can be ascertained by
taking into account the average of mean flow. The average of mean flow is understood
as the arithmetic mean of annual mean discharges for a period of 10 to 30 years. The
annual mean discharge is the value that equalizes the area of the annual flow duration
curve.

Economic significance of potential water resources of a site.

This is influenced by a great number of factors than hydraulic, such as geographical,
geological and topographical conditions, energy demand, etc. Ignoring these and comparing
relative values of power potential as reflected by hydraulic conditions only, the following four
aspects are to be taken into consideration:

a) The absolute quantity of theoretical water power resources,

b) The relative share of discharge in the power.
Among the hydraulic possibilities representing equal magnitudes, the more advantageous
are those where the power in question originates from a smaller flow and a higher head. It
is advantageous of highland developments over power stations situated in hilly regions or
lowland areas.

c) The relative annual fluctuation of available potential power.
This can be characterized by the ratio of the values N
p50
to the values N
p95
(or N
p100
).

95
50
p
p
N
N
= or,
100
50
1
p
p
N
N
=

A smaller ratio reflects a more favorable hydraulic possibility.

d) The over year or multi-annual variation of potential power.

This can be characterized either by a simple diagram showing the annual potential power
against time, or by a summation curve of annual values.

Power resources can be characterized even by annual values of potential energy in a river,
by the quantities of work,

E
100
, E
95
, E
50
and E
m

All expressed in kilowatt-hours. These values can be computed as areas of the lower parts
of the potential power-duration curves. If the head is assumed to be constant, independent
of discharge, the computation can be based on the discharge-duration curve. Using the
curve,
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
2

Figure

( )
( ) kWh aF Q t Q a E
aQ t aQ E
kW aQ HQ N
t
i t
t
i t
t t p
24 24
24 24
8 . 9
365
365
=

+ =
+ =
= =

Where,

t = the duration considered in days,
Q
t
= Selected discharge,
Q
i
= Daily mean of actual discharge at any time,
F = Area pertaining to Q
t

The upper limit of potential energy inherent in the river section is obtained by,

( ) ( ) kWh N N E
m m mx
8760 365 24 = =

Where N
m
is the annual mean power.

The overall coefficient is about 0.75 or 0.80. The equation recommended is,

( )

= H Q N
m mnet
0 . 8 4 . 7

Q
m
= the arithmetic mean discharge. Net river energy potential,

=
net net
m
N E 8760
max

For characterizing the gross potential power of a river basin, the following data should be
used,

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
3
a) Total annual discharge volume V (m
3
),
b) Medium height of the watershed area H lying upstream above sea level (m),
c) Area A of this basin (km
2
).

Since 1 m
3
water weighs 1 ton, the product VH yields the annual gross power pertaining to
the selected site in meter-tons,

( )
( )
A
VH
km kWh e
VH
kWh E
367
/
367
2
=
=

If the e values are determined along the river basin at several stream sites, then the lines
connecting the points of equal e, isopotential lines can be drawn.

Flow-Duration Curve

If the flows for any unit time are arranged in descending order of time (without regard to
chronological sequence), the percentage of time for which any magnitude is equaled or
exceeded may be computed. The resulting array is called a flow-duration curve.

Figure. Determination of flow-duration curve (Bayazt, 2001).

Such curves are useful in determining the relative variability of flow between two points in a
river basin or between two basins. For example, if a stream is highly regulated, the curve will
approach a horizontal line. The dependable flow is that corresponding to 100 percent of time.
The relative variability of two flow records may be compared by converting the discharge
scale in terms of a ratio to the mean. Any sub area under the curve represents the volume of
annual runoff.

Flow-duration curves have been used to approximate the amount of storage needed to increase
the dependable flow. For example, the horizontal line AB in below Figure may represent a
new dependable flow, and the required storage needed to obtain this flow is indicated by area
ABC.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
4

Figure . Duration curve of monthly discharges.

Power production values may be approximated from the duration curve by converting the
discharge scale to kilowatts by multiplying by a selected head, efficiency and conversion
factors. If the time scale is converted to hours in a year, a unit of are represents kilowatt-
hours.

The flow-duration curve is particularly useful in combination with a sediment rating curve
(river discharge versus the transported sediment load usually expressed in tons per day), to
compute total sediment load to be expected in an average year.

Flow Mass Curve

Total flow volume from a certain initial time t = 0 up to time t can be computed as,

=
t
Qdt H
0

In practice, the total volume is computed as,

=
i i
t Q H

Q
i
= the average discharge in time interval (month, year) t
i
.

Flow mass curve is a plot of the cumulative runoff from the hydrograph against time. The
time scale is the same as for the hydrograph and may be in days, months or years. The volume
ordinate may be in m
3
-days, m
3
-months, m
3
-years, etc. The slope of the mass curve is the
derivative of the volume with respect to time or the rate of discharge.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
5

The mass curve usually has a wavy configuration in which the steeper segments represent
high flow periods and flatter segments represent low flows. Uniform rates of withdrawal
(draft) may be represented as tangent lines drawn from high points to intersect the curve at the
next wave. The vertical distance between the draft line and the basic curve represents the
cumulative difference between regulated outflow and natural inflow, or the required storage.
If the draft line does not intersect the mass curve at the end of a year, it means that the
reservoir does not refill with that rate of draft and regulation at the proposed draft rate will
extend over two years or more. A typical mass curve is shown in the above Figure.

In estimating storage requirements from the mass curve, it is not necessary to assume a
constant rate of regulated flow. For example, if the draft rate to meet a demand for irrigation,
water supply, or power varies from month to month, the draft line may be a curved or
irregular line and the maximum draft may not occur at the low point in the mass curve.

An allowance for evaporation should be applied to the mass curve analysis. If the water area
does not change significantly during the annual cycle of use, an average correction for each
calendar month can be subtracted from the inflow or added to the draft rates.

The ordinates of the flow mass curve increase continuously in time. The sum of the
differences between the inflow and the yield (average flow) are drawn;
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
6

( )
i ave i
t Q Q H =
0

Reservoir capacity is then vertical distance between the highest and lowest points of the
curve.

Figure . Flow mass curve derived using the differences
of the discharges from the yield.
Storage-Draft Curve

The results of a mass-curve analysis can be plotted as a storage-draft curve. His curve gives
the storage needed to sustain various draft rates. Examples of storage-draft curves are shown
in the below Figures. Both irrigation requirements and combined irrigation and power
requirements are illustrated. These curves were computed from the mass curve.

If storage unlimited, the storage-draft curve will approach the available mean flow as
asymptote. It is rarely possible to develop mean annual flow of a river basin. For most
projects, some spillage will occur in years of runoff. To impound all flood flows will require
an extensively large reservoir. Such a reservoir may not fill in many years, and probably could
not be justified economically. The selected rate of regulated flow to be developed will depend
on;
1. The demand of water users,
2. The available runoff,
3. The physical limits of the storage capacity,
4. The overall economies of the project.

Figure . Storage-draft curves for multipurpose uses.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
7
Selection of Design Flow

The hydrologic analyses, combined with economic analyses of costs and benefits for different
heights of dam and reservoir capacity will lead to the selection of the reservoir capacity and
the corresponding dependable flow that can be justified. The selected design flow may not
necessarily be available 100 percent of the time. The propose water use may permit
deficiencies at intervals, for example, a 15 percent shortage once in 10 years. Irrigation water
supplies may permit greater deficiencies than those for urban and industrial use. Hydroelectric
power plants, connected to large systems, may tolerate substantial water supply deficiencies.

Final Storage Selection

a) Evaporation Losses

Detailed evaluation of evaporation losses should be postponed until final operation and
routing studies, when the actual variation in water area can be considered as well as the
seasonal variation in evaporation.

Basic data on water surface evaporation may be obtained from records of pan evaporation.
Such records overestimate lake evaporation and must be reduced by a pan coefficient which
varies from 0.60 to 0.80 depending on the climate. The collection of evaporation records at a
project site should be initiated in the planning stage. Evaporation corrections should be made
on a monthly basis using actual past precipitation records at the project site if possible.

b) Power

Selection of an average flow alone will not permit determination of the benefits from a water
resources development project without more detailed studies. Such studies require routing
through the reservoir the entire record of flow (corrected for evaporation losses), on a month
by month basis, using assumed patterns of use, outlet capacities and, in the case of power,
turbine and generator capacities and efficiencies. The reservoir would normally be considered
to be full at the start of the operation study, or at least full to normal pool.

For power benefits, the energy output will vary in accordance with the inflow, outflow, and
change in storage and corresponding head, tailwater elevation, turbine capacity and plant
efficiency. If the plant is a part of a system, the output may be subject to varying demands of
the system load curve and whether the plant is to be used as a base load plant or a peaking
plant. The routing study will indicate the necessary modifications to the head, storage, and
even height of the dam to obtain maximum benefit.

c) Irrigation

Operation studies for irrigation use should be made using seasonal crop demands and selected
outlet capacities. Short-term demands may indicate that the storage needed war greater than
that required for uniform regulated flow. The proposed annual water use may be greater than
that available 100 percent of the time, with the understanding that deficiencies can be
tolerated in some years.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
8
d) Water Supply

Operation studies for projects providing urban water supplies will be similar to those for
irrigation projects in that there may be variations in the seasonal demand, especially where
more than one source is available, or where there can be transfers to other regulation
reservoirs. However, the degree of dependability of flow must be higher for urban water
supply than for irrigation projects.

e) Flood Control

The storage allocated for flood control in single purpose or multipurpose projects is usually
based on a definite design flood the control of which is needed for downstream protection.
The required storage capacity is based on routing of the design flood inflow coincident with
releases not to exceed downstream channel capacities.

Total Storage Requirement

The usable storage needed for single purpose projects can be readily determined as described
in Sections (a) to (e). The total usable storage needed for multipurpose for multipurpose
projects require more complex routing studies and numerous trials to obtain the most
economic allocations.

In addition to the variable requirement for storage for downstream uses, the total storage may
be increased for the following reasons:

Allowance for the storage of sediments without loss of usable storage.
Minimum area for recreation use, including seasonal requirements.

EXAMPLE : Monthly flow volumes feeding a reservoir are given in the table. Determine the
storage capacity required to supply the mean annual flow volume yield.

Solution: Cumulative volumes are calculated and given in the table.

