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AUGUST LUDWIG HLSENS CONTRIBUTION

TO THE EMERGENCE OF GERMAN IDEALISM


BETWEEN REINHOLD
AND FICHTE
Ezequiel L. Posesorski
Ezequiel L. Posesorski
Between Reinhold and Fichte
August Ludwig Hlsens Contribution to the Emergence of German Idealism
Europische Kultur und Ideengeschichte
Studien. Band 5
Herausgeber: Bernd Tum, Hans-Peter Schtt
Institut fr Philosophie, Karlsruher Institut fr Technologie (KIT)
Eine bersicht ber alle bisher in dieser Schriftenreihe erschienenen
Bnde fnden Sie am Ende des Buchs.
Between Reinhold and Fichte
August Ludwig Hlsens Contribution
to the Emergence of German Idealism
by
Ezequiel L. Posesorski
KIT Scientifc Publishing 2012
Print on Demand
ISSN: 1867-5018
ISBN: 978-3-86644-861-2
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!or Ariane





Acknovleogements
voulo like to tLank my lamily ano lrienos lor tLeir continuous sup-
port over my researcL perioo.

1Lis essay Las leen originally sulmitteo in lulnllment ol tLe require-
ments lor tLe oegree ol Loctor ol PLilosopLy to tLe PLilosopLy
Lepartment at tLe Lniversity ol Haila. voulo like to express my
Learty gratituoe to my aovisor Lr. !ranz G. auen, vLose invalualle
teacLings, encouragement, guioance, ano support tLrougLout tLe years
enalleo me to oevelop an unoerstanoing ol German ioealism.

ove a lig oelt ol gratituoe to Prol. Lr. Manlreo !rank lor receiving
me as a guest researcLer at tLe lerLaro-Iarls-Lniversitat 1lingen,
ano lor Lis precious aovice ano continuous support. am oeeply tLank-
lul to Prol. Lr. Hans-Peter ScLtt lor Lis constructive suggestions ano
comments, ano lor pullisLing tLis essay in tLe bhf series.

Special tLanks also to Axel Mller ano Baralara BracLmann lor tLeir
innnite Lospitality.

1Le researcL lor tLis oissertation coulo not Lave leen carrieo out
vitLout tLe generous support receiveo lrom tLe Lniversity ol Haila,
tLe Svitzerlano-srael PLilosopLical !uno, ano tLe Bucerius nstitute
lor EesearcL ol Contemporary German History ano Society.




1AB C! CC11S
Acknovleogements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Zusannenjassung / Alstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
ntroouction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1. EeinLolo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
1.1 EeinLolo`s nuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
1.: 1Le Crisis ol Critical PLilosopLy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON
1. 1Le Elenentarplilosoplie: Scientinc Systematicity . . . OS
1. 1Le Elenentarplilosoplie:
A Popular ano Peoagogic Liscipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PQ
1., 1Le Elenentarplilosoplie ano ts Systematic
Conncection vitL tLe History ol PLilosopLy . . . . . . . . . . . PV
1. 1Le Crisis ol tLe Elenentarplilosoplie
ano Hlsen`s SLilt to tLe Wissensclajtslelre . . . . . . . . . . . . . RP
:. !icLte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RV
:.1 !icLte`s nuence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RV
:.: 1Le Bezension des Aenesidenus:
tLe Crigins ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RV
:. 1Le Grundlage der gesannten Wissensclajtslelre:
tLe ooal Points ol !icLte`s Correction ol EeinLolo . . . . SS
:. 1Le Spiritual-maginative oimension
ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TN
:., 1Le Systematic !usion ol MetLoo
ano System ol Inovleoge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TQ
:. 1Le ualitative Completeness
ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TS
:.; 1Le Wissensclajtslelre ano ts Systematic
Connection vitL tLe History ol PLilosopLy . . . . . . . . . . . . . UN
Table oj Contents

:.8 1Le Practical Vocation ol tLe ScLolar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UV
:.p 1Le Spiritual-ormative CLaracter ol
tLe Wissensclajtslelre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VT
Hlsen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NMN
.1 Hlsen`s Preissclrijt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NMN
.: 1Le Morally Aoverse Situation ol Man . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NMS
. 1Le Genesis ol Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NNN
. 1Le Leouction ol ntuitional Eepresentation:
Eational Historicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NNQ
., 1Le Leouction ol tLe !aculty ol ]uogment . . . . . . . . . . . . NOQ
. 1Le Asking-Ansvering MecLanism ol ]uogment . . . . . . NPQ
.; 1Le Crigins ol Systematic PLilosopLy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NQN
.8 1Le Systematic CLaracter ol Partisan Lisputes . . . . . . . . NQP
.p 1Le Concept ol tLe History ol PLilosopLy . . . . . . . . . . . . NRQ
.1o 1Le General-Personal PLilosopLizing 1ask
ol tLe Sell-1Linker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NRV
.11 1Le Concept ol a 1rue Acaoemy ol Sciences . . . . . . . . . . NTO
.1: 1Le Systematic Eeconstruction
ol PLilosopLy`s History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NUM
^ ^
]akol Sigismuno Beck`s Einzignglicler Standpunkt as a
Eeconstructive xample ol a CLapter ol tLe Systematic
History ol PLilosopLy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NUT
^ _
Hlsen`s ile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NVV

BilliograpLy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OMP





ZviscLen EeinLolo uno !icLte:
A. . Hlsen`s Beitrag zur Heraulkunlt oes LeutscLen oealismus
Zusannenjassung
Zvar Lat August uovig e (1;,18op) zur ntsteLung oes
LeutscLen oealismus ntscLeioenoes leigetragen, oocL sein ame uno
sein Werk sino oen meisten GeleLrten, oie oieses !elo leackern, lis aul
oen Leutigen 1ag last ganzlicL unlekannt. Liese Arleit oiskutiert oie
ListoriscLe Beoeutung von es Prjung der zon der Akadenie
der Wissensclajten zu Berlin aujgestellten Preisjrage Was lat die Meta-
pl,sik seit Leibniz und Wolj jr Progressen genaclt: (1;p), seiner ein-
zigen BucLpullikation, oie zur ntsteLung oes LeutscLen oealismus
leigetragen Lat uno im lesonoeren zum Lenken von o uno
c vaLreno oer 1;poer ]aLre.
LllicLerveise viro oie Wissensclajtslelre uno mit iLr oie Heraul-
kunlt oes LeutscLen oealismus als cs Antvort aul oie von
pJ^ gegen os lrLe Elenentarplilosoplie
erLolenen skeptiscLen invanoe in oen Blick gerckt. Liese Ant-
vort var inoes, vie c seller 1;p8 lemerkt Lat, veit oavon ent-
lernt vollstanoig zu sein. Meine 1Lese ist, oa e als !icLteaner
geraoe jene Aspekte von os System zu restrukturieren uno
neu zu legrnoen sucLte, oie c seller unlerLrt gelassen Latte:
im lesonoeren os naLezu vergessenen ntvurl einer rationa-
len GescLicLte oer PLilosopLie. 1;p; naLm c oie rgelnisse, oie
e erzielt Latte, zum Anla, oessen ScLrilt in oen Annalen des
plilosoplisclen Tons als inlLrung in seine Wissensclajtslelre zu
empleLlen. Las ist, vie mir scLeint, ein gutes noiz oalr, oa c
in e einen Partner lei oer Vervollstanoigung seines nocL unvoll-
stanoigen Systems anerkannt Lat. ntsprecLeno lesteLt oie ListoriscLe
Beoeutung von e`s ScLrilt oarin, oa sie cs VersucL kom-
plettiert, oen oscLen Stanopunkt zu lervinoen uno oaourcL
zur ntsteLung oes LeutscLen oealismus leigetragen Lat.



Betveen EeinLolo ano !icLte:
A. . Hlsen`s Contrilution to tLe mergence ol German oealism
Abstract
August uovig e (1;,18op) vas a contrilutor to tLe emer-
gence ol German ioealism. otvitLstanoing, Lis name ano vorks are
up to tLis oay almost entirely unknovn to most scLolars in tLe nelo.
1Lis essay oiscusses tLe Listorical importance ol e`s Prjung der
zon der Akadenie der Wissensclajten zu Berlin aujgestellten Preis-
jrage Was lat die Metapl,sik seit Leibniz und Wolj jr Progressen ge-
naclt: (1;p), Lis only look, lor tLe emergence ol German ioealism,
especially tLe tLougLt ol o ano c ouring tLe 1;po`s.
1Le usual vay ol locusing on tLe Wissensclajtslelre, ano Lence, on
tLe emergence ol German ioealism, is as a response ol c to tLe
skeptical oljections ol pJ^s to o`s early
Elenentarplilosoplie. 1Lis response, as c Limsell recognizeo
in 1;p8, vas lar lrom complete. My tLesis is tLat e, a !icLtean
tLinker, restructureo ano re-grounoeo tLose aspects ol o`s
system tLat c lelt intact: in particular, o`s almost lor-
gotten approacL to tLe rational Listory ol pLilosopLy. n 1;p;, e`s
acLievement prompteo c`s recommenoation ol e`s look
in Annalen des plilosoplisclen Tons as an introouction to Lis Wissen-
sclajtslelre. 1Lis inoicates, Lolo, tLat c recognizeo e as a
partner in tLe oevelopment ol Lis incomplete system. Accoroingly, tLe
Listorical importance ol e`s look is tLat it completeo c`s
attempt to overcome o`s stanopoint ano contriluteo to tLe
emergence ol German ioealism.

1
ntroouction
August uovig Hlsen (1;,-18op) vas a contrilutor to tLe emergence
ol German ioealism. otvitLstanoing, Lis name ano vorks are up to
tLis oay almost entirely unknovn to most scLolars in tLe nelo. Luring
tLe last nve years ol tLe 18tL century, tLe sLort perioo ol time in vLicL
Le vas active, some leaoing German pLilosopLers consioereo Hlsen a
prominent contrilutor to tLe oevelopment ol critical pLilosopLy.
!icLte, vLose stanopoint Hlsen originally sLareo, empLatically re-
commenoeo tLe reaoing ol Hlsen`s only look as an introouction to
tLe Wissensclajtslelre.
1
!icLte`s Plilosopliscles ]ournal, one ol tLe
leaoing German journals ol tLe time, lecame tLe veLicle ol pullication
ol tvo ol Hlsen`s sulsequent sLort essays.
2
!icLte`s recognition ol
Hlsen`s acLievement not only persuaoeo Lim to oller Hlsen to
collalorate vitL Lim at tLe Lniversity ol ]ena,
3
lut also nameo Lim
goolatLer ol Lis son mmanuel Hermann.
4
ScLelling, to vLom Hlsen
vas personally introouceo ly !icLte in 1;p; on tLe occasion ol !icLte`s
nrst personal meeting vitL ScLelling, rateo Hlsen`s look as tLe ex-
pression ol one ol tLose superior spirits tLat so uncommonly excel
in tLe nelo ol pLilosopLy.
5
Alter Hlsen`s oeatL in 181, ScLelling
pullisLeo ano vrote tLe altervoro to Hlsen`s Literarisclen Naclla
in Lis Allgeneine Zeitsclrijt zon Deutsclen jr Deutscle.
6

Hlsen`s vork also receiveo a consioeralle amount ol respect ano
interest lrom tLe early German romantics. !rom 1;p8 ano until 18oo,
alter some signincant cLanges in Lis original pLilosopLical position,

1
See: c ~ -, 1;
2
1Lese vere tLe 1;p; Plilosopliscle Brieje an Hrn. z. Briest in Nennlausen. Erster
Briej. Ueber Popularitat in der Plilosoplie, ano tLe 1;p8 Ueber den Bildungstrieb.
3
See: c 1p;8 ll. , ,1, :;:
4
See: c ~ J, ;
5
See: p 1p;1, :p8
6
Plilosopliscle Fragnente, aus Hlsens literarisclen Naclla, in: e NVTN,
:;-p;. !or ScLelling`s altervoro see: p 1p;1, :p8o:
Introduction
:
Hlsen lecame a contrilutor to tLe Atlenaun.
7
ovalis reacteo to
Hlsen`s look in Lis logologisclen Fragnente. He incluoeo Hlsen
among tLe nve memlers ol tLe pLilosopLical oirectorate ol Germany.
8

!rieoricL ScLlegel ly lar, tLe most entLusiastic early romantic reaoer
ol Hlsen, oescrileo Lis only look in Atlenaun lragment :p, as an
extremely rare vork in pLilosopLy, as a vork in tLe strictest sense
ol tLe voro, tLat is, as a vork ol art, only secono to !icLte in oia-
lectic virtuosity.
9
Cn MarcL :, 1;p8, ScLlegel reporteo to Lis lrotLer
August WilLelm tLat Le consioereo Hlsen a more important pLilo-
sopLer tLan ScLelling.
10
BotL ScLleiermacLer ano August W. ScLlegel
sLoveo interest in Hlsen`s vork ano corresponoeo vitL Lim.
n tLis oissertation only Hlsen`s Preissclrijt, Lis only look, not Lis
later essays in Plilosopliscles ]ournal or in Atlenaun vill le ois-
cusseo, ano Preissclrijt only in so lar as it relates to tLe Listory ol early
German ioealism, especially tLe tLougLt ol EeinLolo ano !icLte ouring
tLe 1;po`s. 1Le importance ol Hlsen`s vritings, incluoing Preissclrijt
lor tLe unoerstanoing ol ScLelling ano Hegel ano tLe early German
romantics, especially !rieoricL ScLlegel, ovalis ano ScLleiermacLer
must le postponeo lor a later occasion.
Preissclrijt relates to tLe ongoing oelate, vLicL legan in tLe 1;po`s
on tLe signincance ol Iant`s acLievement. By tLe eno ol tLe 1;8o`s tLe
Kritik der reinen Vernunjt vas tLe sulject ol intense controversy le-
tveen Iantian ano anti-Iantian pLilosopLers.
11
1Le situation Lao not
cLangeo oramatically ly 1;p:. 1Le ongoing rivalry among tLe con-
tenoing parties prompteo tLe Berlin Acaoemy ol Sciences to intervene.
1Le acaoemy`s intention vas to eno tLe controversies ly lringing
alout pLilosopLical peace.
12
1Le acaoemic autLorities oecioeo to

7
1Lese vere tLe 1;pp Ueber die naturlicle Gleiclleit der Mensclen, ano tLe 18oo
Natur-Betracltungen auj einer Beise durcl die Sclueiz.
8
See: k~I I ,:p, n. :,
9
See: pI ~ , :1-:
10
!or ScLlegel`s letter, see: pI ~ I 11
11
!or tLe controversial situation ol critical pLilosopLy ouring tLe eno ol tLe 1;8o`s,
see: o NVSP, 1-8
12
See: e NTVS, ;
Introduction

organize a pLilosopLical contest. ScLolars vere requesteo to oiscuss tLe
progress tLat Las leen acLieveo in pLilosopLy oue to tLe conict ol tLe
scLools. 1Le acaoemy oemanoeo tLat all oiscussions consioer tvo
lunoamental concepts: (1) Listorical progress ano (:) tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy. 1Le organizers lormulateo tLese tvo requirements unoer
tLe lolloving task-question: WLat progress Las metapLysics acLieveo
since eilniz ano Woll Cnly a lev essays reacLeo tLe organizing
committee. 1Le autLorities oecioeo to postpone tLe contest. A nev
contest vas announceo in 1;p,.
13
1Le secono contest attracteo tLe
attention ol tLe most outstanoing tLinkers ol tLe time incluoing Iant
Limsell, vLo vrote lut oio not sulmit Lis ovn contrilution. Iarl
eonLaro EeinLolo, ]oLann HeinricL AlicLt, ano ]oLann CLristopL
ScLval vere tLe tLree vinners.
14

Hlsen, vLo Lao in 1;p: alreaoy planneo to take part ol tLe event,
seems to Lave Lanoeo in Lis essay lor tLe secono 1;p, contest. Hlsen`s
paper reacLeo tLe organizing committee some time alter tLe stipulateo
oeao line.
15
n 1;p, Hlsen aooeo a prelace ano a supplementary
section to Lis manuscript ano translormeo it into a look. t appeareo in
print unoer tLe title Prjung der zon der Akadenie der Wissensclajten
zu Berlin aujgestellten Preisjrage Was lat die Metapl,sik seit Leibniz
und Wolj jr Progressen genaclt: in 1;p, ]. !. HammericL, Altona.
Hlsen vrote Preissclrijt unoer tLe strong inuence ol !icLte`s early
ioealism.
16
!icLte taugLt tLat critical or scientinc pLilosopLy (Wissen-

13
See: c 1p1, :
14
!or ScLval, EeinLolo ano AlicLt`s essays see: p~LoL^
NVTN
15
See: h :oo1, :8;-8
16
xisting researcL on Hlsen`s acLievement is cursory. 1Le most extensive stuoies
ol it are:
. neine Plilosoplie ist kein Bucl August Luduig Hlsen (1,18o,), Leben
und Sclreiben eines Selbstdenkers und S,nplilosoplen zur Zeit der Frl-
ronantik (:oo1) ly LlricL hI
August Luduig Hlsen und der Bund der jreien Manner (1p1) ly Willy cJ
,
August Luduig Hlsen Seine Sclrijten und seine Bezielungen zur Bonantik
(1p1o) ly Iarl l~.
Introduction

sclajt) must le sell-conscious ol itsell ano not Lave Liooen or unustied
premises. Hlsen`s position vas tLat one sLoulo make an inquiry into
tLe transcenoental possilility ol grounding ano solzing tLe prize-
question s,stenaticall,, a point tLat tLe Acaoemy ol Sciences in its
announcement completely overlookeo. Hlsen also stresseo tLe spirit
(as opposeo to tLe letter) ol !icLte`s early ioealism. Cne ol Hlsen`s
major purposes vas to grouno systematically tLe Listorical intellectual
process tLat leo to tLe Wissensclajtslelre. At a certain stage ol Lis tran-
scenoental oeouction, Hlsen injects an inlerent tenporal dinension
to !icLte`s logical-d,nanic a priori concept ol rationality. !or !icLte
tLe transcenoental system ol all knovleoge is an ezer-existing s,sten.
Wlat takes place in tine is tle plilosopler's personal selj-reectize
articulation or derization. 1Le rational leing creates Lis ovn system,
!icLte Lolos, ly lolloving tLe supra-listorical prooucing course ol
action ol tLe Alsolute . Hlsen expanoeo !icLte`s antinomic concept
ol reason into a Listorically oeveloping agent. Hlsen`s position vas
tLat a system ol knovleoge is sinultaneousl, produced and articulated

Manlreo c~`s Unendlicle Annalerung (1pp8), Allreo i~~ Mora-
liscle Verbindliclkeit oder Erzielung (1pp1), Lieter h~`s unpullisLeo Ge-
sclicltsplilosopliscle Ansatze in der Frlronantik (1p;;), Helmut d`s
Die Dijjerenz des cltesclen und legelsclen S,stens in der legelsclen Dijje-
renzsclrijt (1p,), ano Euooll e~`s Die ronantiscle Sclule (18;o) oeoicate
some pages to tLe oiscussion ol Hlsen`s system. Preissclrijt is also tLe topic
ol tLe lolloving articles:
August Luduig Hlsens erster Beitrag zur plilosoplisclen Frlronantik
(1pp8) ly Guioo k~,
Geselligkeit und absolutes Sein (1ppo) ly CLristopL g~,
Ansatze des Prinzips der Einleit zon Logisclen und Historisclen in Uber-
gangsjeld der cltesclen Transzendentalplilosoplie zun obektizen Idealis-
nus ].G. FiclteA.L. Hlsen (1p8) ly Ilaus c ano ]rgen p~,
Das ronantiscle Bild der Plilosopliegescliclte (1p:) ly Hans e.
Passing relerences to Preissclrijt are also louno in Dinensionen der Transzen-
dentalplilosoplie (1ppo) ly Stellen a, Was soll die Sclueiz den Atle-
naun (1p88) ly !rieoricL p~, Gescliclte der kant'sclen Plilosoplie (1p8;)
ly Iarl o~, August Luduig Hlsen 1,18o, (1p8) ly CLristian
q, Hlsens idealistiscle Bonantik (1p;p) ly Martin l, ano Studien
zur Wirkungsgescliclte Ficltes als Padagoge (1p;o) ly Euooll i~~.
Introduction
,
in tine. System to Hlsen appears as tLe nnal selj-reectizel, dezeloped
outcome ol a unizersal listor, oj reason, tLe necessary enoing cLapter
ol vLicL contains tle entire listor, oj plilosopl,. Hlsen vas tLe nrst
post-Iantian ioealist pLilosopLer to resort to a logical metLoo laseo on
tLe resolution ol contraoictions to explain tLe causation ol Listorical
events. Hlsen`s inquiry into tLe systematic possilility ol grounoing
ano solving tLe prize-question pusLes tLe topic intenoeo ly tLe acaoemy
into tLe lackgrouno. His Listorically augmenteo version ol !icLte`s
system is Lis central topic.
17
AltLougL Hlsen`s ovn approacL mainly
concentrates on tLe systematization ol tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy, it also
contains lriel explanations lor tLe emergence ol otLer rational-Listorical
events sucL as mytLological tLougLt, tLe estallisLment ol tLe lamily,
ano tLe genesis ol social lonos.
18

n tLe prelace to Preissclrijt, Hlsen claims tLat Le Lao sketcLeo
ioeas lor a systematic approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy in 1;p:.
1Lree years later, Lovever, Hlsen`s lasic premises Lao unoergone a
raoical cLange. By 1;p,, Hlsen vas lamiliar vitL !icLte`s early ioea-
lism. AltLougL Hlsen claims in Lis prelace ol 1;p tLat many ol Lis
early ioeas Lao not surviveo tLis raoical cLange,
19
in tLe supplementary
section ol Preissclrijt Le makes a numler ol statements revealing Lis
early pLilosopLical convictions. WLat tLese statements oisclose is tLe

17
1Le systematization ol tLe rational Listory ol pLilosopLy vas tLe topic ol some
essays vritten earlier tLan Preissclrijt. 1Le most prominent among tLese vorks
are o`s Ueber den Begrij der Gescliclte der Plilosoplie Eine akade-
niscle Vorlesung (1;p1), Salomon j~`s Uber die Progressen der Pliloso-
plie (1;p), ano WilLelm Gottliel q~`s Uebersiclt des Vorzgliclsten,
uas jr die Gescliclte der Plilosoplie seit 1,8o geleistet uorden (1;p,). WLat
oistinguisLes Preissclrijt lrom its lorerunners is tLe innovative possilility ol
logical-Listorical progress.
18
AltLougL tLere is no oirect evioence tLat Hlsen inuenceo ScLelling ano Hegel
on any ol tLe points oiscusseo in tLis paragrapL, tLe Listory ol ioeas coulo still
recoro e Preissclrijt as a preoecessor ol p S,sten des tran-
scendentalen Idealisnus ano ol e Planonenologie des Geistes. 1Le ois-
cussion ol tLese interesting topics, Lovever, transcenos tLe limits ol tLis
monograpL.
19
See: e NTVS, pp, -
Introduction

sulstantial role tLat Iarl eonLaro EeinLolo, one ol Hlsen`s pLilo-
sopLy teacLers,
20
playeo in Lis pLilosopLical eoucation. n tLe appenoix
ol Preissclrijt, Hlsen argues tLat Le spent many years stuoying Eein-
Lolo`s vritings. His teacLer`s tLougLts, Le aoos, guioeo Lim in Lis
carelul reaoing ol Iant`s Kritik. Cving to EeinLolo`s pLilosopLy, Hl-
sen improveo Lis unoerstanoing ol tLe spirit ol critical pLilosopLy.
EeinLolo`s concept ol critical systematicity, ano Lis systematic approacL
to tLe rational Listory ol pLilosopLy, seemeo to satisly Hlsen`s early
oemanos.
21
Cne ol my lasic conclusions is tLat Hlsen`s acquaintance
vitL !icLte`s early ioealism lrougLt alout a signincant retLinking ol
many ol tLese early convictions lut not tLeir complete rejection.
22
n tLe
appenoix ol 1;p, Hlsen stresseo tLat EeinLolo`s early Elenentar-
plilosoplie playeo a signincant inuential role in tLe articulation ol Lis
Listorically enlargeo Wissensclajtslelre. Hlsen vrites:
Hierin [i.e., in EeinLolo`s pLilosopLy| liegt berlaupt das Prinzip jr alle
Gescliclte der Plilosoplie. Die Plilosplie als Wissensclajt ist das reine
Selbsterkenntniss in uns. Dieses in seiner enpirisclen Entuickkelung unter-
suclt giebt uns den Geist aller Zeiten und einzelnen Selbstdenker. Beinlold
sale sclarjer als irgend einer der Kantianer seiner Periode. Er jasste den
Begrijj eines S,stens und uandte iln an auj die Vernunjtkritik. Da leucltete
iln ein, uas nocl inner nur uenigen einleuclten uill, dass das keine Plilo-
soplie als Wissensclajt se,. Diese klare Einsiclt braclte iln zu Versuclen
und der Genius der Plilosoplie konnte iln niclt besser jlren, als dadurcl,
dass er iln auj die Tleorie des Beuusstse,ns jlrte. Beinlold jorderte Ein-
leit [i.e., critical systematicity|, und dadurcl braclte er einen neuen Geist in
das Studiun der Kritik.
23

xisting researcL ol Preissclrijt ooes not oiscuss EeinLolo`s signincant
inuence on Hlsen. An aoequate exposition oemanos, in my opinion,
not only a very specinc survey ol !icLte`s early ioealism, lut also a
scrutiny ol tLose relevant aspects ol EeinLolo`s pLilosopLy tLat con-

20
n 1;p, Hlsen enrolleo at tLe Lniversity ol Iiel, vLere EeinLolo vas pro-
minent.
21
See: e NTVS, 1pp-:oo
22
n 1;p,, Hlsen moveo to ]ena ano lecame a stuoent ol !icLte.
23
e NTVS, 1p8
Introduction
;
oitioneo Hlsen`s stanopoint. vill attempt to prove tLat Hlsen vas
not only anotLer oevotee ol !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre. 1LrougL tLe
ioealistic inuence ol !icLte, Hlsen restructureo ano grounoeo many
unjustineo or ratLer uncritically estallisLeo aspects ol EeinLolo`s sys-
tem: in particular, Lis systematic approacL to tLe rational Listory ol
pLilosopLy. 1Lus, Hlsen succeeoeo in ollering nev solutions to some
ol EeinLolo`s main concerns. t is in tLis context, as ve sLall see, tLat
Hlsen`s Preissclrijt emerges as a still unnoticeo, tLougL consioerally
relevant contrilution to tLe emergence ol German ioealism.
1Le usual vay to locus on tLe Wissensclajtslelre, ano Lence, on tLe
emergence ol German ioealism, is as a systematic response ol !icLte
to tLe skeptical oljections ol ScLulze-Aenesioemus to EeinLolo`s
Elenentarplilosoplie.
24
!icLte`s response, as Le Limsell recognizeo
in 1;p8, vas lar lrom complete.
25
n tLe prelace to tLe 1;p-, Grund-
lage der gesannten Wissensclajtslelre !icLte relers to Lis system as a
plan. !icLte vrites tLat Le ooes not tell everytLing to Lis reaoer, tLat Le
visLes to leave Lim sometLing to tLink alout, tLat Le encourages
inoepenoent tLougLt, ano Lopes tLat on lurtLer consioeration, parts ol
Lis system continue to cLange ano renev tLemselves. 1Le plan ol tLe
Grundlage, !icLte aoos, sLoulo provioe tLe reaoer vitL a complete
viev ol lou to erect jurtler s,stenatic construction upon its joun-
dations. Suggestions lrom otLer pLilosopLical autLors, Le concluoes,
are velcome.
26
Hlsen pickeo up tLis gauntlet. Hlsen oirects Lis
ellorts at rearticulating ano oeveloping some signincant, tLougL criti-
cally oencient aspects ol EeinLolo`s system tLat !icLte lelt almost
intact. Hlsen`s Listorical enlargement ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre is an
attempt to nll tLe empty spaces lelt ly !icLte`s incomplete re-
articulating ol EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie. 1races ol !icLte`s
intention to oevelop tLe Listorical oimension ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre

24
t sLoulo le recalleo tLat tLe amenoment ol some Iantian positions, as vell as
tLe skeptical oljections poseo to Iant ly Salomon Maimon, playeo an important
role in !icLte`s re-structuring ol critical pLilosopLy. 1Le oiscussion ol tLese
interesting topics, Lovever, transcenos tLe limits ol tLis monograpL.
25
See: cI ~I JOI 1:
26
See: cI ~ JOI :,:-
Introduction
8
are louno in tLe so-calleo Progrannsclrijt, i.e., tLe 1;p essay in
vLicL !icLte outlineo tLe program ol Lis lortLcoming system.
27

BotL !icLte ano Hlsen agree tLat tLe concept ol tLe Wissensclajts-
lelre is not a literal lut a spiritual concept, a stanopoint tLat oe-
manos personal ano independent explanation, or ratLer selj-adaptable
nornatize conpletion ol its critical plan.
28
Hlsen ooes not consioer Lis
oivergent inclusion ol an inLerent temporal oimension in !icLte`s
a priori concept ol rationality as a step leyono tLe Wissensclajtslelre.
or oio it seem to le sucL to !icLte, vLo in Lis 1;p; Annalen des
plilosoplisclen Tons comes to Hlsen`s oelence against an Lostile
reviever, ano rates Lis Preissclrijt as Eine Sclrijt, die icl zur Er-
leiclterung des Studiuns der Wissensclajtslelre reclt selr enpjellen
kann.
29
AltLougL in some specinc aspects tLe positions ol Hlsen ano
!icLte oo not entirely concoro, tLey lotL mutually reler to eacL otLer
as oevelopers ol tLe same pLilosopLical project. !icLte`s ioentincation
ol Preissclrijt vitL tLe Wissensclajtslelre inoicates tLat Ficlte reco-
gnized Hlsen as a partner in tle dezelopnent oj lis inconplete s,sten.
1Le Listorical importance ol Hlsen`s acLievement is tLat it conpleted
Ficlte's attenpt to ozercone Beinlold's standpoint, and contributed to
tle energence oj Gernan idealisn. 1Lis point Las leen entirely over-
lookeo ly scLolars.
Hlsen legins Lis inquiry in Preissclrijt ly oiscussing tLe Luman
conoition. Eesistance to moral perlection cLaracterizes tLe Listory ol
Lumanity. ature ano tLe rational leing are engageo in a persisting
leterononous relation ol selj-contradiction. AltLougL Lumanity Las
alreaoy acLieveo critical or scientinc knovleoge in tLe Wissensclajts-
lelre, most pLilosopLers ignore tLis acLievement. gnorance ol critical
knovleoge is tLe cause leLino tLe rational leing`s Listorical inalility
to oetermine Lis vill autononousl,. 1Le Wissensclajtslelre taugLt tLat
moral improvement oemanos personal striving alter sell-conscious