Month Volume
(10
6
m
3
)
Cumulative
Volume (10
6
m
3
)
1 296 296
2 386 682
3 504 1186
4 714 1900
5 810 2710
6 1154 3864
7 746 4610
8 1158 5768
9 348 6116
10 150 6266
11 223 6489
12 182 6671
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
9

Total volume of flow feeding the reservoir is 667110
6
m
3
. Annual mean discharge can be
calculated as,

s m Q
3
6
212
86400 365
10 6671

=

The reservoir storage capacity required to obtain 212 m
3
/s yield throughout the year is found
by drawing tangents parallel to the average draft line from peak points. The vertical distance
is 180010
6
m
3
is the required capacity of the reservoir.

The reservoir capacity to supply the annual mean discharge can be found out by using the sum
of differences method as in table,

Reservoir Capacity
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
Months
V
o
l
u
m
e
(
1
0
6
m
3
)
V

Month Volume
(10
6
m
3
)
Flow
(m
3
/s)
H
0
(m
3
/s)
H
0
(m
3
/s)

1 296 111 -101 -101
2 386 149 -63 -165
3 504 188 -24 -188
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
10
4 714 267 55 -134
5 810 335 123 -11
6 1154 431 219 208
7 746 288 76 284
8 1158 432 220 504
9 348 134 -78 426
10 150 56 -156 270
11 223 83 -129 142
12 182 70 -142 0

-300
-200
-100
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Months
Ho

( )

=
i ave i
t Q Q H
0

Reservoir Capacity = 504 (-188) = 693 m
3
/s

Volume =
3 6
10 1853 86400 31 692 m =

RESERVOIRS

A reservoir is a manmade lake or structure used to store water. A dam reservoir has an
uncontrolled inflow but a largely controlled outflow. The water available for storage is totally
a function of the natural stream streamflow that empties into it.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
11
Reservoir Capacity

Reservoir capacity is the volume of water that can be stored in the particular reservoir. It is
the normal maximum pool level behind a dam. This can be calculated by using a topographic
map of the region. First, the area inside different elevation contours is measured, and then a
curve of area versus elevation can be constructed.

Figure . Area versus elevation for a reservoir

At any given elevation, the increment of storage in the reservoir at that elevation will be Ady,
where dy is a differential depth. Then the total storage below the maximum level to any will
be given by,

=
y
0

Figure. Storage relations for a reservoir with
an uncontrolled spillway
Sedimentation in Reservoirs

All streams carry sediments that originate from erosion processes in the basins that feed the
streams. After a dam is constructed across the team and a reservoir is produced, the velocity in
the reservoir will be ne ing into the reservoir will
settle down and be trapp ed with enough volume to

s
gligible so that virtually all the sediment com
ed. There be design fore, the reservoir should
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
12
hold the sediment and still operate as a water storage reservoir over the projects design life. For
rge projects, the design life is often considered 100 years.
at a delta will be formed. The finer
sedim nts will be deposited beyond the delta at the bottom of the reservoir.
la

Sediment carried in a stream is classified as either bed load or suspended load. The bed load
consists of the coarsest fractions of the sediment (sands and gravels), and it rolls, slides, and
bounces along the bottom of the stream. The finer sediments are suspended by the turbulence of
the stream. When the sediment enters the lower velocity zone of the reservoir, the coarser
sediments will be deposited first, and it is in this region th
e

The total sediment outflow from a watershed or drainage basin measured in a specified period is
the sediment yield. The yield is expressed in terms of tons per square kilometer per year. The
engineer designing a reservoir must estimate the average sediment yield for the basin supplying
the reservoir to determine at what rate the reservoir will fill with sediment.

Figure. Deposition of sediment in a reservoir

For a given reservoir volume, V, the ratio of the reservoir volume decrease due to the deposited
sediment can be estimated by this empirical equation,

8 . 0
95 . 0 6
10 23

=

V
A
G R
ent yield of the basin (kN/km
2
/year)
A = Drainage basin area
V = Reservoir volume (m )

ng R ratio with the design life of the reservoir, T, will yield the percentage of the dead
olume in the reservoir. The dead volume can be estimated over the period of design life by,

f the
eposit is = 2.65 ton/m
3
olume of the reservoir.

Where,

G = Sedim
(m
2
)
3
Multiplyi
v

V T R V =

EXAMPLE 4.3: The total volume of a reservoir is V = 23010
6
m
3
with a drainage basin of A =
1200 km
2
. The design life of the project is T = 100 year and the density (specific mass) o
d . Calculate the dead v
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
13
Solution:

The sediment of the river for a river,

( )
G 1200 1421 =
( ) volume year km m
A
/ / 280
1421
2 3
229 . 0
229 . 0
=
=

ease every year,
G
G
The ratio of the reservoir volume decr

( ) % 4 . 0
10 230
7279 000023 . 0
6
95 . 0

= R
10 1200
000023 . 0
8 . 0
6
8 . 0
95 . 0
=

=
R
V
A
G R

Reservoir volume decrease due to the sediment deposit every year,

Useful storage is,
m
useful

Wind-Generated Waves, Setup, and Freeboard
ow over an open stretch of water, waves develop, and the mean level of the
ater surface may change. The latter phenomenon, called setup or wind tide, is significant only
in relatively shallow reservoirs. When a dam is designed, the crest of the dam must be made
higher than the maximum pool level in the reservoir to prevent overtopping of the dam as the
itional height given to the crest of the dam to
ke care of wave action, setup, and possibly settlement of the dam (if it is earthfill) is called
acts on the water surface, and because of this, the surface will tilt, as shown by the
roken line in the below Figure.
3 6 6
10 92 . 0 10 230 004 . 0 m V
= =
For the 100 year of design period,

3 6 6
10 92 10 92 . 0 100 m = = V
100

( )
6 6
10 138 10 92 230 = =
3
V

henever wind bl W
w
wind-generated waves strike the face of it. The add
ta
freeboard.

Setup

Consider the basin of water shown in the figure. The solid line depicting the water surface is the
case when no wind is blowing; the water surface is horizontal. When the wind is blowing, a
shear stress
b
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
14

Figure. Definition sketch for setup

he amount of setup S is,

T
KD
F V
S
2
=
D = Aver oi epth (m),
V = the wind speed m the surface (km/h)
ind fetch (km)
= A constant 62000
r is oval shaped with a length of 20 km and a width of 10 km. If the
lengthwise to the reservoir with a velocity of 130 km/h, what will be
average water depth of the reservoir is 10 m?

W

here,
age reserv r d
easured at a height of 10 m from
F = the w
K
S = Setup (m)

EXAMPLE: A reservoi
wind blows in a direction
the setup of the
Solution: The setup will be,

m
KD
F V
S
2
=
55 . 0
10 62000
=

Height of Wind Waves and the Run-Up

llowances for wave height and the run-up of wind-generated waves are the most significant
omponents of freeboard. The run-up of the waves on the upstream dam face, i.e. the maximum
up a dam face, is equal to H (wave height) for a
pical vertical face in deep water, but can attain values over 2H for a smooth slope 1 in 2.
20 130
2

=
A
c
vertical height attained by a wave running
ty

A wave height, H (m), (crest to trough) can be estimated by,

4
26 . 0 76 . 0 34 . 0 F F H + =
here,

W

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
15
F = the fetch length (km),
H = Wave height (m)
or large values of fetch (F>20 km), the last two terms may be neglected. With the provision
ation takes the form of,

F
for the wind speed, the equ

4
24 . 0 76 . 0 032 . 0 F VF H + =
V = Wind velocity (km/hour)

board will be equal to set-up plus run up allowance for settlement of the embankment
lus and amount of safety (usually 0.50m).
XAMPLE: Calculate the wind set-up and wave height for a reservoir with 8 km fetch
the minimum freeboard to be given?

Where,

The free
p

E
length. The average reservoir depth is 15 m. The wind velocity is V = 100 km/h. If the
upstream of the dam is vertical, what will be

Solution:

The wind set-up is,

m
KD
F V
2
= S
09 . 0
15 62000
=

The wave height,

8 100
2

=
m H
H 8 100 032 . 0
=
=
F VF H
19 . 1
8 24 . 0 76 . 0
24 . 0 76 . 0 032 . 0
4
4
+
+ =

Since the upstream side of the dam is vertical, the run-up height will be taken as the height of
the wave. The freeboard,

5 . 0 19 . 1 19 . 1 09 . 0 + H
freeboard
+
m m H 00 . 3 97 . 2 =
+ =
.5 m is the safety height.

0
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
16
LECTURE NOTES 5

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division

CHAPTER 5

Main Types of High Head Power Plant Developments

Power plants operating under a head higher than 50 m may be termed as high-head power
plants. Three main types of high-head power developments may be discerned.

A) Diversion Canal Type Plant

Figure. General layout and profile of a high-head diversion
canal development

The main parts of a high-head diversion canal type plant are:

1) the weir,
2) the canal intake,
4) the headpond with spillway and gate or valve chamber,
5) the penstock,
6) the powerhouse,
7) the tailrace.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
1
B) Plants Fed by a Pressure Tunnel

Figure. General layout and profile of a pressure tunnel development

1) the dam (sometimes only weir),
3) the pressure tunnel,
4) the surge tank,
5) the penstock,
6) the power house,
7) the tailrace.

The tunnel intake should be located close to the bottom of the reservoir to ensure the greatest
effective storage volume. Under certain topograhic and geologic conditions, the conveyance
of water through a tunnel under the dividing range may, even in case of low dams, be
preferable to building a long, meandering power canal. Since here the tunnel is not necessarily
a pressure conduit, free-surface flow conditions may prevail therein. Such arrangements
should be regarded as diversion canal type developments.

C) Plants with Concentrated Fall

Developments, where the powerhouse is located close to, or within, a high dam or high-head
river barrage, constitute the third main type of high-head installations. This arrangement,
which could be termed plant with concentrated fall, or valley dam station, is essentially
similar to that of low-head run-of-river plants. The head for the power station approaches the
height of the dam.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
2

Figure. Development with the powerhouse located at the toe of the dam
(plant with concentrated fall)

The three main parts of this type of power plants:

1) the water intake (generally built on the upstream face of the dam),
2) the pressure conduit (generally transversing the dam body, sometimes bypassing the
3) the powerhouse.

The output of diversion canal developments is closely governed by the discharge available in
the river, while the small storage capacity created by the low weir is sufficient to meet daily
fluctuations in load only. This type may be called as high-head run-of-river plant. The other
two types may be referred to as reservoir plants. Pressure tunnel developments are valuable
for those fed from a large reservoir under high head.

Free Surface Intakes

Settling basins and sand traps are very important for high-head water power plants and they
should designed on the basis of hydraulic computations. Suspended load, especially sharp
edged fine sand transported by mountain streams causes rapid wear of the penstock and steel
parts of the turbines. Water flowing at high velocity and carrying heavy sediment load attacks
the lining of power canal and power channels.

Scratch effects become generally more pronounced with increasing head, therefore, in case of
heads higher than 100 m, sand should be carefully settled out and with heads higher than 200
m even the greatest part of silt fraction should be retained.

The main parts of an intake are:

1) the inlet section including the sill and coarse rack,
2) the inlet gate and transition section,
3) the settling basin and sand flushing canal.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
3

Figure. General arrangement of intake

Before the inlet section of the intake a bed load deflecting apron should be applied permitting
a periodical flushing of bed load hold by the sill. The apron extends to the flushing gate of the
weir.

Protection against Silting

In preventing entrance of bed load, or rather in promoting a desilting effect at the inlet
section, in protecting both inlet and canal against sedimentation, the proper choice of intake
site is of vital importance.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
4
Changes in the angle of diversion (the angle between the outside wall of the intake structure
and the direction of main flow) hardly affect the quantity of sediment entering the canal. More
than 90% of transported matter enters the diversion canal branching off at an angle of 30
0

90
0
from the main course, yet carrying only half of the main discharge. At the same time it
can be seen that the angle of diversion has no significant effect upon silting conditions.

The curve shown above illustrates the distribution of discharges and silt quantities for a 30
0

angle of diversion. A balanced (50 50 per cent) distribution of silt is attained only if some
25% of the original discharge is allowed to enter the canal. If the discharge carried by the
diversion canal exceeds 60%, the entire sediment load enters to the branch canal.

Hydrodynamical considerations will yield a very simple explanation for the above
phenomenon, that in case of diversion from a straight stretch, the flow entering the power
canal carries extremely great quantities of bed load. The velocity component opposite the inlet
section and vertical to it, denoted by v, is due to the transverse head loss h, the latter given
by the equation,

h g v = 2

In one vertical along cross-section (x-x) velocities v due to h will be almost uniform. The
velocity of direction x-x varies only in direction x within one section and shows an increase
from the opposite bank towards the side intake. Since the velocity distribution within the
main course above the point of diversion involves a velocity considerably smaller at point B
than at the surface, it follows that the deeper the examined subsurface point is situated, the
greater the angle formed by the resultant of velocities V and v and by the axis of main flow.
Consequently, more water is drawn from deeper layers into the canal than from those nearer
to the surface. Thus a lamination according to depth arises in the main flow causing the water
entering the power canal to be drawn, for the greater part, from the lower layers that are
heavily silted, while water in the upper layers containing considerably less silt overfalls the
diversion dam and streams forth in the main course.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
5

Figure. Velocity distribution in the
river at the intake

The whole bed load is practically is carried into the power canal for big discharges, and the
joint application of high sill, silt-sliding apron and sluiceway gives no substantial relief to the
problem.

Let us examine the bed load conditions of intakes located in a bend.

Figure. Profile of the water
surface in bends

Considering that the water surface as a potential surface normal to the resultant of acting
forces, the equation for the sloping water level in the curve may be developed as follows:

mg
x
v
m
dx
dz
2
=

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
6
x
dx
v gdz
2
=
Solving the above differential equation,

C Lnx v gz + =
2

Consequently, at point x = R
1
, z = 0. Thus,

1
2
1
2
R
x
Ln
g
v
z
LnR v C
=
=

The maximum rise of the surface occurring at the concave bend,

1
2
2
1
2
2
log 43 . 0
2 R
R
g
v
R
R
Ln
g
v
h = =

Velocity of flows shows a tendency to decrease along the same vertical towards the bottom.
Particles of water moving in beds at and near the surface are thus subject to greater centrifugal
force than those traveling near the bottom. Consequently, particles at and near the surface are
forced towards the concave bank. An equal quantity of water is bound to follow at the bottom
in the opposite direction towards the convex band due to the principle of continuity.

Particles of water submerging with great velocity cause erosion of the bottom along the
concave bank. Part and occasionally the whole of eroded matter is then deposited by the flow
slowing down towards the convex bank. So the original rectangular cross-section takes and
asymmetrical shown as shown in the Figure.

Figure. Development of spiral flow in bends

Silt of different particle size reaching the bend separates according to size at the peak of the
curve. Fine silt settles fairly high on the sand bank formed under water along the convex
bank, while coarser grains are carried forth and deposit mostly in or around the holes along
the concave bank. It is advisable to have the power canal branch from the concave side in as
much as relatively desilted water is required.
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
7

Figure. Separation of bed load according
to particle size in bends

The intake structure is to be built at a point where the spiral flows is strong and the weir is to
be located so that the sluiceway or the lateral opening of the movable gate system also falls
within the sphere of spiral flow.

Figure. Spiral flow at
the intake

Water discharging into branch does not diverge in a sharp angle but follows a curved route;
spiral flow will develop at the upstream end of the canal too, should the diversion be placed
either in a straight or in a curved stretch of the water course. Surface flows tend towards the
concave side of the curved streamway caused by the diversion, while bottom flow
transporting debris is directed towards the canal.

With a 50-50 percent ratio of discharges, distribution of bed load is as follows and given in
the Figure.

1. Bed load: Canal 100%, main water course 0%,
2. Bed load: Canal 50%, main water course 50%,
3. Bed load: Canal 5%, main water course 95%,
4. Bed load: Canal 100%, main water course 0%,
5. Bed load: Canal 0%, main water course 100%.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
8

Figure. Typical shapes of diversion

No. 5 proved most unfavorable as here silt transportation into canal is intensified by
synchronizing spiral flows in both original water course and branch canal. No.1 is also highly
unfavorable. No. 2, 3, and 5 may be regarded as favorable. No. 2, diversion is at the upstream
end of the curve where spiral flow is not yet fully developed and so the effect of flow in the
original water course is largely decreased by spiral flow in the branch canal. No 3. and 5 are
the most favorable, as here fully developed spiral flow at the downstream end of the bend
cannot be considerably lessened by spiral water movements of opposite direction of the
branch.

The following basic principles governing selection of the intake site can be suggested:

1. Intakes should be located, whenever possible, on the concave side of a curved stretch,
2. Efficiency of the intake in preventing sedimentation increases with the sharpness of
the bend,
3. The amount of bed load transported into the canal decreases, as the ratio of the total
discharge to the amount increases.
4. Intakes are most favorably located along the downstream reach of the curve, near the
end.
5. The lower the head, the more effective the intake.
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
9
6. Conditions in a straight stretch are opposite to those described under No. 3; with
diverted flow being constant, any increase in the river discharge will involve more
extensive sedimentation in the canal.
7. The silt releasing sluice of the diversion weir, the canal sill and the desilting sluice can
only be operated at good efficiency if more or less favorable bend conditions are
created through proper design and arrangement in keeping with the above principles.
8. With intakes from straight stretches, but more so along the convex side, the afore-
mentioned measures offer no significant contribution to the protection against
sedimentation in the canal. In such cases both canal sill and desilting canal give
9. Intakes from straight stretches can be made more favorable by forcing water to follow
a curved route with the convex side of stream curve facing the intake structure.

Figure. Intakes from straight stretches with bed contraction, a) with flushing
(desilting) canal, b) without flushing canal

This can be achieved by arrangements illustrated in the above Figure, where an inlet section
extending crosswise into rive bed, and a weir shorter than the width of flow above the intake
make the flow to follow a curved route.

10. The quantity of bed load can be reduced by a longitudinal baffle wall as shown in the
below Figure, if Q
d
< Q
B
where Q
d
is the diverted discharge and Q
B
the discharge
conveyed in the river in width B of the intake. As a result of inequality Q
d
< Q
B
part of
the water is compelled to deviate on a curved path from the bank, thereby bringing
B

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
10
Protective measures against bed load may be completed by a few remarks.

a) The minimum discharge Q
0
capable of inducing bed load movement will be
decisive of the choice of the site and the arrangement of the intake. The ratio of
the plant discharge capacity Q
p
and of the above limit discharge Q
0
is the one
of the factors governing the design of intake.
b) The individual features of an intake may require the discharge diverted into
canal, in certain periods, less than available in the river for power generation.
c) Quantitative relations may be established as to the reduction of the discharge
diverted. The degree of reduction depends upon the character of the river
section.
d) Special care should be taken if a power plant having a relatively great
discharge capacity is projected on a mountain river. The necessary reduction of
the discharge may in this case permit the diversion of a volume corresponding
to the maximum plant discharge capacity at times of flood only.
e) On mountainous rivers carrying a heavy sediment load, the intake works
should always be located on the concave side of the bend even if this side is
otherwise less favorable.
f) Flow velocity in the inlet section of the intake should preferably be 0.75 m/sec
on the average as indicated by experiments conducted between velocity limits
of o.50 and 1.10 m/sec.

Care should be taken during the hydraulic designing of the settling basin to ensure the
calculated velocity in the structure would range 0.40 to 0.60 m/sec.

1) Exploration of sediment conditions, involving the quantitative and qualitative analysis
of sediment carried by the river. In mountain rivers or in steep, upper river sections at
the average sediment concentration varies from 2 to 10 kg/m
3
.
2) Following the investigations of sediment conditions, the necessary degree of load
removal, should be determined. Attempts have been made to approximate operating
requirements by specifying the diameter of the smallest particles to be settled out
(limit particle size).

At medium-head plants, the removal of particles larger than 0.2 0.5 mm is usually
specified. Instead of using the limit particle size, the degree of removal is frequently
defined by the removal ratio of concentrations after and before settling expressed in
percentages. If the concentration of raw water is C, and that of the clarified water is
specified as the permissible value C
p
, the required removal ratios is obtained as,

C
C
p
100
By specifying or assuming the limit particle size, the removal ratio may easily be
calculated.

3) Having determined the basic data as suggested, design can be done. First the settling
velocity of the smallest fraction; i.e., of the limit particle size to be removed should be
calculated theoretically or be established by tests.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
11
The so-called horizontal-flow settling system is usually applied at power developments.
For this system, the dimensions of the settling basin may in principal be determined by
two computation methods.