27
vill oiscuss tLis topic in section :.;.
28
1Lis, as lar as knov, is an unnoticeo aspect ol !icLte`s tLougLt. vill oiscuss it
in section :.p.
29
cI ~ JOI 1;
Introduction
p
oetermination or selj-identit,. Hlsen argues tLat sell-interest, vLicL is
commonly calleo selnsLness, or ignorance ol critical knovleoge gives
vent to a vioespreao state ol pLilosopLical controversies. 1Le latter take
place among oillerent oisputing parties or sects. 1Leir exclusive olject
ol oispute is tLe true universal concept ol pLilosopLy. one ol tLese
rival lactions can critically exLaust tLe oerivation or justincation ol
tLeir respective lounoational premises, lor Hlsen a key oistinctive
leature ol true pLilosopLy. gnorance ol critical knovleoge results in
tLe simultaneous mistaken assertion ol tLe particular stanopoints ol all
tLese parties as tLe exclusive unizersal representatives ol tLe only true
possille pLilosopLy, ano Lence, tLeir irreconcilalle oisputes. nsigLt
into tLe nature ol oisputes reveals tLat all rival lactions sLare a
common implicit goal: pLilosopLy must le a scientinc oiscipline.
1Lis means lor Hlsen tLat all lactions tacitly argue in lavour ol tLe
overcoming ol tLe state ol oisputes. ov, tLis Listorical state ol dis-
crepanc, or disunit, vorsens Lumanities` moral situation. !or it
prevents an integratize coordination among contenoing rivals. 1Le
recognition ol tLe universal stanopoint ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre, ol tLe
true possilility ol increasing sell-oetermination, not only enalles a
oramatic improvement ol tLe moral situation ol man. l unoerstooo, it
enalles a unizersal consensus as to tLe unoisputalle concept ol
pLilosopLy, tLe practical result ol vLicL vill le a selj-deternined
inprozenent ol tLe communal relations ol man.
1Le purpose ol Hlsen`s Preissclrijt is peoagogic. Hlsen`s main
intention is to teacL Lis reaoer Lov to acLieve moral perlectilility
tLrougL sell-oetermineo cooroinateo consensus. !or tLis, a recon-
struction oj tle s,stenatic possibilit, oj consciousness is neeoeo. Hlsen
proves tLat tLe pLilosopLical knovleoge attaineo in tLe Wissensclajts-
lelre is tLe accurate tool lor acLieving tLis moral goal. ts sell-
oetermining insigLt, opens up tLe roao lor a sell-conscious unoer-
stanoing ol tLe elncacy ol nature (ot-) as an unenoingly sell-positeo
proouct ol reason. ts universality, assures an exclusive ano tLerelore
unquestionable pLilosopLical position. 1Le Wissensclajtslelre con-
sequently enalles a vitLoraval lrom tLe spLere ol partisan oisputes,
namely tLe acLievement ol exLaustive pLilosopLical consensus.
Introduction
1o
Hlsen sLares !icLte`s alsolute Lolistic point ol oeparture. Hlsen,
like !icLte, is committeo to tLe contention tLat pLilosopLy must le
laseo on a single nrst principle. Hlsen Lovever Lolos tLat lrom a
certain stage on, tLe system ol all knovleoge ceases to le a purely a
priori or supra-listorical system. t emerges as tLe necessar, outcone ol
a sinultaneous rational-tenporal process oj practical-tleoretical dezelop-
nent, tLe closing cLapter ol vLicL steps tLrougL tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy. 1Le critical reconstruction ol reason`s Listory ano ol its
concluoing cLapter is Hlsen`s vay to justily (1) tLe necessary
emergence as vell as (:) tLe consensual overcoming ol tLe morally ao-
verse epocL ol partisan oisputes. 1Le acLievement ol moral perlection
in tLe lroao sense ol tLe voro emerges as tLe true ano inevitalle
spiritual-Listorical vocation (Bestinnung) ol man.
Hlsen`s reconstruction ol Luman consciousness is: reason, a oy-
namic Geist, is in its original supra-Listorical moment a purely or
alsolutely sell-positeo agent, lotL its alsolute positing ano leing
coincioe. ua pure reason, reason immeoiately appears to itsell as a
sell-ioentical agent. 1Le emergence ol consciousness (meoiation)
Lovever oemanos tLat tLis original ioentity le limiteo or counter-
positeo. Hlsen Lence Lolos tLat in its original proto-conscious
moment, reason cannot recognize itsell as tLe universal sell-oetermineo
source ol its alsolutely sell-positeo leing. ts pure immeoiacy prevents
it lrom acLieving real autonomy. 1Lat compels pure reason to oevelop
a system ol knovleoge. 1LrougL it, reason vill try to return to itsell,
acLieve a nediated sell-positing ol itsell as reason, ano attain tLerely
critical sell-oetermining knovleoge ol its originall, ano autononousl,
sell-positeo leing. 1Le innate sell-pursuing, ano Lence sell-reective
nature ol reason`s practical-tLeoretical activity, oetermines tLe ne-
cessar, circular-teleological cLaracter ol its entire course ol oevelop-
ment.
Eeason`s next step is to oppose a oetermining ot- to itsell.
MetLooical consioerations reveal tLat tvo aooitional simultaneous
proceoures are necessary to proceeo vitL tLe construction ol tLe tran-
scenoental system ol knovleoge: (1) counter-positing ano (:) syntLesis.
Cne ol tLe ensuing results ol tLeir estallisLment is tLe concrete
Introduction
11
emergence ol tLe imaginative alility ol intuitional representation. !or
Hlsen tLe system ol all knovleoge cannot le oevelopeo in abstracto.
t is tLis actuall, dezeloped tLeoretical alility to sell-limit itsell tLrougL
tLe practical sell-positing ol a spatiotenporal deternining obect, vLicL
oetermines reason's abandonnent oj its pure supra-listorical splere and
its inezitable entrance into tle enpirical realn oj listorical dezelopnent.
Eeason nov emerges as a necessary logical-listorical oeveloping agent.
Pure reason is translormeo into enpirical or progressing reason
(enpiriscle or jortsclreitende Vernunjt). 1Le actual proceoure ol sell-
limitation results in a simultaneous translormation ol reason into a
unizersall, selj-particularizing agent. 1Lus, tLe transcenoental grouno
ol all indiziduation is estallisLeo. !rom tLis stage on, tLe general
oeveloping Listory ol reason coincioes vitL tLe epistemic Listorical oe-
velopment ol tLe concrete inoivioual.
Eeason nrst appears in Listory as a conoitioneo representing leing
(zorstellendes Wesen). ts empirical stanopoint is cLaracterizeo ly
a leterononous oetermination ol concrete obectizit,, tLat is, ly a ot-
tLat is not yet perceiveo as a suljectively sell-positeo olject. Pro-
gressing reason`s next step is to resort to tLe spontaneous sell-
reecting activity ol tLe imagination, ano legin tLe logical-Listorical
construction ol a laculty ol juogment. 1Lis transcenoental laculty,
juogment, enalles tLe rational leing to recognize, oiscursively, tLe
tLeoretical elncacy ol tLe ot- as its ovn practically sell-positeo
proouct. xpanoing tLe spLere ol its sell-oetermining activity, tLe
rational leing lrees Limsell lrom Lis nrst Leteronomous Listorical
situation. 1Le activity ol tLe imagination makes possille sell-reecting
in concreto on an intuiteo olject. Progressing reason accoroingly
sulsumes tLe concrete stage ol intuitional representation unoer its lree
sell-positing pover. t so oetermines tLe grouno ol tle rst real
possible discursize knouledge. Progressing reason estallisLes all sul-
sequent transcenoental levels ol tLe laculty ol juogment ly repeating
tLis concrete sell-reective proceoure. 1Le tLree correlative oiscursive
steps tLat progressing reason takes are tLe: (1) positing ol concrete
oljective reality (tLetic juogment), (:) counter-positing ol concrete ol-
jective reality (anti-tLetic juogment), ano () syntLesis ol concrete
Introduction
1:
oljective reality (syntLetic juogment). acL one ol tLese concretely
taken steps oetermines a logical-Listorical epocL in tLe oiscursive
intellectual oevelopment ol Lumanity.
1Le laculty ol juogment lurnisLes tLe grouno ol tle rst real discursize
s,ntlesis. 1Lus, tLe transcenoental possilility ol s,stenatic tlouglt is
estallisLeo. Humanity is nov alle to start tLe alorementioneo lreeing
ascenoing systematization (oiscursive sell-sulsuming ano unincation)
ol tLe coercive action ol tLe ot-. 1Le task ol systematization, tLe
logical-Listorical result ol vLicL vill le critical or scientinc knovl-
eoge, takes place tLrougL tLe concrete accumulative repetition ol tLe
juoging stages ol tLesis, anti-tLesis, ano syntLesis. acL nev juoging
stage appears as a LigLer sell-positeo lorm ol systematic tLougLt. Ac-
coroingly, eacL concrete systematic syntLesis results in a LigLer concrete
systematic tLesis, tLe concrete counter-positing ol vLicL takes place
tLrougL an ensuing systematic anti-tLesis. ualitatively, tLe logically-
Listorically active laculty ol juogment cannot oevelop any lurtLer.
!or Hlsen juogments or ratLer tLe concretely oeveloping systema-
tic positions enalleo ly tLem, are more tLan mere logical-Listorical
acts ol oiscursive sell-positing. very possille juogment simultaneous-
ly expresses a constitutize procedure ol asking-ansuering, a conclusion
tLat Hlsen reacLes alter a preliminary inquiry into tLe essential nature
ol questions ano ansvers. All oiscursive selj-reectize stages ol tLis
oeveloping system emerge as ansvereo questions, or ratLer as selj-
posited question-ansuer-standpoints ol progressing reason. As in tLe
case ol juogment, every concrete syntLetic question-ansver-stanopoint
results in a LigLer concrete tLetic question-ansver-stanopoint, tLe
concrete counter-positing ol vLicL, takes place tLrougL an ensuing anti-
tLetic question-ansver-stanopoint. 1Le estallisLment ol tLe mecLanism
ol juogment as a simultaneous mecLanism ol asking-ansvering opens a
nev epocL in tLe systematic Listory ol progressing reason: tle listor,
oj plilosopl,. Progressing reason is so translormeo into pLilosopLizing
reason ( plilosoplierende Vernunjt) .
Hlsen`s reconstruction sLovs tLat tLe concrete or oljective oeter-
mining action ol tLe ot- allects pLilosopLizing reason in a numler
ol concrete quantitatize vays. Personal intentionality, a particular or
Introduction
1
oissimilar empirical representation ol reason`s leing, estallisLes tLe
possilility lor tLe articulation ol oillerent pLilosopLical systems. All
systems ol pLilosopLy emerge as ascending ano Lence not entirel, uni-
zersall, deternined juoging attempts ol pLilosopLizing reason at a
oennitive attainment ol critical knovleoge (sell-consciousness). Eacl
represents a partial selj-reecting stage oj practical-tleoretical dezelop-
nent uitlin a single, unizersal, and listoricall, extended attenpt oj
plilosoplizing reason at a production and portra,al oj a s,sten oj
knouledge. MetLooical reconstruction lurtLermore sLovs tLat an
empirically reacLalle, tLougL not lully sell-avare ioeal ol pLilosopLi-
cal perlection orients pLilosopLizing reason`s teleological course ol
evolution tLrougLout tLe epocL ol pre-critical tLougLt.
All systems ol pLilosopLy attain tLe status ol representative stages ol
tLe pLilosopLical progress ol Lumanity as a vLole. 1Le lact tLat tLe
same single unizersal agent strives tLrougL oillerent concrete tLinkers
alter critical knovleoge conlers a collectize cLaracter to eacL possille
particular ellort in a rational Listory ol pLilosopLy. Accoroingly, in
tLeir personal practical strivings, all nnite rational leings meet tLe same
Listorically emerging stanopoints in pLilosopLizing reason`s unizersal
course ol oevelopment. 1Le ongoing practical activity ol a reouceo
numler ol avant-garoe pLilosopLers opens up tLe roao lor tLe sul-
sequent general progress ol tLe Luman species. Progress Lovever
oemanos personal practical reproduction ol tLis avant-garoe pLiloso-
pLizing. 1Le necessarily emerging sell-conscious stanopoint ol critical
pLilosopLy is reproouceo as a personal stanopoint. n principle, to
strive lor onesell is tantamount as to strive lor all otLer rational leings
ano conversely. So tLe systematic possilility lor a simultaneous oe-
velopment ol tLe intellectual Listories ol tLe concrete rational leing
ano Lumanity is consolioateo.
n aooition, reconstructive tLougLt nnos in tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy
logical-Listorical ascenoing ansvers to tLe question ol lou netapl,sics
(or tle s,sten oj all knouledge) is possible. acL personal ansver
emerges vitLin tLe antinomically oeveloping lorm ol a rationally sell-
positeo system ol pLilosopLy.
Introduction
1
1Le Listory ol pLilosopLy is so oivioeo in epocLs. n eacL one ol tLese
epocLs, pLilosopLizing reason syntLetically counter-posits a oetermi-
nate numler ol its ascenoing systems or prooucts. n eilniz`s epocL,
one nnos a s,ntletic counter-positing letveen tLe tleticall, selj-posited
eilnizian systemtLe epocL-making systemano tLe anti-tleticall,
selj-posited systems ol Lis contemporary opponents. acL tLetically
sell-positeo system appears as an unprecedented practical adzancenent
ol pLilosopLizing reason tovaros tLe exLaustive oetermination ol tLe
system ol all knovleoge. 1Letic systems inaugurate nev logical-Listo-
rical stages in tLe rational Listory ol pLilosopLy. 1Ley estallisL LigLer
lorms ol syntLetic unity, tLe sell-reecteo or sell-sulsumeo oljects ol
vLicL are tLe syntLetically given, tLougL not entirely reconcileo
counter-positions ol tLeir preceoing epocLs. Apart lrom tLe universal
ano non-counter-positalle system ol critical pLilosopLy, eacL nev
tLetically positeo system is counter-positeo ly its contemporary op-
ponents, uncritical or non-unizersall, deternined representatizes ol tLe
only true possille science as vell. 1Lis inLerent antinomic situation
compels pLilosopLizing reason to strive lorvaro, ano attempt to acLieve
tLe universal sell-reconciling ioea ol pLilosopLy.
1Le antinomically oevelopeo cLaracter ol all systems ol pLilosopLy
vas until Hlsen an unnoticeo pLenomenon. 1LrougLout its Listory,
pLilosopLizing reason is not a sell-conscious agent. t ooes not grasp
itsell as tLe unizersal relational agent leLino its logical-Listorical pro-
ouction. ts s,ntleticall, counter-positing activity, as Hlsen tries to
sLov, is mistaken lor a non-contextuall, estallisLeo opposition or
contradiction among mutually excluoing systematic positions, vLicL
appear to tLe olserver only as atonic lacts. 1Lat is tLe reason vLy
vLat is louno tLrougLout tLis pre-moral epocL ol Lumanity is a
persisting oissociating state ol pLilosopLical oisputes.
Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe selj-conscious insiglt ol critical pLilosopLy
nrst enalles an uncovering ol tLe universally sell-grounoeo cLaracter
ol pLilosopLizing reason. 1LrougL it, tLe rational leing attains con-
crete tLeoretical knovleoge ol Lov metapLysics or ratLer tLe logically-
Listorically oevelopeo system ol all knovleoge Las leen estallisLeo. He
accoroingly gains insigLt into tLe sell-pursuing (teleological) alility ol
Introduction
1,
striving vLerely reason Las attaineo critical knovleoge. All oisputing
systems nrst appear as relatize selj-posited products, or ratLer as anti-
nonicall, dezeloped stages ol pLilosopLizing reason`s exclusize ano
unizersall, selj-posited system ol pLilosopLy. 1Le epocL ol partisan
oisputes emerges as a Listorical material conoition lor tLe logical pro-
ouction ano articulation ol tLe system ol all knovleoge. 1Le universal
integrative insigLt ol pLilosopLy results in a contextual s,ntlesis, tLe
concrete olject ol vLicL is pLilosopLizing reason`s entire pre-critical
proouction. Eeason tLus suppresses all possille partisan atomicity, a
tLeoretical result ol its multiple ano oisparate course ol practical oe-
velopment, ano tLerely acLieves reconciling selj-unit,.
Accoroing to Hlsen, only tLe logical-Listorical qualitatize evolution
ol tLe system ol all knovleoge, ano Lence ol its inLerently containeo
Listory ol pLilosopLy, is exLausteo vitL tLe emergence ol tLe ois-
tinctive sell-conscious insigLt ol critical pLilosopLy. 1Le regressize
uncovering ol tLe original ano alsolutely sell-grounoeo (reason),
sLovs tLat no aooitional progressize instances ol transcendental or
qualitatize cognition can le aooeo. 1Le logical-Listorical oevelopment
ol tLis qualitative conoitions, is carrieo out, in eacL one ol its concrete
sell-sulsuming stages, tLrougL an ascenoing Lanoling ol a spatio-
temporally expanoing, tLougL ultimately nnite quantity (a ot-) .
WLat oevelop are tLe logical-Listorical conoitions ol tLe system ol
knovleoge lut not tLeir inLerently sell-positeo quantities. 1Lis enalles
tLe systematic proouction ano portrayal in concreto ol tLe unizersal
conditions oj experience, tLat is, tLe transcenoental grounoing ol critical
pLilosopLy. WLat remains is a quantitatize expansion ol tLese qualita-
tive sell-oetermining conoitions lor all possille positeo oljects ol ex-
perience: a necessary ensuing proceoure oemanoeo lor tLe completion
ol tLe sell-sulsuming ol tLe coercive action ol tLe ot-. uantitative
expansion tLerelore is Lumanity`s empirical vay to attempt to reacL
tLe originall,, innediatel,, ano identicall, sell-positeo lounoational
act ol tLe Alsolute , ano tLerely acLieve exLaustive autonomy. 1Le
inexLaustille Lolistic leing ol tLe Alsolute , compels an unenoing
logical-listorical strizing task oj quantitatize selj-deternining approxi-
nation.
Introduction
1
A reviseo Wissensclajtslelre accoroing to Hlsen enalles an inte-
gration ol pLilosopLizing reason`s entire practical proouction vitL tLe
unizersal qualitatize unit, oj reason. All mutually excluoing systems
appear as logical-Listorical oeveloping stages ol a necessarily resulting
reconciling concept ol critical pLilosopLy, vLicL paves tLe vay lor an
innovative s,stenatic articulation ol tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy as tLe
inLerent concluoing cLapter ol tLe logically-Listorically oevelopeo
system ol all knovleoge. 1Le Listory ol pLilosopLy emerges as tLe
science ol tLe lecoming science (die Wissensclajt zon der uerdenden
Wissensclajt). ts sell-reective articulation enalles an accurate repro-
ouction ol pLilosopLizing reason`s entire course ol proouction. 1Le
logical-Listorical epocL ol partisan oisputes is tLe onl, obect ol tLis
concluoing cLapter. eitLer acliezenent oj selj-deternining autonon,,
nor uitldraual jron tle subordinating splere oj partisan disputes, is
possille prior to tLe articulation ol tLe rational Listory ol pLilosopLy.
1Lis task ol articulation is not lulnlleo vitL tLe sell-conscious insigLt
ol a reviseo Wissensclajtslelre. t oemanos tLat a universal concept le
retrospectively employeo as a reconstructive criterion in tLe analytic
evaluation ol eacL logically-Listorically emergeo pre-critical stanopoint.
Since its entrance into tLe realm ol Listorical oevelopment, reason is
translormeo into a universal sell-particularizing agent. PLilosopLy`s
stanopoint is a general-personal expression ol tLe logical-Listorical
activity ol reason. PLilosopLy emerges as a concretel, selj-deternined
manilestation ol tLis practical-tLeoretical activity, vLicL spontaneously
appears to itsell unoer tle necessar, discursize jorn oj a selj-related
spiritual agent. 1Le attainment ol pLilosopLical knovleoge oemanos tLe
personalized perjornance oj a selj-reecting act. Cnly sucL an act assures
tLat tLe only possille content ol pLilosopLy, tLe concretely oevelopeo
system ol knovleoge, emerge as a real content. 1Le universal cLaracter
ol pLilosopLy cannot le oivorceo lrom one`s ovn personalizeo act ol
sell-reection, vitLout vLicL tLe tleoretical cLaracter ol tLe lormer is
reouceo to a nere abstraction. PLilosopLy is meaningless vitLout its
relation to tLe concrete inoivioual. Spirit (Geist) is Hlsen`s term lor
tLis act. o pLilosopLy must le possille vitLout spirit. 1Lis means tLat
no printeo text can express true pLilosopLical knovleoge. o printeo
Introduction
1;
letter can convey tLis requireo personal spiritual act. PLilosopLical
looks Lave lor Hlsen only a propaedeutic or instructize status. 1Leir
exclusive lunction is to teacL reaoers Lov to legin tLeir ovn spiritual
series ol logical-Listorical sell-reective proouction ano reacL concrete
pLilosopLical knovleoge.
1Le systematic articulation ol tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy is a personal
spiritual task, to le pursueo exclusively ly scientincally cultivateo
men. gnorance ol critical pLilosopLy precluoes tLe recognition ol tLe
teleological oirection ol pLilosopLizing reason. Prior to tLe emergence
ol tLe reviseo Wissensclajtslelre, neitLer tLe estallisLment ol syste-
matic oroer among pLilosopLizing reason`s unilateral prooucts, nor tLe
attainment ol an accurate ioea ol its contextual conoition is possille.
All systems ol pLilosopLy emerge as atonic jacts. Cnly critical insigLt
enalles a clear appreLension ol tLe true systematic ioea ol tLe in-
Lerently sell-positeo Listory ol pLilosopLy. Sell-oetermination is tLe
result ol a personal critical understanding ol tLe logical-Listorical spiri-
tual relation ol pLilosopLy to all its general-personal evolutionary sta-
ges, ano Lence, tLe resulting sell-oetermineo alility to reacL universal
cooroinateo consensus.
Articulation requires tLat eacL single pLilosopLer employ Lis spi-
ritually attaineo concept ol pLilosopLy as a retrospectize, unizersal and
reconstructize criterion. Comparison ano contrast enalles a personal
evaluation ol tLe proportional amount ol oeveloping trutL containeo in
eacL logical-Listorical pre-critical stanopoint ol pLilosopLizing reason.
Personal evaluation assures tLat all antinomically oevelopeo outcomes
gain a oennitive logical location vitLin a systematic portrayal ol reason`s
Listorically extenoeo course ol oevelopment.
Accoroing to Hlsen, Lis reviseo Wissensclajtslelre is tLe connon
unizersal outcome ol all tLe previous oisputeo strivings ol pLiloso-
pLizing reason lor critical pLilosopLy. Personally attaineo sell-conscious
insigLt reveals tLe spontaneously sell-grounoeo cLaracter ol reason. 1Le
true spiritual concept ol pLilosopLy nts tLe concept ol an unenoingly
sell-oetermining or morally improving sulject. Heterononousl, de-
ternined logical-Listorical relations are translormeo into autononousl,
selj-deternining relations. 1Le consensual cLaracter ol pLilosopLy
Introduction
18
makes possille tLe unaninous coordination ol all scientincally
eoucateo men in tLe innnite spiritual task ol quantitative approxima-
tion. Hlsen comlines Iant`s concept ol tLe categorical imperative
(moral perlection) vitL Lis ovn concept ol practical progression alter
regulative tLeoretical sell-oetermination (sell-ioentity). As tLe opposite
ol Leteronomy, tLe latter attains tLe status ol an autononousl, ex-
panding selj-larnon, lappiness lor Hlsen. 1Le resulting possilility
ol moral improvement is lurtLermore cLaracterizeo as an un-
preceoenteo epocL ol increasing liglest good", a syntLesis ol moral
virtue ano Lappiness. 1Le unenoing attainment tLereol appears as tLe
inevitalle spiritual vocation ol man. 1Le qualitative eno ol tLe Listory
ol pLilosopLy opens an unpreceoenteo epocL ol moral perlection.
Accoroing to Hlsen, scientinc knovleoge Las aooitional impli-
cations lor tLe role ol sell-oetermination ano lor tLe scope ol personal
pLilosopLical inoepenoence. 1Le general-particular cLaracter ol all
rational activity assures tLe universal valioity ol personally attaineo
autonomy. Hlsen cLaracterizes eacL autonomously sell-oetermining
sulject as a sell-tLinker (Selbstdenker), a vell-knovn Aujklarung
epitLet tLat oesignateo tLose tLinkers vLo ly appealing to reason`s
universality oetermineo tLeir ovn autonomous stances ano extenoeo
tLe personal scope ol tLeir pLilosopLical independence.
30
Hlsen`s
argument lor a necessary autonomous proouction ano articulation ol a
logically-Listorically oeveloping system ol all knovleoge is a clear
exposition ano oevelopment ol tLis inoepenoent spirit ol tLe
Aujklarung. 1Le particularly expresseo universal spiritual nature ol tLe
rational leing, vLicL is tLe exclusive olject ol all pLilosopLical sell-
reection, enalles an ioentincation ol tLe concepts ol man ano
pLilosopLer. To be a plilosopler is tantanount to jullling one's oun
practical spiritual nature and conzersel,. 1Lis ioentincation ly Hlsen
makes pLilosopLical knovleoge concrete ano availalle to all Luman
leings, ano in tLis specinc sense, popularizes it. !ull intellectual
autonomy translorms acadenic jreedon into a real not lormal concept.
Acaoemic alnliation is not a necessary requirement lor a sell-tLinker,

30
See: _~ 1p;, 8
Introduction
1p
ano morality compels sell-tLinkers to avoio any suloroination ol tLeir
vills to acaoemic institutions. Still tLe estallisLeo possilility ol pur-
posive sell-oetermineo cooroination enalles Hlsen to sketcL tLe ioea
ol a true acaden, oj sciences, a mooern institution in vLicL sell-
oetermineo memlers autonomously congregate to acLieve a joint
cooroinateo striving alter regulative morality. Cne ol tLe roles tLat tLe
sell-tLinker vill play vitLin tLis institution is to instruct uncritically
eoucateo stuoents. As tLe etLically lest man ol Lis time, Lis peoagogic
mission is to promote ano lacilitate tLe personal, inoepenoent, ano
spiritual sell-knovleoge ol Lis pupils. 1Le sell-tLinker is tLe true moral
eoucator ol Lumanity. t is as a plea lor a popularizing plilosoplical
education tLat tLe Preissclrijt sLoulo le interpreteo.

:1
1. EeinLolo
1.1 EeinLolo`s nuence
Eecoros ol Hlsen`s early university years are scarce. n 1;p, Hlsen
lelt tLe Lniversity ol Halle ano matriculateo at tLe Lniversity ol Iiel.
Hlsen prolally moveo to Iiel lecause ol EeinLolo.
1
Apart lrom
Hlsen`s statements alout EeinLolo`s inuence in Preissclrijt, an ao-
oitional explanation lor Lis seeking ol EeinLolo can le louno in ]oLann
Georg Eist`s Lebenserinnerungen. Eist, one ol Hlsen`s lrienos, re-
porteo in Lis memoirs tLat long lelore Lis arrival to Iiel Hlsen
concerneo Limsell lotL vitL Iant`s Kritik der reinen Vernunjt ano
vitL tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy.
2
t is prolalle tLat Hlsen moveo to
Iiel to learn more alout EeinLolo`s approacL, in vLicL tLe critical
lorerunning mooel ol Lis ovn connection ol system ano Listory ol
pLilosopLy can le louno. CtLer specinc aspects ol EeinLolo`s tLougLt
sucL as tLe concepts ol pLilosopLical oisputes ano sell-oetermineo
consensus, tLe importance ol lormulating correct critical questions, tLe
key peoagogic activity ol tLe sell-tLinker, ano its popularizing task in tLe
moral improvement ol tLe Luman species remaineo strong commitments
ol Hlsen even alter Lis conversion to !icLte`s stanopoint.
1.: 1Le Crisis ol Critical PLilosopLy
By tLe time Hlsen legan to pLilosopLize, Iarl eonLaro EeinLolo
(Vienna, 1;,818:) vas alreaoy one ol tLe most prominent critical
pLilosopLers in Germany. 1Le enormous successes ol EeinLolo`s Brieje
ber die kantiscle Plilosoplie lrom 1;81;8;, maoe Lim one ol Ger-
many`s leaoing Iantians,
3
vLicL prompteo tLe acaoemic autLorities at

1
Hlsen matriculateo at tLe CLristian-AllrecLt Lniversity on May ::, 1;p unoer
a lalse name: !ranciscus ]acolus Hegekern. !or a Listorical account ol Hlsen`s
stay in Iiel, see: h :oo1, 8-;
2
See: CLristian e 1p, p
3
n tLe Brieje, EeinLolo accomplisLeo tvo major tasks: (1) tLe popularization ano
tLe assertion ol tLe systematic cLaracter ol tLe Iantian pLilosopLy, ano (:) tLe
Part 1
::
tLe Lniversity ol ]ena to oller Lim tLe cLair ol critical pLilosopLy. n
tLe lall ol 1;8;, EeinLolo oelivereo Lis nrst acaoemic lectures on Iantian
pLilosopLy. 1Le attenoance vas massive. Hovever, alter a sLort time,
EeinLolo noticeo tLat only a lev ol Lis stuoents Lao reao Iant. Most
ol tLose misunoerstooo tLe Kritik. Some otLers, Aujklarung aovocates,
attackeo Iant ano accuseo Lim ol unintelligilility.
4
A conict ol scLools
lroke out among EeinLolo`s pupils.
EeinLolo, Limsell an Aujklarer, lor vLom universal principles ano
compreLensilility vere essential, realizeo tLat tLe pLilosopLical as-
sumptions ol die Aujklarung, German nligLtenment, vere seriously
oiscreoiteo. Morality, religion, political ano civil rigLt, etc, vere enoan-
gereo. EeinLolo insisteo tLat a true universal pLilosopLy, a grounoing
oiscipline ol all oisciplines vas necessary to lase tLese on a rigorous,
secure ano legitimate lounoation.
5
Accoroing to EeinLolo, tLe olscurity
ano tLe ioiosyncratic terminology ol Iant`s Kritik preventeo tLis. !or
a oevote Aujklarer like EeinLolo tLis implieo tLat Iant`s pLilosopLy
unamenoeo cannot provioe a souno lasis lor social consensus.
6

EeinLolo trieo to reassert tLe enligLteneo spirit ol Iant`s pLilo-
sopLy ly complementing it vitL a universally accepteo (allgenein-
geltende) grouno ol oeouction. EeinLolo Lopeo to translorm critical
pLilosopLy into an unoisputeo oiscipline capalle ol estallisLing a
pLilosopLical ano social consensus (Einzerstandnis)
7
, sulsequently a
key leature ol Hlsen`s tLougLt.
EeinLolo vas tLe nrst post-Iantian tLinker to reler to tLe possilility
ol relormulating Iant`s pLilosopLical stanopoint vLile keeping its
spirit intact. Critical pLilosopLy requires, as later in !icLte`s,

lormulation ol a reconciling solution to tLe knovleoge-laitL conict rose ly
!rieoricL HeinricL ]acoli`s oljections to Iant in tLe lamous pantLeism contro-
versy. !or a concise analysis ol tLe letters, ano ol EeinLolo`s position regaroing
]acoli`s claims, see: m~ :oo:, po-p
4
See: c~ :oo,, :1,. 1Le cLarge ol unintelligilility vas ol course a serious
oljection to tLe enligLteneo cLaracter ol Iant`s pLilosopLy.
5
See: o NVTU, -
6
See: c~ :oo,, :1,
7
See: o NVTU, sfJsff
Beinlold
:
ScLelling`s, ano Hlsen`s tLougLt, a stepping lack lrom tLe printeo
letter ol tLe Kritik ly nornatizel, vLile systematically estallisLing a
grouno ol oeouction.
8
EeinLolo trieo to accomplisL tLis enterprise in
Lis Elenentarplilosoplie.
9

Accoroing to EeinLolo, oljections against an improveo critical
pLilosopLy come lrom lour oillerent pLilosopLical positions: skepti-
cism, oogmatism, empiricism, ano rationalism. EeinLolo claimeo tLat
all ol tLese parties, or sects, sLare a common olject ol inquiry:
pLilosopLical trutL, tLougL unauare tLey make Lall-true/Lall-lalse
systematic assertions regaroing tLe unizersal cLaracter ol tLis trutL.
10

Consequently, eacL party gains only a partial or unilateral insigLt into
tLeir common olject ol inquiry.
11

Den Grundsatzen aller andern Partle,en, der seinigen ausgenonnen, Allge-
neingltigkeit abspreclen, und seine Partle, jr das einzig acltplilosopli-
scle Publikun anselen, setz ualrlicl eben keinen Sclarjsinn zoraus. Wer
sicl zon der ununstssliclen Walrleit seiner Belauptung berzeugt lalt,
der brauclt nur zu uissen, dass die Belauptung eines andern das Gegentleil
der Seinigen ist, un dieselbe jr jalscl, und durcl die Grnde seiner eigenen
Belauptung jr uiederlegt zulalten.
12

A pLilosopLical oispute (Streit) or misunoerstanoing (Misszerstandnis)
arises consequently among tLe opponent parties. one ol tLe parties

8
See: e~ 1pp1, ;-8
9
1Le nrst pLase ol tLe Elnentarplilosoplie (tLe one tLat concerns us Lere) com-
preLenos tLree major vorks: Versucl einer neuen Tleorie des nensclliclen Vor-
stellungszerngens (1;8p), Beitrage zur Bericltigung bisleriger Mizerstandnisse
der Plilosoplen (vol. 1) (1;po), ano Ueber das Fundanent des plilosoplisclen
Wissens. Nebst einigen Erlauterungen ber die Tleorie des Vorstellungszern-
gens (1;p1). t lurtLermore incluoes an almost neglecteo part: Ueber den Begrij
der Gesclilte der Plilosoplie. Eine akadeniscle Vorlesung (1;p1). vill oiscuss
tLis essay in section 1.,.
10
As !reoerik _ (1p8;, ::;) comments, vitLout consciousness ol tLe prin-
ciples ano proceoures ol transcenoental reection, ve Lave no guarantee ol tLe
trutL ol tLe tLeory laseo upon tLem. We proceeo in no less llino ano oogmatic
a lasLion tLan tLe olo metapLysicians.
11
See: o NVSP,
12
o NVSP, 1:,
Part 1
:
can lully justily its lasic claims, tLeir partial or relative assertions pro-
voke inevitally counter-assertions. Lnilateralism, as Hlsen vill later
Lolo, prevents any possille reconciliation. Accoroing to EeinLolo,
vLat is lacking is an exclusive ano universally accepteo transcenoental
grouno ol oeouction. Cnly tLis vill guarantee a lull systematic oeter-
mination or true oerivative exLaustion ol eacL partially true assertion.
t also vill secure a rigorous removal ol all unoetermineo inconsis-
tencies, ano so sLeo ligLt on tLe grouno ol oisputes. 1Le estallisLment
ol sucL a grouno, EeinLolo concluoes, vill eno all partisan alnliation
ly prooucing a universal pLilosopLical consensus.
13
Hlsen, as ve vill
see, vill learn tLis strategy ano aoapt it to Lis !icLtean stanopoint.
EeinLolo claims tLat tLe assertion ol tLis grouno presupposes a
stuoy ol tLe metapLysical nature ol reason. !or some ol tLe litigant
lactions reason`s possession ol sucL a capacity is an open question.
14

!or EeinLolo Lovever tLis is tLe main question (Hauptjrage, or grosse
Frage) tLat pLilosopLy Las to ansver.
15
A rigorous criticall, oriented
ansuer Las to provioe tLe requireo grouno. EeinLolo conlers a caroinal
importance to tLe correct lormulation ol pLilosopLical questions, ano
especially to tLe one mentioneo alove. 1Le crucial reassertion ol
critical pLilosopLy oepenos on it.
16
!rom EeinLolo Hlsen learneo tLe
importance ol oetermining reason`s alility to ask ano reply ly making
a preliminary inquiry into tLe essence ol questions ano ansvers. Eein-
Lolo argues tLat one ol tLe main reasons pLilosopLers engage in
oisputes is lecause tLey oo not agree on tLe pLilosopLical questions
tLat tLey Lave to ask. acking is a general avareness ol tLe true sense
ol tLe point ol questioning (Sinn der Fragpunkte),
17
namely ol tLe
oecisive role tLat questions play in tLe orientation ol pLilosopLical

13
See: o NVSP, -, 1:-, ano o OMMP, -;
14
See: o OMMP, 1-,
15
See: o OMMP, :,. See also o NVTU: 1:-, ano o NVSP,
1:p. n Ueber das Fundanent, EeinLolo also relers to tLis question as reason`s
lig prollem (grosen Problens). See: o NVTU, 1,
16
See: o OMMP, :;, ano o NVTU, 1
17
See: o NVSP, 8-p
Beinlold
:,
tLougLt.
18
All litigant lactions lormulate questions accoroing to tLeir
ovn specinc stanoaros ano arlitrary interests. EeinLolo calls sucL non-
critical questions, oisputing-questions (Streitjrage).
19
1LrougL tLem,
tLe pLilosopLical oisputes persist, as tLey move pLilosopLers avay
lrom tLe main question (Hauptjrage). EeinLolo consequently varns tLe
opponents ol critical pLilosopLy: Das Besultat aller eurer bislerigen
Streitigkeiten uar inner nur eine neue Streitjrage.
20
Hlsen`s later
!icLtean cLaracterization ol all systems ol pLilosopLy as ascenoing sell-
positeo ansvers tLat reason gives to tLe question alout tLe possilility
ol metapLysics is an attempt to solve tLis prollem systematically.
21


18
ote tLe lolloving passage lrom Ueber das Fundanent: Leibniz, Locke, Hune
und Kant, die zier grsten neuern Sclrijtsteller, uelcle die Grnde des nenscl-
liclen und inbesondere des plilosoplisclen Wissens, zun Gegenstand besonderer
Untersuclungen genaclt laben, sind daler aucl zon der Frage ber der Ur-
sprung der Vorstellungen ausgegangen, und ilre Antuorten auj diese Frage sind
die eigentliclen Bestinnungsgrnde ilrer Uberzeugung zon der Natur, den
Granzen und letzten Grnden des plilosoplisclen Wissens geuesen. o
NVTU, 1
19
See: o NVSP, 1o
20
o OMMP, :;
21
1Le lact tLat all oisputing parties oetermine tLeir concepts in an imprecise or
arlitrary vay is an aooitional cause leLino quarrelling. 1Le lack ol a universally
accepteo grouno ol oeouction, EeinLolo claims, prevents a rigorous conceptual
oetermination. WLat lollovs is mutual misunoerstanoing among partisan stano-
points. Accoroing to EeinLolo, Iant is also to llame lor a similar conceptual
imprecision. 1Le oisputes tLat spreao arouno tLe trutL ano tLe meaning ol tLe
Kritik also rise in EeinLolo`s opinion oue to tLe arlitrary interpretations tLat a
signincant numler ol Iant`s contemporaries make ol Lis amliguous concepts.
EeinLolo concluoes tLat quarrelling on tLe Kritik vill not cease lelore it can le
relormulateo on a universally accepteo grouno ol oeouction, tLat is, converteo
into a rigorously oetermineo pLilosopLical tLeory [See: o OMMP, :1-:|.
Lovever vill not oiscuss tLis point, as it is no necessary preconoition lor
unoerstanoing Preissclrijt. e only tackles it in Lis 1;p; Plilosopliscle
Brieje an Hrn. z. Briest in Nennlausen. Erster Briej. Ueber Popularitat in der
Plilosoplie.
Part 1
:
1. 1Le Elenentarplilosoplie: Scientinc Systematicity
EeinLolo lelieveo tLat tLe relormulation ol critical pLilosopLy requireo
a complete conceptual oeouction ol tLe meaning ano tLe scope ol tLe
elements ol consciousness tLat Iant took lor granteo in Lis Kritik der
reinen Vernunjt. EeinLolo`s main point is tLat Iant`s vague concept ol
representation (Vorstellung), tLe lunoamental element in Luman knovl-
eoge, is tLe reason lor most oisputes regaroing tLe Kritik. n aooition,
Iant employs tLe concept ol Vorstellung in an entirely nev lasLion
pertaining to oljects ol cognition. EeinLolo consequently oemanoeo
a reneveo oiscussion ol tLe transcenoental act ol representation.
22

EeinLolo`s ovn epistemology inuenceo Hlsen`s Preissclrijt only
inoirectly, Hlsen vas a strong supporter ol !icLte`s improveo
Elenentarplilosoplie. EeinLolo`s epistemology vill Lovever Lelp us
unoerstano some aspects ol Lis systematic approacL to tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy (section 1.,), Hlsen`s major topic ol interest in tLe Ele-
nentarplilosoplie. t also vill Lelp us unoerstano Hlsen`s initial inte-
rest in EeinLolo as vell as Lis sulsequent sLilt to !icLte`s stanopoint
(section 1.).
EeinLolo lelieveo tLat tLe Kritik provioes an insulncient grouno ol
oeouction lor tLe transcenoental elements involveo in tLe tLeory ol
knovleoge (Erkenntnisslelre). Also accoroing to EeinLolo, reason`s
practical part is ungrounoeo in tLe Kritik. EeinLolo consequently
calleo lor a lunoamental oeouctive grounoing ol lotL tLe tLeoretical
ano tLe practical laculties ol reason (Vernunjtzerngen).
23
Accoroing
to EeinLolo, Iant`s lasis ol metapLysical knovleoge is only pro-
paeoeutic. Cnly tLe estallisLment ol a universal ano integrative grouno

22
See: o NVSP, :-8, 8-,o
23
o OMMP, :: Icl erklare daler docl einnal, da icl unter Elenentar-
plilosplie das einzig nglicle S,sten der Prinzipien, auj uelcle souoll tleore-
tiscle als praktiscle, souoll jornale als nateriale Plilosoplie gebaut uerden
nu, zerstele. Da es bisler keine solcle Wissensclajt gegeben labe, ist Tat-
sacle. !or a sketcL ol EeinLolo`s complete program see tLe closing section ol
Uber den Begrijj der Plilosoplie in: o OMMP, :-,
Beinlold
:;
ol oeouction vill translorm Iant`s propaeoeutic into an inoisputalle
tLeory ol tLe laculty ol knovleoge (Erkenntnisszerngen).
24
1Le
question tLat EeinLolo tries to ansver in Lis grounoing inquiry, as
Iuno !iscLer inoicates, can le lormulateo as lollovs: Hov is tLe
Kritik as a metapLysical system possille
25

1Le Kritik's lack ol a universal grounoing principle leaos EeinLolo
to make a major metLooological sLilt, tLe implications ol vLicL vill le
crucial lor tLe sulsequent acLievements ol German ioealistic pLiloso-
pLy incluoing Preissclrijt. Accoroing to EeinLolo, many pLilosopLers,
incluoing Iant, oerive tLeir lunoamental concepts in an inverteo vay.
26

Iant`s concept ol oerivation, as Manlreo !rank points out, means
[.| etuas uie Becltjertigung zon Geltungsansprclen, aber niclt auj den
Wege einer s,llogistisclen Deduktion aus Denitionen und Prinzipien. [.|
Was es in klassisclen kantisclen Falle zu recltjertigen gilt, ist [.| die uni-
zerselle Geltung der Kategorien jr alle Ansclauungen.
27

EeinLolo oljecteo tLat even Iant inducted Lis grounos ly moving lrom
given consequences. Critical pLilosopLy requireo a deductize move-
ment lrom a nrst universal grouno to its consequences, a move tLat
Hlsen enoorseo strongly even alter ScLulze-Aenesioemus`s oljections
to tLe Elenentarplilosoplie, ano vLicL explains Lis sulsequent com-
mitment to !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre. Accoroing to Wollnan termino-
logy, EeinLolo oemanoeo a metLooological sLilt lrom tLe anal,tic to
tLe s,ntletic lorm ol oerivation.
28
t can le argueo tLat EeinLolo`s in-
tention vas to return to tLe logical paraoigm ol tLe Cartesian-Wollnan
scLool.
29
1Le syntLetic sLilt enalles a linear syllogistic-oeouctive oe-

24
See: o NVTU, :-
25
See: c :ooo, :
26
See: o NVTU, ,-
27
c~ 1pp8, 1,;
28
Accoroing to ]oL. CL. e~, Die satze, auj uelcle der anal,tiscle Beueis
in seinen Fortgange konnt, sind inner Pranissen, sclon zorler aujgestellter
Conclusionen, also Grnde derselben. Be, den s,ntletisclen Beueise zerlalt es
sicl ungekelrt. Dieser gelt zon den Pranissen zu den Conclusionen, zon Grn-
den zu den Folgen jort. Citeo in: c~ 1pp8, 8
29
See: c~ 1pp8, 11
Part 1
:8
monstration tLat tLe Kritik lacks.
30
n tLe Cartesian-Wollnan traoition,
a oeouction oesigns
[.| eine uollgejornte Kette zon S,llogisnen, deren Pranisse eine unizersell
geltende und a priori einsicltige Injerenzregel ist (Wenn etuas ein x ist,
dann ist es ein ,') und zuar ngliclst so, da sie die Conclusio unnittelbar
aus sicl lerzorbringt, olne Vernittlung eines (auj zusatzlicler Injornation
berulenden) Untersatzes, der uonglicl enpiriscl uare.
31

Accoroing to EeinLolo, tLe syntLetic relormulation ol pLilosopLy oe-
manoeo (1) an original ano universally accepteo propositional principle
(allgeneingeltenden erster Grundsatz), tLrougL it, pLilosopLy can le
(:) translormeo into a complete ano consistent oiscipline. () All its
lrancLes can le lully oeriveo lrom tLis Grundsatz in a rigorous syl-
logistic vay. () 1Lus, pLilosopLy can nrst attain a lormal ano un-
oisputeo systematic unity. 1Lose are, accoroing to EeinLolo, tLe lasic
conoitions tLat pLilosopLy Las to supply to lecome critically grounoeo
or scientinc,
32
tLe same lasic criteria tLat !icLte vill relormulate,
ano vLicL Hlsen vill emlrace.
Accoroing to EeinLolo, a Grundsatz is an inoispensalle requisite to
any oiscipline, vLicL like pLilosopLy is supposeo to assure universal
ano necessary knovleoge. 1Le only possille vay to attain tLis sort ol

30
Cne ol EeinLolo`s main oljections to Iant vas tLat Lis analytic oeouction ol
tLe categories assures neitLer tLeir rigorous completeness, nor tLeir necessary
triaoic organization unoer tLe lorms ol quantity, quality, relation, ano mooality
[See: o OMMP, :1,|. Eegaroing tLe terms analytic ano syntLetic,
EicLaro c~ (:oo,, o1) reminos us tLat in Lis 1; Untersuclung ber die
Deutliclkeit der Grundsatze der natrliclen Tleologie und der Moral, [.|
Iant Limsell employs tLese terms to oescrile tLe same oistinction. Hovever, Le
clearly lelieves tLat tLe analytic metLoo is tLe correct proceoure ol all pLilosopLy,
vLereas tLe syntLetic metLoo oescriles tLe correct proceoure ol matLematics.
31
c~ 1pp8, 11. Martin Bonoeli`s stuoies sLov tLat apart lrom tLe linear
syllogistic metLoo, EeinLolo resorteo in Beitrage zol. 1 to a parallel, tLougL not
entirely acknovleogeo metLoo ol circular inlerence. 1Lis metLoo only attaineo
importance in tLe opening essay ol Beitrage zol. :, a vork tLat Hlsen vill re-
ject. !or EeinLolo`s parallel metLoos ol inlerence see: _ 1pp,, 1o8-,
32
See: o OMMP, 8:-
Beinlold
:p
knovleoge is tLrougL tLinking or juoging. Hence, vLat pLilosopLy
oemanos at its grouno is a propositional expression. A Grundsatz is lor
EeinLolo an original, universal ano certain proposition capalle ol
lormally oetermining or a priori oeriving otLer suloroinateo pro-
positions. Tle Grundsatz cannot le oepenoent, or oetermineo ly any
otLer LigLer proposition. t Las to supply tLe nrst unquestioneo link in
tLe cLain ol oeouctions. Hence, it cannot attain its certainty lrom any
otLer principle lut only lrom itsell. t Las to le sell-certain. 1Le
original ano exclusive cLaracter ol Tle Grundsatz sLoulo prevent
pLilosopLy lrom leing estallisLeo on ungrounoeo propositions. Tle
Grundsatz enoovs pLilosopLy vitL a necessary lormally monistic ano
autonomous cLaracter. Suloroinateo propositions ougLt not le origi-
nally containeo in it. ts content also is not oepenoent on suloroinateo
propositions. Cnly Tle Grundsatz oetermines all ensuing necessary
logical (syllogistic) interconnections. 1LrougL Tle Grundsatz, all pro-
positions oltain a certain, necessary ano unilying lorm. n aooition,
tLis proceoure avoios all arlitrary (ano oisputeo) propositional inter-
relations.
33
EeinLolo concluoes:
Inden er [i. e. , 1Le Grundsatz| durcl die iln zunaclst untergeordneten
Grundsatze, deren Notuendigkeit einzig in iln gegrndet ist, der nittelbare
Grund der Notuendigkeit aller brigen ist , so zerdankt iln das ganze
Gebaude der Wissensclajt, das nur durcl iln s,stenatiscl uird, seine ganze
Festigkeit, die nur durcl den durclgangigen Zusannenlang aller Satze, und
durcl Zurckjlrung aller auj Einen nglicl ist.
34

SucL A Grundsatz must propositionally express an unoisputeo ano
sell-certain principle. Criginality must exempt tLis principle lrom any
prior logical oerivation. Tle Grundsatz must not only supply tLe pro-
positional expression ol a unizersall, zalid (allgeneingltiges) or true
principle, it sLoulo express a clearl, transparent ano tLerelore uni-
zersall, accepted (allgeneingeltendes) principle.
35
A key conoition to

33
See: o OMMP, 8:-
34
o OMMP, 8
35
Accoroing to o ENVSP, ;1) tLe lolloving is tLe case: Das allgenein-
geltende Princip in der Plilosoplie unterscleidet sicl zon den Allgeneingltigen
Part 1
o
attain universal acceptance is tLat tLe principle in question is immeoiate-
ly sell-grounoeo. Paul !ranks summarizes EeinLolo`s sell-grounoing
criteria:
!irst, tLe nrst principle must le sell-explanatory: it (or ratLer its sulject
matter) must provioe itsell vitL its ovn ontic ground, tLe reason vLy it is
tLe vay it is. Secono, tLe nrst principle must le sell-evioent: it must provioe
itsell vitL its ovn epistenic ground or reason lor leing lelieveo, vitLout
relying inlerentially on tLe evioence ol some otLer trutL. 1Liro, tLe nrst
principle must le sell-oetermining: it must provioe its ovn senantic
grouno or introouce its ovn terms clearly ano unequivocally, vitLout re-
lying on prior oennitions.
36

EeinLolo insists tLat only an unquestionalle lact ol consciousness
(Tatsacle des Beuustse,ns) can lulnl tLese criteria ano provioe univer-
sally accepteo valioity.
37
EeinLolo argues tLat even tLe most extremist
sceptic opponent cannot oeny tLe lactual existence ol consciousness:
Der Grund, auj uelclen die neue Tleorie angejlrt uerden konnte und
nute, bestelt allein aus den be, allen Mensclen nacl einerle, Grund-
gesetzen uirkenden _, und den, uas unnittelbar aus denselben
erjolgt und zon allen Denkenden uirklicl eingeraunt uird.
38


dadurcl, da es niclt nur, uie dieses, zon eden der es zerstelt als ualr bejunden,
sondern aucl zon eden gesunden und plilosoplirenden Kopje zerstan-
den uird. [my lolo|

36
c~ :oo,, ::p. !reoerik _ (1p8;, :,) comments tLat EeinLolo oravs
an important conclusion alout tLe nature ol tLe nrst principle. amely, it
cannot le a logical lormula, concept, or oennition. All conceptualization or
oennition oestroys immeoiate trutL, lor it introouces tLe possilility ol mistakes
ano conicting interpretations alout pLenomenon to le explaineo or oenneo.
37
As c~ (1pp;, 18) explains, tLe voro 'Tatsacle` vas not an oroinary German
vorlo in tLe late eigLteen century, altLougL it Las lecome one since. nsteao,
'Tatsacle` vas a pLilosopLical term introouceo in 1;, ly ]. ]. Spaloing to
translate one ol tLe central terms ol BisLop Butler`s Analogy: 'matter ol lact`. 1Lis
term carrieo vitL it a legal lackgrouno ano entereo German in tLe context ol
nligLtenment tLeology. A Tatsacle vas a oeeo or occurrence vLose actuality
vas not inouctively or oeouctively oemonstralle lut vas nevertLeless vell-
estallisLeo on tLe lasis ol relialle testimony."
38
o NVSP,
Beinlold
1
!acticity is lor EeinLolo tLe leature tLat immunizes consciousness
lrom leing inlerential, lotL inouctively ano oeouctively, it assures its
innediateness, tLe conoition requireo to oetermine tLe ontic, epis-
temic, ano semantic sell-evioent cLaracter oemanoeo ly a nrst principle
ol pLilosopLy. t Lovever sLoulo le noteo tLat tLe lacticity tLat Eein-
Lolo Las in mino is not an empirical, lut a transcendental jacticit,.
!or EeinLolo, consciousness or knovleoge is tLe result ol a complex
process. t syntLesizes tLe tvo lounoational lrancLes tLat tLe Kritik lelt
ungrounoeo: intuition ano tLougLt. 1Le lact ol consciousness supplies
tLese lrancLes vitL a universal syntLetic grouno. EeinLolo argues tLat
Tle Grundsatz Las to express tLat vLicL lurnisLes consciousness vitL
its spontaneous possilility, tLat vLicL Iant integrally presupposeo lut
oio not explain. 1Lis requires an elemental analysis ol tLe laculty ol re-
presentation (Vorstellungszerngen), lor vLat can le reall, cognisalle,
presupposes tLe active possilility ol leing representeo.
Accoroing to EeinLolo, tLe original act ol representation is com-
priseo ol a spontaneous-representing (Vorstellendes) ano a receptize-
represented (Vorgestelltes) component. 1Lese tvo are oistinguisLeo in
consciousness lrom tLe lorm ol representation (Vorstellung) tLat con-
tains ano relates tLem. EeinLolo argues tLat reection on tLe lact ol
consciousness immeoiately connrms tLe original ano necessary cLarac-
ter ol representation. Analysis ol tLis act opens tLe roao to tLe proposi-
tional version ol tLe reconciling allgeneingeltende Princip.
39
EeinLolo
puts tLe lact ol consciousness in tLe lolloving propositional lorm:
Die Vorstellung uird in Beuustse,n zon Vorgestellten und Vor-
stellenden unterscleiden und auj be,de bezogen.
40