The effect of turbulent flow upon settling velocity is neglected in the simple settling
theory. Three basic relations may be written for the determination of the required basin
length. Denoting the depth of the basin by h and its width by b, the discharge passing
through basin is,

bhV Q = (m
3
/sec)

Where V is the flow velocity. The second equation expressing the relation between the
settling velocity w, the depth of the basin and the settling time t,

w
h
t = (sec)

Finally, the length of the basin will be governed by the consideration saying that water
particles entering the basin and sediment particles conveyed by them with equal horizontal
velocity should only reach the end of the basin after a period longer than the settling time.
Thus even the smallest settling particle may strike the bottom of the basin within the
settling zone. The retention period should not be shorter than the settling time. The
required length of the basin is,

Vt l = (m)

Eliminating t from the last two relations will be established between the six values
governed the hydraulic design:

hV lw
bhV Q
=
=

A solution of the problem is not possible unless four quantities are known. The discharge
Q can always be considered given, the settling velocity w is defined by the initially
specified degree of removal and can be established by calculation. The highest permissible
flow velocity should also be specified in order to prevent particles once settled from
picked up again. The actual flow velocity should not exit this limit, whereas excessive
dimensions computed by substantially lower velocities would again result in
uneconomical design. Velocities higher than the permissible velocity tend to scour the
material settling to the bottom, which may even become suspended again. This limit
velocity may in fact be considered equal to the theoretical suspending velocity, or to the
critical velocity encountered in the theory of sediment transport.

The critical velocity,

d a V = (cm/sec)

Where d is the diameter of particles in mm and the constant a:

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
12
a = 36, for d > 1 mm,
a = 44, for 1 mm > d > 0.1 mm
a = 51 for 0.1 mm> d

The fourth dimension that can be assumed in advance is one of the main dimensions of the
basin. The depth of the horizontal flow settling basins employed in water power projects is
generally between 1.5 and 4.0 m with velocities not higher than from 0.4 to 0.6 m/sec.

The water mass conveyed during settling time should equal the capacity of the settling
basin. Owing to the retarding effect of turbulent flow on sinking particles, settling is
slower in flowing water. By using a lower settling velocity (w w), the reduction in
settling velocity w to be closely related to the flow velocity,

aV w = (m/sec)

The coefficient a may be computed from the relation,

h
a
132 . 0
=

Where h is the water depth in m. The settling length is therewith,

V h
V h
aV w
hV
l
132 . 0
2 1
2 3

= (m)

A negative denominator is an indication of the fact that no settling can be attained under
the assume conditions. The computation should be repeated using the modified
dimensions.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
13
The most important factors affecting the design of the settling basin are the quality of
sediment (specific weight and shape of particles) density of water carrying sediment and
water temperature. All estimates involving the direct application of the afore-mentioned data
should be regarded as approximate only.

The necessary settling length for turbulent flow is computed from the settling velocity in
stagnant water w and from the flow velocity. The settling length,

( )
2
2
2 2
51 . 7
2 . 0
w
h V
l

=

(m)

Where depends on the removal ratio defined previously. Values of defined by the
function,

( ) w f =

W denotes the ratio of settled sediment to the total load entering with the flow and can be
computed from the afore-mentioned removal ratio as follow:

C
C
w
P
100 100 =

The settling velocity pertaining to the limit particle size of the fraction to be settled out
without assuming 100% removal. Satisfactory values can be obtained by using
coefficients pertaining to a 95 to 98% removal of the limit particle size.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
14
Continuous operation can be ensured by one of the following arrangements:

a) Series of basins, some of which can be flushed while others operating,
b) Permanent operation of basins can also be realized by continuously flushing
settled sediment. An inflow exceeding the water demand by 10% should be
admitted into the basin and sediment accumulating at the bottom can be
flushed continuously by discharging the excess water to waste.

Example: Design a settling basin for a high-head power plant by using the settling theory.
The basin should serve to remove particles greater than 0.5 mm diameter from the water
conveying mainly sand. The design discharge is 5 m
3
/sec and assume an initial value of 3.20
m for the depth of the basin.

Solution: Determine first the permissible velocity flow velocity. Owing to economical
considerations this should equal the critical velocity for which,

sec 2 . 31 5 . 0 44 44 cm d V = = =

In designing the basin, V = 30 cm/sec flow velocity will be used. The following step is to
determine the settling velocity according to the limit particle size of 0.5mm to be removed.
From the settling velocity particle size Figure, w = 6 cm/sec (for = 1.064). The required
length of the basin is,

m
w
V
h l 16
6
30
20 . 3 = = =

And the width,

m
hV
Q
b 21 . 5
3 . 0 2 . 3
5
=

= =

Checking: The settling time is,

sec 4 . 53
06 . 0
20 . 3
= = =
w
h
t

The discharge conveyed during this period is,

3
267 4 . 53 5 m Qt V = = =

Should be equal to the capacity of the basin;

3
267 0 . 16 21 . 5 20 . 3 m hbl V = = =

Determine the length of the basin using identical basic values by the method of Velikanovs
Figure for a removal ratio of 97% (W=0.97).

The Figure yields = 1.50 for W = 0.97. The length of the basin is,

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
15
( )
( )
m l
w
h V
l
19
06 . 0 51 . 7
2 . 0 2 . 3 3 . 0 5 . 1
51 . 7
2 . 0
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2

=

Example: Compute for the conditions of the preceding example the settling length by
considering the retarding effect of turbulent.

Solution: The coefficient governing the reduction of settling velocity is,

0737 . 0
20 . 3
132 . 0 132 . 0
= = =
h
a

And thus the velocity decrement,

sec 0221 . 0 30 . 0 0737 . 0 m aV w = = =

The settling length,
m
w w
hV
l 30 . 25
0221 . 0 060 . 0
30 . 0 20 . 3
=

=

=

The unchanged width of the basin is,

m
hV
Q
b 21 . 5
30 . 0 20 . 3
0 . 5
=

= =

And its capacity,

3
422 30 . 25 21 . 5 20 . 3 m hbl V = = =

Example: Compute the modified dimensions for a reduced depth of 2.40 m.

Solution:
0851 . 0
4 . 2
132 . 0 132 . 0
= = =
h
a

m
aV w
hV
l 90 . 20
30 . 0 0851 . 0 06 . 0
30 . 0 40 . 2
=

=

=

Width of the basin is,

m
hV
Q
b 95 . 6
30 . 0 40 . 2
5
=

= =

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
16
And the reduced capacity,
3
348 9 . 20 95 . 6 40 . 2 m V = =

Example: A power plant is fed by a river carrying very coarse suspended sediment load. As
indicated by the gradation curve obtained for the sediment, 70% are held on the 1 mm screen.
In order to protect the turbines the entire over 1 mm diameter should be settled.

Solution:
% 30 100 =
C
C
p

The basin will be designed for a discharge of 12 m
3
/sec with the retarding effect of turbulent
and a depth of 2.80 m will be taken. The critical velocity is,

sec 44 1 44 44 cm d V = = =

The settling velocity in stagnant water is obtained from the Figure (for = 1.064) W = 10
cm/sec. The settling velocity decrement due to the turbulent,

sec 0346 . 0 44 . 0
8 . 2
132 . 0 132 . 0
m V
h
W = = =

The actual settling velocity is,

sec 0654 . 0 0346 . 0 100 . 0 m W W = =

And the settling length,

m
W W
hV
l 85 . 18
0654 . 0
44 . 0 80 . 2
=

=

=

The required width of the basin is,

m
hV
Q
b 74 . 9
44 . 0 80 . 2
12
=

= =

A settling basin 20 m long and 10 m wide will have a capacity of,

3
560 8 . 2 20 10 m V = =

Compute the length of the basin also by the equation of Velikanov (W = 0.97), = 1.50,

( )
m l 50 . 12
10 . 0 51 . 7
2 . 0 8 . 2 44 . 0 50 . 1
2
2
2 2
=

=

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
17

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
18
LECTURE NOTES VI

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division

Chapter 6

The Power Canal

On gentle hill slopes, but especially on steep mountain sides, the canal should closely follow
the contour lines of the area. Over sufficiently uniform area, the power canal may be designed
with an open cross-section through cuts, overfills and in cut-and-fills as shown in the Figure.

On mountainous slopes it may not be possible to follow the irregular contour lines: deep
valleys are to be bridged by aqueducts (such as elevated canals or canal bridges), and high
hills crossed by water conveying tunnels. Cross-sections of canals located on steep, hilly
mountain slopes are shown in the Figure.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
1

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
2

Although a canal located according to these principles involves the construction of relatively
more expensive structures, such as bridges and tunnels, the resulting route may still be more
economical than that strictly following the contour lines than that strictly following the
contour lines of the hilly area, because;

1. The length of the canal will be significantly reduced,
2. The head loss will also be smaller.

It should be kept in mind that geological conditions of the area decisively influence the
location of the canal. In order to establish reliable bases for following the alignment and
determining the cross-sections, the geologic formations, the dip of layers, the quality of rock
should be explored very thoroughly over sections in cut and fill. The proper solution will be
governed by,

a) The permissible slope of banks and embankments,
b) The depth of the cut, respectively the height of the fill,
c) The dimensions and foundations of canal walls, backfills if required,
d) The extent and quality of lining.

The construction of open power canals may meet difficulties if,

1) The mountain slope is not stable,
2) The mountain slope is too steep,
3) The mountain slope above the canal is likely to produce much rubble,
4) Snow avalanches are to be expected,
5) During extremely severe and long winter periods the water freezes in the canal.

With the above conditions (occurring separately or simultaneously), the following solutions
can be applied in the critical sections;

A) Types of open or closed canals may be constructed of concrete or reinforced concrete,
B) The water may be conveyed in tunnels. In order to reduce head losses, such tunnels

Figure. Free-flow tunnels

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
3

Thickness and quality of lining in free flow tunnels are governed by rock pressure, hydraulic
requirements of water conveyance and water tightness and sometimes by the aggressivity of
the waters conveyed. Internal water pressures generally need not be considered.

Adequate protection against snow avalanches and freezing can be provided by a closed canal
located on the area or even by a simple cover over a canal.