39
See: o NVSP, 1po, :oo
40
o OMMP, pp. EeinLolo`s locus on representation as tLe grouno ol
pLilosopLical consensus is not accioental. As Paul c~ pointeo out, lor
EeinLolo tLe conict ol pre-Iantian pLilosopLy is a quarrel letveen rationalist
supporters ol inlorn ioeas (eilnizians) ano empiricist supporters ol sense-
impressions (ockians). Eepresentation is a universal nediating concept, it luses
eilnizian a priorit, ano ockian a posteriorit,, namely tLe partial true insigLts
gaineo ly eacL one ol tLese parties. Eepresentation is aimeo at grounoing tLe
Iantian tLesis tLat empirical oljects ol cognition are representations grounoeo
Part 1
:
EeinLolo names it tLe proposition ol consciousness (Satz des Be-
uusstseins). t constitutes Tle Grundsatz ol all pLilosopLy. 1Le pro-
position ol consciousness provioes tLe Kritik vitL tLe syntLetic loun-
oation tLat it lacks. t is tLe resulting propositional expression ol tLe
original pre-cognitive act ol representation, vLicL enalles tLe sul-
sequent systematic syllogistic grounoing ol tLe tLeory ol consciousness
(Erkenntnisslelre), tLe remaining part ol tLe system ol knovleoge. As
pLilosopLy`s original principle, tLe proposition ol consciousness oe-
termines tLe entire spectrum ol epistemic states. All concrete cognitive
states relate to it as particular oerivative mooincations. Accoroing to
EeinLolo:
Dieser Satz gilt allgenein, sobald er zerstanden uird, und er uird zerstanden,
sobald er nit Beexion gedaclt uird, inden durcl denselben niclts be-
lauptet uird, als die Handlung die in Beuustse,n zorgelt, und die eder
durcl Beexion ber dasselbe unnittelbar als uirklicl anerkennt. ]eder
uei, da er das Obekt seiner Vorstellung zon der Vorstellung selbst, und
zon Subekte unterscleidet, und dieselbe Vorstellung sicl, d.l. den Subekte
souoll, in uie jerne er sicl dasselbe als das Vorstellende denkt, beinesse, da
leit, da er die Vorstellung auj Subekt und Obekt beziele.
41

EeinLolo Lolos tLat tLe lact expresseo in tLe proposition ol conscious-
ness is not an enpiric jact. t is neitLer a proouct ol inner or ol outer
experience. ts oisclosure oepenos on personal reection.
42
1Lis propo-
sition emerges immeoiately as tLe ontic or naterial expression ol a pre-

on tLings-in-tLemselves, ano settle tLe quarrel letveen skeptics ano oogmatists,
ano letveen empiricists ano rationalists. See: c~ :oo,, :1,-
41
o OMMP, pp
42
EeinLolo vas Lere inconsistent. Personal reection translorms Tle Grundsatz
into a oeriveo proouct ol sell-consciousness. EeinLolo unoermineo tLe original
status ol Lis nrst principle. 1Lis also sLovs, as EicLaro c~ (:oo,, o)
inoicates, [.| tLat tLe oicLotomy ol analytic ano syntLetic metLoos may le a
lalse one. !or one coulo argue tLat [.| tLe lementarpLilosopLie involves some
kino ol 'analytic` component, insolar as tLe 'proposition ol consciousness` qua
proposition is not sometLing ol vLicL ve are immeoiately avare, lut ratLer a
'trutL` vLicL ve ascertain tLrougL a process ol reection upon our qualitatively
oiverse conscious states.
Beinlold

cognitize transcendental jact.
43
n tLis context, BernLaro Mensen
pointeo out, EeinLolo maoe an important contrilution: Le insisteo on
tLe naterial cLaracter ol Tle Grundsatz.
44

1Le proposition ol consciousness gives pLilosopLy an unques-
tionalle grouno ol assertion. t expresses tLe original pre-cognitive act
tLat lurnisLes consciousness vitL its possilility. t consequently lunc-
tions as consciousness` most extensive transcenoental genus (Gattung).
All particular lorms ol representation relate to it as its specinc
sulsumeo species (Arten). 1Le specinc oillerences tLat oenne eacL one
ol tLese species are not originally containeo in tLe genus. 1Le genus is
responsille lor tLeir logical systematic integration. Among tLese
particular lorms ol representation, tLere are sensations, perceptions,
tLougLts, concepts, ioeas, etc. As specinc or narrover transcenoental
conoitions ol tLe empiric process ol cognition, tLey express oillerent
oeriveo kinos ol possille interconnections letveen tLe sulject ano tLe
olject.
45
BotL sulject ano olject are neitLer transcenoent to tLe process
ol representation, nor originally containeo in it. 1Leir possililities
emerge tLrougL oeouction as tvo necessary moments in tLe tLeory ol
representation.
46


43
ikolai e~~ (1po, 1o) clarines: Das zorstellende Beuutsein aber uei
unnittelbar souoll un diesen Untersclied als un diese Zusannengelrigkeit.
Das leit aber, der Satz des Beuutseins ist ein selbstzerstandlicler, in sicl selbst
ezidenter Satz. Er ist in der einjaclen Tatsacle des Beuutseins gegeben.
44
A oistinctive leature ol Tle Grundsatz, Mensen comments, is tLat it ooes not
express a mere jornal proposition as eilniz`s logical lav ol contraoiction (Satz
des Widersprucl) ooes. [See: j 1p;, 1:| o EOMMP, , 1o:-)
maintains tLat iln [i.e., Tle Grundsatz| edernann zerstelen nu,
der sicl durcl iln niclt den bloen Satz des Beuustseins und jolglicl kein
Plilosopliscles Tleoren ber Obekte, die Vorstellung, und das Vorstellende
denkt, uelcles jreilicl der Satz an sicl niclt zerlindern kann. Icl nenne iln
allgeneingeltend nur in uiejerne er das Beuustsein ausdrckt. [my lolo|.
45
See: o NVSP, 1p,-::o
46
As !reoerik _ (1p8;, :,1) comments, A tLeory ol representation goes
seriously astray, EeinLolo insists, il it attempts to oetermine tLe nature ol repre-
sentation lrom sulject ano olject. We knov tLe sulject ano olject only lrom tLe
representations tLat ve Lave ol tLem, so tLat to inler tLe nature ol representation
Part 1

EeinLolo`s next oerives tLe tLeory ol knovleoge (Erkenntnisslelre)
lrom tLe original act ol representation. He sLovs Lov tLe tran-
scenoental elements tLat tLe Kritik lelt unoetermineo relate to tLe pre-
cognitive act expresseo in tLe proposition ol consciousness. !or Eein-
Lolo tLe grounoing ol tLis part impels a oerivation ol tLe trans-
cenoental mecLanism ol representation emlooieo in tLe laculty ol
representation.
47
Sulsequently, EeinLolo oerives tLe laculty ol knovl-
eoge (Erkenntnizerngen), tLe instance tLat exLausts tLe system ol
pLilosopLy. n tLis vay, Iant`s propaeoeutic gains its nnal syntLetic
grouno. Lovever vill not oiscuss EeinLolo`s epistemology in oetail,
as it is not necessary preconoition lor tLe unoerstanoing ol Hlsen`s
system.
1. 1Le Elenentarplilosoplie: a Popular ano Peoagogic Liscipline
1Le Preissclrijt sLoulo le interpreteo as a pLilosopLy ol eoucation.
Hlsen`s major purpose is to promote ano enalle a moral improve-
ment ol tLe Luman species. WLat is presupposeo in Hlsen`s peoagogic
position is tLat lotL a universally recognizeo pLilosopLy ano tLe
ensuing consensual vitLoraval lrom tLe spLere ol partisan oisputes are
results ol a personal, inoepenoent, ano oirectly accessille sell-con-
scious portraying insigLt into tLe autonomous nature ol tLe Luman
spirit. EeinLolo`s Elenentarplilosoplie, as ve sLall see in tLis section,
is vLere Hlsen seems to Lave learneo some ol Lis practical stances.

lrom tLe nature ol sulject ano olject is to put tLe less certain ano meoiately
knovn lelore tLe more certain ano immeoiately knovn. !urtLer, knovleoge ol
tLe sulject ano tLe olject consists in oistinct class ol representations, ano tLese
cannot le sulncient lor explaining tLe concept ol representation in general,
vLicL is not reoucille to tLis or tLat species ol representation.
47
EeinLolo :oo, NNV: Das Vorstellungszerngen ist dasenige, uodurcl die
bloe Vorstellung, das leit, uas sicl in Beuutsein auj Obekt und Subekt
bezielen lat, aber zon beiden unterscleiden uird, nglicl ist, und uas in der
Ursacle der Vorstellung d.l. in denenigen, uelcles den Grund der Wirkliclkeit
einer Vorstellung entlalt, zor aller Vorstellung zorlanden sein nu.
Beinlold
,
Accoroing to EeinLolo, tLe Satz des Beuusstse,ns emerges immeoiate-
ly as a necessary propositional expression tLrougL a personal act ol
sell-reection on tLe lact ol consciousness. 1Lis intimate act conlers
tLe proposition ol consciousness direct accessibilit, ano real ezidence,
ano Lence unizersal acceptance.
48
Iarl Ameriks suggests tLat originally
EeinLolo oevelopeo Lis concept ol certainty inoepenoently ol any
rigorous epistemological inquiry. WLat EeinLolo oemanoeo, tLis com-
mentator Lolos, is an express unizersall, accepted certaint, azailable
not onl, to plilosoplers, but to tle great nass.
49
Ameriks claims tLat
tLis personaliseo strategy enalles EeinLolo to make pLilosopLical
knovleoge concrete, ano lring it into oirect inoepenoent relation (at
least in principle) vitL vLat people alreaoy implicitly lelieve (common
sense). n tLis specinc sense, Ameriks concluoes, EeinLolo`s system
attempts to acLieve popularity.
50
Hlsen vill lollov a similar in-
oepenoent popularizing strategy. !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre vill
Lelp Lim rearticulate ano stress EeinLolo`s comlination ol personal
insigLt ano universally recognizeo systematicity ly oeoucing nrst tLe
particularizeo or sell-reecting nature ol reason, ano ly ioentilying
next tLe spiritual vocations ol man ano tLe pLilosopLer.
EeinLolo`s position enoorses Lis strong commitment to tLe Auj-
klarung. 1Le essential goal ol its relorms vas to give common people
tLe possilility ol oetermining tLemselves inoepenoently tLrougL ratio-
nality, ano tLus acLieve unizersal autonon, ly lreeing tLemselves
lrom tLe Leteronomic pover ol natural lorces ano traoitional autLori-
ties.
51
EeinLolo promotes tLis practical spirit ol tLe nligLtenment
tLrougL tLe immeoiately certain, universally recognizeo, ano popular
cLaracter tLat Lis lunoamental scientinc claim attains tLrougL direct

48
See: o OMMP , pp, 1o:-
49
See: ^ :ooo, p
50
See: ^ :ooo, 8. EeinLolo`s project sLoulo not le mistaken lor tLe anti-
systematic projects ol some ol Lis contemporary Popularplilosoplen sucL as
!eoer or icolai. 1Lis party, vLose arguments EeinLolo empLatically rejecteo,
oenies tLe existence ol universally accepteo principles. !or EeinLolo`s attituoe
to tLis propagateo movement see: o NVSP, 1-
51
See: ^ :oo,,
Part 1

personal selj-reection,
52
a strategy tLat Hlsen vill attempt to lollov.
1Le purpose ol EeinLolo`s grounoing project vas, as Ameriks Lolos,
to replace
[.| metLooological, etLical, religious, ano political autLoritarianism ly a
pLilosopLy tLat can lring alout ano secure enligLteneo ano universal sell-
oetermination.
53

Here, tLe source ol anotLer major conviction ol Hlsen is revealeo.
EeinLolo ascriles to tLe sell-tLinker (Selbstdenker), an nligLtenment
ioeal vLo exclusively appealeo to reason to oetermine Lis ovn inoe-
penoent stances, a key guioing role in tLe enalling ano promotion ol
moral improvement. Sell-tLinkers vere accoroing to EeinLolo only a
minor sector ol tLe community ol scLolars. Hovever, only tLese trul,
deternined sell-tLinkers, a position gaineo tLrougL progressive pLiloso-
pLical analysis, can le promoters ol a personally enligLteneo scientinc
culture.
54
!or tLey alone can gain lull systematic insigLt into tLe a priori,
spontaneous, ano unizersall, autononous nature ol tLe Luman spirit.
55

1Lis oirect causal coincidence letveen tLe personal tLeoretical account
ol tLe sell-tLinker ano tLe true a priori system ol knovleoge enalles
tLat tLe lormer selj-deternine Lis practical stances unizersall, ano
independentl,, or in EeinLolo`s language, tLat Le le in sell-agreement
vitL Lis true spiritual nature.
56
Sell-agreement alone is tLe key to leave

52
n tLat respect, ^ (:oo,, ) comments tLat lrom tLe time ol Lis earliest
vritings, tLe most oistinctive leature ol EeinLolo`s commitment to tLe nligLten-
ment vas Lis insistence on nnoing a vay to support social relorm vitL a pLilo-
sopLy tLat met tLe ooulle oemano ol leing popular ano systematic in tLe lest
sense.
53
^ :ooo, 8;
54
See: o NVTU, J. See also: _ 1pp,, 1o,
55
As to tLe accounts ol tLose non-entirely oetermineo sell-tLinkers, o
(:oo, -;) explains : ]ede bislerige Erklarung, die ein Selbstdenker ber
Plilosoplie aujgestellt lat, entlalt etuas unstreitig Walres, und ist nun in so
jerne unricltig, als sie unbestinnt ist, und zuar, als ilr ein uesentlicles Merk-
nal jellt, uodurcl sicl die Plilosoplie zon allen, uas niclt Plilosoplie ist,
unterscleidet.
56
As ^ (:oo, 8;) aoos, tLe general reproacL ol tLe era, tLat Iant vas in-
sulnciently scientinc tenoeo to locus on tvo central systematic oemanos: tLat
Beinlold
;
leLino all non-universal alnliations.
57
Cnly it assures a oennitive
vitLoraval lrom tLe spLere ol partisan oisputes.
58
Sell-oetermination
emerges lor EeinLolo as tLe conoition sine qua non lor universal
enligLteneo consensus, unooulteoly, a conviction tLat Hlsen vill
revork tLrougL !icLte`s ioealism.
EeinLolo`s Elenentarplilosoplie provioes a laitLlul account ol tLe
a priori system ol knovleoge. EeinLolo Lence Lolos tLat a souno sell-
oetermineo consensus vill only take place alter all sell-tLinkers
inoepenoently agree on tLe universality ol Tle Grundsatz.
59
As sell-
oetermineo aovocates ol true nligLtenment, EeinLolo inlers, tLey are
implicitly committeo to Lis critically grounoeo approacL. Hlsen vill
replace tLis vitL Lis Listorically augmenteo Wissensclajtslelre. n
EeinLolo`s voros:
Das Problen der reinen Plilosoplie oder Wissensclajt des Absolutnotuendigen
und Unzeranderliclen urde seiner zornelnsten Bedingung nacl aujgelset
sein, uenn es ein letztes Merknal des Absolutnotuendigen und Unzerander-
liclen gabe, uorber sicl alle Selbstdenker zereinigen knnten und nten.
60

EeinLolo ascriles a key instructive role to tLe sell-oetermineo sell-
tLinker. His Elenentarplilosoplie is a sort ol plilosoplical education,
tLe enligLteneo purpose ol vLicL is to eno up all possille partisan
oisputes ano promote personal-universal sell-oetermineo consensus, a
key peoagogic stance tLat Hlsen vill improve ano emulate. EeinLolo
summarizes tLis position later in 1;p in Lis K. L. Beinlold an seine in

pLilosopLy provioe lor a) a relutation ol skepticism ano l) lor a unity ol tLeo-
retical ano practical pLilosopLy laseo on a clear general account ol lreeoom.
1Lese are precisely tLe issues tLat EeinLolo tLougLt Lis Elenentarplilosoplie
coulo solve at once ly lasing everytLing on a supposeoly sell-evioent, ever-
present, ano alsolutely spontaneous pover ol representation.

57
See: o NVSP, 1:, 1:8-p
58
See: o NVTU, . See also: o OMMP,
59
See: o OMMP, f p-;
60
o OMMP, 81. As ^ (:ooo, 1:) comments, EeinLolo ooes not
tLink tLat tLe mere existence ol a pLilosopLical community is sulncient lor
cLange. WLat is specincally requireo is a reorganizeo community ol pLilosopLers
qua Selbstdenker, i.e., strong aovocates ol Critical pLilosopLy.
Part 1
8
]ena zurckgelassenen Zulrer. Accoroing to EeinLolo, it sLoulo le
kept in mino tLat
[.| sicl nur zon dieser Plilosoplie olne Be,nanen [i. e. , tLe Elenentar-
plilosoplie| unter den redlicl gesinnten Selbstdenkern dieenige Eintraclt
eruarten lasse, olne uelcle dieselben, einander inner entgegenarbeitende,
die Ilnen zukonnende Lenkung der jjentliclen Uberzeugung (opinion
publique) sicl selber zereiteln nssen und durcl uelcle ein Volk allein zu
derenigen bestinnten jesten Uberzeugung gelangen kann, die den Clarak-
ter der nit sicl selbst einstinnigen geneinsclajtliclen Vernunjt und des
allgeneinen Willens lat.
61

EeinLolo`s promotion ol universal consensus tLrougL oirect ano in-
oepenoent enligLteneo sell-oetermination, as !icLte vill argue, serveo a
major eno: tLe moral improvement ol man tLrougL pLilosopLy.
62
Hl-
sen vill keep tLis commitment ol tLe sell-tLinker tLrougLout Lis sLort
pLilosopLical career.

61
o NTVQ, :o
62
n a letter lrom April ::, 1;pp, !icLte praiseo EeinLolo lor Lis practical enligLten-
eo intentions. c (~ JPI :;) vrote: Sie laben zon Anjange Ilrer pli-
losoplisclen Sclrijtstellerei an eine praktiscle Warne in Plilosoplieren gezeigt,
[.| die Ilnen niclt aus der Kantisclen, sondern aus Ilrer zorlerigen pliloso-
plie kan, uelcle zielnelr Sie zur Kantisclen, zon der Sie sicl einen besseren
praktisclen Ejject zerspreclen, geleitet lat. Sie laben inner die Hojjnung
gelegt, und legen sie nocl, die Mensclen durcl Plilosoplie zu bessern, und zu
bekelren, sie ber ilre Piclten in diesen Leben, und ber ilre Hojjnungen in
enen zu belelren.
Beinlold
p
1., 1Le Elenentarplilosoplie ano its Systematic Connection vitL tLe
History ol PLilosopLy
A oistinctive leature ol Preissclrijt is tLe systematization ol tLe Listory
ol pLilosopLy. 1Le systematic reconstruction ol reason`s Listory ano
its concluoing cLapter in particular, is Hlsen`s vay to justily tLe
necessary emergence ano tLe consensual overcoming ol tLe morally
aoverse epocL ol partisan oisputes. As ve sLall see in tLis section,
EeinLolo`s almost entirely lorgotten approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilo-
sopLy is one ol Hlsen`s major sources.
BotL German ano Anglo-Saxon stuoies ol EeinLolo Lave not paio
sulncient attention to tLe s,stenatic connection ol tLe Elenentarplilo-
soplie vitL tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy. EeinLolo unoerstanos Lis ovn
system as tLe last Listorical step ol a purposize plilosoplizing actizit,
oj reason tLat enos tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy ano enalles tLe accom-
plisLment ol tLe true Copernican revolution. EeinLolo oiscusses oiller-
ent aspects ol tLis sell-unoerstanoing in tLe vritings ol 1;8p-1;p1. 1Le
Versucl ano Beitrage zol.1 contain passing statements. 1Le opening
pages ol Ueber das Fundanent oiscuss a key aspect ol it ly intro-
oucing tLe tLeory ol representation as tLe resulting proouct ol a sys-
tematic Listory ol pLilosopLizing reason (plilosoplierende Vernunjt).
EeinLolo explicitly oevelops tLis approacL in a neglecteo ano not re-
pullisLeo essay lrom 1;p1: Ueber den Begrij der Gescliclte der
Plilosoplie. Eine akadeniscle Vorlesung.
63
1Le complete picture ol
EeinLolo`s approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy emerges only alter
tLe respective arguments ol tLe Versucl, Beitrage zol.1, Ueber das
Fundanent, ano Ueber den Begrij are metLooically integrateo.
64
1Le

63
1Le essay appeareo in print on May 1;p1 in tLe nrst issue ol Georg Gustav
c journal Be,trage zur Gescliclte der Plilosoplie. By tLe time ol
tLe pullication, !llelorn, a oistinguisLeo stuoent ol EeinLolo, vas seriously
committeo to tLe Elenentarplilosoplie. 1Le purpose ol Lis journal vas to intro-
ouce EeinLolo`s tLeory as tLe culminating event ol tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy.
64
1Lis reconstructive task is only partially accomplisLeo in Iarl ^ Bein-
lold on S,stenaticit,, popularit,, and tle Historical Turn, Beinlold, Histor,,
Part 1
o
Elenentarplilosoplie so unoerstooo is tLe conclusive step ol a rational
process tLat enos tLe evolutionary course ol pLilosopLizing reason ano
enalles tLe nnal Listorical articulation ol tLe system ol all knovleoge.
n aooition, Ueber den Begrij lulnls anotLer lunction, it reveals tLe
role tLat tLe tLeory ol representation plays in tLe construction ol tLe
rational Listory ol pLilosopLy.
et us preceoe tLe oiscussion ol tLe relevance lor Hlsen ol tLis
almost lorgotten aspect ol EeinLolo`s system vitL a numler ol preimi-
nary remarks. Cne can prina jacie argue tLat EeinLolo only attacLes a
minor importance to Lis approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy. n Lis
vritings concerning tLe Elenentarplilosoplie, EeinLolo oevotes most
ol Lis ellorts to tLe articulation ol Lis critical system. EeinLolo`s claim
tLat lotL tLe settlement ol tLe pLilosopLical oisputes concerning
Iant`s Kritik ano tLe grounoing ol morality, religion, political ano civil
rigLt, etc., oemano a syntLetically grounoeo system ol pLilosopLy,
may explain Lis concern on tLe task ol articulation. His less oevelopeo
preceoing pLilosopLical account ol tLe rational Listorical process tLat
preceoeo ano contriluteo to tLe emergence ol tLe Elenentarplilo-
soplie ougLt Lovever not to le consioereo marginal. EeinLolo justines
ano complements tLe oiscussion ol Lis system ly commenting on tLe
Listorical neeo ol relorming critical pLilosopLy. EeinLolo in lact
introouces Lis Versuclsclrijt ly oiscussing tLe ellorts maoe ly pre-
Iantian pLilosopLers to oetermine tLe uncritical lounoational premises
(Grundsatze) ol tLeir respective systems. n Beitrage zol.1 ano in tLe
Fundanentsclrijt in particular, tLe systems ol eilniz ano ocke
appear as constant points ol relerence. Paul !ranks alreaoy pointeo out
tLe impact tLat tLe systematic ellorts ol tLese tvo tLinkers Lao on
EeinLolo`s nediating-reconciling position.
65


and tle Foundation oj Plilosopl,, ano in Marion e Untersuclungen zun
Verlaltnis zon Gescliclte und S,sten der Plilosoplie in Beinlolds Fundanent-
sclrijt.
65
See: c~ :oo,, :1,. !or EeinLolo`s ovn account ol tLe impact tLat tLe Listory
ol pLilosopLy Lao on Lis ovn pLilosopLical oevelopment, see: o NVSP,
,18
Beinlold
1
1Lere are aooitional reasons to tLink tLat EeinLolo`s presentation ol
Lis ovn pLilosopLical tLeory as a proouct ol a systematic Listory ol
pLilosopLizing reason is not marginal. n tLe prelace to tLe nrst eoition
ol tLe Kritik, Iant alreaoy Lao introouceo Lis ovn inquiry ly im-
plying tLe impact tLat tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy Lao on Lis pLilo-
sopLical position. Iant sketcLes a sort ol ruoimentary Listorical mooel
in vLicL Lis critical system emerges as an intermeoiate stance letveen
oogmatism ano skepticism.
66
qually suggestive are tLe opening voros
ol tLe last section ol tLe Kritik, Die Gescliclte der reinen Vernunjt",
in vLicL Iant implies in passing tLe rational connection ol Lis system
vitL tLe preceoing ellorts maoe tLrougLout tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy.
Iant vrites:
Dieser Titel stelt nur lier, un eine Stelle zu bezeiclnen, die in S,sten brig
bleibt, und knjtig ausgejllet uerden nu. Icl begnge nicl, aus einen
blo transzendentalen Gesicltspunkte, nanlicl der Natur der reinen Ver-
nunjt, einen cltigen Blick auj das ganze der bislerigen Bearbeitung der-
selben zu uerjen, uelcles jreilicl neinen Auge zuar Gebaude, aber nur in
Buinen zorstellt.
67

Iant`s statement tLat tLis part ol Lis system is incomplete may Lave
persuaoeo EeinLolo to justily tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy as a project
necessary to complete tLe normative grounoing ol tLe Kritik. Eein-
Lolo`s approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy provioes, Lolo, a sup-
plementary perspective on tLe rational listorical background process
tLat enalleo, conoitioneo, ano justineo tLe innovative articulation ol
tLe Elenentarplilosoplie. Cne tLerelore can tLink ol it as a pertinent
s,stenatic introduction to Lis approacL.
68


66
See h~I KrV ~ W I 1:NV
67
h~, KrV ~ 8,: = 88o: I ;op
68
Manlreo !rank also noteo tLis rational-Listorical introouctory cLaracter. !or Lis
sLort oiscussion, see: c~ 1pp8, p-,o. Aooitional evioences ol EeinLolo`s
persisting interest in sucL an introouctory Listory, tLougL lrom a oillerent syste-
matic perspective can le louno in Uber den Untersclied zuisclen den gesunden
Verstande und der plilosoplierenden Vernunjt in Bcksiclt auj die Fundanente
des durcl beide ngliclen Wissens, tLe opening essay ol Beitrage zol. :. See:
o OMMP, 1, 1;, :8. 1Le 1;p, Was lat die Metlapl,sik seit Woljj und
Part 1
:
Hlsen learns lrom EeinLolo tLat pLilosopLy`s Listoricity is tLe pro-
ouct ol a rational activity. EeinLolo contenos tLat tLe given oata ol tLis
Listory (pLilosopLical systems) are oeriveo outcomes ol a proouctive
activity ol tLe unoerstanoing. Eational correlation is accoroing to Lim
an exclusive leature ol tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy, an ioea tLat Hlsen
expanos to all Listorical pLenomena. History, in turn, is restricteo to
sensual oetermination. 1Le correlation ol events is estallisLeo in it
tLrougL tLe contingent unity ol time.
69

At nrst glance, EeinLolo`s concept ol rational Listoricity seems to le
prollematic. n Ueber den Begrij, EeinLolo claims tLat Lis pLilosopLi-
cal tLeory ol representation provioes a universal explanation ol tLe
necessary a priori set ol acts vLerely tLe eternal nature ol tLe Luman
spirit appreLenos its cognitive oljects. EeinLolo consequently argues
tLat tLe olject ol all pLilosopLical cognition is tLe rational leing`s un-
clangeable ano listoricall, independent spiritual nature
70
, a position
tLat Hlsen mooines ly oeoucing a constitutive evolving nature ol
reason. EeinLolo`s argument suggests tLat an Listorical turn, to use
Iarl Ameriks` voros, is a systematic inconsistency. As Ameriks points
out
1Le vLole ioea ol tLe Elenentarplilosoplie ano tLe project ol a pLilosopLy
resting on a single transparent Grundsatz voulo seem to presume tLat
pLilosopLy can ano sLoulo seek a grouno vitL an ever accessille certainty
tLat voulo make all Listorical consioerations irrelevant ano oistracting.
71

EeinLolo`s contrilution to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy Las leen over-
lookeo lecause lrom tLe perspective ol tLe sulsequent acLievements ol
critical pLilosopLy, Lis concept ol pLilosopLical Listoricity, emlooieo

Leibniz geuonnen: is aooitional evioence ol EeinLolo`s persisting interest in tLe
Listory ol pLilosopLy. eitLer Beitrage zol. :, nor Was lat die Metapl,sik in-
uenceo Hlsen.
69
See: o NTVN, 1:
70
See: o NTVN, 1:-. Consioer in aooition tLe lolloving passage lrom
Beitrage vol.1: Nur durcl den Clarakter der Wissensclajt des Unzerander-
liclen uurde die Plilosoplie zon der Gescliclte, die auj das Verandlicle
eingesclrankt ist, untersclieden." o OMMP, ;8
71
^ :oo, 11
Beinlold

in vLat Le calls pLilosopLizing reason (plilosoplierende Vernunjt), is a
presupposeo ano unexplaineo notion. EeinLolo oiscusses neitLer its
transcenoental possilility nor its mecLanism ol oevelopment. All one
can possilly argue in EeinLolo`s lavour is tLat Le ooes not conceive Lis
tLeory ol representation in static terms. Inovleoge in EeinLolo`s Ele-
nentarplilosoplie is tLe proouct ol a spontaneous activity ol tLe Lu-
man spirit. As Marion Heinz points out, Listorical oevelopment occurs
in EeinLolo`s approacL only at tLe level ol pLilosopLizing reason`s
necessary progressive analytic unoerstanoing ol its ovn eternal trans-
cenoental lavs.
72

n tLe opening pages ol Ueber das Fundanent EeinLolo introouces
tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy as an ascenoant or accumulative logical-Lis-
torical process. acL oeveloping stage ol tLis process enalles lotL tLe
logical ano tLe Listorical possilility ol a sulsequent step.
73
EeinLolo
argues tLat ongoing pLilosopLizing activity results in a rectincation ol
tLe very concept ol pLilosopLy.
74
EeinLolo conceives Lis critical tLeory
ol representation as a result ol tLis rational-Listorical activity. Hlsen
vill aoapt tLis stance to Lis Listorically extenoeo Wissensclajtslelre.
n EeinLolo`s ovn voros:
]eder ueitere Fortsclritt der plilosoplierenden Vernunjt sezt die zorler-
gegangenen zoraus, und ist nur durcl sie nglicl. Die in ilren Principien
zollendete Plilosoplie gelt niclt den Gesclajjte der plilosoplierenden Ver-
nunjt zorler, sondern ist das Produkt derselben.
75

PLilosopLizing reason is tLe unizersal agent leLino tLis collectize
introouctory process. t Listorically manilests itsell exclusizel, tLrougL
tLe particular selj-deternining positions ol oillerent sell-tLinkers ly
lormulating oemanos (Forderungen).
76
As Hlsen in Preissclrijt, sell-
tLinkers pusL pLilosopLizing reason lorvaro ly progressively attempt-
ing to satisly tLese Listorical oemanos. EeinLolo vrites:

72
See: e :oo:, ;
73
See: e :oo:, p
74
See: o NVTU, 8
75
o NVTU, p-1o
76
See: o NVTU, :
Part 1

Man ist darber einig, da die Plilosoplie ein Produkt des nensclliclen
Geistes ist, das niclt pltzlicl, sondern nur nacl und nacl, und durcl groe
Anstrengungen, durcl zereinigte Arbeit zieler Selbstdenker, durcl zieljaltige
nilungene Versucle zu Stande konnen kann.
77

AltLougL EeinLolo argues tLat tLe only concern ol tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy is pLilosopLy`s inLerent late, it is not clear in EeinLolo`s
account Lov tLe course ol Listory can potentially allect pLilosopLizing
reason`s logical-Listorical oevelopment.
78
Still, EeinLolo`s lormulation
ol tLe ioea ol pLilosopLizing reason Las a crucial importance lor lotL
tLe Listory ol critical pLilosopLy ano lor tLe unoerstanoing ol Preis-
sclrijt. EeinLolo is tLe precursor ol tLe logical-Listorical approacL to
reason.
1LrougLout Lis vritings, EeinLolo employs tLe term pLilosopLizing
reason as relerring to tLe Listorical oevelopment ol pLilosopLy. Eein-
Lolo paio lull attention to tLe selj-enligltening Listorical process only
vLen Le vrote tLe closing pages ol Ueber den Begrij relerring to Lis
logical-Listorical agent as a sell-knoving pLilosopLizing reason (sicl
selbst erkennende plilosoplierende Vernunjt).
79
!or EeinLolo, pLilo-
sopLy`s oevelopment enos vitL tLe emergence ol tLe Elenentarplilo-
soplie. EeinLolo`s system enalles a nnal recognition ano articulation ol
tLe eternal pure lavs ol reason, ol its ultimate trutL. t is lree lrom all
particular partisan limitations ano Listoric eras.
80


77
o OMMP, ::. Cr as o EOMMP, , ;8) alternatively puts it: Alles
Plilosoplieren uar zon eler ein allgeneines, jortualrendes, unaujlaltsanes
Bestreben der Selbstdenker, das Unzeranderlicle in Gebiete des Vorstellbaren
zon den Veranderliclen zu unterscleiden, und durcl bleibende unzeranderlicle
Merknale jestzulalten. Das letztere nu jreilicl so lange nilingen als niclt der
letzte zorstellbare Unterscleidungsgrund des Notuendigen zon Zujalligen ent-
deckt und auj ein allgenein Ezidentes gegen alle Mizerstandnisse gesiclertes
letztes Prinzip zurckgejlrt ist.
78
See: o NTVN, :;. ote lor example EeinLolo`s statement tLat pLiloso-
pLizing reason can only emerge in tLe era ol civil society, tLat is, in tLe transition
lrom a natural state to a rational enligLteneo society. See: o NTVN, ,, ano
^ :oo, 1,. 1Le same statement can le louno in: o OMMP, ;1
79
See: o NTVN,
80
See: ^ :oo, 1:
Beinlold
,
Wird nun das zllig bestinnte geneinsclajtlicle Merknal des Absolut-
notuendigen entdeckt, und lat es sicl auj einen allgeneingeltenden gegen
alles Mizerstandnis gesiclerten Grundsatz zurckjlren, so lrt zon dieser
Zeit an die Veranderliclkeit der reinen Plilosoplie auj, oder es gelt zielnelr
danit die Epocle an, uo reine Plilosoplie aujlrt eine bloe Idee zu sein.
81

EeinLolo lelieveo tLat tLrougL Lis lormulation ol tLe tLeory ol repre-
sentation, Lis introouctory systematic approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilo-
sopLy vas laseo on souno pLilosopLical criteria. EeinLolo explains
pLilosopLy`s Listorical course ly purging it ol all non-pLilosopLical
contents:
Mein Kriteriun ist der plilosopliscle Sinn einer Vorstellungsart. Lasst irgend
ein Lelrsatz, der einen aucl nocl so berlnten Plilosoplen zugesclreiben
uird, durclaus keinen solclen Sinn zu, so gelrt er gar niclt in das, uas icl
jr Gescliclte der Plilosoplie lalte. Lasst er aber einen solclen Sinn zu, so
gelrt die Entuickelung desselben zu denenigen, uas icl die Forn der
Gescliclte der Plilosoplie nenne, ueil ein solcler Lelrsatz nur durcl einen
solclen Sinn zu einen taugliclen Stojje dieser Wissensclajt uird.
82

EeinLolo`s explanation excluoes lrom tLe spLere ol tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy tLe Listories ol Lumanity, ol sciences, ol tLe personal lives
ano opinions ol tLe pLilosopLers, etc.
83
His approacL provioes a rigo-
rous concept lor
[.| der dargestellte Inbegrij der Veranderungen, uelcle die Wissensclajt
des notluendigen Zusannenlanges der Dinge zon ilrer Enstelung bis auj
unsre Zeiten erjalren lat.
84

n tLis vay, EeinLolo`s position explains all previous pLilosopLical
systems as oeriveo prooucts ol a necessary logical-Listorical sell-expli-
cative activity ol reason. Hlsen vill preserve tLe strict rational cLarac-
ter ol tLis argument ly rearticulating ano translorming it as tLe key to
all Listorical pLenomena.

81
o OMMP, 8o
82
o NTVN, o-1
83
See: o NTVN, :1-o
84
o NTVN, :o
Part 1

n Ueber den Begrij, EeinLolo claims tLat all pLilosopLizing activity
is tLe proouct ol an innate oesire ol tLe Luman spirit: tLe knovleoge ol
scientinc pLilosopLy. 1Lis oesire motivates pLilosopLizing reason`s
Listorical oevelopment.
85
PLilosopLizing reason appears in tLe Listory
ol pLilosopLy as striving necessarily alter (1) tLe nnal recognition ol
critical trutL ano (:) tLe oennitive estallisLment ol universal consensus
(suppression ol all possille pLilosopLical oisputes), unlulnlleo accoro-
ing to Hlsen il not supplementeo ly !icLte`s practically sell-grouno-
eo ioealism.
Die uissensclajtlicle Plilosoplie blos die Besultate eines Nacldenkens be-
greijt, das die Erkenntnis der Walrleit un ilrer Selbstuillen, das geistige
Bedrjnis der Vernunjt selbst, den beabsicltigten Zusannenlang der Dinge
zun Zueck lat. [.| Die Gescliclte der Plilosoplie [.| zeigt uns den
nensclliclen Geist, besclajtiget nit einen einzigen und bestinnten Zuecke,
in bestreben sicl ber den Zusannenlang der Dinge Beclensclajt zu geben,
und seine Begrijje zon denselben zu erueitern und zu bericltigen.
86

EeinLolo lails to analyze tLe status ol tLis goal ol reason. t is clear
Lovever tLat it is not simply a regulative ioea ol reason. n lact, rea-
son`s goal in EeinLolo`s Elenentarplilosoplie is an acLievalle logical-
Listorical oljective. 1Le lact tLat pLilosopLizing reason sets itsell tLe
goal ol Listorically pursuing true pLilosopLy ano consensus implies
tLat its logical oevelopment is necessarily teleological. WLile Ueber den
Begrij lacks a oiscussion ol pLilosopLizing reason`s nodus operandi,
EeinLolo lriey states in tLe opening pages ol Ueber das Fundanent
tLat in pre-critical pLilosopLy pLilosopLizing reason seems to act ly
cLance. gnorance prevents it lrom uncovering tLe proouctive-te-
leological cLaracter ol its ovn systematic activity. otvitLstanoing,
pLilosopLizing reason aovances ly analyzing its ovn original nature.
Still, all pre-critical pLilosopLy is controversial lor pLilosopLizing rea-

85
n tLe closing section ol tLe Versucl, EeinLolo argueo tLat representation is set in-
to motion ly villing. EeinLolo oio not connect tLis possilility to pLilosopLizing
reason.
86
o NTVN, 1, ::
Beinlold
;
son`s attempts to reacL true pLilosopLy are imperlect.
87
Accoroing to
EeinLolo,
Walrend dieser Periode und bis zu ener Entdeckung [i. e. , ol tLe lounoation|
nuss die Vernunjt durcl eden ilrer spateren Fortsclritte jr unzureiclend er-
klaren, uas sie durcl den unnittelbar Vorlergegangen als zureiclend bejunden
lat , bis dalin nuss sie durcl einzelne Selbstdenker zerscliedene Lelrgebaude,
die jr ilre Urleber Wissensclajten, jr die eigentlicle Plilosoplie selbst aber
blosse H,potlesen sind, aujstellen, in uelclen [.| Materialen jr die knjtige
Wissensclajt gesannelt, und aus den Bolen lerausgearbeitet sind, [.|.
88

!or EeinLolo tLe correct lormulation ol pLilosopLical questions is cru-
cial. uestions not only orient pLilosopLical tLougLt, tLey also oeter-
mine pLilosopLy`s resulting ansver-conclusions. n tLe opening pages
ol Ueber das Fundanent, EeinLolo argues tLat eilniz, ocke, Hume
ano Iant (i.e., pLilosopLizing reason) attempteo to ansver unsuccess-
lully tLe same single question, namely Lov representation is possille.
89

EeinLolo concluoes tLat pLilosopLizing reason`s nnal attainment ol its
goal (critical pLilosopLy) ano tLe consequential enoing ol its necessary
Listorical oevelopment are oepenoent on a prior mysterious agree-
ment on tLe critical lormulation ol tLe alove-mentioneo question.
Die plilosoplierende Vernunjt nusste ber diese Frage nit sicl selbst einig
uerden, bezor sie an eine eigentlicl uissensclatlicle Plilosoplie durcl Ent-
deckung des letzten Grundes derselben denken konnte.
90

EeinLolo argueo tLat pre-critical pLilosopLers vere not alle to re-
cognize lully tLe eternal pure lavs ol tLe Luman spirit. 1Le inalility to
ioentily tLe transcenoental mecLanism ol representation causeo tLe
pLilosopLical oisputes tLat motivateo Lis relormulation ol critical
pLilosopLy. !rom tLe oennitive perspective ol pLilosopLizing reason,

87
See: o NVTU, 1o-1
88
o NVTU, 11. See also: o NVSP, 1, ano o OMMP, 1
89
See: o NVTU, 1
90
o NVTU, 1. EeinLolo`s argument is prollematic. t is not clear Lov tLis
preliminary agreement on critical questions can lollov. l tLe correct lor-
mulation or oetermination ly tLe parties is oepenoent on a sLareo universal
grouno, tLen EeinLolo`s argument is ol course circular.
Part 1
8
tLis inalility means tLat prior to tLe necessary emergence ol Tle
Grundsatz pLilosopLy evolveo inevitally ly attempting to articulate
unscientinc ano controversial systems.
91
EeinLolo associates pLiloso-
pLy`s Listorical oevelopment vitL an incomplete concept ol pLilosopLy,
an insigLt tLat Hlsen vill oevelop tLrougL Lis oeouction ol a tempo-
rally evolving reason. EeinLolo vrites:
Zuar selr ojt, aber niclts ueniger als ederzeit, sind Kurzsicltigkeit des Geistes,
Unuissenleit, Ubereilung, zerblendende Leidensclajt usu. die Veranlassung
solcler zersteckter Mizerstandnisse, uelcle das Gebiet der Plilosoplie bisler
zu einen Kanpjplatz genaclt laben, auj den so ziel gestritten, und so uenig
ausgenaclt uorden ist. Es gibt Mizerstandnisse unter den Plilosoplen, die
sclleclterdings auj die Beclnung der Plilosoplie selbst, oder uenn nan lieber
uill, der Stuje der Entuicklung gelren, auj uelcler sicl die plilosoplierende
Vernunjt bei ilren allnalliclen Fortsclritte bendet. Hierler zalle icl zor
allen dieenigen, die ilren Grund in den bislerigen leidigen Zustande, oder
zielnelr ganzliclen Mangel der Elenentarplilosoplie, laben.
92

Accoroing to EeinLolo, tLe oiscovery ol tLe Elenentarplilosoplie clo-
ses tLe epocL ol partisan controversies. WLat cLaracterizes tLis epocL is
pLilosopLizing reason`s ascenoing lrom particular ano arlitrarily es-
tallisLeo convictions to general grounoing prools. Lue to tLe oiscovery
ol tLe tLeory ol representation, pLilosopLizing reason reacLes a recon-
ciling epocL ol syntLetic tLougLt. Hlsen vill oevelop tLis tLougLt ly
relating it to !icLte`s sell-grounoeo stanopoint.
[.| so nuss die plilosoplierende Vernunjt auj den anal,tisclen Wege nocl
einen Sclritt ueiter jortrcken, als sie in der Kritik der Vernunjt gekonnen
ist, und dieser Sclritt ist dann der letzte, den sie auj den anal,tisclen Wege
zu llern Principien tlun kann. Durcl iln und nur durcl iln allein, ist das
letzte und eigentlicle Fundanent der Plilosoplie entdeckt.
93

Accoroing to EeinLolo, Iant`s Kritik paveo tLe vay lor a nev syn-
tLetic epocL in vLicL an exLaustive revision ol pLilosopLy`s grounoing
proceoure vas possille. Eecognition ol tLe ever-existing lavs ol tLe

91
See: o OMMP, p
92
o OMMP, ::
93
o NVTU, ;:
Beinlold
p
Luman spirit replaces tLe purely logical analysis ol pre-critical pLilo-
sopLy.
94
Analytic tLougLt, ano its resulting Listorical state ol oisputes,
emergeo in tLe systematic Listory ol pLilosopLy as a necessary intro-
ouctory pLase, vLicL enalles tLe oennitive estallisLment ol pLilosopLy
vitL tLe Elenentarplilosoplie. All Listoric partisan assertions lose
tLeir raison-o`tre. WLat lollovs is universal pLilosopLical consensus.
EeinLolo concluoes tLat no mutual enligLteneo unoerstanoing sLoulo
le possille prior to tLe Listorical securing ol pLilosopLy.
95
1Lis result-
ing consensus Las lor EeinLolo a crucial importance lor tLe oennitive
grounoing ol morality, religion, political ano civil rigLt, etc. Hlsen
vill oevelop, relormulate, ano incorporate tLese arguments in Lis ovn
Listorically augmenteo Wissensclajtslelre.
1Le valioation ol tLe universally accepteo (allgeneingeltend) cLarac-
ter ol pLilosopLy enalles tLat man lecome lully avare ol Lis practical
nature. 1Lis Listorical moment is oetermineo as later on in Preissclrijt
ly tLe evolutionary logic ol pLilosopLizing reason. Cnly alter pLilo-
sopLy Las leen acLieveo, can tLe principles ol practical reason appear
unoer a universally accepteo tLeoretical lorm. n tLis vay, reason oe-
termines tLe possilility lor tLe acLievement ol lull moral potentiality.
96

1Le oiscovery ol tLis syntLetic lounoation makes tLe Listorical as-
sertion ol tLe universal (enligLteneo) spirit ol critical pLilosopLy pos-
sille. EeinLolo consequently Lolos tLat tLe nnal accomplisLment ol
Iant`s Copernican revolution vill take place only alter pLilosopLizing
reason Las reacLeo tLe culminating evolutionary stage ol tLe Elenentar-
plilosoplie.
97


94
See: o OMMP, p1-:
95
See: o NVTU,
96
See: e :oo:, [Hlsen not mentioneo|
97
See: o NVTU, , 1o, 1:. EeinLolo`s locus on tLe securing ol pLilosopLy
as an Listorical millstone connrms once again tLe enligLteneo spirit ol Lis
tLougLt. As Werner p~ comments, nligLtenment is tLe realization ol reason
in Listory. Since tLe initially alvays oogmatic-nave stance ol reason leaos
unavoioally to antinomies, an antinomic situation must arise in tLe process ol
nligLtenment. Ano just as, in tLe narrover oomain ol tLeoretical tLougLt,
tLese antinomies provioe tLe occasion ol surmounting tLe oogmatic-nave viev
Part 1
,o
PLilosopLizing reason manilests itsell exclusively tLrougL particular
Listorical positions. ts alility to oisplay its lull practical potentiality,
its enalling ol enligLteneo selj-deternined consensus, is oepenoent on
personal insiglt into tLe syntLetically grounoeo system ol knovleoge.
Cnly sucL an insigLt can assure an autonomous oerivative correction
ano exLaustion ol tLe partial grounos ano concepts appreLenoeo ano
coineo ly tLe oisputing parties.
Sollten die neuen Principien ualrlajt allgeneingltig, und ilrer Natur nacl
dazu genaclt se,n allgeneingeltend zu uerden, so nssten sie eder bislerigen
plilosoplisclen Sekte zolle Gerecltigkeit uiederjalren lassen, nit der grssten
Bestinntleit das Walre, das in den respektizen Grundsatzen egliclen S,s-
tens entlalten ist, in sicl jassen, das Falscle aussclliessen, und dadurcl ein
S,sten aujstellen, uelcles eden Selbstdenker das, uas er aus seinen Ge-
sicltspunkte ricltig geselen lat, uieder nden liesse.
98

EeinLolo`s position evinces tLat reason`s entire pre-critical course ol
oevelopment vas necessary to reacL tLe logical-Listorical stage lrom
vLicL tLe principle oj consciousness, tLe toucLstone ol tLe early Elenen-
tarplilosoplie, can nrst emerge as transparent principle. PLilosopLy`s
pre-critical crises vere necessary to pose tLe prollem vLicL EeinLolo`s
system solves. As Iarl Ameriks explains:
[.| EeinLolo Lelo tLat tLe principle [i.e., tLe principle ol consciousness| Las
not only a critical Listorical purpose in provioing tLe sole means lor tLe
possilility ol a truly enligLteneo society, lut it also itsell requires a Listorical
joundation in its mooe ol exposition. 1Lat is, tLe principle, must le pre-
senteo in a vay tLat makes clear Lov it alone can resolve tLe crises ol mo-
oern pLilosopLy tLat Lave leo in tLe past to tLe enoless seemingly un-
progressive oisputes alout pLilosopLy as a true science ano alout reason as a
guioe to lile in general. 1Lis means tLat it must reconstruct a picture ol vLat

in lavour ol tLe critical one, so too tLe nligLtenment vill, vitL increasing in-
sigLt into tLe peculiarity ol its crisis, lase itsell on tLe critical concept ol reason,
tLerely resolving its crisis ano removing legitimation lrom tLe tenoencies
running counter to nligLtenment. Citeo in: p 1ppp, ,
98
o NVSP, ::-
Beinlold
,1
tLese crises Lae leen, so tLat it can le universally convincing in its argument
lor vLy a solution can nnally appear imminent.
99

EeinLolo aoresses tLis topic in tLe closing pages ol Ueber den Begrij.
EeinLolo argues tLat tLe systematic reconstruction ol tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy, i.e., tLe rational sulsuming ano overcoming ol reason`s
pre-critical crises, oemanos a pLilosopLy vitLout nicknames (eine
Plilosoplie olne Be,nanen), a rigorously oetermineo concept. !or tLe
Listory ol pLilosopLy, EeinLolo`s Elenentarplilosoplie is a universal
reconstructive (or interpretative) veLicle.
Hat er [i. e. , tLe sell-tLinker| es nit seiner Untersuclung des Vorstellungs-,
Erkenntnis- und Begelrungs-Verngens nocl niclt so ueit gebraclt, sicl
ber alle partle,en zu erleben, [.| so uird er die Plilosoplene alterer und
neuerer Zeiten, niclt nacl den bisler zerkannten allgeneingltigen Prin-
cipien der allen Mensclen geneinsclajtliclen Vernunjt, sondern nacl den
aus unentuickelten Begrijjen gezogenen scluankenden Grundsatzen einer
einzelnen Secte beurtleilen, [.|.
100

Eeconstruction oemanos tLat tLis universal criterion le employeo re-
trospectively in tLe analysis ol all relevant logical-Listorical oata. Prior
to tLe Listorical securing ol pLilosopLy, no rigorous recognition ol
reason`s inLerent goal or ol tLe inLerent correlative cLaracter ol its
Listory is possille. 1LrougLout tLis, all emerging systems appear to tLe
olserver as atomically given prooucts. !or tLis reason, EeinLolo argues
tLat only a truly oetermineo sell-tLinker can perlorm tLe personal task
ol reconstruction. Cnly a sell-oetermineo sell-tLinker is lamiliar vitL
tLe universal concept ol pLilosopLy.
101
EeinLolo claims:
Icl lalte daler die Bekanntsclajt nit der Natur des nensclliclen Vorstel-
lungs-, Erkenntnis- und Begelrungs-Verngens jr eine [.| uesentlicle
Bedingung jr das Studiun der Gescliclte der Plilosoplie [.|.
102

1Le task ol reconstruction oemanos tLat eacl single trul, deternined
selj-tlinker oetermine tLe proportional amount ol trutL containeo in

99
^ :oop, 11p
100
o NTVN, ,
101
See: o NTVN, :-
102
o NTVN,
Part 1
,:
eacL relevant Listorical proouct ol pLilosopLizing reason ly contrast-
ing it vitL tLe pure concept ol pLilosopLy. Cnly in tLis vay can tLe
systematic explanation ol pLilosopLizing reason`s necessary introouc-
tory course acLieve a rigorous rational meaning. 1Le personal means
employeo lor tLe oennitive logical location ol eacL relevant analytic
point ol viev vitLin tLis reconstructive mooel, is comparative critical
insigLt into tLe Listorical expression ol tLe question-ansver proceoure
ol pLilosopLical tLougLt. Accoroing to EeinLolo,
[.| uenn er selbst [i. e. , tLe sell-tLinker| niclt ueiss, uas er ber diese oder
ene Frage, die sicl dieser oder ener Weltueise zu beantuorten zersuclte, zu
denken labe, uenn er niclt dieenige Antuort gejunden lat, uelcle die sicl
selbst erkennende plilosoplierende Vernunjt niclt aus den einseitigen Ge-
sicltspuncte dieser oder ener Secte, sondern nacl den Gesetzen der ursprng-
liclen Einricltung des nensclliclen Geistes ertleilen nuss, so uird er die
Lelre, die er beurtleilt, nie zerstelen, so uird er das Walre, uas sie neben den
Falsclen entlalt, nie angeben, so uird er ilren zernnjtigen Sinn nie
entdecken knnen.
103

EeinLolo argues tLat only tLose vorks tLat mark Listoric epocLs sLoulo
le containeo in tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy,
104
tLose tLat provioe an ex-
plicative mooel lor all tLose signincant evolutionary cLanges tLat tLe
tLeory ol representation unoervent lrom pre-critical times until tLe
present.
105
1Le systematic reconstruction ol tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy
integrates all relevant analytic-relative stanopoints as evolutionary stages
ol a single listoricall, jornulated s,ntletic plilosopl,.
106
1Le lull teleo-
logical cLaracter ol pLilosopLizing reason can appear to tLe sell-tLinker
only alter tLe completion ol tLe task ol reconstruction. 1Le Elenen-
tarplilosoplie is tLat Listorical step in vLicL pLilosopLizing reason

103
o NTVN,
104
EeinLolo ooes not explain Lov tLis oivision in epocLs sLoulo le estallisLeo. All
Le argues is tLat tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy sLoulo only incluoe tLose vorks tLat
causeo sulstantial cLanges in tLe lorm ol pLilosopLy. See: o NTVN, :p
105
o NTVN, :1,
106
[.| den einzigen Gesicltspunkt [.| der alle zerscliedenen zereinigt und das
Problen auset , bis dalin nuss es Plilosoplieen, aber keine Plilosoplie, geben.
o: 1p;8, 1:. See also: o NVSP, 1,-
Beinlold
,
suppresses all possille contraoictions ano accomplisLes a oennitive ano
reconciling sell-unity. 1Le Listory ol pLilosopLy is completeo at tLis
point. PLilosopLizing reason`s allegeoly atomically given prooucts (sys-
tems), reacL an ultimate limit ano acLieve a oennitive rational or uni-
versal measurement.
eitLer Ueber den Begrij, nor Ueber das Fundanent, Beitrage zol.1,
ano tLe Versucl oller a reconstruction ol a cLapter ol tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy. Ueber den Begrij provioes only a sketcL lor tLe critical
metLoo ol Listorical reconstruction. onetLeless, EeinLolo`s concept
ol enligLteneo sell-oetermineo consensus is vioer tLan vLat is ascrileo
to it ly most scLolars. ts attainment oemanos personal understanding oj
tle listorical relation oj plilosopl, to all its introductor, anal,tic stages.
A personal articulation ol tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy enalles vitLorav-
ing lully lrom tLe spLere ol partisan oisputes. Ueber den Begrij Las
anotLer unnoticeo lunction in EeinLolo`s Elenentarplilosoplie. ts clo-
sing arguments reveal tLe key role, vLicL tLe scientinc tLeory ol repre-
sentation, vill play in tLe systematic construction ol tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy. Hlsen vill relormulate ano incorporate EeinLolo`s re-
constructive criteria in Lis ovn Listorically augmenteo system.
1. 1Le Crisis ol tLe Elenentarplilosoplie ano Hlsen`s SLilt to tLe
Wissensclajtslelre
1Le multiple coincioences letveen Preissclrijt ano tLe Elenentar-
plilosoplie reveal EeinLolo`s crucial inuence on Hlsen. Hlsen re-
lormulateo EeinLolo`s ioeas ano completeo !icLte`s rearticulating ol
tLe Elenentarplilosoplie. 1Lis section oiscusses tLe allegeo causes
leLino Hlsen`s sLilt to !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre.
107

ot long alter Lis arrival to Iiel Hlsen louno tLat EeinLolo`s sys-
tem Lao unoergone a raoical cLange. Alreaoy in 1;p:, tLe Elenentar-
plilosoplie vas in oeep crisis oue to tLe rigorous oljections tLat Carl

107
Eecoros ol tLese causes are signincantly small. My explanation is mainly laseo
on speculation.
Part 1
,
mmanuel Liez, one ol EeinLolo`s stuoents, raiseo in class ouring tLe
lecturing ol tLe Elenentarplilosoplie. Accoroing to Liez, tLere vere
serious metLooical inconsistencies in EeinLolo`s syntLetic mooe ol
oeouction. EeinLolo Limsell reporteo to ]oLann Benjamin rLaro on
]une 18, 1;p:, tLat Liez`s oljections calleo lor a lasic reconstruction ol
Lis tLeory.
Icl sele nun deutlicl ein[,| das[s| in den Ersten Tleil der Fundanentallelre
der Elenentarplilosoplie, Tleorene zorkonnen[,| be, denen icl selbst latte
ausdrcklicl zeigen sollen[,| da sie niclt unnittelbar aus den Satze des
Beuutseins[,| sondern nur zernittelst anderer Satze[,| die icl in dieser Ele-
nentarlelre olne Beueis als Aussprcle des sens[us| connun[is| aujstelle[,|
erjolgen, und uelcle Satze nir dann erst erueislicle Aussprcle der pliloso-
plierenden Vernunjt uerden knnen, uenn die brigen Satze als Beueisgrund
aujgestellt und entuickelt sind. Z. E. das Tleoren, da der Stojj gegeben[,|
die Forn lerzorgebraclt[,| die Vorstellung erzeugt se,, uobe, Selbstbeuut-
se,n und beuutse,n der Selbsttlatigkeit, das niclt in Beuutse,n berlaupt
liegt[,| zorausgesetzt uird. Allein ene Aussprcle des geneinen Verstandes
nssen scleclterdings lennatiscl in der Elenentarplilosoplie angenonnen
uerden, da nur zon geneinen Verstand zur plilosoplierenden Vernunjt
bergegangen uerden kann, aber sie nssen durcl die letztere in der Folge
gerecltjertigt uerden.
Das Fundanent der Elenentarplilosoplie sind lauter Fakta des Beuut-
se,ns, unter denen das eine [,| das den Satz des B.[euustseins| berlaupt
ausdrckt[,| der allgeneinste und in sojern in S,sten der erste ist. Die
Elenentarplilosoplie stellt erst die [:| Principien der Plilosoplie auj, kann
also zon keinen solclen Principien ausgelen[,| sondern zon blossen Tlat-
saclen[,| die sicl durcl ilren Untersclied und Zusannenlang erlautern,
und aus denen ene Principien alsdann zon selbst lerzorgelen.
108

As EeinLolo`s letter connrms, in a reviseo version ol tLe Elenentar-
plilosoplie, Tle Grundsatz must le kept to guarantee tLe systematic
cLaracter ol tLe transcenoental mecLanism ol cognition. Hovever, it
no longer can lunoamentally justily tLe entire system ol pLilosopLy,
Tle Grundsatz losses its sell-justincatory status. Liez Las oljecteo tLat
to valioate Tle Grundsatz a complete oillerent mooe ol grounoing

108
Citeo in: c~ 1pp8, p8
Beinlold
,,
(justincation) is neeoeo. EeinLolo unoerstooo, as tLe letter to rLaro
sLovs, tLat tLe system ol pLilosopLy coulo le grounoeo only tLrougL
a preliminary analytic regress to Tle Grundsatz lrom pre-cognitive
jacts ol consciousness or given statenents ol common sense (Lenna-
ta).
109
t can le concluoeo vitL EicLaro !incLam tLat
prior to tLe S,stenkrise, EeinLolo is a proponent ol tLe syntLetic metLoo
insolar as Le enoeavours to justily tLe oljective valioity ol our a priori
possessions ly means ol tLeir connection vitL a nrst principle, lut, alter tLe
S,stenkreise, Le is a proponent ol tLe analytic metLoo, insolar as Le argues
tLat tLe oljective valioity ol tLese a priori possessions must le justineo ly
an analytic regress lrom common sense convictions.
110

A close lamiliarity vitL Liez oljections, ano EeinLolo`s analytic sLilt,
seem to Lave persuaoeo Hlsen to leave Iiel alter one acaoemic se-
mester. As Eist`s Lebenserrinnerungen connrm, Hlsen questioneo
EeinLolo`s nev pLilosopLical position.
111
Hlsen`s rejection ol tLe nev
Elenentarplilosoplie ano Lis sulsequent sLilt to tLe Wissensclajtslelre
lecomes even clearer lrom !icLte`s letter to CLristian Gottlol Voigt
lrom ovemler 8, 1;p,. As !icLte reporteo some time alter Hlsen`s
oeparture lrom Iiel to ]ena,
Hegekern, [i. e. , Hlsen| ein Mann zon gesetzen ]alren, der scln langst
seine Studien zollendet latte, und Hojneister uar, uurde [durcl| das un-
beruindlicle Streben, Einleit in sein Denken zu bringen, getrieben, alles zu
zerlaen, und zuerst Beinlold, dann abernals nit uicltigen Aujopjerungen,
nicl aujzusuclen. Er glaubt endlicl diese Einleit gejunden zu laben, [.|
Icl kenne iln, seit icl in ]ena bin, durcl Brieje.
112


109
See o`s opening essay in Beitrage zol. :: Uber den Unterscleid zuisclen
den gesunden Verstande und der plilosoplierenden Vernunjt in Bcksiclt auj die
Fundanente des durcl beide ngliclen Wissens in: o OMMP, ;-8. See
also: e 1pp1, ::-
110
c~ :oo,, op
111
nit Beinlold nanentlicl knpjte sicl ein lerzlicles Freundsclajtszerlaltnis-,
docl keinen seine Lage und Bedrjnisse zertrauend, jand er [i.e., Hlsen| die
grte Scluierigkeit, durcl Unterriclt und kleine litterariscle Arbeiten nur den
notdrjtigsten Unterlalt zu geuinnen. Citeo in: h :oo1, p
112
cI ~, J:, :8
Part 1
,
1Le nev lasic systematic status tLat EeinLolo conlerreo to tLe pluralit,
ol Lennata, ano tLe elimination ol Lis previous syntLetic nonistic
mooe ol oeouction,
113
vas unacceptalle lor Hlsen, vLose main oemano
vas original systematic unity. 1Le improveo systematic position ol
!icLte, vitL vLom Hlsen, as tLe passage reveals, corresponoeo since
1;p also oetermineo Lis oecision.
114

1Le same analytic sLilt can le louno in EeinLolo`s ovn Preissclrijt:
Was lat die Metapl,sik seit Woljj und Leibniz geuonnen:
115
n Preis-
sclrijt, EeinLolo alanoons Lis previous locus on tLe Listory ol pLilo-
sopLy as tLe rational systematic explanation ol all tLose evolutionary
cLanges tLat pLilosopLy unoervent lrom its pre-critical institution
until its exLaustive lormulation.
116
EeinLolo alternatively ollers an
unsystematic or atomizeo explanation ol tLe Listorical progress ol
metapLysics. EeinLolo explains tLis progress in many alternative vays
ly aoopting tLe particular criteria ol oillerent pLilosopLical scLools.
1Le lolloving statements voulo Lave seriously increaseo Hlsen`s
oisillusion vitL EeinLolo:
]ede dieser streitenden Partleien lat ilren eigentlnliclen Gesicltspunkt,
aus uelclen sie den Sinn der Frage Was die Metepl,sik seit Leibniz und
Woljj jr Fortsclritte getlan labe: ins Auge jassen nuss. Es sind daler aucl
genau so ziele und so zerscliedene Antuorten auj dieselbe nglicl, als Partlei-
en uirklicl und denkbar sind. [.| Die zerscliedensten Lelrbegrijje alterer
und neuer Metapl,siker uurden olne Streit, aber aucl olne Eintraclt, neben
einander lingestellt.
117


113
See: p~ 1pp,, :o-1
114
Eegretlully, tLe entire Hlsen-!icLte corresponoence is lost.
115
See: p~LoL^ NVTN, 1;1-:,. EeinLolo nnisLeo tLis essay on
May 1;p,, ano pullisLeo it alter Hlsen lelt Iiel. Hovever, ouring Hlsen`s
stay at tLe local university (1;p/, vinter semester), EeinLolo oelivereo some
lessons on tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy [see: h :oo1, ,|. t coulo le as-
sumeo tLat EeinLolo presenteo Lis Preissclrijt approacL in class. AltLougL tLere
are no recoros ol Hlsen`s attenoance to tLese lessons, it coulo le speculateo
(lecause ol tLe topic) tLat Le took part ol tLem.
116
See: o NTVN, :1,
117
p~LoL^ NVTN, 1;, 1;;
Beinlold
,;
Still Eist`s report, !icLte`s letter to Voigt, ano Hlsen`s Preissclrijt
sLov tLat Hlsen remaineo a strong supporter ol tLe syntLetic cLarac-
ter ol EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie. Eejecting EeinLolo`s nev
approacL, Hlsen sLilteo Lis allegiance to !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre,
tLe only contemporary system tLat preserveo, oramatically mooineo,
EeinLolo`s syntLetic metLoo. onetLeless, in many important vays
Hlsen remaineo tLrougLout Lis sLort career as mucL a stuoent ol
EeinLolo as a oisciple ol !icLte.



,p
:. !icLte
:.1 !icLte`s nuence
Liez`s oljections causeo EeinLolo to mooily Lis Elenentarplilosoplie
in vays unacceptalle to Hlsen. !icLte`s position enalleo Hlsen to
relormulate EeinLolo`s system in Lis ovn vay. 1Le Wissensclajtslelre
alloveo Hlsen to emlrace tLe nev !icLtean paraoigm: sell-oetermi-
ning knovleoge as a personal sell-grounoeo expression ol a lolistic ac-
tivity ol tLe vill, ano not as a grounoeo lorm ol nonadic subectizisn.
1

!icLte`s position provioeo Hlsen vitL a nev syntLetic alternative
capalle ol lusing ano re-grounoing morality ano epistemology. t
paveo tLe vay lor a critical monism capalle ol translorming ano ex-
panoing EeinLolo`s systematic approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy:
tLe main missing leature ol !icLte`s improveo Elenentarplilosoplie
ano Hlsen`s ovn contrilution. !icLte inuenceo Hlsen in many
otLer vays. 1Le aooption ol a circular or sell-reecting metLoo ol oeri-
vation, tLe personal concept ol innnite practical striving, its importance
lor tLe consolioation ol a critical moral oroer vitLin tLe spLere ol a
purposively cooroinateo community, tLe strict primacy ol spirit on
letter, tLe articulating concept ol inLerent systematic coLerence, tLe
etLical mooel ol tLe scLolar, etc, are perLaps tLe most preeminent
examples ol sucL inuence.
:.: 1Le Bezension des Aenesidenus : tLe Crigins ol tLe Wissensclajts-
lelre
1;p: vas a crucial year lor tLe Elenentarplilosoplie. Apart lrom tLe
oljections raiseo ly Liez, ArtLur ScLopenLauer`s lrilliant teacLer,
Gottlol rnst ScLulze (1;1-18), cLallengeo EeinLolo`s system in an

1
1Lis paraoigm vas !icLte`s critical alternative to tLe skeptically relutalle para-
oigm ol tLe monaoic-suljectivist traoition, vLicL sav pLilosopLical knovleoge
as tLe result ol contemplation or speculation. See: _ :oo:, :,p
Part :
o
anonymously pullisLeo essay entitleo Aenesidenus oder ber die Fun-
danente der zon den Herrn Projessor Beinlold in ]ena geliejerten
Elenentar-Plilosplie Nebst einer Vertleidigung des Skepticisnus gegen
die Annaassungen der Vernunjtkritik. ScLulze oljecteo to tLe sys-
tematic value ol EeinLolo`s nrst principle, ScLulze`s skeptical criticism
vas also aimeo at questioning tLe status ol tLe tLing-in-itsell ano tLe
grounoeo Luman capacity lor pLilosopLical knovleoge. t invalioateo
tLe systematic possilility ol alnrming tLe corresponoence ol an empiri-
cally representeo olject ano its noumenal correlate.
2

By tLe time ScLulze`s essay appeareo in print, ]oLann Gottliel !icLte
(1;:181) vas one ol tLe prominent emerging ngures ol tLe critical
movement. His Versucl einer Kritik aller Ojjenbarung (1;p:) maoe
Lim one ol tLe emergent Lopes ol tLe nev generation ol post-Iantian
tLinkers. ScLulze`s skeptical criticism ol EeinLolo lorceo !icLte to
reconsioer Lis early critical convictions ano retLink Lis ovn pLilo-
sopLical premises.
3
!icLte reacteo to ScLulze`s criticism in Bezension
des Aenesidenus (1;p), a sLort analytic reviev tLat appeareo in tLe
Allgeneine Literatur-Zeitung. !icLte`s essay not only openeo a nev
cLapter in tLe Listory ol German pLilosopLy, its sketcL ol a critical
solution to ScLulze`s criticism ol EeinLolo reinlorceo Hlsen`s con-
viction tLat tLe early position ol Lis nrst pLilosopLy teacLer vas in-
sulnciently grounoeo.

2
See: p NVNN, 18. Lieter e (:oo, 1p) summarizes ScLulze`s criti-
cism ol Iant ano EeinLolo: Accoroing to ScLulze [.| transcenoental pLilo-
sopLy sLovs, vitL sulncient evioence, tLat ve cannot avoio tLinking tLe ioea ol
a cause ol sensations or ol vLat is given in our sensations. We also cannot avoio
tLinking some ioea ol an origin ol our representations, concepts, ano so lortL.
!rom tLese unavoioalle tLougLts, Lovever, ve may orav no legitimate conclu-
sion alout tLe existence ol tLings-in-tLemselves, or a laculty ol representation, or
ol reasontLat is, some specinc entity in terms ol vLicL ve can unoerstano vLy
representation really exists. n particular, ve may not say tLat our knovleoge
oepenos on tLe laculty ol reason, nor attrilute tLe content ol our knovleoge to
external causes.
3
See c letter to ]. !. !latt lrom ovemler or Lecemler 1;p in: h~
1p8, o-1`
Ficlte
1
EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie oemanos tLat pLilosopLy`s
lounoation le lotL materially (real) ano lormally (logical) valio. 1Le
proposition ol consciousness is EeinLolo`s lormal expression ol tLe sell-
evioently existing lact ol consciousness.
4
!icLte agrees vitL EeinLolo
on tLe neeo ol grounoing pLilosopLy on a nrst sell-evioent principle.
!icLte argueo Lovever, tLat ScLulze`s criticism ol tLe early Elenentar-
plilosoplie nnos a serious inconsistency in EeinLolo`s attempt to
grouno pLilosopLy on a lact ol consciousness.
Der Satz des Beuutseins, an die Spitze der gesanten Plilosoplie gestellt,
grndet sicl dennacl auj enpiriscle Selbstbeobacltung, und sagt allerdings
eine Abstraktion aus. Freilicl jllt eder, der diesen Satz uoll zerstelt, einen
innern Widerstand, denselben blo enpiriscle Gltigkeit beizunessen. Das
Gegenteil desselben lat sicl aucl niclt einnal denken. Aber eben das deutet
darauj lin, da er sicl nocl auj etuas anderes grnden nsse als auj eine
bloe Tatsacle.
5

!icLte argueo tLat EeinLolo`s principle ol consciousness ooes not
acLieve tLe requireo criterion ol a universal or unconoitionally sell-
grounoeo syntLetic principle. !or accoroing to !icLte, it is actually
arriveo at a posteriori tLrougL alstraction lrom oljectively oetermineo
sell-olservation. !icLte accoroingly claimeo tLat EeinLolo`s principle
is only an empirically valio ano suloroinateo principle. t oepenos on
tLe concrete representational conoitions ol consciousness. !icLte oe-
nieo tLat EeinLolo`s principle le ascrileo tLe sell-evioent status ol a nrst
principle ol pLilosopLy. l its estallisLment oepenos on a nediating act
oj abstraction, tLen its immeoiate ano transparent sell-certainty must
le oiscounteo. !icLte so unoermineo EeinLolo`s claims lor tLe im-
meoiate epistenic ano senantic sell-grounoing nature ol tLe principle
ol consciousness. Also tLe suloroinateo cLaracter ol EeinLolo`s prin-
ciple allovs lor tLe possilility ol skeptical oljections. t is possille to
question tLe valioity ol tLe presupposeo or unjustineo conoitions lrom
vLicL tLis principle is oeriveo.
6
ScLulze claimeo tLat tLe proposition ol

4
See: o NVTU, 1op-1o
5
cI ~ JO,
6
See: e~~ 1po,
Part :
:
consciousness is a suloroinateo proposition, it presupposes tLe LigLest
rule ol juogment, i. e. , tLe logical principle ol contraoiction.
7
Con-
sequently, ScLulze concluoeo tLat tLe proposition ol consciousness
coulo not qualily as tLe nrst principle ol pLilosopLy.
8
Paul !ranks
pointeo out tLe raoical importance ol !icLte`s response to ScLulze`s
criticism ol EeinLolo:
!irst, no universal ano necessary principle can le justineo tLrougL alstraction,
so tLe Principle can le at lest inouctive ano prolalle. Secono, no alsolutely
unconoitioneo conoition can le arriveo at tLrougL mere negation ol certain
conoitions. SucL a proceoure can yielo at lest a relatively unconoitioneo tLat
is vitL tLat vLicL it is supposeo to conoition. ven il tLe
Principle ol Consciousness is not spatiotemporally conoitioneo, it vill still
turn out to sLare some conoitions vitL tLe empirical acts or states lrom
vLicL it is alstracteo, ano so it vill not le nt to serve as tLeir alsolutely un-
conoitioneo nrst principle, lor it vill le incapalle ol stopping tLe regress
[i.e., tLe ellect causeo ly tLe translormation ol tLe principle into a part or a
memler suljecteo to tLe governing lavs ol tLe series lrom vLicL it is als-
tracteo|. [. | His [i.e., EeinLolo`s| unoerlying conception ol tLe nrst prin-
ciple is itsell amliguous. Cn tLe one Lano, Le conceives it as a principle tLat
is sell-explanatory ano tLerelore Leterogeneous to vLat it conoitions. Cn
tLe otLer Lano, Le conceives it as a principle tLat is sell-evioent tLrougL
empirical sell-olservation ano tLerelore Lomogeneous vitL vLat it con-
oitions. Moreover, tLis amliguity must inlect Lis conception ol tLe entire
system lecause it inlects tLe cLaracter ol Lis transcenoental arguments. !or
il tLe nrst principle is Leterogeneous vitL vLat it conoitions, tLen systema-
tic oerivations lrom it sLoulo lrom grouno to grounoeo. But il tLe
nrst principle is Lomogeneous vitL vLat it conoitions, tLen systematic oeri-
vations lrom it sLoulo lrom grounoeo to grouno. EeinLolo is to
use an apt pLrase ~~ ~K
9


7
Accoroing to c (~ JOI ), EeinLolo may Lave accepteo ScLulze`s criti-
cism lut Lave prolally argueo tLat der Satz des Beuustse,ns jre,licl unter den
Princip des Widersprucls stele, aber niclt als unter einen Grundsatze, durcl den
er bestinnt uerde, sondern als unter einen Gesetze, den er niclt uiderspreclen
drje, [.|.
8
See: cI ~ JO,
9
c~ :oo,, :-,. !or tLe lracketeo clarincation, see: c~ :oo,, ::-;
Ficlte

Systematic amliguity, EeinLolo`s lailure to oistinguisL tLe transcen-
oental ano tLe empirical uses ol representation, ano tLe conoitions
vLicL Lis strategy presupposeo ano vLicL ScLulze coulo legitimately
question, leo !icLte to tLe conclusion tLat pLilosopLy cannot le groun-
oeo on a lact (Tlatsacle).
10

Accoroing to EeinLolo`s ovn stanoaros, !icLte argueo, tLe principle
ol consciousness coulo only assure an a priori lormal-logical certain-
ty.
11
EeinLolo conceoeo tLat tLe content ol Lis principle is empirically
given: tLat it only emerges a posteriori tLrougL tLe allecting action ol a
tLing-in-itsell. 1Lis oepenoence accoroing to !icLte connrms tLat tLe
principle ol consciousness cannot lulnll tLe criteria ol a nrst principle
ol pLilosopLy, it is not a unizersall, selj-deternined principle. Cnto-
logically, EeinLolo`s principle is materially oencient.
Lespite tLe systematic inconsistencies causeo ly tLe tLing-in-itsell,
!icLte, as later Hlsen, oemanoeo tLat tLe nrst principle ol pLilosopLy
lulnll tLis material-ontological conoition. !icLte pointeo out tLat tLe
principle ol consciousness aomits tLat in tLe act ol representation tvo
original simultaneous proceoures ol tLe Luman spirit are syntLesizeo:
oistinction ano relation. ScLulze`s oljection vas tLat in EeinLolo`s sys-
tem tLese tvo proceoures are vaguely oenneo ano lelt open to amli-
guous interpretations. !icLte, agreeing vitL ScLulze, concluoeo tLat
EeinLolo oio not entirely explain tLe necessary transcenoental con-
oitions ol tLis original syntLesis ol tLe Luman spirit.
12

!icLte vas vell avare ol tLe skeptical implications ol ScLulze`s
criticism. 1Le non-oetermineo cLaracter ol tLe transcenoental conoi-
tions suggests tLat tLe principle ol consciousness is not an exLaustive
principle, it is not knovleoge`s superior instance. Since representation
is (1) a transcenoental s,ntletic act, !icLte reasoneo, its grounoing
possilility must compreLeno (:) a tletic (suljective) ano () an anti-
tletic (oljective) constituting elements vLerely tLe simultaneous
acts ol oistinction ano relation le accomplisLeo. Accoroing to !icLte,

10
See: cI ~, , :,
11
cI ~, , :,
12
See: cI ~, , :,
Part :

EeinLolo conceoeo tLat a noumenal or original sulject ano olject must
le logically presupposeo to enalle tLe immeoiate possilility ol repre-
sentation. BotL sulject ano olject must le tLougLt ol as inoirectly pre-
sent in consciousness unoer tLe lorms ol tLe representing sulject ano a
representeo olject. Accoroing to EeinLolo, knovleoge ol tLese tvo
noumenal elements coulo le claimeo only alter tLeir representation. n
aooition, !icLte contenoeo tLat tLe original acts ol oistinguisLing ano
relating le unoerstooo as tvo simultaneous proceoures tLat point to tLe
pre- ano non-representational vay in vLicL tLe Luman spirit must le
tLougLt to act to proouce tLe transcenoental possilility ol represen-
tation. n Versucl EeinLolo acknovleogeo, tLougL only in passing, tLe
systematic requirement ol tLese lour original proto-conscious elements,
namely a pre-representational (1) sulject ano (:) oljet, as vell as tLeir
simultaneous acts ol () oistinction ano () relation.
13
!icLte notvitL-
stanoing claimeo, perLaps unlairly, tLat EeinLolo reserveo tLe oiscus-
sion ol tLis intrinsic issue lor some luture time.
14
WLat EeinLolo argues,
!icLte quoteo in Bezension, is tLat
die bloe Vorstellung sei unnittelbar, Subekt und Obekt aber nur zernit-
telst der Bezielung ener auj diese in Beuutsein zorlanden, denn das-
enige, uas in Beuutsein auj Obekt und Subekt bezogen uerde, nsse
zuar niclt der Zeit, aber seiner Natur nacl zor den Handlungen des Be-
zogenuerdens da sein, inuiejern niclts bezogen uerden knne, uenn niclts
zorlanden sei, das sicl bezielen lasse.
15

!or !icLte, tLe reinstitution ol tLe critical status ol pLilosopLy oe-
manoeo a systematic explanation ol tLe transcenoental possililities ol
tLe tLree original elements compreLenoeo in tLe act ol representation
[tLesis, anti-tLesis, ano syntLesis (ol oistinction ano relation)|.
16
!icLte

13
See: o NVSP, :-
14
See: cI ~, , :, ,-8
15
cI ~, , :, 8
16
n a letter lrom ]uly :, 1;p,, c [~, , :, ,| gave EeinLolo tLe lollo-
ving explanation: Kant jragt nacl den Grunde der Einleit des nannigjaltigen
in Niclt-Icl. Wie zereinigt ilr A. B. C. u.s.u. die aucl sclon gegeben sind, zur
Einleit des Beuutse,ns: und aucl Sie scleinen nir die Plilosoplie bei diesen
Punkte aujzunelnen. [.| Icl glaube es brauclt nur gesagt zu uerden [.|, da
Ficlte
,
suggesteo, Lovever, tLat tLe nev original sell-explanatory principle ol
pLilosopLy sLoulo not le a subectizist nonadic principle, lut a lolistic
act ol tLe Luman spirit (Tlatlandlung). 1Lis act enalles a critical
monistic oerivation ol tLe exLaustive possilility ol tLe suljectivist-
monaoic mecLanism ol representation, ano secures it lrom all possille
skeptical attacks.
17
EeinLolo ano !icLte`s locus on tLe original sulject
also oiller in anotLer sulstantial aspect. As !reoerick euLouser com-
ments,
[.| !icLte starts vitL tLe vorlo 1atsacLe lut replaces SacLe (tLing) vitL
Hanolung (act), tLerely expressing vLat vill lecome tLe central point ol
Lis tLeory ol tLe sulject: 1Le is not to le unoerstooo as a tLing lut as an
activity. !urtLermore, tLe sulject is a 1at-Hanolung, an activity tLat is at
tLe same time a oeeo, or lact. 1Le point ol joining 1at vitL Hanolung to
coin a [.| term lor tLe sulject is to suggest tLat tLe existence ol tLe , its
lacticity, stanos in some intimate relation to its activity ano, lurtLer, tLat it is
tLis relation tLat essentially oistinguisLes a sulject lrom a tLing.
18

!icLte lelieveo tLat tLrougL a Lolistic Tlatlandlung act-grounoing
ol EeinLolo`s suljectivist-monaoic lact ol consciousness, pLilosopLy is
provioeo vitL a certain ano unitary grouno lor all possille syntLeses ol
tLe Luman spirit, incluoing its concrete mooes ol representation.
1LrougL Lis criticism ol EeinLolo, !icLte sketcLes tLe lounoations ol a
nev syntLetically grounoeo pLilosopLy (in tLe sense ol tLe early Ele-
nentarplilosoplie) tLe luiloing llocks ol vLicL seem to le outlineo, at
least to some extent, ly EeinLolo Limsell.
19
Among EeinLolo`s stuoents,

ene Frage eine llere zoraussetzt, die Wie konnt ilr denn erst zu A. und zu
B. und zu C.: Sie uerden gegeben, das leit docl uoll auj gut Teutscl ilr uit
es niclt Woll so lange ilr es nocl niclt uit, niclt zon Plilosoplie, als einer
Wiensclajt.
17
!icLte`s strategy provioes evioence ol ScLulze`s criticism ol critical pLilosopLy.
!or as Lieter e (:oo, 1,1) explains, WLat ScLulze is suggesting can le
conceiveo as a variety ol pLilosopLical pLenomenalism, a metLoo ol oescription ol
consciousness tLat ooes not Lave any Liooen implications regaroing tLe ex-
planation ol consciousness.
18
k 1ppo, 1o-;
19
See: c~ :oo,, ::p
Part :