Figure. Closed and covered power conduits

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
4
LECTURE NOTES VII

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division
Chapter 7

The purpose of the headpond (or forebay) is to distribute evenly the water conveyed by the
power canal among the penstocks and, at the same time, to regulate the power flow into the
latter, as well as to ensure the disposal of excess water. At the headpond the power conduit
widens into a basin and thus a part of the suspended sediment still carried by the water settles
down. The storage capacity of the headpond tends to drop of water level in case of sudden
load increase. Headponds having a storage capacity may even provide daily storage for the
plant.

Figure. General arrangement of the headpond

1. The basin,
2. The spillway (sometimes of the siphon type), with the overflow weir,
3. The bottom outlet which is generally flushing sluice gate for sediment,
4. The sill equipped with a screen,
5. The gate (valve) chamber,
6. The penstock inlet.
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
1

The bottom of the headpond is governed primarily by topographic conditions, the geology of
the site should be considered. The site of both the headpond and the powerhouse should be
selected simultaneously with a view to ensure the shortest possible penstocks. Parts of the
map where the contour lines are close to one other and closely follow the banks of the river
course should be investigated as potential sites.

The power canal should join the headpond over a gradual transition and the bottom of the
basin should have a slope towards the sill.

A bottom lining of the basin is indicated only in soils where seepage is to be expected. The
spillway is usually an ogee type weir located in the valley side retaining wall of the basin with
a sufficient length to discharge the entire full load water supply with a small increase in the
basin level.

The spillway and the bottom outlet canal should be united immediately at the foot of the
basin. Water spilling over the spillway crest and through the bottom outlet can be,

a) Diverted into a suitable river bed in a nearside valley,
b) Conveyed by a special chute.

The bottom outlet is controlled by a vertical lift gate. Sediment accumulating before the sill
can also be flushed through the bottom outlet. If flushing is not of the desired efficiency and
the amount of the remaining in the basin is significant, this should be removed mechanically.

The entrance of accumulated sediment into the penstocks is prevented by a sill and a screen.
At high head installations the width of the opening is from 15 to 50 mm, depending upon the
type of the turbine. Flow velocities related to the overall area of the screen may vary between,
V =0.80 0.25 (m/sec) at high-head power plants. When the water is free of sediment load,
flow velocities through the gross screen area may have a value as high as 3 to 3.5 m/sec.
Screens may either be extended uninterrupted over the entire inflow cross-section, or be
arranged between the piers separating the penstock intakes.

Flow to the pressure conduits is controlled by vertical lift gates located in the gate chamber.
Gates are operated by electric remote control from the switch room of the powerhouse and
also directly from the gate house. The gate should close automatically in a case of turbin stop
or penstock failure.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
2
LECTURE NOTES VIII

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division

CHAPTER 8

The Tunnel

Pressure tunnels may be classified according to the head above the arch of the tunnel.

Correspondingly, tunnel may be grouped into,

a) Low-pressure tunnels, with H lower than 5 m,
b) Medium-pressure tunnels, with H from 5 to 100 m,
c) High-pressure tunnels, with H higher than 100 m.

According to another classification,

a) Unlined,
b) Lined, either for structural purposes, or for the purpose water sealing.

Structural linings are called upon to carry the rock pressure and to offer protection against
rock splitting from the tunnel roof.

Full circular linings, in addition to being capable of resisting external loads, are suitable for;

a) To take internal water pressure,
b) To prevent water losses,
c) To protect the rock against the aggresivity of conveyed water.

In case of low-pressure tunnels, the trimmed rock may be left unlined except for visible
fissures which may be sealed with concrete or cement. In order to reduce hydraulic head
losses, rock surfaces should be trimmed smooth or coated with a friction-reducing concrete
layer.
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
1
A watertight lining is usually required for tunnels operating under medium heads. Seepage is
more likely to occur as the head increases. Simple cement-mortar coatings are seldom
satisfactory and watertight concrete linings have to be applied in most cases.

If the tunnel is unlined, or if the lining serves only for water sealing purposes, i.e., carries no
load, the permissible water pressure is determined.

h = The depth of overburden over the arch,

1
= Specific weight of the rock.
= Specific weight of the water

h p
V 1
1 . 0 = (kg/cm
2
)

And using a safety factor n, the permissible internal water pressure is,
n
p
p
V
=

Since,
H p 1 . 0 = (kg/cm
2
)

The permissible head (static and dynamic), with = 1 ton/m
3
,

h
n
H
H n H
H n np p
V
1
1
1 . 0 1 . 0
1 . 0

=
=
= =

Practical values for the safety factor n are from 4 to 6. The lower limit should be used for
greater depth of overburden and for sound rock on the arch, whereas in case of a shallow
cover and poor rock the upper limit is used. Consequently, with the specific weight of rock
varying from 2.4 to 3.2 ton/m
3
, the permissible head in meters related to the depth of
overburden above the arch yields,

H = (0.4 to 0.8) h

In pressure tunnels operating under high heads, linings of plain concrete and sometimes even
of reinforced concrete are not satisfactory. Steel linings are used.

To reduce construction costs, relatively high flow velocities should be permitted in tunnels,
higher than allowed in open channels. Suggested limit velocities,

Very rough rock surfaces 1.0 2.0 m/sec
Trimmed rock surfaces 1.5 3.0 m/sec
Concrete surface 2.0 4.0 m/sec
Steel lining 2.5 7.0 m/sec

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
2

Figure. Steel-lined pressure tunnel

The minimum size of tunnels of circular cross-section is about 1.80 m in diameter. In case of
lined tunnels, the computed cross-section should be increased by the thickness of the lining.

Friction losses may be calculated by the manning equation,

L
R
nV
h
L 3 4
2
=

L = Length of the tunnel (m),
V = Mean flow velocity (m/sec),
n = Manning roughness coefficient.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
3
LECTURE NOTES IX

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division
Chapter 9

Hydrodynamic Requirements of Intake Design

In designing the general layout of intake structures, the choice of correct intake direction, i.e.
of the angle enclosed by the outside wall and the original direction of flow is very important.

Figure Flow pattern at diversion at sharp angle

The angle of inflow varies with the ratio of the diverted discharge to the original. If the ratio
of the diverted discharge to the original is small, the angle of diversion will be small, while
any increase in the diverted discharge, the angle of diversion will also be wider. The
following general rule can be established: in designing intake structures, the inflow angle
occurring at times of relatively small discharges should be followed.

=
f
c
Q
Q
f

Figure
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
1

Q
c
= Canal discharge,
Q
f
= Remaining discharge in the watercourse.

=
f
c
Q
Q
0.20 0.30 = 20
0
- 30
0
0 . 1 =
f
c
Q
Q
= 45
0
- 60
0

The diverted discharge is conveyed by a cross-section of width B in the watercourse having a
total width B
0
.

cos
tan
b
C A B = =

b = Width of the canal,
= Angle of diversion,
Q
c
= Discharge in the power canal.
c
f
c f c
q
q
B
b
bq Bq Q
= =
= =
cos

In case of intake from a reservoir, V
f
0, q
f
0,

cos = 0 = 90
0

The greater the velocity V
f
and the discharge q
f
, the smaller the angle of diversion is required.

The expression derived by D.Y. Sokolov, corrected angle of diversion,

c
f
f
c f
q
q
h
h h

= 1 cos

= =
b
b
c
Coefficient of contraction at the entrance to the intake canal,
h
f
= Water depth in the river,

h
c
= Water depth in the power canal.

b
c
= Contracted width of flow in diversion canal.

Model tests are recommended.

The required area of the inlet section is computed from,

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
2
V
Q
A
p
=

Where the mean inflow velocity is assumed as, V = 0.8 1.2 m/sec.

1. Entrance Loss

Entrance losses are due to two phenomena;

a) Velocity V
f
of the flow above the intake site changes to the value V in the inlet
section,
b) Sudden contraction of the cross-section causes headloss.

Figure

Maximum entrance loss is,

g
V
g
V
h
f
e
2 2
3 . 1
2
2
=

Factor varies from 0.8 to 0.4 depending on the intake angle . The greater values can be
assumed in case of intakes under a sharp angle (~30
0
) while the smaller ones are applicable in
case of rectangular diversions.

In case of intake from a reservoir, V
f
0,

g
V
h
e
2
3 . 1
2
=

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
3
In case of a sharp angle diversion and for V V
f
, the minimum value,

g
V
h
e
2
5 . 0
2

2) Rack (Screen) Losses

For computation of rack losses, O. Kirschmer`s equation may be used.

sin
2
2
3 4
g
V
b
s
h
r

=

s = Width of rack (screen) bars, in m (or cm),
b = Spacing (clearance) between bars, in m (or cm),
V = Velocity of flow in front of the screen (m/sec),
= Angle of bars with the horizontal.

Figure

Values of factor for different bar cross-sections;

Cross-section
a 2.42
b 1.83
c 1.67
d 1.03
e 0.92
f 0.76
g 1.79

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
4
Example: Calculate the resistance of a screen with an inclination of 75
0
, where the thickness
of bars s = 6.2 mm, the spacing between the bars b = 19.2 mm. The bars are of rectangular
cross-section. Velocity of flow in front of the bars is V = 1.15 m/sec.

Solution:
cm m h
h
g
V
b
s
h
r
r
r
50 . 3 0349 . 0
75 sin
62 . 19
15 . 1
2 . 19
2 . 6
42 . 2
sin
2
0
2
3 4
2
3 4
=

=

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
5
LECTURE NOTES X

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division

Chapter 10

Permissible Velocities in Canals

Conditions of Stable Regime

The maximum permissible velocity in open channels will be limited by the resistance of the
bed material to erosion or, in case of lined canals, by that of the lining against wear.

Maximum Permissible Velocities

Some researchers relate permissible bottom velocities to the material of the bed and sides
or/and lining, while others suggest values for the permissible mean velocity.

The maximum bottom velocity for erosion is given by Sternberg as,

d V
b
2 = (m/sec)
d = Diameter of particles (m)
= 4.43

Erosion velocities for various soil particles are given in the Figure after W.P.Craeger and
J.D.Justin. The range of maximum permissible mean velocities is given for different grain
diameters varying from fine clays to gravel of medium fineness (0.001 10mm).

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
1
Abscissa represent average particle sizes in millimeters, while mean velocities on the ordinate
axes are in m/sec.

Functions of both particle size and specific weight of the soil are more accurate.