Hlsen vas one ol tLe nrst entLusiastic receptors ol !icLte`s nev para-
oigm.
!or !icLte, tLe only possille vay to keep tLe valioity ol EeinLolo`s
tLeory is tLrougL an a priori suloroination or oerivation ol its Grund-
satz lrom a nev original sell-explanatory principle. !icLte locuses on
EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie as a propaeoeutic tLat calls lor
critical re-grounoing ano correction. !icLte`s attempt vill le to in-
corporate EeinLolo`s system into a more encompassing system: tLe
Wissensclajtslelre.
20
Cne ol !icLte`s ellorts vill le to oisamliguate
EeinLolo`s transcenoental-empirical equivocation. As Paul !ranks
Lolos, !icLte`s lunoamental purpose vill le to oetermine tLe Tlat-
landlung as
a uniquely necessary, alsolute nrst principle, Leterogeneous vitL everytLing
empirical, yet vitL oemonstralle actuality, ano to progressively oerive lrom
tLis principle, in uniquely necessary steps, tLe a priori conoitions ol experience
ano its oljects, vLile oemonstrating tLat tLese conoitions Lave actuality vitLin
experience.
21

Accoroing to !icLte, tLe progressive oeouction ol tLe suljectivist-mo-
naoic levels ol tLe system ol knovleoge oemanos an inquiry alout tLe
original proto-conscious acts ol tLe Luman spirit. !icLte vill nrst ois-
cuss tLis issue systematically in Lis 1;p-, Grundlage der gesannten
Wissensclajtslelre, an essay vLicL vill inuence Hlsen crucially.
:. 1Le Grundlage der gesannten Wissensclajtslelre: tLe ooal
Points ol !icLte`s Correction ol EeinLolo
1Le purpose ol !icLte`s 1;p-, Grundlage der gesannten Wissen-
sclajtslelre is to lay oovn tLe entire lounoations ol tLe Science ol
Inovleoge. !or Hlsen it paveo tLe vay lor Lis expansion ano re-
articulating ol EeinLolo`s approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy. As
ouring tLe last oecaoes !icLte`s Grundlage vas tLe olject ol many

20
See: cI ~I I O, 1p, ano _~~ 1p8:, 81:
21
c~ :oo,, :,p
Ficlte
;
Anglo-Saxon ano German scLolarly stuoies, vill Lere oiscuss only
tLose results ol !icLte`s correction ol EeinLolo vLicL are relevant lor
tLe unoerstanoing ol Hlsen`s acLievement.
22

!icLte`s Lolistic monism is committeo to a nrst alsolute principle:
tLe Tlatlandlung. 1Le sell-reectively grounoeo cLaracter tLereol
oetermines an immeoiate sell-complementary lusion ol tLe real ano tLe
ioeal activities ol tLe Luman spirit.
23
1Lus, an original pattern is es-
tallisLeo lor all tLat tLat vill emerge as tLe immanently sell-positeo
system ol knovleoge: no practical grounoing element can exist vitLout

22
ScLolars ol !icLte oo not agree on tLe nature ol tLe lounoations ol tLe Grund-
lage. AltLougL a lull oiscussion ol tLis topic transcenos tLe limits ol tLis
monograpL, a lriel oiscussion is necessary lor tLe unoerstanoing ol Hlsen`s
logical-Listorical project. Some commentaries ol !icLte`s vork sucL as tLose ol
!reoerick Beiser ano Alain Perrinjaquet ascrile to !icLte a moral lounoational
position. [See: _ 1pp: ano m~ 1pp|. CtLers sucL as 1om
Eockmore locus on !icLte`s approacL as a tLeoretically ungrounoeo system tLe
lounoations ol vLicL attain at lest only a regulative status. [See: o
1pp, p-11:|. mysell am in agreement vitL Paul !ranks. 1Lis commentator
cLaracterizes !icLte`s sell-grounoeo stanopoint as a practical-tLeoretical or
ratLer real-ioeal Lolistic monism, vLicL explains vLy !icLte strongly recom-
menoeo tLe stuoy ol Preissclrijt lor unoerstanoing Lis ovn Wissensclajtslelre.
!ranks` position is tLat Lolistic monism sLoulo lulnll tLe lolloving criteria:
Tle Holistic requirenent is tlat, in an adequate plilosoplical s,sten, enpirical
itens nust be sucl tlat all tleir properties are deterninable onl, uitlin tle
context oj a totalit, conposed oj otler itens and tleir properties. Tle Monistic
requirenent is tlat, in an adequate plilosoplical s,sten, tle absolute rst prin-
ciple nust be innanent uitlin tle ajorenentioned totalit,, as its principle oj
unit,. Tle tuo requirenents togetler entail, rst, tlat tle absolute rst principle
botl necessitates its derizatizes and is inpossible uitlout tlen and, second, tlat
betueen tle principle and its derizatizes, tlere can be no real distinctions."
!ranks :oo,, 8,-
23
Accoroing to Paul !ranks, tLe separateo presentation ol tLe tLeoretical ano tLe
practical oivisions ol tLe Grundlage encourages a misreaoing ol tLeir sell-
complementary conoition. [See: !ranks :oo,, 1;|. !icLte cLaracterizes tLese
oivisions only as logicall, distinguisled, or ratLer reciprocall, presupposing no-
nents oj tle sane single positing actizit, oj tle I. [See: cI ~, , :, :8|.
!or !icLte`s later clarincation ol tLis aspect ol tLe Grundlage, see: cI ~,
, :, 1-;
Part :
8
its tLeoretical oerivatives ano zice zersa. 1Lis necessary nexus prevents
real ensuing oistinctions letveen grounoing ano grounoeo elements.
[1| 1Le oeouction ol tLe Grundsatz or tLe Tlatlandlung propo-
sition = or am, Las a signincant role in overcoming tLree major
lailings ol EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie: (1) tLe material
oenciency ol tLe principle ol consciousness, (:) tLe ioea ol a noumenal
sulject presupposeo ly all representation, ano () tLe concept ol an
immeoiately given certainty.
(1) !icLte argues tLat accoroing to EeinLolo`s ovn stanoaros tLe
principle ol consciousness can only assure an a priori lormal-logical
certainty. 1Le Tlatlandlung is !icLte`s Lolistic vay to overcome tLis
uncritical inconsistency. As an original onto-epistemic act, tLe Tlat-
landlung estallisLes immeoiately ano exLaustively tLe necessary proto-
conscious material ano lormal leatures oemanoeo ly a true nrst
principle ol pLilosopLy. Accoroing to !icLte, EeinLolo unsuccesslully
trieo to Lave provioeo tLese universal leatures tLrougL tLe amliguous
oualistic interrelation ol tLe lormal a priori principle ol consciousness,
ano tLe a posteriori evioent lactual materiality enalleo ly tLe tLing-in-
itsell.
(:) !icLte`s position plays an intrinsic role in tLe overcoming ol
EeinLolo`s uncritical argument alout tLe presupposition ol a noume-
nal sulject as a necessary logical conoition lor all representation. !icLte
relutes ano oevelops EeinLolo`s tLesis ly sLoving tLat tLe Alsolute
is not a transcenoent entity. 1Le concept Alsolute conceptualizes a
Lolistic activity ol immeoiate sell-avareness tLat exists exclusively
lor, in ano ly itsell. 1Le Alsolute is not a nounenal entit, or a
tling at all, it is notLing lut an unconditional act oj selj-positing in
tLe sense explaineo earlier. WLat lollovs is tLat pLilosopLy sLoulo le
ioealistic. !or even tLe most elemental conoition oemanoeo ly a criti-
cal epistemology, namely an unconoitionally sell-positeo , can only
exist lor itsell.
() 1LrougL tLe Tlatlandlung, a necessary logical coincioence is
estallisLeo letveen tLe unizersal-jornal-jactor-I ano tLe unizersal-
content-jactor-I. 1Le original proto-conscious possilility ol all certain-
ty is tLus estallisLeo as an immeoiate act ol connection ol all possille
Ficlte
p
lorm ano matter ol cognition.
24
So tLe proposition expressing tLe lorm,
tLe matter, ano tLe necessary reciprocal presupposition ol tLese tvo,
namely tLe Tlatlandlung proposition = is an alsolutely valio pro-
position.
!icLte ano EeinLolo`s concept ol immeoiate certainty oiller in a signi-
ncant vay. Certainty in !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre is not innediatel,
gizen as in EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie. nsteao, it is in-
nediatel, selj-produced or selj-derized ly tLe as sometLing exclusively
valio lor itsell. n tLis vay, !icLte gives a critical ansver to one ol Lis
implicit Progrannsclrijt oljections to EeinLolo, namely: Lov tLe
certainty ol tLe nrst principle ol pLilosopLy is itsell estallisLeo.
25

mmeoiate sell-grounoing lrees !icLte`s concept ol certainty lrom pre-
vious logical oeterminations sucL as tLe lav ol contraoiction (ScLulze`s
oljection to EeinLolo) , it secures tLe concept Tlatlandlung lrom
possille skeptical oljections.
26

As Preissclrijt sLovs, !icLte`s original monistic act enalleo Hlsen,
vLo sougLt original unity ol tLougLt or presumally tLe Lolistic possi-
lility ol original systematic certainty, to not only oistance Limsell lrom
tLe oljectionalle position ol EeinLolo`s principle ol consciousness,
lut also to approacL tLe oisamliguateo sell-grounoeo stanopoint ol
tLe Wissensclajtslelre.
[:| 1Le tLree lounoational acts ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre (tLesis, anti-
tLesis, ano syntLesis) provioe tLe Lolistic grounos lor all tLat tLat vill
emerge as tLe suljectivist-monaoic system ol knovleoge.
27
!icLte`s
system, as Wayne Martin points out, alanoons EeinLolo`s ioeal ol a

24
See: cI ~, , :, 1:o-:
25
See: cI ~, , :, 11
26
See: m :ooo, 1p. Accoroing to Eoll-Peter e~ (:ooo, 1:o), !icLte
[.| vants to overcome skepticism ly sLoving tLat most ol tLe juogments tLat
are sulject to skeptical attacks Lave tLe status ol inoisputalle trutLs lecause
tLey all Lave in common tLe cLaracteristic ol certainty. 1Lus, vLat Las to le
oone in oroer to relute skepticism is to oispute not skepticism`s material claims
lut ratLer its assumption tLat tLere is a lasis lor ooult alout tLe propositions it
cLallenges.
27
See: cI ~, , :, :;:
Part :
;o
single ano sell-evioent starting point. !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre is not
lounoeo on a universal transparent principle sucL as tLe lact ol cons-
ciousness. nsteao, it is sell-grounoeo on a set ol tLree original acts ol
tLe Alsolute , namely sell-positing (tLesis), counter-positing (anti-
tLesis), ano quantineo limitation (syntLesis). onetLeless, tLese appear
as tLree correlative moments ol an original syntLetic principle.
28
So
!icLte`s relormulation enalles, tLougL in an entirely nev vay aoLe-
rence to tLe ioeal ol tLe nrst principle ol EeinLolo`s early system.
!icLte`s relormulation, as Preissclrijt sLovs, enalleo Hlsen, a
persistent supporter ol tLe syntLetic cLaracter ol EeinLolo`s early Ele-
nentarplilosoplie, to nno a pure s,stenatic Arclinedean point to re-
grouno ano expano EeinLolo`s logical-Listorical insigLts.
29

[| !or !icLte tLe quantineo lormal-suljective ano material-ol-
jective agents involveo in tLe lounoational act ol all nnite knovleoge
are transcenoental prooucts ol tLe sell-reecting activity ol tLe imagi-
nation spontaneously, immanently, ano syntLetically counter-positeo.
BotL tLis sell-positing activity ano its immanently sell-positeo pro-
oucts are opposeo aspects ol tLe same single practical-tLeoretical
activity ol tLe Alsolute . 1Le sell-reective act ol tLe imagination
provioes tLe transcenoental grouno ol representation.
30
t emerges as
(1) a syntLetic act ol tLe Alsolute vLerely (:) an oljective-material
agent, a quantineo ot-, is counter-positeo to () a suljective-lormal
agent, a quantineo . n tLis vay, tLe possilility ol tLe acts ol oistinc-
tion ano relation tLat EeinLolo presupposeo in tLe act ol represen-
tation is oetermineo systematically. 1Le quantineo sulject ano olject
lurnisL tLe lasic grouno lor tLe emergence ol tLe representing sulject
ano a representeo olject. 1Le laculty ol imagination lays oovn tLe
transcenoental lounoation lor a parallel spontaneous (active) ano re-
ceptive (passive) activity ol tLe suljective agent, anotLer leature tLat
EeinLolo attriluteo to tLe laculty ol representation. 1LrougL it, tLe
principle ol all inoiviouation is lurtLermore estallisLeo systematically.

28
See: Martin 1pp;, p
29
Cn tLis point, am partially inoelt to !ranz G. auen.
30
cI ~, , :, o-8, 11-, :,-, o-8
Ficlte
;1
1Le rational leing emerges as a pure-empirical spiritual leing, tLe
Lolistic lounoational moment ol vLom is alsolute rationality.
!icLte`s tLeory ol tLe imagination enalleo Hlsen to oistance Lim-
sell lrom EeinLolo on tvo otLer questionalle issues. (1) !icLte`s tLeory
lays oovn tLe lounoations lor an innovative translormation ol reason
into logical-Listorical sell-reecting agent emlooieo in tLe real-ioeal
ngure ol tLe sulject. 1Lis is tLe systematic grouno ol Hlsen`s Lolistical-
ly sell-grounoeo alternative to EeinLolo`s vague concept ol pLilosopLiz-
ing reason. (:) Hlsen`s translormation ol tLe activity ol tLe imagination
also lurnisLes tLe grouno lor a Listorical sell-reecting capacity ol tLe
sulject to strive alter a regulative reconciliation ol tLe pure (Lolistic) ano
tLe empirical (monaoic) cLaracters ol tLe Alsolute . !or Hlsen, tLe
sulject`s spontaneous alility to sell-oetermine Limsell autonomously
is a necessary constitutize jeature ol Lis spiritual nature. !or EeinLolo
sell-oetermination vas only tLe result ol an unexplained causal co-
incidence letveen tLe personal inoepenoent tLeoretical account ol tLe
sell-tLinker ano tLe true a priori system ol knovleoge.
1Le importance ol all tLis lor unoerstanoing Hlsen must le stresseo.
Hlsen`s original contrilution is Lis interpretative translormation ol
reason into a logical-Listorical imaginative agent. Eegaroing all tLe
anteceoent acts tLat integrate tLe system ol all knovleoge, !icLte ano
Hlsen are in complete agreement.
:. 1Le Spiritual-maginative Limension ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre
1Le sell-reective activity oemanoeo lor tLe systematic articulation ol
tLe Wissensclajtslelre is personal. 1Le only vay possille to uncover
tLe tinelessl, acconplisled acts ol tLe Alsolute is ly repeating tLem
personally tLrougL a tenporal-actualizing series ol correlative repre-
senting acts ol tLe imagination. PLilosopLizing or ratLer tLe sell-
reecting articulation ol tLe system ol all knovleoge, is an activity tLat
eacL single inoivioual must exclusizel, oo lor Limsell.
31
!icLte vrote

31
See: cI ~, , , :,. otice in aooition tLe lolloving passage lrom tLe
ProgramscLrilt: Nun aber ist a die Wissensclajtslelre selbst die Wissensclajt
Part :
;:
tLis in Ueber den Untersclied des Geistes und Buclstabens in der Pli-
losoplie, a series ol lectures oelivereo in ]ena on 1;p.
32
1Lese lectures
vere pullisLeo only on 18oo. t is more tLan prolalle tLat oving to
Lis close lrienosLip vitL !icLte, Hlsen vas acquainteo vitL tLeir con-
tent vLen Le vrote Preissclrijt. Some specinc aspects ol tLese lectures
oemano a sLort oiscussion. 1Ley may Lave lurnisLeo tLe grouno ol
one ol Hlsen`s central arguments: critical knovleoge cannot le ex-
presseo tLrougL tLe printeo letter.
n tLe opening section ol Ueber den Untersclied, !icLte ioentines
tLe laculty ol imagination, tLe spontaneous capalility ol sell-reection
responsille lor creating all epistemic contents, vitL tLe Luman spirit.
33

o pLilosopLizing is possille vitLout spirit, lor
Diese Vorstellungen aber, ber uelcle die Plilosoplie reektiert uerden soll,
sind durcl, u. zernittelst der bloen abstraction nocl niclt da, sie nen
erst, uenigstens zun Tleil d.i. insojern in ilnen eine Ansclauung entlalten
ist, durcl Einbildungskrajt lerzorgebraclt uerden. Dieses Verngen der
Einbildungskrajt aber, besonders insojer es llere, u. in der geulnliclen
Erjalrung niclt zorkonnende Bilder zun Beuutse,n erlebt, leit Geist.
Olne Geist ist dennacl niclt einnal der Stojj der Plilosoplie nglicl.
34

o epistemic outcome can le oivorceo lrom tLe personal activity tLat
lrings it alout. SucL a LypotLetic oivorce causes vLat !icLte calls
pLilosopLy ly lormula, namely a pLilosopLy in vLicL imaginative
intuition or spirit is alsent.
35
!icLte concluoes:
Diese Gesinung, M. H. ist Plilosoplie, und sie ist die einige Plilosoplie.
Niclt das, uas in unseren Gedacltnie scluebt, niclt das, uas in unsern
Bclern gedruckt zu lesen ist, ist Plilosplie, sondern das, uas unsern Geist

zon etuas, niclt aber dieses Etuas selbst. Mitlin uare dieselbe berlaupt nit
allen ilren Satzen Forn eines geuissen zor derselben zorlandenen Gelaltes.
.] Das Obect der Wissensclajtslelre ist nacl allen das S,sten des nenscl-
liclen Wissens. Dieses ist unablangig zon der Wissensclajt desselben zorlanden,
uird aber durcl sie in s,stenatiscler Forn aujgestellt." cI ~, , :, 1o
32
See also !icLte`s Grundlage statement in: cI ~, , :, 1-,
33
See: cI ~, , , op
34
cI ~, , ,
35
See: cI ~, , , :p-o
Ficlte
;
ergrijjen, und ungesclajjen, u. in eine llere geistige Ordnung der Dinge
eingejlrt lat, ist Plilosplie. In uns, in uns nu die Plilosoplie se,n [.|.
36

!icLte oevelops tLis ioea in a letter to EeinLolo lrom ]uly :, 1;p,.
Accoroing to !icLte, vLat tLe Wissensclajtslelre tries to communicate
cannot le saio nor graspeo tLrougL oiscursive tLougLt alone, lut it
oemanos personal intuition. 1Le printeo voro only guioes tLe reaoer
to lring alout tLe requireo inLerent successive series ol imaginative
intuitions so tLat Le can personally sell-reect on tLem ano portray tLe
system ol all knovleoge.
37
Accoroingly, tLe exLaustive possilility ol
tLis system can le proveo only tLrougL its actual spiritual arti-
culation.
38
1Le Wissensclajtslelre oemanos tLat one let voros le
voros ano try insteao to avake a series ol necessary intuitions.
39
All
pLilosopLizing oemanos a spiritual activity vitLout vLicL any critical
tLougLt is possille. o text can convey tLis activity. acL single reaoer
must supply it lor Limsell vLile reaoing tLe text.
40
1Le stanopoint ol
pLilosopLy tLerelore is as it vill le in Hlsen`s Preissclrijt a personal
stanopoint.
Accoroing to !icLte, tLe system ol all knovleoge emerges as a
pragmatic Listory ol tLe Luman spirit (pragnatiscle Gescliclte des
nensclliclen Geistes).
41
!icLte employs tLis term as a synonymous ol
transcenoental oeouction. t oesignates a personal systematic account
ol tLe transcenoental acts vLerely tLe Luman spirit proouceo tLe sys-

36
cI ~, , , :-
37
As Steven Hoeltzel (:oo1, ) reminos us, [.| tLe pLilosopLer legins ly in-
tenoing representations ol tLe protooiscursive activities ol tLe . 1Lese are one
ano all representations ol a spontaneous oynamism, lut tLe acts ol tLe mino
invarially occur in oeterminate, lav-governeo vays, ano tLerelore present a
system lor any olserver. 1Lus tLe reecting pLilosopLer sLoulo nno tLat one
representationone representeo act ol tLe minonecessarily gives vay to a
certain nev representations, ano no otLer, until tLe LigLest level ol oeterminacy
is reacLeo: reection grasps a representation ol representational consciousness,
structureo as EeinLolo`s principle oescriles it."
38
See: cI ~, , :, 11p, 1:
39
See: cI ~, , :,
40
See: c~ 1pp;, 1:
41
See: cI ~, , :, 1-;, ,
Part :
;
tem ol knovleoge.
42
Cr ratLer, a genetic systematization ol reason`s a
priori or timeless course ol proouction ol tLe oillerent transcenoental
levels ol tLis system to le exclusively sell-oetermineo a posteriori ly
personal sell-conscious reection (imagination/spirit).
43
Hlsen vill
luse !icLte`s li-oimensional position in Lis ovn temporal-imaginative
concept ol rationality.
44

:., 1Le Systematic !usion ol MetLoo ano System ol Inovleoge
n Hlsen`s Preissclrijt, tLe logical-Listorical oeouction ol system re-
proouces tLe sell-reective steps taken ly reason tLrougLout its course
ol oevelopment. 1Lis lusion ol oeouctive metLoo ano system ol
knovleoge is anotLer aspect ol !icLte`s overcoming ol EeinLolo
aoopteo ano augmenteo ly Hlsen.
1Le olject ol inquiry ol !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre is knovleoge
itsell or ratLer its actual sell-grounoeo possilility. PLilosopLizing oe-
manos tLat one proceeo sell-reectively. 1Le system ol knovleoge
sLoulo le articulateo in a progressing circular manner starting lrom its
Grundsatz. ts oeouction oemanos graoual ascension in tLinking ano
sell-reection on tLe transcenoental possilility ol eacL perlormeo
tLougLt. !or !icLte ano Hlsen tLe circularity ol tLis metLoo ooes not
entail eitLer an olstacle or an error as lor EeinLolo, lor vLom
oeouction is essentially linear. Since a circular metLoo ol oeouction is
unavoioalle, !icLte argues, it sLoulo le openly acknovleogeo.
45


42
See: _~~ :oo1, :
43
See: _~~ :oo1l, 8;, p, pp
44
!icLte`s oistinction letveen spirit ano letter in Ueber den Untersclied oillers
lrom tLe oistinction maoe ly Iant, EeinLolo, ano !icLte Limsell in tLe 1;p8
Zueite Einleitung in die Wissensclajtslelre. !or in tLis early text !icLte locuses
neitLer on tLe interconnecteo reaoing ol pLilosopLical texts accoroing to tLe
ioea ol tLe vLole, nor on tLe spirit ano tLe intention tLat inoivioual passages
may oisplay. See: cI ~, , , :1-:
45
See: cI ~, , :, 1:-
Ficlte
;,
1Le intuitional sell-reection, nrst enalleo ly tLe laculty ol ima-
gination, emerges as tLe necessary ensuing part ol tLe original analytic-
syntLetic metLoo ol oeouction lrougLt alout ly tLe sell-excluoing
ano ot-. WitL it, reection ceases to le mainly inlerential. 1Le
pLilosopLer appears as a spectator ol tLe imaginative prooucts tLat Le
Las graoually sell-oeouceo lor Limsell as vell as ol tLe sell-positing
leLino tLem. As Laniel Breazeale points out, tLe oerivative metLoo ol
!icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre is a mixeo metLoo. !or it comlines
analytic-syntLetic logical inlerence, imaginative proouction, ano sell-
reective or ratLer pragmatic oescriptive olservation.
46

!icLte`s mixeo metLoo is crucial lor tLe overcoming ol anotLer
prollem poseo ly EeinLolo`s stanopoint. !icLte in tLe Progrann-
sclrijt oljecteo to tLe syllogistic metLoo ol oeouction ol EeinLolo`s
early Elenentarplilosoplie. !icLte criticizeo EeinLolo lor (1) omitting
tLe oiscussion ol tLe key systematic relation ol tLe Grundsatz to it`s
a priori metLoo ol inlerence, as vell as (:) lor tLe spurious autLority
(Bejugni) ol tLis metLoo to oerive tLe suloroinateo propositions ol
pLilosopLy.
47
!icLte suggesteo tLat EeinLolo useo tLe syllogistic rule
ol logic in an arlitrary ano tLerely uncritical vay. !icLte`s mixeo
metLoo provioeo a solution to tLese tvo major inconsistencies oeriveo
necessarily lrom tLe original proto-conscious set ol acts ol tLe Al-
solute . ts unavoioalle circular or sell-reective cLaracter enalles tLat
tLe system ol all knovleoge le articulateo ly reprooucing tLe same
genetic (correlative) acts accomplisLeo ly tLe Alsolute . !icLte`s
metLoo is connecteo tLerelore transcenoentally to its Grundsatz. 1Le
system ol all knovleoge can only le articulateo ly lolloving a
mixeo metLoo, only tLis oisarms tLe oljections ol a possille skeptic
opponent. WLat oistinguisLes !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre, ano ly ex-
tension, Hlsen`s Listorically enlargeo version lrom EeinLolo`s
Elenentarplilosoplie, is its lusion ol metLoo ano system ol knovl-
eoge. Cnly ly a mixeo metLoo can pLilosopLy`s propositions le
oetermineo critically.

46
See: _~~ :oo1, :p
47
See: cI ~, , :, 11
Part :
;
:. 1Le ualitative Completeness ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre
Hlsen Lolos tLat tLe qualitatize logical-Listorical evolution ol tLe
system ol knovleoge, ano ol its inLerently containeo Listory ol pLilo-
sopLy, is exLausteo vitL tLe emergence ol pLilosopLy`s oistinctive
sell-conscious insigLt. 1Lis sell-reective act is regressize. Eeason (or
tLe Alsolute ) reemerges tLrougL it as one`s ovn original articulating
point ol oeparture. Sell-consciousness reveals tLe impossilility ol oe-
riving aooitional transcenoental or qualitative progressize instances ol
cognition lrom Tle Grundsatz. WLat lor !icLte ano Hlsen remains is
lor tLe rational leing to acLieve striving alter a quantitatize expansion
ol tLese exLaustive instances. !or !icLte morality oemanos sell-
oetermination ol all possille reality (ot-), quantitative progress is
tLe rational leing`s practical means to reacL reason`s originall, ano
alsolutely sell-positeo leing. !or Hlsen, tLe inexLaustille cLaracter
ol tLis leing also compels an unenoing logical-listorical process oj selj-
deternining approxination. Hlsen`s position is tLerelore tLat tLe
pragmatic portrayal ol pLilosopLy, tLe systematic articulating tLereol,
vill yielo lull qualitatize conpleteness. Hlsen`s logically-Listorically
augmenteo position tallies in tLis tLeoretical aspect vitL !icLte`s ovn
moral position, vLicL Hlsen sLareo. !icLte`s insigLt enalleo Hlsen
to complete Lis ovn critical relormulation ol EeinLolo`s skeptically
oljectionalle logical-Listorical vievs, provioe tLem vitL a nev in-
Lerent systematic coLerence, ano oevelop a Listory ol pLilosopLy to
augment !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre.
n section !our ol tLe Progrannsclrijt, !icLte oiscusses tLe arti-
culating criteria, vLicL tLe Wissensclajtslelre, tLe pragmatic portrayal
ol tLe a priori system ol all knovleoge, Las to lulnll. 1Lese criteria vere ol
signincant importance lor enricLing ano consolioating Hlsen`s Listori-
cally expanoeo concept ol systematic articulation. !icLte oistinguisLes
letveen (1) negative ano (:) positive criteria.
Ein Grundsatz ist ersclpjt, uenn ein zollstandiges S,sten auj denselben
aujgebaut ist, d.i. uenn der Grundsatz notluendig auj ~ aujgestellten
Satze jlrt, und ~ aujgestellten Satze notluendig uieder auj iln
Ficlte
;;
zurckjlren. Wenn kein Satz in ganzen S,sten zorkonnt, uelcler ualr
se,n kann, uenn der Grundsatz jalscl ist oder jalscl, uenn der Grundsatz
ualr ist, so ist dies der negatize Beueis, dass kein Satz in das S,sten
aujgenonnen uorden, denn derenige, der niclt in das S,sten gelrte,
urde ualr se,n knnen, uenn der Grundsatz jalscl, oder jalscl, uenn
aucl der Grundsatz ualr uare. Ist der Grundsatz gegeben, so nssen ~
Satze gegeben se,n, in iln und durcl iln ist eder einzelne gegeben. Es ist
aus den, uas uir oben ber die Verkettung der einzelnen Satze in der
Wissensclajtslelre gesagt laben, klar, dass diese Wissensclajt den angezeig-
ten negatizen Beueis unnittelbar in sicl selbst und durcl sicl selbst jlre.
Durcl iln uird eruiesen, dass die Wissensclajt berlaupt ~ sei,
dass alle ilre Tleile in einen einzigen Grundsatze zusannenlangen.
48

!icLte`s metLoo ol oeouction lulnls tLe negative logical prool oeman-
oeo to grouno tLe Wissensclajtslelre systematically. ts pragmatic
(sell-sulsuming) conoition assures (1) tLe rigorous necessary cLaracter,
as vell as (:) tLe exclusive graoual inclusion ol eacL oeriveo propo-
sition. 1Lis conclusion applies to Preissclrijt. !icLte`s metLoo is one ol
Hlsen`s main sources. As to tLe requireo positive criteria, a point
alout vLicL tLere is mucL conlusion in scLolarly literature !icLte
vrites tLat
Die Wissensclajt ist ein S,sten, oder sie ist zollendet, uenn ueiter kein
Satz gejolgert uerden kann und dies giebt den positizen Beueis, dass kein
Satz zu uenig in das S,sten aujgenonnen uorden. Die Frage ist nur die
uann und unter uelclen Bedingungen kann ein Satz ueiter gejolgert uer-
den, denn es ist klar, dass das bloss relatize und negatize Merknal sele
niclt uas ueiter jolgen knne, niclts beueist. Es knnte uoll nacl nir ein
anderer konnen, uelcler da, uo icl niclts sal, etuas sale. Wir bedrjen
eines positizen Merknals zun Beueise, dass scllecltlin und unbedingt
niclts ueiter gejolgert uerden knne, und das konnte kein anderes se,n, als
das, dass der Grundsatz selbst, zon uelclen uir ausgegangen uaren, zu-
gleicl aucl das letzte Besultat se,. Dann uare klar, dass uir niclt ueiter
gelen knnten, olne den Weg, den uir sclon einnal genaclt, nocl einnal
zu naclen. Es uird sicl bei einstiger Aujstellung der Wissensclajt zeigen,
dass sie diesen Kreislauj uirklicl zollendet, und den Forscler gerade bei den

48
cI ~, , :, 1o
Part :
;8
Puncte zerlasst, zon uelclen sie nit iln ausging, dass sie also gleicljalls den
zueiten positizen Beueis in sicl selbst und durcl sicl selbst jlrt.
49

!icLte`s positive criterion is to exLaust tLe tLeoretical grounoing ol tLe
system ol knovleoge ly preventing unconditionall, tLe possilility ol
lurtLer transcenoental oeouction. 1Le closing ol tLe oeouctive circle is
not meant to oetermine tLe oennitive logical certainty ol tLe nrst
principle ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre.
50
ts raison-d'etre is ratLer to pro-
vioe a rigorous logical prool ol tLe inlerent s,stenatic colerence or
consistenc, ol tLe system ol pLilosopLy, to estallisL an inlerent s,s-
tenatic identit, letveen its starting ano concluoing point. 1Lis
ioentity assures tLe deductize correctness ol system. !icLte claimeo tLat
tLe articulation ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre closes tLe circle ano provioes
tLe requireo positive prool. 1Le Wissensclajtslelre Las tLe alility to
yielo lull qualitative tLeoretical completeness. By expanoing tLis strate-
gy, Hlsen oeriveo lrom !icLte systematic lenents lor Lis ovn
Listorically augmenteo concerns.
1Le purpose ol tLe tLeoretical oivision ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre is to
oeouce tLe transcendental possibilit, leLino tLe Alsolute `s sell-
limiting ol itsell tLrougL a counter-positeo quantineo ot-. 1Le
oeouction ol tLe laculty ol imagination lurnisLes tLe grouno ol tLe nrst
sensually representeo olject. 1Le lull oiscursive sell-oetermination ol
tLis olject oemanos an ascenoing sell-sulsuming series ol imaginative
sell-reections. 1Lis series is a pragmatic oisclosure ano portrayal ol

49
cI ~, , :, 1o-1
50
As Laniel _~~ (1pp, ,1) comments, one sLoulo not [.| le misleo ly
!icLte`s remarks [.| ano [.| concluoe tLat, lor all ol Lis insistence upon tLe
neeo lor a sell-evioently certain starting point, Le actually anticipateo tLe lami-
liar Hegelian viev tLat criticizes all claims to immeoiate certainty ano tLat treats
tLe trutL ol tLe starting point as sometLing tLat can le estallisLeo as a
result ol tLe system. Hovever attractive one may nno sucL a position to le, it
is not !icLte`s. [my lolo|. Tle Grundsatz is a postulate, namely tLe proposi-
tional expression ol a principle tLat is not susceptille to logical prool. Tle
Grundsatz represents a meta-logical principle, tLe exclusive estallisLment ol
vLicL oemanos tLe actual accomplisLment ol a pure or immeoiate act ol sell-
positing. See: cI ~, , :, :,,
Ficlte
;p
tLe remaining levels ol tLe a priori system ol all knovleoge. acL one ol
tLese oeouctive steps represents a LigLer oegree ol transcenoental sell-
oetermination ol tle sane single enpiricall, represented obect positeo
ly tLe laculty ol imagination. n otLer voros, tLe emerging content ol
tLese concatenateo sell-reections is tLe transcendental ano tLerelore
qualitatizel, evolving structure ol an actual nxeo quantit,.
51
1Lis
sell-sulsuming series enos vitL tLe emergence ol nnite sell-conscious-
ness, a sell-relerential alstracting capalility lounoeo on tLe laculty ol
reason. Eeason`s oeouction, tLe topic tLat closes tLe tLeoretical oivision
ol tLe Grundlage, may le tLe key to !icLte`s claim tLat Lis approacL
provioes tLe positive articulating prool oemanoeo to estallisL tLe re-
quireo inLerent logical coLerence. 1Le pragmatic series unveils tLe
transcenoental evolution ol a nxeo quantity. Hence, tLe scope ol tLe
resulting logical coLerence vill le only qualitative. 1Le sell-oetermi-
nation ol reason`s possilility is tLe pragmatic event tLat enos un-
conditionall, tLe oeouction ol tLe system ol all knovleoge. !rom its
sell-conscious regressive angle, tLe Alsolute emerges as a non-tran-
scendent ano tLerelore exlaustize instance ol oeouction. 1Lis explains
!icLte`s claim tLat reason`s oeouction constitutes tLat tLeoretical in-
stance lrom vLicL tLe Wissensclajtslelre cannot aovance any lurtLer.
52

Sell-consciousness proves tLat reason or tLe Alsolute is tLe universal
ano Lence exLaustive qualitatize agent leLino tLe actual sell-positing
ol tLe alorementioneo quantit,. 1Le pragmatic proceoure enalles tLe
systematic sell-oetermination ol tLe unizersal a priori conditions
vLerely tLe Alsolute sell-limits itsell tLrougL a counter-positeo
quantineo ot-, it enalles tLe systematic oeouction in concreto ol tLe
transcenoental grouno ol all tLeory. !icLte tLerelore concluoes tLat

51
As 1om Eockmore (:oo1, ) alternatively puts it, [.| !icLte ooes not locus
on tLe a priori analysis ol tLe conoitions ol tLe possilility ol experience in
general, lut ratLer on tLe conoitions ol real experience. He takes experience [.|
ano argues [.| lorm conoitioneo to conoition tLereol in oroer to explain Lov
experience is really possille. He never attempts to oeouce conoitions ol alstract
possilility, or possilility vLatsoever. He consistently oescriles real conoitions
ol actual experience.
52
See: cI ~, , :, 8
Part :
8o
Die Wissensclajtslelre lat also absolute Totalitat [i. e. , logical totality|. In
ilr jlrt Eins zu Allen, und Alles zu Einen. Sie ist aber die einzige Wissen-
sclajt, uelcle zollendet uerden kann, Vollendung ist dennacl ilr auszeicl-
nender Clarakter. Alle andere Wissensclajten sind unendlicl, und knnen
nie zollendet uerden, denn sie laujen niclt uieder in ilren Grundsatz zu-
rck. Die Wissensclajtslelre lat dies jr alle zu beueisen und den Grund
dazon anzugeben.
53

1Le consolioation ol a critical moral oroer compels a regulative
striving alter an exLaustive quantitative expansion ol pLilosopLy`s
transcenoental conoitions. All tLese s,stenatic aspects ol !icLte`s
Wissensclajtslelre apply to Hlsen`s Preissclrijt. !icLte`s position
enalleo Hlsen to complete Lis critical relormulation ol EeinLolo`s
unjustineo logical-Listorical vievs, ano provioe tLem vitL a nev in-
Lerent systematic coLerence.