1 9 . 22
1
9 4
=
m
d V (m/sec)

d
m
= Effective size (cm)

1
= Specific weight of the material (gr/cm
3
)

Maximum permissible mean velocities for loose granular bed material;

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
2
In case of depths other than 1 m, velocities will be corrected by,

1
V V =

Maximum permissible mean velocities for solid rocks and correction factors,

Maximum permissible velocities for cohesive soils are given in the Table. These values can
be corrected for the hydraulic radius, R > 3 m by,

1 . 0
3

=
R

If the bed is covered by aquatic growths, mean velocities from 0.8 to 1.8 m/sec can be used.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
3

Lowest Permissible Velocities

In order to prevent settling of silt suspended in the water, lowest permissible velocities should
also be determined. According to A.Ludin, no sedimentations is likely to occur if the mean
velocity,

V > 0.3 m/sec in case of silty water,

V> 0.3 0.5 m/sec in case of water carrying fine sand

E.A. Zamarins empirical equation gives the silt-load capacity as,

w
RSV
w
V
G
0
0
700 = (kg/m
3
)

G
0
= Silt-load carrying capacity of the water (kg/m
3
),
V = Mean flow velocity (m/sec),
w = Mean settling velocity (in still water) (mm/sec),
S = Water surface slope
w
0
= w if w > 2 mm/sec, but
w
0
= 2 mm/sec, if w 2 mm/sec.

If the silt discharge in the water is smaller than the silt-load carrying capacity of the canal, G
< G
0
, no silting will occur.

The above equation applies only to unlined canals free from aquatic growths, to discharges
from 0.2 to 150 m
3
/sec and if V > 0.3 m/sec, w < 10 mm/sec and G < 5 kg/m
3
.

For approximate values of permissible velocities M.M. Grishin suggest the equation,

2 . 0
AQ V =
Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
4
With the following values of coefficient A;

w (mm/sec) < 1.5 1.5 3.5 > 3.5
A 0.33 0.44 0.55

Defining d
0
as the decisive size of screen opening on which 25% of the weight of the natural
bed material will be hold. The simple relationship between the diameter d
0
(cm) thus defined
and the limiting tractive force T
f
(kg/m
2
) is plotted in the Figure.

Curve A represents the limit state of degradation, while curve B should be used for safe
design. Considering the two curves more closely, the relationship can be reduced with
sufficient accuracy to,

( ) ( ) cm d m kg T
f 0
2

Computing the value of tractive force in (kg/m
2
) from the equation,

hS hS T
f
1000 = = (kg/m
2
)

h = Water depth,
S = Slope of water surface.

The screen opening parameter d
0
in cm concerning to the scaling in the limit state of erosion
under the action of the given force. This force T
f
is, therefore, referred to as the limiting force
for the bed constructed in the material characterized by the parameter d
0
. Multiplying the
decisive parameter considered to the limiting force by 1.25, the curve B suggested for design
purposes is obtained by the safety factor = 1.25.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
5
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) cm d m kg T
cm d m kg T
f
f
0
2
0
2
8 . 0
25 . 1

Figure. Flushing of the power canal

Installing a gated spillway of suitable arrangement instead of an overfall weir, a periodical
flushing of deposited silt from the power canal and especially from the downstream reaches
can be accomplished. In long canals several sluices may be built for this purpose.

A water depth exceeding 1.5 2.0 meters and a mean velocity of not less than 0.50 m/sec will
be sufficient to prevent the growth of plants.

Example: A power canal with dimensions h = 2.50 m, R = 1.76 m, and S = 0.0001 has a bed
load in the original water course as G = 0.34 kg/m
3
. The mean settling velocity for a 0.08 mm
diameter grain in still water is found to be w = 4.5 mm/sec. The canal is unlined and the
average particle size of the bed material is d
m
= 2 mm.

Solution: Using Table I/27, for an average particle size d
m
= 2 mm, the maximum permissible
mean velocity corresponding to a water depth of 1 m, V
1
= 0.6 m/sec. The correction
coefficient for h = 2.5 m depth is = 1.20. The maximum permissible velocity is,

( ) sec 72 . 0 60 . 0 20 . 1
1
m V V = = =

G
0

w
RSV
w
V
G
0
0
700 =

V = 0.60 m/sec, w = 4.5 cm/sec, w
0
= w (because w > 2 cm/sec), R = 1.76 m, S = 0.0001,

3
0
45 . 0
5 . 4
60 . 0 0001 . 0 76 . 1
5 . 4
60 . 0
700 m kg G =

=

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
6

Since,

0.72 m/sec > 0.60 m/sec

0.34 kg/m
3
< 0.45 kg/m
3

Neither erosion nor silting of the canal is to be feared.

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU
7
LECTURE NOTES XI

HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

Prof. Dr. Atl BULU

Istanbul Technical University
College of Civil Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Hydraulics Division
Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
1
Chapter 11

The Surge Tank

The surge tank is located between the almost horizontal or slightly inclined conduit
and steeply sloping penstock and is designed as a chamber excavated in the mountain.

Surge tanks serve as a threefold purpose;

1. Upon the rapid closure of the turbine, water masses moving in the pressure
tunnel and in the penstock are suddenly decelerated. Owing to the inertia of
moving masses, F = ma, high overpressures develop at the lower end of the
penstock, which are propagating upwards in the penstock in the form of
pressure wave. The magnitude of the so-called water hammer, caused by the
moving masses by closure, will depend upon the dimensions and elastic
properties of the conduit. The overpressure due to water hammer travels along
the closed conduit and is not relieved until a free water surface is reached.

An important function of the surge tank can be summarized like this. The
turbines to the reservoir is practically interrupted by the surge tank to prevent
the pressure wave due to the water hammer at the free water surface and to
free the pressure tunnel from excessive pressures.

2. The surge provides protection to the penstock against damage of water
hammer. The overpressure depends upon the length of the penstock (the
closed conduit). The surge tank, by interrupting the closed system of the
penstock and of the pressure tunnel, reduces the overpressure due to water
hammer.

3. The third purpose of the surge tank is to provide water supply to the turbines
in case of starting up. The amount of water required during these changes in
operating conditions is supplied by the surge tank installed in the conduit. The
capacity thereof should be selected to ensure the required water supply during
the most unfavorable increase in demand, until the water mass in the tunnel
Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
2
has attained the necessary velocity. Air should be prevented from entering the
penstock even in case of the deepest downsurge in the chamber.

The height of the surge tank is governed by the highest possible water level that can be
expected during operation. Variations in demand initiated by a rapid opening or closure
of the valve or turbine are followed with a time lag by the water masses moving in the
tunnel. Upon the rapid and partial closure of the valve following a sudden load decrease,
water masses in the penstock are suddenly decelerated, and one part of the continuous
supply from the tunnel fills the surge tank. The water surface in the surge chamber will
be raised to above static level. In case of rapid opening, the flow in the tunnel is smaller
than the turbine demand to supply water to the turbine. The water surface in the chamber
will start to drop to below of the steady-state level. To establish steady-flow conditions,
the water surface will again start to rise from the low point, but owing to the inertia of
moving water, will again rise over the steady-level. The cycle is repeated all over again
with amplitudes reduced by friction, i.e. the oscillation is damped. The phenomenon
described is the water surface oscillation. The maximum amplitude of water surface
oscillation can be observed when the water demand is suddenly stopped.

A wide variety of types has been developed in practice for the surge tank. According to
the hydraulic design, the following groups can be distinguished.

1. Simple surge tanks designed as basins, which may be provided with overfall.
2. Special surge tanks:

Surge tanks with expansion chambers, which may be provided with overfall.
Surge tank with upper expansion chamber.
Surge tank with lower expansion chamber.
Double-chamber surge tank.

3. Restricted-orifice type (throttled) surge tanks:
Simple restricted-orifice surge tank.
Differential (Johnson type) surge tank.
Double-chamber, restricted-orifice surge tank.

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
3

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
4
Water Surface Oscillations in Simple Surge Tank

The oscillating movement starts as soon as the pressure wave due to a change in the
turbine reaches the surge tank after traveling the length penstock.

Placing manometers at the upper and lower end of the penstock, it will be seen that the
two react differently to sudden changes in turbine discharges. The lower manometer will
be the first to indicate the pressure wave starting from the lower end of the penstock. The
upper manometer will indicate the low-frequency oscillations and will also show the
water level fluctuations at the same cycle with the surge tank. Waves are damped by
roughness conditions.

Figure. Undamped oscillations in the surge tank if frictionless conditions
are assumed in the pressure tunnel

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
5
In the pure theoretical case when no friction is assumed to occur in the pressure tunnel,
the water level in the surge tank is on the same elevation as the reservoir whatever the
discharge of the system is. Therefore, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic levels are identical.
The axis of the undamped oscillation is the hydrostatic (and at the same time
hydrodynamic) equilibrium level. The penstock is supplied through a surge tank from the
frictionless pressure tunnel. The reservoir level may be considered unchanged.

F = Surge tank cross-sectional area,
f = Pressure tunnel cross-sectional area,
l = Pressure tunnel length.

It will be assumed that the time of opening or closure turbine valves is zero
(instantaneous). With the above fundamental assumptions, the expressions for the four
basic cases are given without derivation.

1. Instantaneous total closure from the maximum discharge of Q
0
(so-called

It is evident that the total closure at maximum turbine discharge results in the greatest
possible surges. This highest value of the y
max
surges occurring in the tank upon rejection
of different loads will be distinguished by the notation Y
max
. The flow velocity in the
pressure tunnel for the discharge Q
0
is
f
Q
V
0
0
= .
The absolute value of the widest amplitude in case of the undamped mass oscillation, i.e.
the so-called maximum surge is,

gF
lf
V Y
0 max
= (m)

The departure of the water level from its initial position at any arbitrary time t
(considering the downward branch of the axis y as positive);

t
T
Sin Y y
2
max
= (m)

The varying velocity of water flowing in the pressure tunnel at any time t is,

t
T
Cos V V
2
0
= (m/sec)

At the time t = T/4 (quarter period), the velocity in the tunnel is V = 0, the direction of
the flow in the tunnel changes.