53
cI ~, , :, 11. Some passages ol tLe Progrannsclrijt (particularly in
section Seven) question tLe possilility ol estallisLing tLis inLerent logical
coLerence. !icLte Lelo tLat tLere ougLt to le sometLing tLat coulo not le
oemonstrateo strictly, sometLing tLat ougLt to le assumeo to le prolalle only,
namely tLe lact tLat systematic coLerence coulo Lave leen estallisLeo accioentally
tLrougL incorrect oeouction. [See: cI ~, , :, 1-;, 1p| evertLeless, in
tLe 1;p8 reeoiting ol tLe Progrannsclrijt, !icLte acknovleogeo tLat tLese ooults
vere concerneo vitL Lis ovn early oeouctions. See: cI ~, , :, 1
Ficlte
81
:.; 1Le Wissensclajtslelre ano its Systematic Connection vitL tLe
History ol PLilosopLy
Still, !icLte oio not neglect entirely tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy.
54

!icLte`s exLaustive reconstruction ol EeinLolo`s system impelleo a
reconstruction ol its introouctory part. AltLougL !icLte never
reconstructeo EeinLolo`s Listory ol pLilosopLy systematically, Lis
vritings on tLe Wissensclajtslelre contain many passages in vLicL
oillerent aspects ol EeinLolo`s insigLt are restateo in passing. Most ol
tLese passages can le louno in tLe Progrannsclrijt, tLe 1;p essay in
vLicL !icLte outlineo tLe program ol Lis lortLcoming system. Lue to
tLeir incioental cLaracter, most ol !icLte`s statements are not justineo
systematically.
My mooest purpose Lere is to sLov vays in vLicL !icLte may Lave
intenoeo to oevelop a Listory ol pLilosopLy on tLe lounoations ol tLe
Wissensclajtslelre. 1Lis oiscussion vill uncover anotLer reason lor
!icLte`s 1;p; entLusiastic ioentincation ol Hlsen`s Preissclrijt vitL
tLe Wissensclajtslelre. Since EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie is
tLe Listorical source ol tLis key aspect ol Hlsen`s approacL, vill
limit mysell to sLoving tLe EeinLoloian origins ol !icLte`s ovn lrag-
mentarily oevelopeo position.
t voulo le a mistake Lovever to conluse !icLte`s occasional re-
marks vLicL connect tLe Wissensclajtslelre vitL tLe Listory ol pLilo-
sopLy vitL Lis oescription ol Lis system as a pragmatic Listory ol tLe
Luman spirit. Pragnatiscle Gescliclte des nensclliclen Geistes oesi-
gnates reason`s timeless course ol proouction ol tLe oillerent levels ol
tLe a priori system ol all knovleoge, vLicL are exclusively uncovereo
ano portrayeo genetically ly personal sell-conscious reection. Histor,
oj plilosopl, on tLe otLer Lano relers to tLe graoual systematic process

54
BotL German ano Anglo-Saxon stuoies ol !icLte oo not pay sulncient attention
to tLe lragmentary allusions in tLe Wissensclajtslelre to tLe Listory ol pLiloso-
pLy. ScLolars overlook tLis issue lecause tLey lail to notice tLe systematic
connection ol EeinLolo`s early Elnentarplilosoplie vitL tLe Listory ol pLilo-
sopLy.
Part :
8:
ol oevelopment vLerely tLe necessary pLilosopLizing activity ol many
oillerent nnite rational leings results in tLe Listorical oiscovery ol tLe
sell-conscious pragmatic capalility to articulate tLe a priori system ol
all knovleoge.
!icLte lolloving EeinLolo locuses on tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy as a
necessary accumulative process. As in EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilo-
soplie, a transcenoental agent carries out tLis process: tLe reecting or
pLilosopLizing laculty ol juogment (reectierende or plilosoplirende
Urtleilskrajt). !icLte sLares EeinLolo`s locus on pLilosopLy`s Listori-
city as tLe ascenoant proouct ol a logical-Listorical activity ol reason.
!icLte`s scattereo remarks are causal restatements ol some ol Eein-
Lolo`s arguments. 1Le scope ol tLe task ol tLe exLaustive articulation
ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre is too great lor a single Luman liletime.
55

very ascenoing step taken to reacL pLilosopLy Las to le nrst climleo
lelore a LigLer step is reacLeo.
56
All past ellorts maoe tLrougLout tLe
Listory ol pLilosopLy appear as necessary partial attenpts ol tLe pLilo-
sopLizing laculty ol juogment at an articulation ol a Wissensclajts-
lelre.
57
1Le articulation ol pLilosopLy oepenos on all previous logical-
Listorical steps. PLilosopLers emerge as necessary Listorical moments
ol tLis general process. 1LrougL tLeir pLilosopLizing activity, tLe
pLilosopLizing laculty ol juogment graoually uncovers tLe a priori
system ol all knovleoge.
58

Accoroing to !icLte, tLe articulation ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre oe-
manos tLat concrete rational leings spontaneously turn tLeir rational
activity in a specinc oirection: sell-conscious reection. !icLte`s argu-
ment tLat personal articulation is an inoispensalle conoition to estallisL

55
See: cI ~, , :, 118
56
See: cI ~, , :, 111
57
ote tLe lolloving statement lrom Ueber den Untersclied: Alle, die enals
Ernder in der Plilosoplie uurden, alle uelcle neue S,stene aujgestellt laben,
die uenn sie sicl aucl niclt belaupteten, docl inner einer zon den notluen-
digen Versuclen des nenscll. Geistes zur Herzorbringung einer Wiensclajts-
lelre uaren [.|. cI ~, , , ;
58
See: cI ~, , :, 11o-1
Ficlte
8
tLe possilility ol tLe Science ol Inovleoge,
59
can le connecteo to a
general logical-Listorical process ol oevelopment, tLe carrying out ol
vLicL migLt le tLe result ol tLe ascenoing oegree ol sell-conscious ac-
tivity (pLilosopLizing) ol oillerent Listorically situateo pLilosopLers.
60

1Lis lusion ol tLe general ano tLe personal spLeres ol logical-Listorical
oevelopment is also a oistinctive leature ol EeinLolo`s stanopoint. n
tLe tLiro look ol tLe Grundlage, !icLte Lovever implies tLe practical
grounoing ol tLis possilility. 1Le sell-reecting nature ol tLe rational
leing is a Lolistically inoiviouateo striving nature. !icLte implies in tLis
vay tLe possilility lor a general-personal logical-Listorical activity ly
tLe pLilosopLizing laculty ol juogment.
61

!icLte also sLares EeinLolo`s ioea tLat all pLilosopLers sLareo tLe
same logical-Listorical goal : tLe attainment ol critical knovleoge.
Accoroing to Lim, tLey all trieo to use reection to separate tLe Luman
spirit`s necessary mooe ol acting lrom its contingent conoitions. By
attempting to acLieve tLis, tLe pLilosopLizing laculty ol juogment pro-
gresseo Listorically ano approacLeo its inLerent goal: tLe Wissensclajts-
lelre.
62
EeinLolo ano !icLte oo not only agree as to tLe necessary

59
See: cI ~, , :, 11p
60
1Le lolloving statement lrom Ueber die Bestinnung oes Gelelrten provioes
aooitional evioence ol tLis point. n Lis oiscussion ol rational cooroination,
!icLte (~, , , p) argues: Wenn uir die entuickelte Idee aucl nur olne alle
Bezielung auj uns selbst betraclten, so erblicken uir docl uenigstens ausser uns
eine Verbindung, in der keiner jr sicl selbst arbeiten kann, olne jr alle anderen
zu arbeiten, oder jr den anderen arbeiten, olne zugleicl jr sicl selbst zu
arbeiteninden der glcklicle Fortgang Eines Mitgliedes glcklicler Fortgang
jr Alle, und der Verlust des Einen Verlust jr alle ist [.|.
61
]rgen Stolzenlerg oiscusses tLe personal possilility ol sucL a practically
grounoeo Listorical capalility. He Lovever ooes not enligLten it as tLe pLilo-
sopLizing laculty ol juogment`s grouno ol logical-Listorical striving. or ooes
Le connect tLis point to any ol tLe EeinLoloian inuences tLat attrilute to
!icLte. See: p :oo:, p-1o
62
See: cI ~, , :, 1. n tLe prelace to tLe nrst eoition ol tLe Progrann-
sclrijt, !icLte oescriles Iant as someone vLo orove pLilosopLizing juogment
lrom tLe stanopoint at vLicL Le louno it tovaro its nnal goal. See: cI ~,
, :, 11o
Part :
8
teleological cLaracter ol all logical-Listorical pLilosopLizing activity.
1Ley aooitionally concur on tLe empirically reacLalle cLaracter ol rea-
son`s goal.
!icLte argues tLat it vas reserveo lor critical pLilosopLy to take tLe
nnal oeveloping step ol tLe pLilosopLical Listory ol reason ano un-
cover tLe true concept ol pLilosopLy.
63
1Le lolloving seems to le an
aoaptation ol EeinLolo`s claim tLat pLilosopLy`s necessary emergence
enalles a universal reconciliation ol all possille systematic positions.
!icLte argues tLat tLe conclusive step taken ly tLe pLilosopLizing la-
culty ol juogment enalles a universal reconciliation ol tLe conicting
claims ol tLe only tvo possille systems ol tLougLt, namely oogmatism
ano criticism.
64

1Le main purpose ol !icLte`s approacL is to grouno EeinLolo`s un-
grounoeo concept ol representation. n Lis Vergleiclung des zon
Herrn Proj. Sclnid aujgestellten S,stens nit der Wissensclajtslelre,
65

!icLte states tLis unamligously
Meines Eracltens dies ist eine listoriscle Belauptung, und icl appellire
ber diesen Punct an die besseren unter den etzt lebenden plilosoplisclen
Sclrijtstellern, und an die gesannte Gescliclte der Plilosoplie neines
Eracltens ist die Frage, uelcle die Plilosoplie zu beantuorten lat, jolgende
uie langen unsere Vorstellungen nit ilren Obecten zusannen, inuiejern
kann nan sagen, dass denselben etuas, unablangig zon ilnen, und berlaupt
zon uns, ausser uns entsprecle: [.| Alle Plilosoplie, zon Anbeginn an bis
etzt, lat die Beantuortung dieser Frage zu ilren letzten Zuecke gelabt.
66

!icLte sLareo EeinLolo`s viev tLat vLat is crucial is to give an ex-
Laustive grounoing ansver to tLe question alout tLe transcenoental
possilility representation. An asking mecLanism also cLaracterizes
pLilosopLizing juogment`s logical-Listorical nodus operandi.

63
See: cI ~, , :, :8:
64
See: cI ~, , :, 1op
65
!icLte`s essay oates lrom 1;p, a year alter Hlsen vrote Preissclrijt. Lovever
incluoe it Lere lor it provioes aooitional evioence ol !icLte`s incioental interest
in a rational Listory ol pLilosopLy prior to Lis sympatLetic rating ol Hlsen`s
Preissclrijt in 1;p;.
66
See: cI ~, , , :;
Ficlte
8,
Es zerstelt sicl, dass die plilosoplirende Urtleilskrajt in der Beantuortung
dieser Frage, oder in den Versuclen sie zu beantuorten, s,stenatiscl zu
Werke gelt.
67

Accoroing to !icLte, tLe pLilosopLizing laculty ol juogment progresses
Listorically ly giving systematic ansvers to tLe question alout tLe
transcenoental possilility ol representation. All systematic attempts
tLerelore are necessary oeveloping stages ol an exclusive Listorically
secureo pLilosopLy tLe possilility ol vLicL may nnally emerge as an
exLaustive accumulative ansver to tLis question. All sucL attempts
constitute a single Listorically extenoeo systematic attempt ol reason at
an articulation ol pLilosopLy. 1Le correlative emergence ol tLese oe-
veloping stages is an ascenoing series ol rectilying or actualizing per-
spectives vLerely tLe pLilosopLizing laculty ol juogment uncovers tLe
supra-Listorical system ol all knovleoge. 1Le logical-Listorical process
ol oevelopment tLat culminates in tLe critical concept ol pLilosopLy, in
tLe personal sell-conscious alility to portray tLe pragmatic Listory ol
tLe Luman spirit, sLoulo le unoerstooo as tLe Listory ol reason
climling systematically to a lull avareness ol itsell as an a priori system
ol knovleoge.
68
All tLese arguments, as one coulo once again connrm,
may Lave leen inspireo ly EeinLolo`s approacL to tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy.
!or !icLte tLe Wissensclajtslelre enalles an increasing oisplay ol
reason`s practical potential (expanoing sell-oetermination). !icLte
sLoulo le committeo to EeinLolo`s claim tLat tLe logical-Listorical
emergence ol pLilosopLy estallisLes tLe possilility ol a moral im-
provement ol tLe Luman species.

67
See: cI ~, , , :;. 1Le lolloving passage lrom Ueber den Begrijj
provioes a negative evioence ol tLe teleologically progressing cLaracter ol tLe
pLilosopLizing laculty ol juogment: Diese Handlungsart berlaupt [i.e., tLe
Luman spirit`s necessary vay ol acting|, soll nacl den obigen durcl eine
reectirende Abstraction zon allen, uas niclt sie ist, abgesondert uerden. Diese
Abstraction gesclielt durcl Freileit, und die plilosoplirende Urtleilskrajt uird
in ilr gar niclt durcl blinden Zuang geleitet." cI ~, , :, 1
68
See: _ :oo, 11o
Part :
8
!icLte sLoulo also le committeo to tLe lolloving conclusion: as in
EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie, neitLer tLe recognition ol rea-
son`s systematic process ol teleological proouction, nor tLe articulation
ol tLe introouctory Listory ol pLilosopLy is possille prior to tLe logi-
cal-Listorical attainment ol critical knovleoge. arlier it is impossille
to ioentily eitLer tLe striving oirection ol tLe pLilosopLizing laculty ol
juogment, or tLe possilility ol articulation. 1Lis lollovs lrom !icLte`s
oiscussion ol pure pLilosopLical ano pLilosopLical-Listorical (logical-
Listorical) knovleoge in Ueber die Bestinnung des Gelelrten.
Die Kenntni der ersten Art grndet sicl auj reine Vernunjtsatze, und ist
plilosopliscl, die zon der zueiten zun Tleil auj Erjalrung, und ist insojern
plilosopliscl-listoriscl, (niclt blo listoriscl, denn icl nu a die Zuecke,
die sicl nur plilosopliscl erkennen lassen, auj die in der Erjalrung gegebe-
nen Gegenstande bezielen, un die leztern als Mittel zur Erreiclung der
ersten beurtleilen zu knnen).
69

A similar viev lollovs lrom !icLte`s lriel oiscussion in Progrann-
sclrijt ol tLe ongoing, tLougL partially sell-avare attempts maoe
tLrougLout tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy to reacL tLe stanopoint ol tLe
Wissensclajtslelre. Prior to tLe Wissensclajtslelre's insigLt, tLe pLilo-
sopLizing laculty ol juogment can only strive unconsciously alter its
logical-Listorical goal. t cannot recognize tLe inLerent correlative
cLaracter ol its ovn logical-Listorical course ol systematic pro-
ouction.
70

Der nenscllicle Geist naclt nanclerlei Versucle, er konnt durcl blindes
Heruntappen zur Dannerung, und gelt erst aus dieser zun lellen Tage

69
cI ~, , , ,. 1Le lolloving passage lrom tLe late 1;p Plilosopliscle
Wissensclajt des Beclts zon Projessor Ficlte [Naclsclrijt Lossius. Fragnent|
provioes lurtLer evioence ol tLis point. Die Gescliclte dieser Wissensclajt [i.e.,
tLe science ol lav| kann nan, uie die einer eden andern, niclt eler zerstelen,
bis nan die Wissensclajt selbst lat denn Gescliclte eines Dinges, das niclt ist,
ist niclts. So uar die bis lerige Gescliclte der Plilosoplie inner nur Gescliclte
der Plilosoplen." cI ~, , , ,p
70
As in EeinLolo`s system, !icLte ougLt to le committeo to tLe viev tLat ouring
tLe epocL ol pre-critical tLougLt, all prooucts ol tLe pLilosopLizing laculty ol
juogment appear to tLe olserver as atomic lacts.
Ficlte
8;
ber. Er uird Anjangs durcl dunkle Gejlle (deren Ursprung und Wirklicl-
keit die Wissensclaslelre darzulegen lat) geleitet, und uir latten nocl
leute keinen deutliclen Begrijj, und uaren nocl inner der Erdkloss, der
sicl den Boden entuand, uenn uir niclt angejangen latten, dunkel zu jl-
len, uas uir erst spater deutlicl erkannten. Dies bestatiget denn aucl die
Gescliclte der Plilosoplie, und uir laben etzt den eigentliclen Grund
angegeben, uarun dasenige, uas docl in eden nensclliclen Geiste ojjen
da liegt, und uas eder nit Handen greijen kann, uenn es iln deutlicl dar-
gelegt uird, erst nacl nannigjaltigen Herunirren zun Beuusstse,n einiger
uenigen gelangte.
71

Accoroing to !icLte, tLe Wissensclajtslelre provioes an explanation ol
vLy so mucL vanoering vas necessary to enalle tLe nnal grasping ol
tLe ever-existing system ol knovleoge. Still, apart lrom implying tLe
systematic possilility ol tLis logical-Listorical striving task lragmen-
tarily, !icLte oio not oevelop tLis topic ouring tLe years tLat concern
us Lere. Cne ol tLe issues tLat !icLte`s improveo Elenentar-
plilosoplie lails to oevelop is tLe systematic grounoing ol its Listorical
stanopoint.
72

1LougL !icLte oio not oevelop lully EeinLolo`s concept ol a Listory ol
pLilosopLy, Lis systematic introouction to tLe Wissensclajtslelre agrees
vitL EeinLolo`s position in a numler ol central points. (1) 1Le Listory
ol pLilosopLy is a logical-Listorical ascenoing process. (:) Historical

71
See: cI ~, , :, 1
72
Peter Baumanns (1p;, 11p) is rigLt in oljecting to !icLte tLat Wenn die
Wissensclajtslelre Naturlage" und das Prinzip der Wissensclajtslelre durcl
Ezidenz ausgezeiclnet soll, uarun bedurjte es dann eines so langen Prozesses
der Wegraunung zon Ezidenzlindernissen: Welcler art uaren die Ezidenz-
lindernisse, da sie einen so langen und nlseligen Proze ilrer Hinueg-
raunung bedingten: Auj dieser Frage aber gibt die Progrannsclrijt keine
antuort. Sie uill zuar den eigentliclen Grund angegeben laben, uarun alle
bislerigen Plilosoplen die plilosplierende Urteilskrajt inner nur ein Stck
zorrcken konnten, in Walrleit aber uird blo belauptet, da es so sein nute.
Das, uas zu erklaren uare das leruntappen zur Dannerung nittels dunkler
Gejlle (eines Walrleitssinnes) und das scllielicle Ubergelen zun lellen
Tage, uird niclt erklart, sondern in tautologiscler Weise selbst als Erklarungs-
grund ausgegeben."
Part :
88
progress is accomplisLeo teleologically tLrougL tLe sell-reecting activi-
ty ol a transcenoental agent (pLilosopLizing reason or tLe pLilosopLiz-
ing laculty ol juogment). () 1Le articulation ol pLilosopLy oepenos on
all previous logical-Listorical steps taken ly tLis agent. () Critical
knovleoge emerges as tLe ultimate rational outcome ol pLilosopLy`s
Listory. (,) t is tLe empirical result ol reason`s reacLing ol a non-
regulative inLerent goal. () 1eleological progression is carrieo out
tLrougL a systematic ano ongoing ansver attempt ol tLe question alout
tLe transcenoental possilility ol representation. (;) All tLe systematic
attempts maoe tLrougLout tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy appear as necessary
oeveloping stages ol a single systematic attempt ol reason at a oennitive
articulation ol pLilosopLy. (8) 1Le correlative systematic emergence ol
all oeveloping stages appears as an ascenoing sequence ol rectilying or
actualizing perspectives tLat reason attains ol tLe a priori system ol all
knovleoge. (p) 1Le necessary emergence ol pLilosopLy enalles a uni-
versal reconciliation ol all pLilosopLical positions. (1o) t lurtLermore
makes possille a moral improvement ol tLe Luman species. (11) eitLer
tLe necessary process ol logical-Listorical oevelopment, nor tLe arti-
culation ol tLe introouctory Listory ol pLilosopLy is possille prior to
tLe attainment ol critical knovleoge. (1:) PLilosopLers emerge as
necessary Listorical moments ol tLe rational Listory ol pLilosopLy.
1LrougL tLeir ascenoing general-personal ellorts, reason uncovers tLe
system ol all knovleoge.
1Lese coincioences provioe sulncient evioence tLat tLe re-articulation
ol most ol EeinLolo`s introouctory approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilo-
sopLy vas an ioea tLat !icLte originally Lao in mino lut oio not
oevelop.
As to tLe intriguing question ol vLy !icLte oio not re-articulate tLis
aspect ol EeinLolo`s approacL, tvo oillerent ansvers are plausille.
(1) Luring tLe perioo ol 1;p-1;pp, !icLte`s interests vere mainly
locuseo on tLe oevelopment ol tLe lounoational epistemic principles ol
tLe Wissensclajtslelre, as vell as on tLe lormulation ol its Beclts- ano
Sittenlelre parts. (:) !icLte lost interest in tLis Listorical oimension.
!rieoricL ScLlegel`s corresponoence provioes evioence tLat alreaoy in
August 1;p, a lev montLs alter vriting Vergleiclung des zon Herrn
Ficlte
8p
Proj. Sclnid,
73
!icLte tolo Lim tLat Le vas not interesteo in Listory.
74

otvitLstanoing ScLlegel`s report, anotLer possille reason lor !icLte`s
oesistence vas tLat Le relegateo tLis task to Hlsen.
:.8 1Le Practical Vocation ol tLe ScLolar
WLile as tLeorist, Hlsen vas as mucL a stuoent ol EeinLolo as a
oisciple ol !icLte, as a moral pLilosopLer Hlsen`s oepenoence on
!icLte is unamliguous. 1Lere is no evioence tLat Hlsen vas allecteo
ly eitLer EeinLolo`s vritings on tLe nrst principle ol morals in Bei-
trage zol. II
75
or ly tLe practical pLilosopLy at tLe close ol tLe
Versuclssclrijt. !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre explains ano insures an in-
nnite moral improvement ol tLe Luman species. 1Le spontaneous or
unconoitioneo activity ol tLe sell-positing , enalles an ongoing sell-
oetermination ol tLe Luman vill. Accoroing to !icLte in Ueber die
Bestinnung des Gelelrten, a series ol pullic ano non-systematic lec-
tures oelivereo in ]ena in 1;p, tLe scLolar, as tLe true expert on
pLilosopLy, tLe Leir ol tLe EeinLoloian Selbstdenker, sLoulo le tLe
most outstanoing etLical person ol Lis time. He is responsille lor tLe
aovancement ano supervision ol tLe etLical improvement ol tLe Luman
species. Hlsen integrateo !icLte`s scLolar vitL EeinLolo`s Selbst-
denker in Lis ovn etLical mooel ol Selbstdenker, tLe critical pLilo-
sopLer responsille lor turning Lumanity`s attention to tLe logical-
Listorical patL ol pLilosopLizing reason leaoing to a moral perlection
via tLe Listorically enlargeo Wissensclajtslelre. Ueber die Bestinnung
oiscusses tvo key leatures tLat Hlsen vill emlrace. (1) t introouces
tLe ioealistic concept ol a purposive cooroinateo community, a stance
tLat openeo tLe roao lor Hlsen`s lurtLer unoerstanoing ol a joint

73
!icLte`s essay appeareo in print in tLe 1:tL issue ol tLe Plilosopliscles ]ournal.
t vas olncially announceo on May :,, 1;p in tLe Allgeneine Literatur Zei-
tung. See: cI ~, , , :1
74
See ScLlegel`s letters to Irner lrom Septemler :1 ano o, 1;p in: p
(IA), XX,
75
See: Uber das zollstandige Fundanent der Moral in: o OMMP, , 11-81
Part :
po
rational late ol tLe Luman species. (:) t relormulates tLe Iantian
concepts ol tLe categorical imperative ano tLe LigLest gooo, ano
links tLeir expanoing possililities, tLe critical consolioation ol a uni-
versal moral oroer, vitL personal regulative striving.
Accoroing to !icLte, tLe scLolar is a Luman leing. 1Le oisclosure ol
Lis practical vocation oemanos a previous inquiry into tLe vocation ol
tLe rational leing as sucL, a strategy tLat Hlsen vill apply. n tLe
tLeoretical Wissensclajtslelre, tLe knoving sulject cannot acLieve ex-
Laustive sell-oetermination. As a nnite rational leing, Le cannot attain
alsolute sell-conscious knovleoge. 1Le sulject attains consciousness ol
itsell only as an empirically oetermineo sell-reecting agent.
76
mpirical
sell-consciousness presupposes a quantitatively unoetermineo, ano
Lence conoitioning ot-. 1Lis ot- emerges innnitely as an extra-
reective aspect ol sell-oetermining reection. t appears to tLe knov-
ing sulject as an insurmountalle quantitative oepenoence, tLe allegeo
origin ol vLicL is external ano loreign. Moral improvement impels
a regulative striving lor tLe overcoming ol tLis empirically restricteo
lreeoom. As Hlsen learns lrom !icLte, tLe sulject sLoulo suloroinate
unoer or Larmonize tLis quantitative loreign inoeterminacy ol tLe
ot- vitL tLe Lolistic (tLetic) sell-positing activity ol tLe pure or
Alsolute .
77
1Le result ol tLis sLoulo le alsolute sell-ioentity or sell-
agreement, lor tLe alsolutely sell-positeo is inoivisille ano non-
contraoictalle.
Das Besultat aus allen Gesagten ist jolgendes Die zollkonnene
Uebereinstinnung des Mensclen nit sicl selbst, und danit er nit sicl
selbst bereinstinnen knne die Uebereinstinnung aller Dinge ausser
iln nit seinen notluendigen praktisclen Begrijjen zon ilnen, den Be-
grijjen, uelcle bestinnen, uie sie se,n sollen, ist das letzte lclste Ziel
des Mensclen.
78

1Le sulject`s LigLer etLical goal is lor !icLte as later lor Hlsen in
Preissclrijt, alsolute leing or rationality, namely tLe quantitative sell-

76
See: cI ~, , , :8
77
See: cI ~, , , o-1
78
cI ~, , , 1
Ficlte
p1
conscious sulsuming ol all possille experience. !icLte lormulates tLis
in a practical commano: Der Menscl soll se,n, uas er ist, scllecltlin
darun, ueil er ist.
79
xLaustive sell-oetermination compels tLe sulject
to strive personally ano accomplisL empirically tLe lull practical
potentiality ol reason. 1Le sulject ougLt to grasp Limsell as tLe uncon-
oitional agent leLino Lis ovn innnitely expanoing empirical existence.
Cngoing practical striving is Lis vay to lring alout a critically
intensilying moral oroer ano improve Limsell existentially: tLe co-
incioence letveen !icLte ano Hlsen on tLis point is irrelutalle.
!icLte`s concept ol sell-oetermination results in an innovative relor-
mulation ol Iant`s categorical imperative, a relormulation tLat Hlsen
vill incorporate. Accoroing to !icLte, a manilolo ol quantitatize em-
pirical oeterminations contraoict tLe original proto-quantiable ioentity
ol tLe alsolute . 1Lat is tLe reason vLy reason ano sensibilit,, tLe
pure ano tLe enpirical spLeres ol tLe Luman spirit, are at nrst not in
Larmony. onetLeless, tLis Larmony sLoulo le lrougLt alout. Moral
perlection, tLe categorical imperative, oemanos tLeir ultimate sell-
sulsuming ioentity. WLile tLe Iantian concept ol tLe LigLest gooo,
etLical virtue comlineo vitL Lappiness, is tvololo, lor !icLte tLe
LigLest gooo is a unitary concept. n !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre, tLe
LigLest gooo is rational Larmony ol tLe rational leing vitL Limsell,
a sell-oetermining ioentincation ol all ot- as Lis ovn sell-positeo
proouct, tLus no Lappiness vitLout moral acting. Cnly tLat vLicL is
gooo makes us Lappy ano not conversely.
80
1Le LigLest gooo is, as
!icLte vill persuaoe Hlsen, an unavoioalle ly-proouct ol tLe critical-
ly emerging moral oroer.
onetLeless, lor !icLte Lis nnite cLaracter prevents tLe sulject lrom
reacLing alsolute ioentity or Larmony. Cur practical vocation (Be-
stinnung) is not lor !icLte or Hlsen to reacL tLis goal. ua nnite
rational leing, tLe sulject`s vocation lies in an unenoing approximation
to alsolute sell-Larmony.

79
cI ~, , , :p
80
See: cI ~: , , 1-:
Part :
p:
Nennt nan nun ene zllige Uebereinstinnung nit sicl selbst Vollkonnen-
leit, in der lclsten Bedeutung des Wortes, uie nan sie allerdings nennen
kann so ist Vollkonnenleit das lclste unerreiclbare Ziel des Mensclen,
Verzollkonnnung ins unendlicle aber ist seine Bestinnung. Er ist da, un
selbst inner sittlicl besser zu uerden, und alles rund un sicl lerun sinnlicl,
und uenn er in der Gesellsclajt betracltet uird, aucl sittlicl besser, und
dadurcl sicl selbst inner glckseliger zu naclen.
81

Accoroing to !icLte, tLe rational leing is not an isolateo leing. He is
oestineo to live in society, to interact vitL otLer autonomous leings.
Alter oiscussing tLe ontological existence ol otLer lree acting agents
outsioe onesell, !icLte employs Iant`s terminology ano oennes society
as a purposelul cooroinateo community ol sell-oetermineo rational
leings. !icLte`s insigLt vill le Hlsen`s vay to expano EeinLolo`s
concept ol sell-oetermineo consensus. SucL a cooroinateo society is
cLaracterizeo ly tLe mutual respect ol tLe sell-oetermineo nature ol its
interacting memlers. 1o restrict someone`s lreeoom is tantamount as
to master or suloroinate Lim ly not taking into account Lis rational
nature. SucL acting is immoral, as it ooes not consioer one`s ovn
lellovmen as practical enos. So acting voulo interlere vitL one`s ovn
alility ano ly extension, vitL tLe alility ol one`s lellovmen to acLieve
sell-oetermineo Larmony. !or !icLte, cooroination oemanos tLe
cultivation ol tLe practical skills ol autonomous giving ano receiving.
As Hlsen vill learn lrom Lim, reason is in complete agreement vitL
itsell regaroing Lumanity`s ultimate goal: universal moral perlection.
82

Die Vollkonnenleit ist nur auj eine Art bestinnt sie ist sicl selbst zllig
gleicl, knnten alle Mensclen zollkonnen uerden, knnten sie ilr lclstes
und letztes Ziel erreiclen, so uaren sie alle einander zllig gleicl, sie uaren
nur Eins, ein einziges Subect.
83

!icLte argueo tLat in a cooroinateo society tLe activity ol eacL rational
leing is cLaracterizeo ly an ongoing striving lor exLaustive im-
provement ol Lis ovn moral quality as vell as ol tLat ol Lis lellovmen.

81
cI ~, , , :
82
See: cI ~, , , -8, o-1
83
cI ~, , , o
Ficlte
p
acL rational leing accomplisLes tLis ly attempting to raise Limsell
ano Lis lellovmen to Lis ovn moral ioeal ol man. 1Le ultimate moral
goal ol society is a complete unanimous unity ol all its memlers. 1Le
acLievement ol tLis goal presupposes tLe acLievement ol tLe Luman
vocation as sucL. onetLeless, tLis social goal remains unacLievalle,
tLe complete unity ol all memlers ol society is tLe nnal ioeal goal ol all
rational cooroinateo leings lut not tLeir acLievalle vocation. Moral
perlection tLerelore compels an innnite striving approximation to tLis
social goal.
84
!icLte vrites:
Dieses Annalern zur zlligen Einigkeit und Einntligkeit nit allen Indi-
ziduen knnen uir Vereinigung nennen. Also Vereinigung, die der Innigkeit
nacl stets jester, den Unjange nacl stets ausgebreiteter uerde, ist die ualre
Bestinnung des Mensclen in der Gesellsclajt diese Vereinigung aber ist, da
nur ber ilre letzte Bestinnung die Mensclen einig sind und einig uerden
knnen nur durcl Verzollkonnnung nglicl. Wir knnen dennacl eben
so gut sagen geneinsclajtlicle Verzollkonnnung, Verzollkonnnung seiner
selbst durcl die jrei benutzte Einuirkung anderer auj uns und Verzoll-
konnnung anderer durcl Bckuirkung auj sie, als auj jreie Wesen, ist
unsere Bestinnung in der Gesellsclajt.
85

Hlsen learneo lrom !icLte tLat all cooroinateo leings resort to tLe
same rational means to strive alter tLe same single moral perlection.
1Lat is tLe reason tLeir personal strivings interrelate.
86
1Le alility to
allect ano let otLers allect onesell oemanos tLe cultivation ol tvo
practical skills. (1) 1Le trait ol giving, namely tLe moral alility to allect
or cultivate tLe personality ol otLer lree rational leings precisely in
tLose aspects ol one`s ovn personality in vLicL one is strong ano tLey
are veak. (:) 1Le trait ol receiving, namely tLe moral alility to let
otLers allect or cultivate one`s ovn personality in tLose precise aspects
in vLicL one is veak ano tLey are strong.
87
Hlsen vill apply tLis ioea

84
See: cI ~, , , o-1
85
cI ~, , , o
86
As WilLelm WeiscLeoel (1p;, 1;) clarines, Wenn nun die Erjalrung anderer
notuendig zun Mensclsein gelrt, dann gelrt aucl ilre unabtrennbare
Voraussetzung, die Geneinsclajt nit den anderen, notuendig dazu."
87
See: cI ~, , , -,
Part :
p
to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy, ano justily tLerely tLe personal sell-
oetermineo alility to contrilute to ano to incorporate someone else`s
systematic oegree ol practical progress. Hlsen vill sLare !icLte`s
conclusion tLat
Wenn uir die entuickelte Idee aucl nur olne alle Bezielung auj uns selbst
betraclten, so erblicken uir docl uenigstens ausser uns eine Verbindung, in
der keiner jr sicl selbst arbeiten kann, olne jr alle andere zu arbeiten,
oder jr den anderen arbeiten, olne zugleicl jr sicl selbst zu arbeiten
inden der glcklicle Fortgang Eines Mitgliedes glcklicler Fortgang jr
Alle, und der Verlust des Einen Verlust jr Alle ist ein Anblick, der sclon
durcl die Harnonie, die uir in den allernannigjaltigsten erblicken, uns
innig uolltlut und unseren Geist nacltig enporlebt.
88

Accoroing to !icLte, a certain kino ol knovleoge is requireo to enalle
tLe moral progress ol tLe Luman species. PLilosopLical knovleoge ol
moral perlection alone is insulncient lor making moral progress
possille. Moral progress oemanos knovleoge ol tLe particular cultural
level ol Listorical oevelopment ol one`s ovn society. 1Le pLilosopLer
must also le acquainteo vitL tLe sulsequent purposive level to le
reacLeo as vell as vitL tLe means requireo lor acLieving tLis. 1Lis
oemanos tLat tLe pLilosopLer knov tLe means vLerely tLe moral
aptituoes ol tLe rational leing oevelop. 1Le moral improvement ol
tLe Luman species requires a joint application ol (1) pLilosopLical,
(:) Listorical, ano () pLilosopLical-Listorical (logical-Listorical) knovl-
eoge.
89
1aken togetLer, tLese tLree types ol knovleoge constitute vLat
!icLte calls learning (Gelelrsankeit). 1Le scLolar is tLe person tLat
oeoicates Lis lile to tLe attainment ol tLis knovleoge. earning makes
tLe scLolar tLe etLically lest man ol Lis time. Cnly tLe scLolar is
acquainteo vitL tLe means requireo to improve tLe moral perlor-
mances ol man. !icLte tLerelore argues tLat tLe scLolar sLoulo le tLe
eoucator ol Lumanity. His knovleoge sLoulo le applieo lor tLe lenent
ol society. 1Le scLolar is requireo to turn tLe attention ol Lis lellov-
men upon tLeir true neeos, ano make tLem acquainteo vitL tLe means

88
cI ~, , , p
89
See: cI ~, , , ,:-, ano cI ~, , , ,;
Ficlte
p,
oemanoeo lor tLeir satislaction. 1Lis peoagogic task compels tLe
scLolar to act accoroing to tLe moral lav, to employ etLical means to
inuence society.
90
1Lus, tLe vocation ol tLe scLolar is to promote ano
to supervise unceasingly tLe moral progress ol tLe Luman species.
91

1Le peoagogical task ol tLe !icLtean scLolar ooes not really oiller lrom
tLat ol tLe EeinLoloian Selbstdenker. WLat oistinguisLes tLese tvo
ngures is tLe level ol post-critical impact tLat tLe lalour ol tLe
!icLtean scLolar Las on communal lile. 1Lis LigLer oegree ol commu-
nal commitment, a key moral concern ol tLe Hlsenian Selbstdenker, is
anotLer source ol Preissclrijt.
Sell-oetermination compels tLe scLolar not to yielo Lis vill to any
acaoemic autLority. !icLte encourages tLe scLolar to rigorously auto-
nomous ano inoepenoent scLolarsLip. t coulo le claimeo tLat !icLte`s
position vill inspire Hlsen`s ioeas alout a true acaoemy ol sciences.
!icLte oiscusses tLis in tLe 1ste Vorlesung. In Winter-Halbalr. [zon
der Bestinnung der Gelelrten.|
92
not incluoeo among tLe nve pullisLeo
lectures ol Ueber die Bestinnung.
[.| alle Geisteskultur ist niclts, u. liljt niclts, olne Claracterbildung, u. icl
erinnere abernals, uas icl sclon nelrnals erinnert labe, da nan irrt,
uenn nan in einer Akadenie blo eine Sclule der Wissensclajten zu er-
bliken glaubt. Sie soll zugleicl se,n eine p e~. Bilden Sie
dalero zujrderst Ilren Claracter zun jesten entsclloen Halten an
Walrleit, u. an Beclt. Tlun Sie niclts gegen Ilre Ueberzeugung, suclen Sie
aber bestandig Ilren Geist der beeren Ueberzeugung ojjen zu erlalten.
Unterlaen Sie alles, uodurcl Sie auj irgend eine Art ablangig, uodurcl Sie
zun Instrunente eines jrenden Willens uerden, oder uodurcl Sie gelindert

90
As iang ZLixue (1pp1, ::p) reminos us: Wenn der Gelelrte in noralisclen
Leben zurckbleibt oder sogar durcl eine entscleidende Handlung seinen ei-
genen Lelren uiderspriclt, so uerden die anderen seinen Lelren niclt jolgen.
Ficlte liel sicl an dieser Stelle die Worte, die der Stijter der clristliclen Beligion
an seine Scller ricltete, un die Gelelrten zu ernalnen Ilr se,d das Salz der
Erde, uenn das Salz seine Krajt zerliert, uonit soll nan salzen: uenn die
Ausuall unter den Mensclen zerdorben ist, uo soll nan nocl sittlicle Gte
suclen:
91
See: cI ~, , , ,-8
92
!or tLis lesson see: cI ~, , , ,;-;
Part :
p
uerden, jrei eden unter die Augen zu treten. Erlalten sie sicl diese Freileit,
die Ilnen die Gesetze geben.
93

1Le primoroial signincance tLat !icLte attrilutes to tLe personal
lalour ol tLe scLolar connrms tLat tLe Wissensclajtslelre plays an
existential role in tLe moral improvement ol tLe Luman species. As
Ilaus Vieveg points out,
[.| die Bestinnung des Gelelrten als des lclsten ualren Mensclen ist
sonit die letzte Aujgabe jr plilosopliscles Forsclen. Bei Ficlte ist ebendiese
Wissensclajt auj die Hunanitat zerpicltet, er lalt ausdrcklicl alle
Plilosoplie und Wissensclajt jr nicltig, die niclt auj das Ziel der Frderung
der Kultur und der Erllung der Hunanitat ausgelt.
94

A joint application ol pLilosopLical, Listorical, ano logical-Listorical
knovleoge is requireo to enalle tLe moral progress ol Lumanity.
onetLeless, !icLte suggests tLat in tLis triao logical-Listorical knovl-
eoge plays a preponoerant role. n Ueber die Bestinnung, moral
progress is oescrileo as oepenoing oirectly upon tLe progress ol pLilo-
sopLy.
95
A similar statement is louno in tLe 1ste Vorlesung, in vLicL
!icLte claims tLat
Niclts in der ganzen Gescliclte seiner Zeit liegt den Gelelrten naler, als
der Zustand der Wissensclajten selbst, der Hojjnungen, oder Bejrcltungen,
die er zernnjtiger ueise ber den Fortgang oder Bckgang derselben zu
jaen lat.
96

Peter Baumanns` stuoies reveal tLat lor !icLte true pLilosopLy is
etLical antLropology, a lounoation ol personal critical knovleoge
accoroing to tLe ioea ol tLe practical vocation ol man, or ratLer a

93
cI ~, , , [my lolo|
94
s 1pp,, 18o. n a letter to !rieoricL HeinricL ]acoly lrom August o,
1;p, !icLte vrites: Wozu ist denn nun der spekulatize Gesicltspunkt und nit
iln die ganze Pllosoplie, uenn sie niclt jr's Leben ist: [.| Wir ngen an zu
plilosoplieren aus Uebernutl, und braclten uns dadurcl un unsere Unscluld,
uir erblickten unsere Nacktleit, und plilosoplieren seitden aus Notl jr unsere
Erlsung. cI ~, , :, p:-
95
n c (~, , , ,) ovn voros: Von den Fortgange der Wissensclajten
langt unnnitelbar der ganze Fortgang des Mensclengesclleclts ab."
96
cI ~, , , ,;
Ficlte
p;
simultaneous lounoation ol metapLysics ol experience ano metapLysics
ol man.
97
!icLte`s claim alout tLe preponoerance ol logical-Listorical
knovleoge suggests tLat an exLaustive lormulation ol tLe Wissen-
sclajtslelre oemanos a systematic oiscussion ol tLe relationsLip ol tLe
rational Listory ol pLilosopLy ano tLe personal pre- ano post-critical
lalour ol tLe scLolar (tLe sell-oetermining sulject). !icLte Lovever
ooes not oiscuss tLis issue. All Le seems to imply is, as ve sav earlier,
tLat tLe reacLing ol tLe stanopoint ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre oepenos
on a general, ongoing, ano ascenoing logical-Listorical process ol oeve-
lopment tLe exclusive rational arcLitects ol vLicL are concrete sell-
reecting pLilosopLers. !icLte`s vritings ol 1;p-, leave tLis question
open. Hlsen`s Preissclrijt cLaracterization ol all rational activity as
general-personal logical-Listorical activity appears in tLe Listory ol
German ioealism as tLe nrst attempt to luse tLese tvo apparent stems
ol !icLte`s approacL systematically.
:.p 1Le Spiritual-ormative CLaracter ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre
1Le main oillerence letveen !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre ano Hlsen`s
Preissclrijt is Hlsen`s inclusion ol a constitutive temporal oimension
to !icLte`s a priori concept ol rationality. 1Lis oivergence oio not
prevent !icLte lrom ioentilying Hlsen`s position vitL Lis ovn stano-
point. !icLte recommenoeo Preissclrijt strongly as a vork vLicL
lacilitateo tLe stuoy ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre.
BotL !icLte ano Hlsen agree tLat tLe concept ol tLe Wissensclajts-
lelre is a spiritual as opposeo to literal concept, tLat it oemanos an
independent explanation, or ratLer a selj-adaptable nornatize con-
pletion. 1Lis explains !icLte ano Hlsen`s ioentincation ol tLeir not
entirely concoroant systematic positions ano !icLte`s motives lor
recognizing Hlsen as a partner in tLe completion ol Lis system.
EeinLolo vas tLe nrst post-Iantian tLinker to reler to tLe possilility
ol relormulating a pLilosopLical stanopoint ano keep its spirit intact.