The velocity of the water level in the surge tank is,

t
T
Cos V
F
f
dt
dy 2
0
= (m/sec)

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
6
The time of the total cycle, i.e. the period of the mass oscillation is,

gf
lF
T 2 = (sec)

Example: The pressure tunnel length is l = 10 km with a cross-sectional area of f = 10 m
2

0
= 2 m/sec at a hydroelectric power plant. Cylindrical surge
tank cross-sectional area is F = 100 m
2
. In case of instantaneous closure, compute the
maximum surge height and the period of the oscillation assuming the ideal fluid
(frictionless).

Solution: Maximum surge height,

m
gF
lf
V Y 20 . 20
100 81 . 9
10 10000
2
0 max
=

= =

The period of mass oscillation,

sec 640
10 81 . 9
100 10000
2 2

= =
gf
lF
T

Velocities at the maximum surge height in the tunnel and the surge tank are,

0 160
640
360
2
100
10
0 160
640
360
2
2
sec 160
4
640
4
0
=

= =
=

= =
= = =
Cos
dt
dy
U
Cos t
T
Cos V V
T
t

The water will stop at t = T/4 time for the maximum surge case and will begin to drop in
the tank.

2. The surge amplitude in case of partial instantaneous closure, from the
maximum discharge Q
0
to an arbitrary Q
1
value is,

( )
gF
lf
V V Y
1 0
=
(m)

Where, V
1
= Q
1
/f is the velocity for the reduced discharge. The position of the water
level at any time t is given by the expression,
Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
7

t
T
YSin y
2
=

Velocity in the pressure tunnel is,

( ) t
T
Cos V V V V
2
1 0 1
+ =

Velocity in the surge tank is,

( ) t
T
Cos V V
F
f
dt
dy
U
2
1 0
= =

The period of oscillation is also,

gf
lF
T 2 = (sec)

Example: Using the values given in preceding example, compute the maximum surge for
the closure from maximum discharge Q
0
to 0.5Q
0
.

Solution: The discharge of the full load,

( ) ( ) m
gF
lf
V V Y
m V
m Q Q
m f V Q
10 . 10
100 81 . 9
10 10000
1 2
sec 1
10
10
sec 10 5 . 0
sec 20 10 2
1 0
1
3
0 1
3
0 0
=

= =
= =
= =
= = =

The period of oscillation will not change.

3. Oscillations for the instantaneous partial opening from some discharge Q
1
to
the maximum Q
0
(partial load demand) are given by,

( )
gF
lf
V V Y
1 0
=

The momentary position of the water leveling the surge tank is given by the function,

t
T
YSin y
2
=
Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
8

Velocities can be computed from the following relations,

( )
( ) t
T
Cos V V
F
f
dt
dy
U
t
T
Cos V V V V

2
2
1 0
1 0 0
= =
=

The oscillation period equation is the same.

4. The instantaneous total opening from the rest (Q = 0) to the maximum
discharging capacity of the turbines Q
0
characterized by the following relations.

The maximum surge is equal to the value obtained for total closure,

gF
lf
V Y
0 max
=

The movement of the water surface is,

t
T
Sin Y y
2
max
=

Velocities are obtained as,

t
T
Cos V
F
f
dt
dy
U
t
T
Cos V V V

2
2
0
0 0
= =
=

Water Surface Oscillations in the Surge Tank by Taking Headloss in the Pressure
Tunnel (Damped Oscillations)

The frictional resistance developing along the tunnel will be taken into account and its
damping effect yielding damped oscillations will be dealt with. The only case of damped
mass oscillations for which an exact mathematical solution can be found is the total
closure. For other circumstances only approximate mathematical and graphical methods
are available.

For the examination of instantaneous closure consider the Figure below and notations
used therein. The reservoir is connected with a surge tank of cross-sectional area F, by a
pressure tunnel of cross-sectional area f, and length l, followed by a penstock conveying a
discharge Q
0
. The hydrodynamic-equilibrium water level in the surge tank for this
operating condition is below the hydrostatic level by,
Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
9

Figure

2
0
3 4
2
2
0 0
ln
V
R
V y = =

Where the static level is equal to that in the reservoir, and V
0
= Q
0
/ f. Hence y
0
is the
hydraulic resistance of the tunnel at a flow velocity V
0
. This is the headloss due to the
friction in the tunnel computed by the Manning equation as,

2 1
3 2 2 1
0
3 2
0
1 1

= =
l
h
R
n
S R
n
V

3 4
2 2
0
R
l n V
h =

The resistance factor of the tunnel is,

3 4
2
R
n l
=

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
10

In case of instantaneous opening of turbine valves, the discharge for the turbine cannot
be supplied by the pressure tunnel because of the velocity differences among the pressure
tunnel and penstock. This water volume difference will be supplied by the surge tank
initially so that the water level in the surge tank will drop. Air entrance to the penstock
should not be permitted in order not to cause bursting of the penstock. There should be
minimum water height of 1.50 m over the top of penstock in the surge tank for the
minimum water level which is the case of instantaneous opening of turbines for full load.
In order to be on the safe side, manning roughness coefficient n should be selected high
for concrete lining as n = 0.015 to obtain a higher resistance factor.

Vogt Dimensionless Variables

Tables have been prepared to compute surge amplitudes and periods for the surge tanks
using dimensionless variables.

( )
0
0
2
0
2
0
h
y
x
V
V
z
h
V
F
f
g
l

=
=

=

h
0
= Head loss for the steady flow case (will get negative values since y values are
taken positive for upward direction).

a) Instantaneous full closure case

Forchhmeir has given for the first maximum surge height for steady flow of Q
0
discharge
with h
0

2
1
2
1
2
1
max max
+ =

+ x Ln x

For m = Damping factor,

2
0
0
0
2 2
lfV
h gF
h
m

=

The equation takes the form of,

( ) ( )
0 max max
1 1 1 h m y Ln y + = + +

m dimensional variables are always negative since dimensionless variables are positive
and y direction is taken positive for upward direction with h negative values.
Forchhmeir equation is solved by using the Table.
Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
11

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
12

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
13

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
14

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
15
In order to calculate the other extreme surge values after calculation the first y
max
value,
Braun equations are used.

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 3 4 4
2 2 3 3
1 1 2 2
max max 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
my Ln my my Ln my
my Ln my my Ln my
my Ln my my Ln my
my Ln my my Ln my
+ + = + +
=
+ + = + +
=

The following steps are taken for the solution of the aforementioned equations,

1) dimensionless variable is calculated,
2) y
max
value is computed by Forchhmeir equation by using the Table for (mh
0
) to
get (my
max
) value,
3) After calculation y
max
, the other y surge values are calculated by using above
giving equations and the Table.

b) Partial Closure of the Turbine Valve

Q
0
full load discharge may be reduced to nQ
0
for (n < 1). It will be instantaneous full
closure if (n = 0). Frank`s Table can be used to calculate the surge values for partial
closure. The values in the Table can be defined as,

( )
gf
lF
t
T
t
h
y
x
h gF
f lV

2
0
max
max
2
0
2
0
= =

=

The Table has been prepared for circular simple surge tanks.

Example: An hydroelectric power plant with a design discharge Q = 30 m
3
/sec is fed by
a pressure tunnel with a diameter D = 4 m, length l = 5000 m, and Manning coefficient n
= 0.014. Compute the extreme surge heights for instantaneous full turbine closure in the
surge tank with cross-sectional area F = 150 m
2
,

a) By using Forchhmeir method,
b) By the help of Frank`s table.

Solution:

a) Physical characteristics of the plant are,

2
2 2
57 . 12
4
4
4
m
D
f =

= =

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
16
sec 39 . 2
57 . 12
0 . 30
1
4
0
m
f
Q
V
m
D
R
= = =
= =

( )
78 . 7
60 . 5 150 81 . 9
39 . 2 57 . 12 5000
60 . 5
1
5000 57 . 12 39 . 2
2
2
2
0
2
0
3 4
2
3 4
2 2
0
0
=

=

=
=

= =
h gF
lfV
m
R
l n V
h

( )
( ) ( ) 257 . 0 60 . 5 046 . 0
046 . 0
60 . 5 78 . 7
2 2
0
0
= =
=

=

=
h m
h
m

From the Forchhmeir Table,

mh
0
= 0.25 my
max
= -0.551
mh
0
=0.26 my
max
= -0.559

mh
0
= 0.257 my
max
= -0.557

m y 11 . 12
046 . 0
557 . 0
max
=

=

The first minimum level,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 557 . 0 1 557 . 0 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1
max max 1 1
+ + =
=
Ln my Ln my
my Ln my my Ln my

( ) ( ) 114 . 1 443 . 0 557 . 1 1 1
1 1
= = my Ln my

114 . 0
114 . 1 1
0
0
=
= +
h m
h m

From the Frank`s Table,

mh
0
= 0.11 my
max
= -0.399
mh
0
= 0.12 my
max
= -0.413

mh
0
= 0.114 my
max
= -0.405

m y 80 . 8
046 . 0
405 . 0
1
=

=

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
17
Second maximum level,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
114 . 0
114 . 1 519 . 0 595 . 0 1
405 . 0 1 405 . 0 1 1
1 1 1 1
0
0
0
1 1 2 2
=
= + = +
= +
+ + = + +
h m
h m
Ln h m
my Ln my my Ln my

The same mh
0
value has been obtained coincidentally.

mh
0
= 0.114 my
2
= -0.405

m y 80 . 8
046 . 0
405 . 0
2
= =
Second minimum level,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
065 . 1 1
405 . 0 1 405 . 0 1 1
1 1 1 1
0
0
2 2 3 3
= +
+ + = +
=
h m
Ln h m
my Ln my my Ln my

mh
0
= 0.065 my
3
= -0.318
m y 91 . 6
046 . 0
318 . 0
3
=

=

Third maximum level,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
065 . 1 383 . 0 682 . 0 1
318 . 0 1 318 . 0 1 1 1
0
4 4
= + = +
= + +
h m
Ln my Ln my

mh
0
= 0.065 my
4
= -0.318

m y 91 . 6
046 . 0
318 . 0
4
= =

b) Franks Table will be used for surge calculations for instantaneous closure, n = 0.