97
See: _~~ 1p;, 1o;
Part :
p8
1Le reassertion ol critical pLilosopLy appears in EeinLolo`s early Ele-
nentarplilosoplie as an attempt to step lack lrom tLe printeo letter
ol tLe Kritik ano complete it nornatizel, vitL a Grundsatz.
98
1Le
oljections ol ScLulze-Aenesioemus ano !icLte`s oetermination not to
avaro victory to tLe skeptic leo Lim to oevelop EeinLolo`s oistinction
letveen spirit ano letter.
99
!icLte`s insistence tLat tLe Wissen-
sclajtslelre is tLe spiritual-nornatize critical complement to Iant`s
propaeoeutic is vell knovn.
100
A nuance ol !icLte`s stance is tLe selj-
adaptable cLaracter ol tLe normative task ol spiritual completion.
101

!icLte attrilutes to tLe critical pLilosopLer (or tLe scLolar) a promi-
nent role in tLe acLievement ol tLis spiritualizing task. n Bezension
des Aenesidenus !icLte vrites tLat
Er [i.e., tLe reviever!icLte| unsclt niclts leblajter, als dass seine Be-
urtleilung dazu beitragen nge, reclt ziele p zu berzeugen,
dass diese Plilosoplie [i.e., tLe critical pLilosopLy| an sicl, und ilren innern
Gelalte nacl, nocl so jest stele, als e, dass es aber nocl zieler Arbeit be-
drje, un die Materialien in ein uoll zerbundenes und unerscltterlicles
Ganze zu ordnen. Mclten sie dann durcl diese Ueberzeugung selbst auj-
genuntert uerden, eder an seinen Orte, so ziel in seinen Krajten stelt, zu
diesen erlabenen Zuecke beizutragen!
102

!icLte acknovleoges tLat tLe sell-tLinker, an independent pLiloso-
pLizing ngure, is responsille lor tLe restitution ol tLe critical status ol
pLilosopLy. !icLte makes a similar statement in Grundlage, tLougL in
tLis text tLe term sell-tLinker is omitteo. !icLte Lolos tLat tLe

98
See: e~ 1pp1, ;-8
99
See: _~~ 1p81, ,8-p
100
1ake lor instance tLe lolloving passage lrom tLe Grundlage: Die lier
aujgestellten und aujzustellenden Principien liegen ojjenbar den seinigen i.e.,
Kant's] zun Grunde, uie eder sicl berzeugen kann, der sicl nit den d
seiner Plilosoplie (die docl uoll Geist laben drjte) zertraut naclen uill. Dass
er in seinen Kritiken die Wissensclajt niclt, sondern nur die Propadeutik der-
selben aujstellen uolle, lat er einige Mal gesagt, und es ist scluer zu begreijen,
uarun seine Naclbeter nur dieses iln niclt laben glauben uollen. cI
~, , :, ,
101
As lar as knov, tLis topic vas neglecteo in scLolarly literature.
102
cI ~, , :, ; [my lolo|
Ficlte
pp
normative pLilosopLizing activity vLerely tLe spirit ol critical pLilo-
sopLy sLoulo le completeo oemanos inoepenoence (Selbststandigkeit),
a position, vLicL accoroing to !icLte eacL pLilosopLer can only conler
on Limsell.
103
1Lis inoepenoence is a not explicitly clarineo extension
ol sell-oetermining autonomy, tLe expression ol vLicL migLt le a nor-
natize oegree ol personal appropriation or selj-adapting conpletion ol
a given stanopoint. 1Le lolloving passage in tLe 1;p; Zueite Einleitung,
an essay tLat Hlsen ol course coulo Lave not knovn vLile vriting
Preissclrijt, is perLaps vLere !icLte lormulates tLis alreaoy apparent
early spiritualizing conviction most clearly.
Es ist niclt die Art der Wissensclajtslelre, nocl ilres Verjassers, unter irgend
einer Autoritat Sclutz zu suclen. Wer erst selen nuss, ob diese Lelre nit der
Lelre irgend eines anderen Mannes bereinstinne, ele er sicl zon ilr ber-
zeugen uill, anstatt zu selen, ob sie nit ^
s , auj den reclnet sie berlaupt niclt, ueil iln die
absolute Selbsttlatigkeit, ~ ~ d~ ~ , jellt,
die durcl ene Lelre zorausgesetzt uerden. Aus einen ganz anderen Grunde
sonacl, als aus den, seine Lelre zu enpjellen, ist der Verjasser der Wissen-
sclajtslelre nit der Vorerinnerung angetreten, dass dieselbe nit der Kann-
tisclen Lelre zollkonnen bereinstinne, und keine andere se,, als die
uollzerstandene Kantiscle.
104

1Le stanopoint ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre presupposes (1) personal in-
oepenoent olservance ol ano (:) conlormation to tLe practical oemanos
ol one's oun reason. !icLte implies tLat a particularizing ano tLerelore
distinguisling selj-adapting procedure oj anal,sis ougLt to condition tLe
spiritual sell-oetermineo aooption ol Lis stanopoint.
105
Hlsen vill

103
See: cI ~, , :, :. c (~, , , 18) makes tLe same statement in tLe
1;p; Erste Einleitung. 1Lere Le claims tLat [.| nein S,sten kein anderes sei
als das Kantiscle, d.l. Es entlalt dieselbe Ansiclt der Sacle, ist aber in seinen
Verjalren ~ ~ zon der Kantisclen Darstellung. [my lolo|
104
cI ~, , , ::1 [my lolo|
105
n a letter to ietLammer lrom Lecemler , 1;p, c (~, , :, :1) seems
to argue tLe same alout Iant`s Kritik. He vrites: Nocl keiner lat iln zer-
standen, die es an neisten glauben, an uenigsten, keiner uird iln zerstelen,
der niclt auj t zu Kants Besultaten konnen uird, [.|. [my lolo|
Part :
1oo
oeepen tLis point ano Lolo tLat tLe autonomous aooption ol a pLilo-
sopLical stanopoint conlorms, inevitally, to a particular oegree ol
logical-Listorical oevelopment. Criginally, lor EeinLolo tLe notion ol
spiritual relormulation presupposeo tLe possilility ol nornatize
conpletion. Eegaroing tLe Wissensclajtslelre, tLis option is assureo ly
!icLte`s ovn claims alout tLe incompleteness ol Lis system. 1Lis may
Lave persuaoeo Hlsen to introouce signincant cLanges, ano still call
Lis mooineo system Wissensclajtslelre.
An immeoiate consequence ol tLis is !icLte`s recognition ol tLe rigLt
ol otLer pLilosopLical autLors to oevelop tLe concept ol tLe Wissen-
sclajtslelre into nornatize ano Lence not entirel, concordant s,ste-
natic positions. 1Lis is implieo in tLe Ersten Einleitung, vLere !icLte
recommenos ]akol Sigismuno Beck`s 1;p Einzignglicler Stand-
punkt, aus uelclen die kritiscle Plilosoplie beurtleilt uerden nuss as
tLe lest pLilosopLical preparation lor tLose vLo vLisL to stuoy tLe
Wissensclajtslelre lrom my vritings.
106
1Lis may explain !icLte`s
1;p; ioentincation ol Hlsen`s Preissclrijt vitL Lis ovn stanopoint. t
also explains Lis 1;p, ioentincation ol ScLelling`s Von Icl als Princip
der Plilosoplie vitL tLe Wissensclajtslelre,
107
a statement, vLicL seems
to reconnrm tLe implicit existence ol tLis spiritualizing treno prior
to tLe vriting ol tLe Ersten ano Zueite Einleitung. t even coulo le
Lelo tLat !icLte`s claims tLat (1) Lis account is not complete, tLat (:) Le
vants Lis reaoer to oevelop Lis ovn tLougLt, tLat () Le encourages
inoepenoent tLougLt, tLat () Lis system is suljecteo to revision, tLat
(,) tLe Grundlage is a plan lor Lov to erect lurtLer systematic cons-
truction upon its lounoations, ano () tLat Le velcomeo suggestions
lrom otLer pLilosopLers,
108
are encouragements to read ano dezelop
tLe spirit ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre as Hlsen oio: prolally anotLer
reason vLy !icLte recommenoeo Preissclrijt so strongly.

106
n c (~, , , :o) ovn voros: Icl lalte die angejlrte Sclrijt [i.e.,
Beck`s essay| jr das zuecknassigste Gesclenk, das den Zeitalter genaclt uer-
den konnte, und enpjelle sie denen, uelcle aus neinen Sclrijten die Wissen-
sclajtslelre studiren uollen, als die beste Vorbereitung.
107
See !icLte`s letter to EeinLolo lrom ]uly :, 1;p, in: cI ~, , :, ;-8
108
See: cI ~, , :, :,:-
1o1
. Hlsen
.1 Hlsen`s Preissclrijt
Hlsen took aovantage ol tLe 1;p, prize-question ol tLe Berlin
Acaoemy ol Sciences on tLe progress ol metapLysics since eilniz ano
Woll to present Lis ovn Listorically augmenteo Wissensclajtslelre ano
also supplement !icLte`s improveo version ol EeinLolo`s Elenentar-
plilosoplie. Hlsen conceoeo some preliminarily importance to tLe
acaoemic contest, as it vas an attempt at estallisLing universal consen-
sus in pLilosopLy.
1

1Le spirit ol !icLte`s ioealism taugLt tLat a critical or scientinc
solution to tLe prize-question must incluoe sell-consciousness ano not
contain unjustineo premises. Hlsen tLerelore oemanoeo tLat it le
preceoeo ly an inquiry into tLe transcenoental possilility ol its groun-
ding ano solzing, an insigLt tLat tLe Acaoemy ol Sciences overlookeo.
Die Preisjrage der Akadenie ist durcl Zeitunstande zeranlasst. Diesen zu
Folge entlalt sie eine bestinnte Forderung, uelcler irgend eine Antuort,
und eine Antuort zuar, eben so bestinnt entspreclen soll. Es ist aber
einleucltend, dass zuisclen der Aujgabe und der ngliclen Antuort ein
bestinntes Verlaltniss Statt nden nsse, ein Verlaltniss, nacl uelclen es
niclt gleiclgltig se,n kann, uie die letztere der Forderung der ersten ent-
spreclen, und uie diese uieder jr ene solcle Forderung aujstellen knne.
Die ularleit und ricltigkeit dieses Verlaltniss aber lasst sicl gar niclt sclon
nit der uirklicl ergangenen Aujgabe, und der lierdurcl als nglicl ge-
daclten Antuort zoraussetzen, sondern erjordert, un bestinnt darber
urtleilen zu knnen, eine eigene Untersuclung, und so uird daler die Auj-
gabe der Akadenie, un ilrer Becljertigung uillen, erst selbst eine Aujgabe.
2

Hlsen legan ly posing tLe lolloving tvo tasks: (A) Lov tLe prize-
question, in its given lorm, relates to itsell ano to its possille ansver,

1
See: e NTVS, ;
2
e NTVS, o
Part
1o:
namely vLetLer ano Lov it can really lulnll our pLilosopLical oe-
manos. (B) Hov tLe prize-question inoepenoently ol any accioental
circumstances relates to itsell ano to its possille ansver, namely vLe-
tLer ano Lov it constitutes a necessary logical-Listorical task ol reason.
n task (A), Hlsen oiscusses tLe ungrounded cLaracter ol tLe prize-
question. n task (B), Le aooresses its possilility ly ollering Lis reaoer
a systematic grounoing ano solving ol tLe acaoemy`s question.
3
Hlsen
Lelo sucL a critical evaluation necessary. 1Le uncovering ol tLe prize-
question`s imperlect cLaracter serves reason`s common knovleoge
(Geneingute). t vas Lis outy to communicate it openly.
4

Hlsen`s inquiry into tLe transcenoental possilility ol grounoing
ano solving tLe prize-question pusLes tLe topic intenoeo ly tLe aca-
oemy into tLe lackgrouno. Hlsen`s Listorically augmenteo Wissen-
sclajtslelre is tLe central topic ol Preissclrijt. vill tLerelore nrst
oiscuss Hlsen`s system ly alstracting lrom most ol tLe accioental
circumstances ol tLe acaoemic contest. Hlsen ooes not alvays lollov
a rigorous correlative oroer ol oiscussion. He assumes tLat Lis reaoer is
lamiliar vitL !icLte`s tLougLt.
5
1Lis enalles Lim to legin Lis expo-
sition in nedias res. Lovever vill reconstruct Hlsen`s arguments ano
exposit tLem in systematic oroer.
Historical circumstances lorceo EeinLolo ano !icLte to concentrate
mainly on tLe oiscussion ol tLeir ovn innovative insigLts. BotL Eein-
Lolo ano !icLte oiscusseo only partially tLe connection ol tLeir
systems vitL tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy. Accoroing to Hlsen, !icLte`s
rearticulating ol EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie lorceo tLis
issue to le raiseo. Hlsen`s ellorts vere tLerelore oirecteo at re-
articulating ano expanoing tLe spiritual (as opposeo to literal)
connection ol !icLte`s concept ol pLilosopLy vitL tLe Listory ol pLilo-
sopLy. Hlsen`s innovation vas to oeouce reason`s logical-Listorical
alility to progress purposively. Hlsen grounoeo tLe Listorical stano-
point ol !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre, ano estallisLeo a nev critical

3
See: e NTVS, 1-:
4
See: e NTVS, o
5
See: i~~ 1pp1, 11:
Hlsen
1o
paraoigm as to tLe possilility ol lormulating a systematic approacL to
tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy. Hlsen`s acLievement prompteo !icLte to
recommeno Preissclrijt as a vork lacilitating tLe stuoy ol Lis ovn
system. !icLte`s statement presents Hlsen as a partner in tLe loun-
oation ol German ioealism.
Hlsen legins Lis oiscussion vitL a numler ol introouctory re-
marks. All tLeoretical knovleoge presupposes tLe existence ol a trans-
cenoental system ol knovleoge. 1Lis system conoitions tLe emergence
ol all oljects ol cognition. Hlsen like Iant, EeinLolo, ano !icLte
claimeo tLat knovleoge sLoulo relate to a real or concrete olject.
PLilosopLy must critically oetermine its concrete olject ol cognition:
tLe transcenoental system ol knovleoge. Conversely, pLilosopLy`s
actual capalility to oetermine its olject implies its leing alreaoy a
critical oiscipline. Hlsen tLerelore claims tLat tLere is no vay possille
to oetermine or to knov tLe true olject ol pLilosopLy prior to
pLilosopLy`s translormation into a critical oiscipline ano vice versa.
6

Hlsen also argueo tLat tLe Wissensclajtslelre coulo not le ois-
sociateo lrom its Listory. ts olject, tLe oeveloping system ol all
knovleoge, is a previously existing, tLougL systematically unoeter-
mineo conoition ol all pre-critical tLougLt. All systematic ellorts maoe
to translorm pLilosopLy into a universal oiscipline are, Hlsen claims,
real ano necessar, attempts ol reason, a Lolistic sell-reecting Geist, to
oetermine tLe true olject ol pLilosopLy.
7
Hlsen`s opening remark
oevelops a tLougLt raiseo ly EeinLolo: tLe logical cLaracter ol pLilo-
sopLy`s Listory.
Hlsen claims tLat insigLt into tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy connrms
tLat Lumanity strives alter one oetermineo universal goal (bestinnten
Zueck): pLilosopLy`s translormation into a critical oiscipline. 1Le
Listorical securing ol critical pLilosopLy, Hlsen argues alter EeinLolo,
enalles an exLaustive consensus (Einzerstandnis) on tLe true olject ol
pLilosopLical knovleoge. A state ol oisputes among partisan or non-
universally oetermineo pLilosopLical stanopoints is all tLat can le louno

6
See: e NTVS, J
7
See: e NTVS,
Part
1o
in tLe epocL ol pre-critical tLougLt. 1Le true concept ol pLilosopLy is,
as Hlsen learneo lrom EeinLolo, tLe olject ol tLese oisputes.
8

Hlsen claims tLat tLe estallisLment ol pLilosopLical consensus oe-
manos oetermination ol its systematic possilility, ol tLe transcenoental
conoition ol its Listorical attainment (Erreiclbarkeit). Hlsen`s purpose
is a preliminary grounoing ol EeinLolo`s vague concept ol logical-Listo-
rical progress. Hlsen argueo tLat a practical sell-reecting capalility
enalles reason`s Listorical oevelopment. Eeason acLieves an ascenoing
positing ol oillerent experimental systems ol pLilosopLy. ts goal is to
attain critical knovleoge, to reacL tLe stanopoint ol tLe Wissen-
sclajtslelre, ano sell-oetermine tLe exLaustive concept ol pLilosopLy.
Critical knovleoge is reason`s ultimate reconciling outcome. Accoro-
ing to Hlsen, critical knovleoge enalles a unizersal selj-conscious
unication ol reason`s entire practical course ol proouction. Hlsen
oevelopeo EeinLolo`s tLesis tLat reason`s Listory is a necessary material
conoition to tLe emergence ol critical pLilosopLy, vLicL sulsumes
reason`s non-universally oetermineo partisan stanopoints unoer tLe
universal lorm ol an exLaustively sell-oetermineo olject ol tLougLt.
9

Hlsen empLasizes tLe inoivioual nature ol reason`s Listorical pro-
ouction. Eeason`s practical activity is a sell-limiting activity, it Lence
manilests itsell exclusizel, tLrougL personal positions. PLilosopLers,
nnite rational leings, pusL reason lorvaro tLrougL tLeir striving.
Eeason`s progress is simultaneously a general-personal or ratLer a
lolisticall, indiziduated progress. Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe striving ol
a reouceo numler ol avant-garoe pLilosopLers opens up tLe roao lor a
general progress ol tLe Luman species. 1Leir personalizeo activity is
tLe conoition to reason`s Listorical oevelopment. Hlsen Lolos tLat tLe
attainment ol progress oemanos a personal reproduction ol tLis leaoing
activity. n tLeir graoual personal strivings, all rational leings meet tLe
same general spirit (as opposeo to letter) ol reason`s Listorically
oeveloping positions.
10
Spiritualization is oetermineo ly tLe lact tLat

8
See: e NTVS,
9
See: e NTVS,
10
See: e NTVS, 1:8-o
Hlsen
1o,
reproouction ol a pLilosopLical stanopoint conlorms, ultimately, to a
deternining suljective oegree ol logical-Listorical oevelopment. 1Le
intellectual Listory ol tLe Luman species ano tLe personal Listory ol tLe
rational leing can oevelop in parallel.
Personal proouction assures tLat tLe attainment ol critical knovl-
eoge le equivalent to sell-oetermination. PLilosopLy`s stanopoint is a
personal stanopoint, its securing is tLe necessar, result ol inoivioual
reection. Hlsen Lolos tLat vLen an unscientincally cultivateo
rational leing pLilosopLizes, vLetLer Le knovs it or not, Le necessarily
approximates universal sell-oetermineo consensus (critical insigLt). 1Lis
proves lor Hlsen tLe impossilility ol resorting to tLe oljective
autLority ol a jorun externus. All pLilosopLical oljectivity implies a
suljective oegree ol practical sell-relerential (sell-reective) oevelop-
ment. Hlsen concluoes tLat, inevitally, eacL pLilosopLer must remain
tLe juoge ol Lis ovn progressive proouction.
11
Hlsen evinces an
Aujklarung concern sLareo ly EeinLolo ano !icLte: autonomous or
inoepenoent inquiry.
Hlsen`s opening remarks sLov a strong interest in rearticulating
ano expanoing tLe unoeroevelopeo logical-Listorical sioe ol !icLte`s
improveo Elenentarplilosoplie. Cne ol Hlsen`s innovations vas to
oevelop ano to luse tvo vaguely, alleit explicitly integrateo stems ol
EeinLolo`s system: (1) reason`s pLilosopLical Listory ano (:) tLe
personal pLilosopLizing lalour ol tLe sell-oetermining pLilosopLer
(Selbstdenker), a comlination tLat !icLte implies in tLe Grundlage ano
in Ueber die Bestinnung des Gelelrten. Hlsen so enricLeo tLe
connection ol tLe tLeoretical ano tLe practical oivisions ol tLe Wissen-

11
See: e NTVS, .

Eegaroing Lis ovn essay, e ENTVS, J) argues
tLat Habe icl geirrt, und bald dieses oder enes niclt zerstanden, so uird
dennocl neine Absiclt dieselbe bleiben, denn die ngliclen Irrtlner galten
nir als Walrleit, und icl selbst uerde sie darun geuiss aucl zurcknelnen,
sobald icl etuas besseres an ilre Stelle zu setzen ueiss. [.| Wer in diesen
Gestandniss den Beueis zon einen nocl scluankenden S,stene ndet, der nag
jr sicl Beclt laben. Fr nicl indess latte er niclt geurtleilt, [.| und icl
selbst, das bin icl nir beuusst, uerde innerjort streben, nicl in neinen ganzen
Wesen, und also aucl in neinen Wissen zu zeredeln und zu zerzollkonnnen."
Part
1o
sclajtslelre, ano provioeo a solution to anotLer penoing aspect ol
!icLte`s revorking ol EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie.
.: 1Le Morally Aoverse Situation ol Man
Hlsen continues vitL a oiscussion ol Lumanity`s Listorical situation.
He claims tLat resistance to moral perlection, sell-oetermination, Las
leen a cLaracteristic leature ol tLe Listory ol tLe Luman species.
[.| die Mensclen sicl zon eler gegen niclts so selr gestraubt laben, und
gegen niclts so selr nocl jortjalren, sicl aucl gegenuartig zu strauben, als
gegen ilre eigene, in ilnen gelegene Bestinnung gegen das Fortsclreiten
zun Vollkonnnern.
12

Humanity`s Listory Las leen so lar tLe Listory ol leteronon,. Moral
imperlectalility is oetermineo ly a Listorically persisting sell-contra-
oiction ol reason. 1Lis is tLe conoition ol tLe rational leing tLrougLout
tLe non-sell-avare epocL ol pre-critical tLougLt. Eeason`s sell-contra-
oiction prevents tLe rational leing lrom acLieving Lis true moral vocation
(Bestinnung): autonon, or sell-oetermining expansion ol all Letero-
nomically given natural relations. 1Lis rational Lanoicap manilesteo
itsell Listorically in all personal pLilosopLical positions. AltLougL
reason alreaoy attaineo critical knovleoge in tLe Wissensclajtslelre,
most pLilosopLers ignore it. eitLer peace, nor Lappiness, Hlsen
claims, vill le estallisLeo on eartL lelore all rational leings gain a true
sell-conscious insigLt into reason`s sell-contraoiction ano seek its
overcoming.
13

Accoroing to Hlsen, carelul analysis sLovs tLat rational leings
cannot give up tLeir natural disposition to moral perlection.
14
1Leir

12
e NTVS,
13
See: e NTVS,
14
Hlsen`s statement evinces tLe universal spirit ol critical pLilosopLy. !or as
e (1;p, ) Lolos, Niclt der Trage und Verirrte, niclt der Scluacle und
Gedrckte, niclt der Sklaze und Gebietler, Neinder Menscl berlaupt kann
seiner Bestinnung niclt entgelen. Hlsen`s position can le aligneo vitL !icLte`s
moral-political position. Compare Hlsen`s statement vitL c (~, , :,
Hlsen
1o;
true moral vocation, Le argues vitL !icLte, consists in a necessar,
striving alter reason`s original sell-ioentity. 1Le rational leing`s appa-
rent Listorical counter-striving against Lis true vocation is only an
unavare striving alter it.
15
Hlsen`s sources clarily tLis point. (1)
Hlsen lolloving EeinLolo ioentines ignorance ol critical pLilosopLy
vitL a logical-Listorical epocL ol moral imperlectalility. (:) Hlsen
sLares !icLte`s ioentincation ol practical striving alter sell-conscious-
ness, sell-oetermineo ioentity or sell-Larmony, vitL tLe categorical
imperative, moral perlection. He also sLares !icLte`s ioentincation ol
sell-Larmony vitL tLe LigLest gooo, a necessary comlination ol
moral virtue ano Lappiness.
16
1Lis explains Hlsen`s position tLat lor
tLe Luman species, tLe Listorical inalility to sell-oetermine pLilosopLy`s
true concept is morally oetrimental. Hlsen tLerelore claims tLat
Darun leisst uns nun die uelle alles nensclliclen Elends ableiten, und der
Vernunjt den Frieden nit ilr selber zujlren, aucl notuendig niclts anders
als den Mensclen ber seine ualre Bestinnung belelren. Er kann ilr niclt
entgelen, denn es ist seine, in seiner eignen Vernunjt d.i. in iln selbst ge-
grndete, Bestinnung, und nur darun bedarj er ber sie der blossen Belel-
rung, un ilr aucl niclt nelr entgelen zu uollen.
17

Accoroingly, tLe rational leing sLoulo look lor moral improvement
vitLin Limsell. He sLoulo uncover tLe transcenoental structure ol Lis
spirit. Moral maturity oemanos sell-knovleoge. xpanoing sell-con-
scious insigLt sLoulo le tLe key to sulsume reason`s Leteronomic sell-
contraoiction ano approacL moral perlectilility (sell-ioentity).

:p8) statement in Lis letter to Bagessen lrom April/May, 1;p,: Mein S,sten ist
das erste S,sten der Freileit, uie ene Nation [i.e., !rance| zon der aerer
Ketten den Mensclen lostreis't, reis't nein S,sten iln zon den Feeln der Dinge
an sicl [.| Inden icl ber ilre Bezolution sclrieb, kanen nir gleiclsan zur
Belolnung die ersten Winke u. Alndungen dieses S,stens. !olloving !icLte,
Hlsen expanos tLe rigLt to revolution (political lreeoom) into a moral outy to
revolution. See: BuLr 1p,, , [Hlsen not mentioneo|.
15
See: e NTVS, ,
16
See: e NTVS, :o-p
17
e NTVS, ,
Part
1o8
Historical ignorance ol Lis true vocation is tLe cause leLino tLe
rational leing`s persisting incapacity to overcome tLe contraoictory
state ol oisputes ano reacL exLaustive pLilosopLical consensus. Hlsen
lollovs EeinLolo ly stressing tLat pLilosopLical consensus presup-
poses tLe personal possilility ol spiritual sell-agreement (sell-cons-
ciousness in Hlsen`s case). Hlsen Lovever expanos EeinLolo`s
position tLrougL !icLte`s tLougLt. He argues tLat as tLe Listorical era
ol plilosoplical discrepanc,, tLe state ol oisputes vorsens tLe rational
leing`s moral situation. !or it prevents integratize coordination, a key
leature ol critical morality.
18

Hlsen argueo tLat tLe purpose ol Lis look is to turn tLe rational
leing`s attention on Lis true spiritual vocation, ano enalle a speeoing
up ol moral perlection (pLilosopLical trutL), a peoagogic task remi-
niscent ol tLe !icLtean scLolar ano tLe EeinLoloian Selbstdenker.
Hlsen Lolos tLat it is lruitless to expect tLat tLe epocL ol moral
improvement vill come ly itsell. 1o overcome Lis aoverse situation,
tLe rational leing sLoulo strive personally ano oevelop a sell-
oetermining alility. Cnly in tLis vay, Hlsen concluoes, vill rational
leings nnally lecome true sons ol lreeoom.
19
Accoroing to Hlsen,
!icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre is a lactual external sign tLat critical
knovleoge can emerge in tLe course ol our practical strivings.
20

!or Hlsen tLe rational leing cannot give up Lis moral vocation.
Eeason is in a constant sell-struggle lor sell-oetermineo consensus.
Humanity is oestineo to pursue one single necessary oljective. 1Le
rational leing is oetermineo, spiritually, to solve one single task
(Aujgabe). All struggle lor tLe same single moral improvement. Critical
pLilosopLy, tLe means requireo to acLieve improvement, must emerge
at a oetermineo stage ol rational progression. Hlsen concluoes lrom
tLat tLat Lumanity is oestineo, inevitally, to an unpreceoenteo moral
oroer, to an innnitely progressing epocL ol LigLest gooo.
21
!or

18
See: c 1p1, : [EeinLolo ano !icLte not mentioneo|
19
See: e NTVS, -;, J
20
See: e NTVS, 1,
21
See: e NTVS, ,, ;
Hlsen
1op
Hlsen tLe attainment ol critical knovleoge is messianic event. Critical
pLilosopLy is a personal lreeing tool. 1Le lolloving entLusiastic state-
ment reveals Hlsen`s immeoiate expectations ol tLis morally mature
epocL ol Lumanity.
Das uerde docl geredet zon allen Zungen, die da lelren, zon allen Lippen,
die sicl aujtlun, und auj den Strassen und zon den Daclern! Dass der Geist
der Verjolgung, der Arglist und Bezcltigung endlicl inner nelr zertilgt
uerde, und Mensclliclkeit und Milde in den Herzen eruacle. [.| So
uandelte lange der Irrtlun in Dunkeln, und sclirnte seine Wege ni den
Sclrekken der Naclt. Erst in Liclte des Tages ersclien die Walrleit nit
den Sonnenblikke des Friedens, und die Sclrekken olen, und die Fruclt
und der Widerstreit. Diesen endlicl einselen uar das Gelingen des Mannes,
und iln einselen und aujleben eine Handlung ein Augenblik der Vernunjt
jr alle Vernunjt berlaupt. O ein segenzoller Augenblick, zon uelclen an
die Tage des Friedens in der liclten Ferne der Zukunjt leiclt und scln uie
ein Nacllall der Harnonien unsrer Geister nun in euig jroler Folge sicl
dalin reilen nssen.
22

Hlsen`s look is a peoagogic look. !or Hlsen pLilosopLy is an ap-
plicalle oiscipline. As tLe genuine system ol moral trutL, tLe olject ol
vLicL is rational activity, critical knovleoge sLoulo le a supreme lav
lor tLe vill. t sLoulo provioe tLe epistemic means necessary to ap-
proacL tLe LigLer moral ioeal: alsolute autonomy. PLilosopLy, Hlsen

22
e NTVS, ,, ;. Cn tLis point, Hlsen oiverges lrom !icLte. As Willy
c (1p1, 1-:) comments, [.| lier gelt Hlsen ganz seinen eigenen
Weg. Fr Ficlte uare es sinnlos, den idealen Zustand inlaltlicl zu besclreiben,
denn als unerreiclbar lat er ebenso kein Interesse, als er berlaupt unjabar ist.
Hat der Menscl nacl Ficlte die Idee der Wissensclajt konzipiert, so erjllt er
sicl nit sittliclen Geiste, und sein ganzes Leben uird ein larter Kanpj, diesen
Geist aucl nur zu belaupten. Das Wesen des Mensclen ist Streben, erst reclt das
Wesen des in sicl geeinten Mensclen, denn ede Einigung ist nur nonentan und
unterliegt standiger Anjecltung. CLristopL g~ (1ppo, po) lolloving !litner
aoos tLat In Untersclied zu Ficlte, der es jr sinnlos lielt, den Idealen Zu-
stand inlatlicl zu besclreiben, deniert Hlsen das Ziel seiner und aller plilo-
soplisclen Benlungen als zlligen Sieg des Liclts der Aujklarung ber die
Sclrekken der Naclt des Obskurantisnus.
Part
11o
concluoes, sLoulo enalle an innnite expansion ol sell-oetermining
activity.
23

Accoroing to Hlsen, critical pLilosopLy is reason`s Listorically
oevelopeo outcome. ts acLievement involveo tLe learning ol reason`s
Listory.
Die Wissensclajt also nuss den Gentlern zugejlrt uerden, und zu dieser
Einjlrung, sag icl, uird ilre Gescliclte die Gescliclte des uerdenden
Mensclen- uo niclt das einzige, docl geuiss das zuzerlassigste Mittel se,n.
24

1Le Listory ol pLilosopLy sLoulo provioe tLe reaoer vitL tLe personal
means necessary to attain sell-oetermination. 1Le nrst step is a oe-
ouction ol reason`s logical-Listorical alility to progress. Hlsen`s
augmenteo Wissensclajtslelre is tLe nnal oeveloping outcome ol a
purposive Listory ol reason. Eeason`s non-universally oetermineo
ellorts at a oennitive estallisLment ol critical pLilosopLy are necessary
oeveloping stages ol a single Listorically sell-positeo oiscipline. All its
oeveloping stages are sulsumeo unoer reason`s universal perspective.
Articulateo, tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy enalleo a Larmonic recon-
ciliation ol all oisputing stanopoints. Hlsen`s approacL provioes a
Lolistically sell-grounoeo explanation ol (1) tLe Listorical manilesta-
tion ano (:) tLe oennitive sell-oetermineo consensual solution to
Lumanity`s aoverse moral situation.
25
Hlsen so relormulateo ano
oevelopeo vLat vas only implicit in EeinLolo`s logical-Listorical
approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy. Hlsen targets, expanos, ano re-
grounos unoevelopeo aspects ol EeinLolo`s unproven or skeptically
oljectionalle remarks regaroing tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy. Hlsen`s
cLiel purpose is to relormulate EeinLolo`s claim tLat sell-oetermi-
nation oemanos personal unoerstanoing ol pLilosopLy`s Listorical
relation to its evolutionary stages.

23
See: e NTVS, :8-p
24
e NTVS, :p
25
See: c 1p1, :
Hlsen
111
. 1Le Genesis ol Consciousness
Accoroing to Hlsen, pLilosopLy is not a proouct ol pure cLance, it is
tLe result ol rational lreeoom ano sell-active tLinking. As a produced
oiscipline, Hlsen Lolos, pLilosopLy must Lave Lao a beginning in
tine. Eational Listoricity legins vitL tLe Listorical ellort ol reason to
attain pLilosopLical knovleoge. !or Hlsen tLe Lolistic lounoations ol
pLilosopLy are supra Listorical. 1Le necessary emergence ol a con-
cretel, deternined capalility ol intuitional representation cLaracterizes
reason`s nrst spatiotemporally or Listorically oevelopeo outcome. All
succeeoing stages oevelop in time. 1Le rational Listory ol pLilosopLy is
preceoeo ly a sell-grounoeo, tLougL not entirely exLausteo Listory ol
tLe possilility ol consciousness. WLen rational leings acLieve a
juoging capacity to represent experience in systematic terms, tLese tvo
rational Listories luse ano oevelop togetLer.
Eeason`s Listory sLoulo locus on tLe simultaneous perspectives ol
(1) its real Listorical oevelopment, ano (:) its pLilosopLical recons-
truction. Historical oevelopment locuses on a purely sell-grounoeo
process, tLe sulsequent part ol vLicL is a purposively ascenoing
proouction ol tLe tenporall, dezeloping possilility ol consciousness.
PLilosopLical reconstruction proouces a retrospectize selj-conscious
portra,al ol all pre-critically taken steps. 1Le exLaustive rational con-
oition lor eacL one ol tLese steps can le uncovereo ano portrayeo
systematically only ly sell-conscious reconstruction.
Eeason`s nrst Listorical acLievement is a concretely oetermineo act
ol intuitional representation. !rom tLe reconstructive perspective ol
tLe inquirer, Hlsen Lolos, tLis act sLoulo nrst appear as a lact ol
consciousness. Hlsen, lolloving !icLte`s criticism ol EeinLolo, argues
tLat tLis act, intuitional representation, sLoulo not le conluseo vitL
tLe lounoational act ol knovleoge.
26
1Le articulation ol reason`s
Listory oemanos analysis ol its transcenoental possilility. Lncovering
tLis possilility sLoulo le tantamount to grouno tLis act. 1Le opening

26
See: e NTVS, 8, :o-
Part
11:
cLapter ol reason`s Listory is on tLe genesis ol consciousness. Cne ol
Hlsen`s purposes is to sLov tLat reason`s alility to proouce tLe
transcenoental grouno ol intuitional representation enalles its im-
meoiate translormation into a logical-Listorical purposive agent.
Analysis ol tLe lactual act ol representation leaos Hlsen, a strong
supporter ol tLe Grundsatz traoition, to !icLte`s Lolistic point ol
oeparture. Pure reason, tLe equivalent ol !icLte`s unconoitional , is lor
Hlsen an alsolute grouno or nrst principle. Hlsen argues tLat pure
reason, or in Lis ovn voros, reason as reason (Vernunjt als Vernunjt),
is originally a sell-ioentical agent (= or am). 1LrougL sponta-
neous or unconoitioneo sell-activity, pure reason posits all possille
leing immeoiately ano exclusively in, lor ano ly itsell. As in !icLte`s
Wissensclajtslelre, immeoiate sell-sustainalility exempts tLis neta-
logical principle lrom any sulsequent logical prool.
27
Pure reason`s
alsolutely unoeterminalle cLaracter prevents its oljective conoitioning
or limitation, a necessary requirement lor consciousness` emergence.
Consequently, pure reason neitLer can recognize, nor attain knovleoge
ol itsell as an alsolutely sell-oetermineo agent, it cannot ioentily itsell
as tLe Lolistic agent leLino tLe immeoiate sell-positing ol its leing as
alsolutely ioentical to itsell. 1Lis cognitive inalility, Hlsen like !icLte
claimeo, compels pure reason to leave its alsolute realm, sell-posit in,
lor, ano ly itsell an actual realm ol experience, ano oevelop tLrougL it
a system ol knovleoge.
28
!or Hlsen unlike !icLte, tLis process is
intrinsically Listorical.

27
Hlsen employs !icLte`s terminology ano rejects tLe possilility ol grounoing
critical knovleoge on an alsolute olject [see: e NTVS, 8-;|. Accoroing to
e ENTVSI USF, Aber ist das Niclt-Icl das Absolute und Unbedingte, so ist
es aucl niclt ueil etuas anderes ist, dadurcl es ist denn alles andere ist das
Bedingte sondern ueil und in so jern es durcl niclt anderes, nitlin ueil es
SELBST ist. Sein zllig bestinnter Clarakter, als eines Absoluten, ist also Selbs-
tse,n d.i. ein SELBST se,n, jolglicl ein ICH se,n. [.| alles absolute Se,n d.i.
alles Selbst-Se,n, sclleclterdings nur ein Icl se,n kann." A similar insigLt can le
louno in section ol ScLelling`s 1;p, Von Icl als Princip der Plilosoplie oder
ber das Unbedingte in nensclliclen Wissen [See: p NVUR: , ,-|, an
essay tLat Hlsen knev.
28
See: e NTVS, :,, 1p1, :o
Hlsen
11
Die Vernunjt berlaupt ging also dadurcl zon sicl aus, dass sie in die Welt
der Erscleinungen eintrat. Folglicl uar sie sclon Vernunjt, nocl ele es jr
sie eine Vorstellung und durcl Vorstellung eine Erjalrung und Natur gab.
Aber sie uar sicl selbst niclt diese Vernunjt, diese zon aller Erjalrung un-
ablangige Vernunjt. Dennocl sollte sie es se,n. Sie sollte uissen und
erkennen, dass sie Vernunjt se,, sicl selbst also uissen als das selbsttlatige
Se,n, dessen Wesen [.| Freileit und lclste Einleit ist. Darun ging sie aus
in das Gebiet des Beuusstse,ns, un zu sicl selbst uieder zurck zu konnen,
und sicl selbst Vernunjt zu se,n.
29

1Le inLerent sell-positing ol experience`s realm translorms pure reason
into a concretely or spatiotemporally conoitioneo agent. Eeason oeve-
lops most ol knovleoge`s system in concreto, tLat is, tLrougL an ol-
jectively oetermineo listorical process ol sell-sulsuming reection.
PLilosopLy`s emergence represents lor Hlsen tLe Listorical stage in
vLicL reason perlorms its nrst discursize selj-conscious reection on
itsell. 1Lis sell-reective conoition oetermines tLe entire teleological
sell-pursuing cLaracter ol reason`s circular oevelopment. PLilosopLy`s
emergence enalles tLat reason start striving alter an innnite selj-con-
scious accomplisLment ol a nediated sell-positing ol itsell as reason.
Critical insigLt is its vay to attempt to oltain exLaustive knovleoge ol
its pure, unlimiteo, ano timeless leing, to seek rigorous sell-oetermi-
nation.
30

!or Hlsen, pure reason is an alsolutely unoeterminalle agent. As
sucL, it cannot carry out tLe Listorical oevelopment ol tLe system ol
knovleoge. Accoroing to Hlsen, reason oivioes itsell into tvo
concomitant agents: (1) pure reason ano (:) empirical or progressing
reason (enpiriscle or jortsclreitende Vernunjt). Progressing reason is
in cLarge ol tLe Listorically extenoeo oevelopment ol tLe system ol
knovleoge. 1LrougL it, pure reason attempts to attain exLaustive
pLilosopLical knovleoge ol its original or supra-Listorical leing.
31


29
e NTVS, :,
30
See: e NTVS, :,-
31
See: e NTVS, :,-. Lieter h~ (1p;;, 18p) sums up tLis point: Die
Vernunjt zor aller Enpirie ist zuar rein sie selbst, docl lat sie in ilrer Beinleit
kein Beuutsein ilrer selbst. Un zu einen Beuutsein zon sicl selbst zu konnen,
Part
11
Accoroing to Hlsen, pure reason oetermines tLe logical-empirical
nodus operandi ol progressing reason. ts alsolute oetermining pri-
macy prevents progressing reason`s unconoitional sell-oeterminalility.
32

Hlsen`s oiscussion ol reason`s tvololo role reveals tLe transcenoental
causes lor reason`s translormation into a logical-Listorical striving
agent.
33
Hlsen tLus goes a step leyono EeinLolo vLo ooes not oiscuss
tLe possilility ol rational Listoricity. Hlsen relormulates tLe key
question ol critical pLilosopLy, namely Lov critical knovleoge is
possille. His question is ratLer Lov tLis knovleoge las becone
possille.
34

. 1Le Leouction ol ntuitional Eepresentation: Eational Historicity
Accoroing to Hlsen, critical insigLt reveals tLat a transcenoental capa-
city lor concrete oljective limitation is necessary il reason is to leave its
pure realm ano posit an inLerent realm ol space ano time. n its nrst
oeouctive steps, tLis capacity represents only a logical or nonentar,
oevelopment. 1Lis oetermines tLe pure conditions lor tLe sulsequent
emergence ol intuitional representation: reason`s nrst logical-listorical
outcome. 1Le question is Lov an alsolutely sell-positeo agent sucL as
pure reason, or tLe Alsolute , can le limiteo tLrougL a spatiotemporal
olject. Hlsen`s account orives Leavily on !icLte`s presentation ol Lis
Wissensclajtslelre in Grundlage, especially its early sections.

nu sie sicl ilres reinen Zustandes begeben und sicl auj Welt, Natur, Er-
jalrung einlassen. Dadurcl uird sie zeitlicl jabar, uird gesclicltlicl, kann
denzujolge jortsclreiten und in diesen ilren Fortsclreiten erkannt uerden. Sie
durcllaujt die Gescliclte, arbeitet sicl durcl die Enpirie uieder zu ilren rei-
nen Zustano locl, in den sie eine neue ualitat, ilr Selbstbeuutsein, geuon-
nen lat.
32
See: e NTVS, :
33
Hlsen relers in passing to all Luman striving activity as a orive activity [see:
e NTVS, 8|. Hovever, Hlsen oio not connect tLis activity vitL !icLte`s
orive tLeory in look ol tLe Grundlage.
34
See: cLp~ 1p8, 118
Hlsen
11,
Criginally, tLe Alsolute is a purely sell-acting agent. 1Le possilility
ol its actual limitation is, Hlsen Lolos, an immeoiate result ol its
logical capalility to quantij, itsell into a oivisille ano syntLetically
counter-positeo ano ot-. uantincation takes place tLrougL tvo
sinultaneous acts: (1) counter-positing ano (:) s,ntlesis. t is one ol tLe
logical steps tLe Alsolute takes to enalle tLe logical-listorical groun-
oing ol intuitional representation. Hlsen oeouces tLe grouno ol syn-
tLetic quantineo counter-position ly reluting in parallel tLe possilility
ol a limiting/oetermining allection causeo ly a LypotLetic alsolute
oljective entity.
Eeconstructive insigLt reveals tLat tLe Alsolute must attain tLe
cLaracter ol a knoving or limiteo agent. n its original supra-Listorical
moment, tLe Alsolute posits all Being (Se,n) immeoiately ano ex-
clusively in, lor, ano ly itsell. oealism oemanos tLat tLis Alsolute
Being sLoulo not to le alsolutely negateo. 1Lerelore, tLe ensuing act
ol limitation or oetermination, ot-Being (Niclt-Se,n) lor Hlsen,
sLoulo not le in itsell tLe allecting proouct ol Alsolute ot-Being
(absolute Niclt-Se,n). All possille ot-Being sLoulo le a sell-limiting
act ol tLe Alsolute , a conoitioneo proouct ol its Sell-Being (Selbst-
Se,n).
35

Sind dennacl die beide Splaren Se,n und Niclt-Se,n ursprnglicl als
Absoluta sicl entegengesetzt, so soll, un des Se,ns uillen, aucl notuendig
das absolute Niclt-Se,n niclt se,n, sondern alles = Icl se,n. So geuiss das
Icl also ein Selbst ist, so geuiss nuss durcl dasselbe aucl die Splare des
absoluten Niclt-Se,n realisiert uerden, und alle Negation also aujlren,
dadurcl das sie = Icl uird und berall niclts als absolute Bealitat ist.
36