36 . 0
78 . 7
1 1
78 . 7 = = =

The first maximum level for n = 0,
35 . 0
1
=

x = -2.24 , = 0.293
40 . 0
1
=

x = 1.88 , = 0.300
36 . 0
1
=

x = -2.17 , = 0.294
Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
18
Oscillation period,
sec 490
57 . 12 81 . 9
150 5000
2 2 =

= =
gf
lF
T

h
0
= -5.60m

( ) ( )
sec 144 490 294 . 0
15 . 12 60 . 5 17 . 2
max
0 max max
= = =
= = =
T t
m h x y

First inflection point,

35 . 0
1
=

x = -0.45 , = 0.520
40 . 0
1
=

x = -0.41 , = 0.525
36 . 0
1
=

x = 0.44 , = 0.521

( ) ( )
sec 255 521 . 0 490
46 . 2 60 . 5 44 . 0
1
1
inf
inf
= =
= =
t
m y

First minimum level,

35 . 0
1
=

x = +1.63 , = 0.797
40 . 0
1
=

x = +1.34 , = 0.805
36 . 0
1
=

x = +1.57 , = 0.799

( )
sec 392 799 . 0 490
79 . 8 60 . 5 57 . 1
1
1
min
min
= =
= =
t
m y

Second inflection point,

35 . 0
1
=

x = 0.256 , = 1.030
40 . 0
1
=

x = 0.218 , = 1.037
36 . 0
1
=

x = 0.248 , = 1.031

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
19
( )
sec 505 031 . 1 490
43 . 1 60 . 5 256 . 0
2
2
inf
inf
= =
= =
t
m y

Second maximum level,

35 . 0
1
=

x = -1.274 , = 1.300
40 . 0
1
=

x = -1.025 , = 1.309
36 . 0
1
=

x = -1.224 , = 1.302

( ) ( )
sec 638 490 302 . 1
13 . 7 60 . 5 274 . 1
2
2
max
max
= =
= =
t
m y

Placing the surge values to the table,

y Forchheimer Frank
y
max
12.11 12.15
y
1
-8.80 -8.79

The values are close for the both methods.

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
20

Table 18. Discharge increase from nQ
0
to Q
0

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
21
c) Instantaneous Opening of the Turbines

The discharge increase to the turbines by instantaneous opening is done from nQ
0
to Q
0

(n < 1). If the turbines are not running, there will be no discharge feeding the penstock
which is (n =0) case. Instantaneous partial opening case may be computed to find out the
surge heights by using Frank`s Table 18.

The column with 0
1
=

## value corresponds to . Since l, f, V

0
2
, F are physical
magnitudes, this corresponds to h
0
= S
0
l 0 which is the ideal fluid case. The x
and values of this column can only be used for ideal fluids which is no friction losses
would occur in the plant.

Example: An hydroelectric power plant with a pressure tunnel of the length l = 5000 m,
diameter D = 4 m, and Manning coefficient n = 0.014 is feeding the turbines. The cross-
sectional area of the cylindrical surge tank is F = 150 m
2
. Calculate the extreme surge
levels by using Frank tables for,

a) Instantaneous discharge increase from 0 m
3
/sec to 10 m
3
/sec,
b) Instantaneous discharge increase from 10 m
3
/sec to 30 m
3
/sec.

Solution:

a) Q
0
= 10 m
3
/sec,

sec 80 . 0
57 . 12
10
1
4
4
4
57 . 12
4
4
4
0
2
2 2
m
f
Q
V
m
D
R
m
D
f
= = =
= = =
=

= =

m
R
l n V
h 63 . 0
1
5000 014 . 0 80 . 0
3 4
2 2
3 4
2 2
0
0
=

= =

( )
12 . 0
87 . 68
1 1
87 . 68
63 . 0 150 81 . 9
80 . 0 57 . 12 5000
2
2
2
0
2
0
= =
=

=

h
V
F
f
g
l

sec 490
57 . 12 81 . 9
150 5000
2 2 =

= =
gf
lF
T

First minimum surge tank level for n = 0 by using Table 18,

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
22
10 . 0
1
=

x = 10.10 , = 0.255
15 . 0
1
=

x = 6.75 , = 0.258
12 . 0
1
=

x = 8.76 , = 0.256

( )
sec 125 256 . 0 490
52 . 5 63 . 0 76 . 8
1
min
= =
= =

m y

First maximum level,
10 . 0
1
=

x = -5.00 , = 0.760
15 . 0
1
=

x = -2.13 , = 0.768
12 . 0
1
=

x = -3.85 , = 0.763

( ) ( )
sec 374 763 . 0 490
43 . 2 63 . 0 85 . 3
1
max
= =
= =

m y

Second minimum level,
10 . 0
1
=

x = 5.80 , = 1.261
15 . 0
1
=

x = 3.15 , = 1.272
12 . 0
1
=

x = 4.74 , = 1.265
( )
sec 620 265 . 1 490
00 . 3 63 . 0 74 . 4
2
min
= =
=

m y

b) Instantaneous discharge increase from Q = 10 m
3
/sec to Q
0
= 30 m
3
/sec.

Q
0
= 30 m
3
/sec , f = 12.57 m
2
, R = 1 m.
( )
m
h
V
F
f
g
l
m
R
l n V
h
m V
78 . 7
60 . 5 150 81 . 9
39 . 2 57 . 12 5000
60 . 5
1
5000 014 . 0 39 . 2
sec 39 . 2
57 . 12
30
2
2
2
0
2
0
3 4
2 2
3 4
2 2
0
0
0
=

=

=
=

= =
= =

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
23
36 . 0
78 . 7
1 1
= =

, 333 . 0
30
10
= = n

Interpolation will be done for the required

1
, and n values using Table 18.
Minimum surge tank level for n = 0.333,
n = 0 35 . 0
1
=

x = 2.96 , = 0.272
n = 0 40 . 0
1
=

x = 2.61 , = 0.276
n = 0 36 . 0
1
=

x = 2.89 , = 0.273
n = 0.5 35 . 0
1
=

x = 1.83 , = 0.297

n = 0.5 40 . 0
1
=

x = 1.06 , = 0.306

n = 0.5 36 . 0
1
=

x = 1.80 , = 0.299
n = 0.333 36 . 0
1
=

x = 2.17 , = 0.290

( )
sec 142 490 29 . 0
15 . 12 60 . 5 17 . 2
1
1
min
min
= =
= =
t
m y

First maximum surge tank level,

n = 0 35 . 0
1
=

x = 0.52 , = 0.817
n = 0 40 . 0
1
=

x = 0.68 , = 0.833
n = 0 36 . 0
1
=

x = 0.55 , = 0.820
n = 0.5 35 . 0
1
=

x = 0.78 , = 0.834
n = 0.5 40 . 0
1
=

x = 0.85 , = 0.853
n = 0.5 36 . 0
1
=

x = 0.79 , = 0.838
n = 0.333 36 . 0
1
=

x = 0.71 , = 0.832

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
24
( )
sec 408 832 . 0 490
98 . 3 60 . 5 71 . 0
1
max
= =
= =
t
m y

Second minimum surge tank level,

n = 0 35 . 0
1
=

x = 1.16 , = 1.345
n = 0 40 . 0
1
=

x = 1.09 , = 1.370
n = 0 36 . 0
1
=

x = 1.15 , = 1.35
n = 0.5 35 . 0
1
=

x = 1.08, = 1.364
n = 0.5 40 . 0
1
=

x = 1.04 , = 1.393
n = 0.333 36 . 0
1
=

x = 1.10 , = 1.36
( )
sec 666 36 . 1 490
16 . 6 60 . 5 10 . 1
2
min
= =
= =
t
m y

Stability Conditions of the Surge Tanks

Stability conditions of the surge tanks were first established by D. Thoma and F. Vogt.
They stated that in order to prevent the development of unstable oscillations the cross-
section of the surge tank should exceed a critical value.

According to the Thoma equation suggested in small oscillations, the limit cross-
sectional area of the surge tank is,

0
2 H g
lf
k F F
thm

= > (m
2
)

k = Factor of safety,
V
0
= Pressure tunnel velocity for the new dynamic equilibrium level, i.e. to the power
output to be succeeded after opening (m/sec),
= Resistance factor of the pressure tunnel (sec
2
/m),
l = Length of the tunnel (m),
H
0
= H V
0
2
= H h
0

Substituting the damping factor m,

lf
gF
m
2
=

The minimum value of head succeeding surge stability in case of a given cross-sectional
area F of the surge tank is,
Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
25

m
k
H
g
mlf
H g
klf
F
=
= =
0
0
2 2

Assuming local headlosses can be neglected with respect to friction losses, and with the
substitution,

2
0
3 4
2
0
3 4
3 4
2
2 2 n gH
f R
k
l n gH
lfR
k F
R
l n
thm
= =
=

Is obtained, which can be simplified in case of a circular pressure tunnel cross-section, R
= D/4 as hydraulic radius, f = D
2
/4 cross sectional are, to the form of,

2
0
3 4
2 3 4
62 . 19 4 4 n H
D D
k F

=

2
0
3 10
160 n H
D
k F =

A safety factor k of 1.5 to 1.8 may be adopted.

As can be seen from the equation, the lower the friction factor , the larger the cross-
sectional area of the surge tank. Limit values of F are thus obtained by simultaneous
assumption of the highest safety factor k and lowest Manning coefficient n. Substituting
the pairs of values k = 1.5, n = 0.014 as well as k = 1.8, n = 0.0106, we obtain,

0
3 10
0
3 10
2 2
0
3 10
0
3 10
2 1
100
0106 . 0 160
8 . 1
50
014 . 0 160
5 . 1
H
D
H
D
F
H
D
H
D
F

=

2
1
2
=
F
F

In case of a concrete lined pressure tunnel, the deviation depending on the choice of the
friction coefficient n, as well as on the safety factor k, is considerable between extreme
F
2
/F
1
= 2. For a lining carried out with steel, the mean value n = 0.0143 0.0133 may be
applied.

Prof. Dr. A. Bulu
26
For great amplitudes the Thoma equation was modified by Ch. Jaeger, demonstrating
that the safety factor can n0 longer be considered constant. According to Jaeger, the
cross-sectional area necessary for stability should not be less than,

0
2
3 4
0
2 2 H gn
f R
k
H g
lf
k F

= =

For a circular cross-section,

0
2
3 10
160 H n
D
k F

=

The safety factor is,

0
max
482 . 0 1
H
y
k + =

y
max
is the amplitude of the undamped (frictionless) surge.

References

een, K. (1974). Su Kuvvetleri, .T.., naat Fakltesi.

Mosonyi, E. (1963). Water Power Development, Publishing House of the Hungarian