All ot-Being sLoulo le a sell-limiting proouct ol tLe Alsolute . At
tLis stage, Hlsen claims, tLe Alsolute oetermines all ot-Being ly
counter-positing it to itsell as sometLing as sucL, as a still specincally
unoetermineo oljective vorlo. As a sell-limiting positeo proouct ol tLe
Alsolute , all Not-Being attains tLe status ol a Not-I. n tLis vay,
Hlsen argues, tLe spontaneous sell-activity (Selbsttlatigkeit) ol tLe

35
See: e NTVS, 8-;
36
e NTVS, 8;-8
Part
11
Alsolute is not alolisLeo alsolutely. nsteao, it is simultaneously
alolisLeo ano not alolisLeo. t emerges as an unconoitioneo-con-
oitioning sell-reecting activity.
37

Die absolute Tlatigkeit des Icl ist aujgeloben, in uie jern das Icl sicl ein
Niclt-Icl entgegensetzt. Aber sie ist eine Tlatigkeit des Icl, also aucl niclt
zernicltet, sondern durcl die Gegensetzung nun reektiert. Mitlin ist die
besclrankte Tlatigkeit des Icl eine reektierte Tlatigkeit berlaupt.
38

1Le counter-positing activity ol tLe Alsolute is simultaneously (1)
pure or alsolute ano (:) sell-reective or sell-limiteo. Accoroing to
Hlsen, counter-positing is tLe nrst logical sell-reective step tLe
Alsolute takes to estallisL tLe logical-Listorical grouno ol spatio-
temporal oljectivity. Still, Hlsen Lolos tLat tLe Alsolute is not yet
avare ol tLe inLerently counter-positeo cLaracter ol tLe ot-. !rom
its perspective, tLe ot- remains an alsolutely coercive entity, tLat is,
Alsolute ot-Being. 1Lis compels tLe Alsolute to strive lorvaro in
oroer not to lose its alsoluteness. Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe Alsolute
[.| kann aber ojjenbar das Absolute nur bleiben, in uie jern es seine
reektierte Tlatigkeit zur Selbsttlatigkeit uieder lerzustellen strebt, jolglicl
in uie jern es dieselbe als seine Tlatigkeit betracltet, und ber sie also re-
ektiert. Un dennacl seine absolute Selbsttlatigkeit zu erlalten, nuss das
Icl ber seine reektierte Tlatigkeit selbsttlatig reektieren, durcl Be-
exion dieselbe sicl beilegen, und dadurcl Intelligenz uerden.
39

1Lis sell-reection constitutes tLe nrst possille oiscursive act ol
knovleoge. 1LrougL it, tLe Alsolute uncovers tLat tLe ot- is its
ovn positeo proouct, it sell-oetermines lor itsell tLe transcenoental
cLaracter ol its anteceoent act ol counter-positing. t appears at tLis
stage as one ol tLe systematic conoitions ol intuitional representation.
Hlsen also relers to tLis sell-oetermining act as tLe proceoure vLere-
ly tLe Alsolute lecomes an intelligent agent. An exLaustive estal-
lisLment ol tLe transcenoental grouno ol intuitional representation

37
See: e NTVS, 88-p
38
e NTVS, 8p
39
e NTVS, po
Hlsen
11;
oemanos, Lovever, a lurtLer oetermination ol tLe act ol counter-
positing.
40

1urning tLe act ol counter-positing into a sell-reecteo olject,
enalles recognition ol tLe lolloving tvo inLerent constituents: (1) tLe
Alsolute-, ano (:) tLe ot-, or vLat amounts tLe same tLing, (1) tLe
pure sell-activity ol tLe Alsolute , ano (:) its ovn leing-reecteo
(Beektiertse,n) tLrougL a counter-positeo ot-. Accoroing to Hl-
sen, tLe Alsolute realizes tLat a ot- conoitions its original activity,
vLicL nov gets tLe sell-oetermineo lorm ol counter-positing. 1Le
Alsolute ceases to le an inoivisille agent. t translorms itsell into a
dizisible or quantiable I/Not-I substance. BotL tLe suljective ano
oljective prooucts ol quantincation, tLe quantineo ano ot-
inLerently counter-positeo (or inter-oetermineo), sLare nov tLe Al-
solute `s original spLere ol leing. Sell-reection enalles tLat tLe
Alsolute sell-oetermine its tvo quantineo prooucts as constituting
parts ol tLe act ol counter-positing. !or Hlsen tLis means in aooition
tLat counter-positing syntLesizes tLe quantineo ano ot-. SyntLesis
is a concomitant nonent ol counter-positing.
41
Hlsen`s concluoes
tLat
Da ursprnglicl niclts als das Icl ist, und durcl das Icl erst scllecltlin den
Icl entgegengesetzt uird, da nitlin die reektierte Tlatigkeit nur dadurcl
eine solcle ist, dass eine Tlatigkeit des Icl reektiert uorden ist, so ist aucl
notluendig aller Gelalt der s,ntletisclen Handlung Tlatigkeit des Icl und
alle Forn derselben Tlatigkeit des Niclt-Icl, beides als innere und notl-
uendige Bestandtleile der Handlung. Hieruas aber jolget, dass da Icl und
Niclt-Icl = Icl die absolute Splare alles Se,ns bejassen, aucl keiner s,n-
tletisclen Handlung, uelcle sie inner aucl se,n nge, e ein anderer Stojj
als Tlatigkeit des Icl d.i. Selbsttlatigkeit, und e eine andere Forn als
Tlatigkeit des Niclt-Icl d.i. Einsclrankung der Selbsttlatigkeit zor-
konnen knne.
42


40
See: e NTVS, po
41
See: e NTVS, p1
42
e NTVS, p1-:
Part
118
As in !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre, tLe appears unoer tLree oillerent
lorms. (1) t nrst is an alsolutely inoivisille agent responsille lor all
sulsequent Lolistic acts ol positing. (:) t tLen is translormeo into a
oivisille or quantinalle /ot- sulstance. () t nnally emerges as a
concomitant nonent ol tLe act ol sulstantiation. ts lorm, is tLe lorm
ol a quantineo accioent syntLetically counter-positeo to a quantineo
ot-.
Accoroing to Hlsen, sell-reection sLovs tLat tLe Alsolute sell-
oetermines tLe syntLetic act ol counter-positing as tLe proceoure res-
ponsille lor tLe original concurrence ol all lorm ano content ol
cognition. 1LrougL it, tLe sell-reecting gains insigLt into tLe alility
ol its inLerently positeo quantineo ano ot- to oistinguisL ano
relate. 1Lese transcenoental leatures are inoispensalle conoitions lor
tLe estallisLment ol reason`s nrst logical-Listorical proouct: intuitional
representation. Hlsen`s next step is to oevelop tLe possilility ol tLis
act lully.
Sell-reection enalles tLe Alsolute to uncover syntLetic quanti-
neo counter-positing as its means to sell-reect on its ovn alsolutely
sell-positeo Being (Se,n). n tLis vay, tLe Alsolute gains insigLt into
its ovn transcenoental lorm (Forn) ol unenoing sell-limitation. t also
realizes tLat its purely sell-positeo leing is tLe only possille sell-
oetermineo content (Stojj) ol its unenoing sell-reective act ol syn-
tLetic counter-positing. 1Lis same leing also emerges lor tLe as tLe
unenoing material conoition leLino tLis sell-oetermining act.
43

Hlsen agrees vitL !icLte tLat quantincation provioes tLe trans-
cenoental grouno lor (1) tLe original concurrence ol all possille lorm
ano content, as vell as (:) lor tLe simultaneous oistinction ano relation
ol tLe inLerently positeo quantineo ano ot-. n !icLte`s Wissen-
sclajtslelre, Lovever, tLe oeouction ol tLe categories, tLe laculty ol
imagination, intuition, ano tLe reproouctive imagination preceoe tLe
exLaustive oeouction ol representation. 1Lese transcenoental instances
appear in !icLte`s system as sinultaneous nonents ol tLe act ol quanti-
ncation. Accoroing to !icLte, tLe imagination assures tLe spontaneous

43
See: e NTVS, p:
Hlsen
11p
translerence ol reality lrom tLe sulstance to tLe accioent ot-. 1Le
quantineo ot- attains tLerely tLe status ol real allecting olject as
sucL. 1Le imagination enalles actual spontaneous sell-oetermination
(or sell-limitation) ol tLe Alsolute . 1Le positing ol a passive quanti-
neo is its means. Parallel activity ano passivity are inoispensalle
requisites lor tLe systematic estallisLment ol tLe grouno ol oistinction
ano relation compreLenoeo in tLe act ol representation. maginative
activity enalles tLe sensing ol an actual, tLougL specincally un-
oetermineo olject. ntuition`s oeouction oemanos an aooitional ima-
ginative step capalle ol reprooucing senseo oljects. 1LrougL it, tLe
reproouctive imagination is estallisLeo. A simultaneous engagement ol
all tLese transcenoental moments compreLenoeo in tLe act ol
quantincation is manoatory to represent an olject as sucL. Cnly tLeir
comlination enalles exLaustive translormation ol tLe syntLetically
counter-positeo quantineo ano ot- into tvo intuitional agents, into
a representing sulject ano olject. n Hlsen`s tLougLt, Lovever, apart
lrom completing quantincation ano oetermining tLe grouno ol in-
tuitional representation, tLese acts enalle a translormation ol pure
reason (or tLe Alsolute ) into enpirical or progressing reason.
Hlsen ooes not oiscuss any ol tLe transcenoental instances ois-
cusseo ly !icLte. WitLout oisagreeing vitL !icLte, quantincation lor
Hlsen is tLat oennitive act vLerely tLe Alsolute sell-oetermines lor
itsell tLe syntLetic counter-positing ol an actual or real olject as sucL.
!or Hlsen quantincation sLoulo le ascrileo tLe status ol an ex-
Laustive imaginative act ol intuitional representation. !or Hlsen, all
acts tLat succeeo quantincation are simply logical-tenporal acts accom-
plisLeo tLrougL tLe laculty ol imagination.
44
Hlsen omitteo tLe
oeouction ol tLese transcenoental instances as Le simply assumeo Lis
reaoer`s lamiliarity vitL !icLte`s tLougLt.
Accoroing to Hlsen, tvo mooes ol action ol tLe Alsolute ougLt
to le oistinguisLeo: (1) tLe jree or tLe absolute one, ano (:) tLe
necessar, or tLe selj-reected one. 1Le Alsolute is an unconoitional
agent, it lurnisLes tLe ultimate grouno ol all ensuing epistemic acts.

44
See: e NTVS, :o-
Part
1:o
!reeoom, accoroing to Hlsen lolloving !icLte, is tLe principle leLino
all possille sulsequent necessity. Spontaneous sell-reection on itsell
is tLe Alsolute `s vay to lecome avare ol ano regulate its ovn innate
lreeoom. t sell-oetermines itsell to le its ovn necessary spatiotem-
poral mooe ol intuitional representation, its actual mooe ol syntLetic
quantineo counter-position.
45
Accoroing to Hlsen,
Das Icl ist alsdann jrei, in Bcksiclt dass berlaupt gelandelt uird, aber
bedingt und notluendig, in uie jerne so und niclt anders d.l. auj eine be-
stinnte Art und Weise gelandelt uird. Hierdurcl entstelt also eine dritte
und neue Handlungsart des Icl, eine Handlungsart, die ilren Grund ueder
allein in der absoluten Selbsttlatigkeit nocl in der blossen reektierten
Handlung, sondern in beiden zugleicl lat. Da sie nun als Handlung
scllecltlin unbedingt und jrei ist, und durcl die Begel, die sie anninnt, in
ede notluendige Handlung unsers Geistes eingreijt, jolglicl durcl dieses
Eingreijen aucl Kausalitat auj die obektize Welt lat, so knenn uir sie nit
Beclt transcendentale Freileit nennen.
46

1ranscenoental lreeoom accoroing to Hlsen is tLe Alsolute `s vay to
enter tLe spatiotemporal realm ol Listorical oevelopment. 1LrougL it,
tLe Alsolute attains tLe lorm ol an actual undeternined-deternining
or ratLer pure-enpirical agent. As in !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre, tLe
system ol all knovleoge is lor Hlsen a realism-ioealism. 1rans-
cenoental lreeoom is pure reason`s (tLe Alsolute `s) logical vay to
oetermine progressing reason`s empirical nodus operandi. t lurtLer-
more lurnisLes tLe possilility ol oljective causality as sucL. Hlsen
implicitly cLaracterizes transcenoental lreeoom as tLe cause to ex-
Laustive intuitional representation. 1ranscenoental lreeoom enalles a
translormation ol tLe Alsolute into a logical-listorical agent.
Consciousness, Lovever, cannot grasp tLe Alsolute itsell. 1Lis
voulo oemano an alsolute ioentincation ol tLe limiteo or real proouct
ol tLe Alsolute , tLe olject it grasps tLrougL its ovn sell-oetermining
lorm ol syntLetic quantineo counter-position, vitL tLe unlimiteo con-
oition leLino its ovn sell-reective activity, tLat is, its pure or

45
See: e NTVS, p-
46
e NTVS, p
Hlsen
1:1
unoetermineo leing. SucL ioentincation requires an unenoing process
ol teleological approximation. 1Le Alsolute strives innnitely to
acLieve its LigLest ioeal: tLe elevation ol all syntLetically counter-
positeo reality to its original spLere ol alsolute leing, progressing
reason is its sell-reecting means.
47

[.| der jreien und absoluten Selbsttlatigkeit des Icl ist die reektierte
entgegengesetzt. Beide zerlalten sicl also uie Tlesis und Antitlesis. Sie
sollen nitlin gleicl gesetzt uerden. Sind sie uirklicl gleicl gesetzt, d.l. ist
die Beexion durcl das Niclt-Icl gleicl der absoluten Selbsttlatigkeit des
Icl, nitlin Niclt-Icl = Icl, so ist aucl Alles in Einen, jolglicl das Ideal alles
unsers Naclstrebens realisiert, und es bleibt niclts ueiter denkbar als
absolute Selbsttlatigkeit in Bckuirkung auj sicl selbst. Wird die Gleicl-
setzung der reektierten Tlatigkeit nit der unbedingten und absoluten,
durcl transcendentale Freileit nun zernittelt so ist diese also der Punkt,
uorin beide zusannen trejjen sollen, und die Splare aller Tlatigkeit ist
dadurcl zllig besclrieben.
48

ogical-Listorical striving is tLe alsolute `s vay to comline its tLetic
ano anti-tLetic activities. Alsolute syntLesis is its teleological ioeal.
Accoroing to Hlsen, tLis striving vorks itsell out tLrougL an asceno-
ing series ol tLeoretical oljects, ol imaginative syntLeses. AltLougL tLe
Alsolute is not avare ol its ovn teleological activity, striving is
leLino tLe metLooical-regulative oevelopment ol a system ol knovl-
eoge. Manlreo !rank`s commentary illuminates Hlsen`s position:
Hlsen deutet nun die S,ntlesis als dasenige, uelcles die [.| Beexion als
Ziel ins Auge jat, un ilre eigentlicle Aujgabe, das Niclt-Icl, Sclritt jr
Sclritt den absoluten Icl zu zergleiclen, also uie er sagt gleicl oder
identiscl zu naclen. Dabei setzt er durclgangig die Begrijje S,ntlesis und
Identitat gleicl, uonit er leutige anal,tiscle Standards sclnde zerletzt.
[.| Diese Gleiclsetzung scleint, [.| Identitat jr eine subalterne Forn der
(absoluten) Tlesis zu lalten. Da ilre Bealitat niclt sclon zu Anjang bestelt,
sondern als Ziel des ganzen Prozesses zerstanden uird, kann nan sagen, da
Hlsen die S,ntlesis jr die Kreation des idealen Ziels zerantuortlicl naclt.
Dann uare die S,ntlesis gerade zu die Produzentin der Idee, als die das

47
See: e NTVS, p:-
48
e NTVS, p-,
Part
1::
zon Niclt-Icl un seine Diclte gebraclteUr-Icl nunnelr den Beuut-
sein erscleinen kann [.| [also| als Ziel einer unendliclen Aujgabe (un-
endlicl darun, ueil kein Zeitpunkt abgeselen uerden kann, zu den das
Niclt-Icl, die Totalitat aller Pradikate, die Extension des in der Ur-Tlesis
Entlaltenen ersclpjt laben knnte, das uar sclon Ficltes Konzeption).
49

1ranscenoental lreeoom, or ratLer an original set ol non-Listorical
proceoures, provioes tLe system ol all knovleoge vitL a souno syn-
tLetic lounoation. Apart lrom enalling progressing reason`s emergence
tLrougL sell-limiting acts, Hlsen Lolos, transcenoental lreeoom oe-
termines tLe possilility ol concrete intuitional representation. Pure
reason`s translormation into a pure-enpirical or ratLer general-parti-
cular agent must le unoerstooo in conjunction vitL tLe appearance in
Listory ol a unizersal-personal progressing agent. n tLis vay, tLe
Lolistic grouno ol inoiviouation is estallisLeo. Progressing reason`s
logical-Listorical alility to proouce a system ol knovleoge sLoulo le
ioentineo vitL tLe nnite rational leing`s concrete teleological alility to
strive alter sell-oetermination ano conversely.
50

!or Hlsen tLe rational leing nrst appears in Listory as a pure
representing leing (bloss zorstellendes Wesen). As sucL, it can only
intuit. At tLis logical-Listorical stage, tLe rational leing can neitLer
sell-reect on Lis acts ol oljective representation, nor sell-oetermine
tLem as sell-reective prooucts ol transcenoental lreeoom (or tLe
imagination). !or tLe rational leing at tLis stage, tLis representational
state emerges as an ongoing series ol spatiotemporally oetermineo
units.
51
Hlsen concluoes tLat
Als bloss zorstellendes Wesen ist der Menscl dennacl niclt jrei, jolglicl der
Freileit entgegengesetzt. Mitlin als Wesen betracltet, ein blosses Natur-
uesen. Er stelet daler, als zorstellend, aucl unter obektizen Bestinnungen,
und ist zllig bedingt und notluendig. In eden gegenuartigen Augenblick

49
c~ 1pp8, p18-p
50
1Lis sLovs, as Iarl l~ (1p1o, ) comments, tLat Da aber das lcleste
Ziel der Vernunjt das Wissen ilrer selbst, die Selbsterkenntnis sei, so knne es
gleiclgltig sein, ob nan Ficlte als Urleber der Wissensclajtslelre bezeiclne.
]eder sei ilr Urleber, der nacl Selbsterkenntnis strebe.
51
See: e NTVS, 8-p
Hlsen
1:
tritt er nur durcl den zorgelenden, und sein ganzes Dase,n ist ein euiger
Weclsel in der Zeit ein Entstelen und Vergelen, beides zugleicl in einen
Monente.
52

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe inalility ol progressing reason to sell-
oetermine its representing conoition prevents tLe rational leing lrom
syntLetically grasping Lis actual, tLougL still unoetermineo oljects ol
intuitional representation. 1Le logical-Listorical nature ol progressing
reason ano its striving alter sell-oetermination overcomes tLis llino-
ness. 1Le rational leing resorts to tLe spontaneous activity ol tLe
imagination. He sell-reects on Lis representational acts ano sell-
oetermines tLem. So, tLe rational leing can knov tLe transcenoental
conoition ol Lis representational acts. 1Lis sell-oetermining alility is
tLe logical-Listorical act vLicL enalles progressing reason to juoge.
]uogment is lor Hlsen tLe act vLerely reason sell-oetermines tLe
possilility ol intuitional representation ano so attains tLe status ol an
intelligent agent.
53

n !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre, tLe alility to juoge is preceoeo ly tLe
oeouction ol tLe unoerstanoing. 1Le unoerstanoing enalles a ois-
cursive sell-oetermining nxation or reincation ol tLe positeo proouct
ol tLe reproouctive imagination. 1Le olject ol tLe unoerstanoing is in
!icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre a conceptualizeo real olject ol tLougLt. n
!icLte`s presentation, tLis proceoure enalles tLe propositional
oetermination ol oljects ly tLe oillerent mooes ol juogment. 1Le
unoerstanoing is not oeouceo in Preissclrijt. Hlsen prolally omitteo
tLis oeouction assuming Lis reaoer`s lamiliarity vitL !icLte`s tLougLt.
Crucial lor Hlsen is Lovever a oeouction ol tLe laculty ol juogment.

52
e NTVS, p
53
e NTVS, p, 1:-
Part
1:
., 1Le Leouction ol tLe !aculty ol ]uogment
As a pure representing leing, tLe rational leing cannot sell-oetermine
Lis ovn acts ol intuitional representation. 1Ley oo not appear to Lim at
tLis stage as personal sell-reective prooucts ol transcenoental lree-
oom. EatLer, pure reason`s original spLere ol lreeoom ano tLe rational
leing`s spLere ol intuitional representation seem to le tvo mutually
exclusive spLeres. Criginal lreeoom is exclusively a spLere ol inne-
diate identit,. o spatiotemporal succession or alteration is yet possi-
lle. ntuitional representation is a spLere ol conoitioning. ts exclusive
leature is permanent spatiotemporal alternation, i.e., oisunity ano non-
identit,.
54

Eeason nov reects on its ovn actual acts ol intuitional repre-
sentation. 1LrougL reection, eacL in turn attains tLe logical-temporal
lorm ol oiscursive ioentity, ol a qualitatively unineo temporal existence
(Dase,n). 1Lis sell-reecting act emerges as tLe nrst possille udgnent,
vLicL Hlsen, agreeing vitL EeinLolo ano !icLte, unoerstanos as a
spontaneous representation oj representation. ]uogment is tLe syste-
matic grouno ol tLe nrst possille discursize knouledge. t also enalles
tLe nrst Listorical attempt to pLilosopLize, tLe nrst real intellectual
ellort to construct a system ol knovleoge.
55

1Le nrst knovleoge attaineo ly juogment is tLat sonetling is
absolutel, (dass etuas absolut se,). 1Lis juogment is tLetic.
56
As Hlsen
explains,
[.| benerken uir den Zeitpunkt, da alles Beektieren nocl ein Vorstellen
berlaupt, nocl blosse Bestinnung durcl Obekt ist. Soll die Freileit nun
etzt in den Weclsel eingreijen, und selbsttlatig reektieren, nitlin das Urtleil
jallen dass etuas se,, so ninnt sie notluendig in diesen Monente die blosse,
durcl Obekt bestinnte, Vorstellung in sicl auj. Sie reektieren also durcl die
Vorstellung, aber durcl die zon Obekt bestinnte Vorstellung. Mitlin

54
e NTVS, 1:-
55
See: e NTVS, 1:-
56
See: e NTVS, 1
Hlsen
1:,
reektiert sie durcl die Vorstellung das Obekt der Vorstellung. Beektiert
die Freileit aber durcl die Vorstellung, so ist diese ilr selbst aucl das Gesetz
der Beexion. Die zorstellung ist selbst aber bestinnt zon Obekte, und nur
durcl dasselbe Vorstellung. Beektiert daler die Freileit durcl Vorstellung
das Obekt der Vorstellung, d.l. urtleilt sie zon diesen Obekt zu jolge der
Vorstellung, dass es se,, so urtleilt sie aucl notluendig, dass es absolut se,.
Denn die Freileit bestinnt durcl die zon Obekt bestinnte Vorstellung
das Dase,n dieses Obekts. Folglicl lat das Gesetz der Beexion, oder die
Beexion als solcle, aucl nur Gltigkeit durcl dasselbe, und das Urtleil zon
iln ist darun notluendig kein anderes, als A=A d.l. A ist, ueil es ist.
57

1Lis sell-oetermineo olject ol tLe nrst possille juogment is a pre-
viously representeo intuitional olject (A). 1LrougL it, Hlsen claims,
tLe rational leing recognizes lotL tLe sell-active ano tLe sell-reective
cLaracter ol Lis ovn representing capalility.
58
1Le oetermineo content
ol tLe nrst possille juogment is unspecineo. 1Le capacity lor parti-
cularity, ano Lence plural oiscursive oetermination, vill le estallisLeo
vitL ensuing anti-tLetic ano syntLetic juogments. Lnspecineo ois-
cursive oeterminacy, juoging`s inalility at tLis stage to oisjoin ano
conjoin, is lor Hlsen tLe logical-Listorical cause leLino transcenoental
lreeoom`s unconoitional-conoitioning assertion tLat tLe olject ol tLe
nrst possille juogment is or exists alsolutely.
59
1Letic juogment
lurnisLes tLe grouno ol tLis nrst oiscursive knovleoge. WLat it un-
conoitionally asserts is tLat tLe reality ol tLe intuitional olject A is
ioentical to its intuiting sulject. 1Lis olject sLoulo not le tLougLt ol as
leing opposeo to anytLing else, nor as leing like anytLing else.
60

!or Hlsen lolloving !icLte, tLetic juogment enalles propositional
lormulation ol tLe representational grouno ol all tLeory: A=A, vLicL
sLoulo not le mistaken vitL tLe LigLer tLetic juogment possille,
namely tLe Grundsatz proposition = or am. 1Letic juogment
emerges lor tLe nrst time at a oetermineo stage ol consciousness`

57
e NTVS, 1-
58
See: e NTVS, 1
59
See: i~~ 1pp1, 11o
60
Hlsen`s position is inconsistent, lor vLat Le nov implies is tLat syntLesis
ano ioentity ougLt not to le equateo.
Part
1:
Listory. 1Lat is vLy tLe logical valioity ol its sell-oetermineo rule
(Gesetz der Beexion in tLe passage) sLoulo not le oissociateo lrom
tLe Listorical context in vLicL it takes place. 1Letic juogment is in tLis
case not a mere lormal-logical act. As progressing reason`s nrst ois-
cursive proouct, it is tLe nrst tLeoretical oictum (Plilosoplen), lor
Hlsen, a oetermineo representational lorm ol tLat vLicL is or sLoulo
le.
61

Hlsen claims tLat pLilosopLical reection sLovs tLat lrom a
logical-Listorical perspective tLetic juogment emerges lor tLe nrst time
as an unconoitional ano complete knovleoge (zollendetes Wissen). As
tLe nrst oiscursive step possille, it oetermines progressing reason`s en-
suing sell-oetermining activity.
62

1Letic juogments are tLe imaginative prooucts ol progressing reason.
1Leir content, tLeir material conoitions, are previously intuiteo oljects
ol representation.
63
Accoroing to Hlsen, progressing reason`s ascen-
oing repetition ol tLe imaginative proceoure leLino tLetic juogments
enalles (1) graoual logical-Listorical proouction ano (:) ensuing sell-
oetermination ol all qualitatively evolving levels ol tLe concretely
emerging system ol knovleoge.
Beektieren uir lierber als einen Punkt in der Zeit, da alles Wissen nocl
unnglicl ist, ueil das Icl nocl niclt das uissende ist, und setzen nun die
Wissensclajten als bloss problenatiscl [i.e., as not yet actual|, so nssen uir
unter ilnen aucl notluendig eine denken, die der Ausdruck zon denenigen
se,, uodurcl das Icl zun Wissen gelangt, uodurcl es also ein uissendes
uird, und jolglicl eine Wissensclajt zon der Mgliclkeit alles Wissens. [.|
so ist notluendig diese Mgliclkeit nur dadurcl erklarbar, dass die Wissen-
sclajt zon ilr, als die eine unter den ngliclen, uirklicl se,. [.| Darun
konnte aucl die Wissensclajt zon der Mgliclkeit alles Wissens, oder die
Wissensclajt scllecltlin, nur allein durcl einen zollendeten Versucl, und
dadurcl nur uirklicl uerden, dass ilre Mgliclkeit durcl die Wirkliclkeit
gegeben uurde.
64


61
See: e NTVS, 1,
62
See: e NTVS, 1-,
63
See: e NTVS, 1,
64
e NTVS, p-1o, 1o, 11
Hlsen
1:;
Accoroing to Hlsen, a series ol imaginative sell-reections enalle
graoual sell-oetermination ol tLe transcenoental possilility ol tLe
logical-Listorical system ol knovleoge. 1o attain tLe status ol trans-
cenoental possilility, eacL practically proouceo stage ol tLis system
must le concretely sell-reecteo. CtLervise, tLe last proouceo stage
remains a tLeoretically unoetermineo presupposition. n otLer voros,
systematic oevelopment compels progressing reason`s translormation
ol eacL one ol its proouceo stages say intuitional representations into
tLe olject ol an ensuing sell-oetermining act. WLat lollovs, Hlsen
claims, is a logical-Listorical process ol practical production ano ensuing
tleoretical deduction, tLe real oeveloping outcome ol vLicL is tLe sell-
conscious possilility ol critical pLilosopLy. Progressing reason`s on-
going ellort tovaros tLe articulation ol a system ol knovleoge is vLat
Hlsen calls in tLe passage a complete attempt (zollendeten Versucl). A
cLaracteristic ol pre-critical oevelopment is progressing reason`s striv-
ing, ly lolloving necessary tLougL not exLaustively sell-oetermineo
teleological lavs. Cnly tLe attainment ol critical knovleoge, as tLe
passage inoicates, enalles real oeouction ol tLe logical-Listorical possi-
lility ol tLe system ol knovleoge. 1Lat is tLe reason Hlsen Lolos, tLe
transcenoental possilility ol an augmenteo Wissensclajtslelre can le
estallisLeo exclusively tLrougL its reality,
65
a logical-Listorical position
inspireo lut not articulateo ly !icLte.
Hlsen`s conclusion involves tLe Listory ol reason as an amenoment
ol EeinLolo ano !icLte`s stanopoints. eitLer EeinLolo, nor !icLte
unoerstanos pLilosopLy as a true logical-Listorical proouct. eitLer
locuses on reason as a tenporall, dezeloping agent. WLat oevelops in
time is a general-personal series ol rectilying or actualizing perspectives
ol a a priori or supra-Listorical system ol knovleoge.
66


65
See: e NTVS, 1
66
EeinLolo ano !icLte`s positions are typical ol tLose pLilosopLical essays on tLe
Listory ol pLilosopLy ol tLe early 1;po`s, vLicL accoroing to Willy c
ENVNPI OTF [.| suclen nun neben den enpirisclen die reinen Bestandteile
lerauszuarbeiten und danit der Plilosopliegescliclte ein in Kantisclen Sinne
uissensclajtlicles Geprage zu geben. Hier stelt also zunaclst gar niclt der Sinn
der Gescliclte und der Modus ilres Verlaujs in Frage, sondern die Verbindung
Part
1:8
!icLte reects on Lis Wissensclajtslelre in tvo sinultaneous vays.
(1) t can le unoerstooo as a universal process, as a logical or timeless
proouction. 1Le Wissensclajtslelre contains tLe eternal transcenoental
conoitions necessary to oetermine tLe general possilility ol experience.
(:) !icLte also relers to it as a logical-Listorical process in vLicL tLe
concrete pLilosopLizing activity ol many oillerent tLinkers enalles tLe
graoual uncovering ol tLe ever-existing system ol knovleoge. Prag-
matic Listory, an insigLt oltaineo tLrougL joint ellort, recoros tLe
personal sell-conscious articulation in time ol tLis timelessly proouceo
system ol knovleoge. !icLte unoerstanos Lis Wissensclajtslelre in
lotL (1) an alstract logical-non-Listorical, ano in (:) a concrete logical-
Listorical vay. 1Le conceptual agreement letveen tLe eternal system
ol knovleoge ano its concrete Listorical presentation oemanos tLat tLe
Wissensclajtslelre le presupposeo, tLougL not as a sell-oetermineo
olject.
Hlsen, Lovever, oisagreeo vitL !icLte insisting tLat an incon-
sistency arises il tLese tvo positions are simultaneously Lelo. n Lis
oiscussion ol tLe impossilility ol lounoing tLe system ol knovleoge
on Alsolute ot-Being or otLingness (Niclts), Hlsen argueo tLat
[.| ueil Niclts das Entgegengesetzte ist, und absolut es ist, so trijjt aucl die
Selbsttlatigkeit auj einen Stojj, der den ilrigen, den absoluten Se,n,
scllecltlin uiderstrebt. Dennocl nuss sie, so geuiss sie Selbsttlatigkeit ist,
selbsttlatig se,n d.i. ein Selbst lerzorbringen, also das entgegengesetzte
Niclt-Se,n, durcl ilr absolutes Se,n notluendig einsclranken d.i. bedingen
und dennacl ein bestinntes Etuas als ein t zun Se,n setzen.
67

!or Hlsen tLe concrete estallisLment ol intuitional representation`s
possilility oetermines reason`s entering into a sell-positeo realm ol
conditioning spatiotemporal limitation. Eeason Las tLe constitutize
cLaracter ol a personally emlooieo logical-Listorical agent, tLe emer-
ging sell-reecting proouct ol vLicL is tLe system ol knovleoge. t is
not enougL to oistinguisL letveen tLe concepts ol simply general a

der Tatsaclenstcke [i.e., oeveloping systems|, die Zugelrigkeit der Tatsaclen
zu dieser und keiner anderen Disziplin, das Prinzip ilrer Verknpjung.
67
e NTVS, -, [my lolo|
Hlsen
1:p
priori productizit, emlooieo in tLe activity ol tLe Alsolute ano
personal a posteriori articulation (sell-oetermination) emlooieo in tLe
pLilosopLizing activity ol tLe nnite rational leing. !rom a certain stage
all rational activity is general-personal or pure-empirical activity. BotL
(1) tLe realization ano (:) tLe proouction ol a system ol knovleoge are
sinultaneous aspects ol progressing reason`s logical-Listorical activity.
Accoroing to Hlsen, vLenever tLe transcenoental possilility ol a
cognitive instance is sell-oetermineo, a nev instance emerges, vLose
transcenoental possilility can, in turn, le oeouceo in ensuing sell-
reecting tLougLt, so revising !icLte`s tLeory ol an impersonal or
general proouction ol tLe alsolute only sulsequently to le un-
covereo ano articulateo ly tLe pLilosopLizing activity ol inoiviouals.
Hlsen`s insigLt so reconciles tvo incompatille positions ol !icLte`s
Wissensclajtslelre, tLe system ol knovleoge is tLe logical-Listorical
result ol a simultaneous productize-deductize activity ol reason. Hl-
sen so reinterprets !icLte`s tLesis tLat tLe transcenoental possilility ol
tLis system sLoulo le given exclusively ly its reality.
1LrougL tLis normative spiritual mooincation, Hlsen also solveo
a prollem poseo ly EeinLolo`s Listory ol pLilosopLy: progressing
reason`s logical-listorical alility to progress teleologically.
68

An interpretation accoroing to tLe spirit ol !icLte`s system is tLe
cause ol Hlsen`s revolutionary ano innovative turn to rational con-

68
AltLougL ignorant ol EeinLolo`s virtually lorgotten approacL to tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy, ano ol Lov Hlsen`s insigLt into intuitional representation enalleo
reason`s translormation into a Listorically striving agent, Ilaus c ano
]rgen p~ (1p8, 118-p) in a tLree page article cLaracterize Hlsen`s innova-
tion as lollovs: Die Menscllicle Erkenntnisjaligkeit, die Ficlte nur logiscl-
s,stenatiscl jate, sal er [i.e., Hlsen| als real-listoriscl geuorden an und
jorderte deslalb die [.| Einleit zon logiscler und listoriscler Metlode in
Proze der tleoretiscl-plilosoplisclen Wirkliclkeitseinigung. [.| Zuden uei-
tete Hlsen die obektiz-idealistiscle Tendenz des Ficltesclen Icl-Begrijjes auj
eine Plilosoplie der Gescliclte aus. Das Verlaltnis zon absoluten und enpiri-
sclen Icl uurde bei iln netlodiscl uirksan uissensclajtlicle Gescliclts-
sclreibung knne das Allgeneine nur an Konkreten darstellen, ueil die reale
Gescliclte sicl so zollziele.
Part
1o
stitutive Listoricity.
69
Hlsen ooes not claim tLat tLis spiritual mooi-
ncation vas a step lorvaro leyono vLat coulo le louno in !icLte`s
vritings. or oio it seem sucL to !icLte, lor vLom Hlsen`s position
supplementeo Lis ovn Wissensclajtslelre.
Hlsen employs an alternative !icLtean term to reler to Lis logical-
Listorical agent: tLe reecting laculty ol juogment (reectierende
Urtleilskrajt). 1Letic juogment enalles tLe oiscursive sell-oeter-
mination ol intuitional oljects. 1Lis intuitional oistinction allovs tLat
a spatiotemporal series ol intuitional oljects or absoluta (say, A,
B, C, etc.) le given to tLe emerging rational leing vitLin Lis
original spLere ol representation.
70
Hlsen`s position is tLat
Nie urde aber die Urtleilskrajt einen ueiteren Fortsclritt laben knnen,
uenn niclt dennocl eine ursprnglicle Mannicljaltigkeit der Obekte zor-
landen geuesen uare. So uie daler das Vengen, etuas scllecltlin zu
setzen, an den Gegenstanden A, B als einen X berlaupt, einigernassen ent-
uikkelt uar, uurden diese niclt nelr als ein blosses X als Dase,n
berlaupt- sondern als Ax und Bx, und jolglicl nit Unterscleidung des
einen zon andern gesetzt. [.| Ursprnglicl sind A und B bloss und
scllecltlin gesetz. Aber ilr blosses Gesetztse,n als ein x sclliest das A=A und
das B=B, jolglicl die Merknale A und B in x darun niclt aus. Dies uenigs-
tens niclt jr eine Intelligenz ausser den Urtleilenden. Mit der grssern
Fertigkeit in tletisclen Urtleilen uurde aber die Urtleilskrajt eben diese
Intelligenz. Sie setzte also A=A und B=B, jolglicl A-B und B-A. Aber B
souol als A uaren sclcltlin gesetzt, nitlin, insojern A gesetzt uar, B den A
sclcltlin entgegen gesetz.
71

]uogment in its logical-Listorical oetermination enalleo lurtLer tLetic
preoications (oljective existences as sucL or X). 1Letically juogeo
oljects (say, A ano B) are sell-reecteo ano positeo vitL tLeir

69
AltLougL tLere is no oirect evioence tLat Hlsen inuenceo ScLelling ano Hegel
on tLis point, tLe Listory ol ioeas coulo still recoro e Preissclrijt as a
preoecessor ol ScLelling`s S,sten des transcendentalen Idealisnus ano ol
e Planonenologie des Geistes. 1Le oiscussion ol tLis interesting topic,
Lovever, transcenos tLe limits ol tLis monograpL.
70
See: e NTVS, 1
71
e NTVS, 1-;
Hlsen
11
implicitly proouceo, tLougL still not oiscursively oeouceo preoicate ol
oistinction (say, Ax ano Bx). 1Lis sulsequently enalles juogment
on tLe simultaneous sell-ioentity ano oistinction ol tvo oljects ol
tLougLt. 1Le more A ano B are oetermineo as sell-ioentical, tLe
more tLey are oistinguisLeo ano counter-positeo. 1Lis juoging proce-
oure lurnisLes tLe preliminary grouno ol oiscursive quantincation.
]uogment so enalles a secono logical-Listorical epocL: anti-tLetic
tLougLt.
72

uantincation reveals tLat no anti-tLesis is possille vitLout
syntLesis ano vice versa. SyntLetic tLougLt is tLe laculty ol juogment`s
tLiro logical-Listorical epocL. Accoroing to Hlsen, syntLetic tLougLt
ooes not constitute a moment ol anti-tLetic tLougLt. 1Le laculty ol
juogment proouces syntLetic tLougLt in exactly tLe same vay it
proouces tLe alility to juoge anti-tLetically, i.e., tLrougL a logical-
Listorical sell-reection. n its tLiro epocL, tLe laculty ol juogment
uncovers its ovn implicit proouction ol tLe grouno ol syntLetic
juogment in its previous anti-tLetic epocL. Hlsen Lolos tLat no
juogement can reler to tLe real oiscursive oistinction or counter-posi-
ting ol tvo specincally sell-oetermineo oljects (say, A ano B)
vitLout presupposing tLe possilility ol tLeir syntLetic unincation.
73

Graoual sell-reecting progression, Hlsen claims, is tLe laculty ol
juogment`s vay to sell-oetermine lor itsell its previous acts ano
enLance its spLere ol lreeoom. 1Le logical-Listorical epocL ol syntLetic
tLougLt closes its transcenoental evolution.
74
!or as Hlsen states,
[.| es uird geurtleilt, dass etuas se,, dass etuas niclt se,, und dass etuas
nur irgend etuas niclt se,, jolglicl dass es etuas se,. Oder nit andern Wor-
ten es uird gesetz, entgegengesetzt und gleiclgesetzt. Ist alles Entgegen-
gesetzte gleiclgesetzt, so ist notluendig uiederun niclts als Tlesis. Durcl
S,ntlesis konnt daler die Beexion uieder auj die Tlesis zurck, jolglicl
auj dasenige zurck, uozon sie ausgegangen uar, und nit ilr ist dennacl
die ganze Splare der Urtleile ersclpjt und besclrieben.
75


72
See: e NTVS, 1-;
73
See: e NTVS, 1;-8
74
See: e NTVS, 18
75
e NTVS, 18-p
Part
1:
1Le laculty ol juogment is spontaneously sell-positeo. 1Lis means tLat
in its tLree logical-Listorical epocLs its sell-reecting mecLanism is
oetermineo unconoitionally. !rom tLe oeveloping perspective ol tLe
juoging sulject, tLe knovleoge oltaineo in eacL one ol tLese epocLs
emerges as a complete knovleoge (zollendetes Wissen). n tLis vay, tLe
laculty ol juogment is estallisLeo exLaustively ano alsolutely.
76

1Letic juogment (A=A) enalles unconoitional sell-oetermination
ol a concrete intuitional olject. 1Lis nrst oiscursive ellort to construct
a system ol knovleoge enalles tLe unconoitionally sell-positeo reality
ol an intuiteo olject to le ioentineo vitL its intuiting sulject, tLe
reality ol A is asserteo, immeoiately, as a representing . n aooition,
tLetic juogment enalles tLe juoging sulject to uncover tLe personally
sell-positeo cLaracter ol Lis intuitional oljects. Hlsen concluoes tLat
at tLis logical-Listorical stage tLe sulject mistakes Lis inoivioual uncon-
oitionally sell-positing sell lor a transcenoent Alsolute . 1Le positing
structure ol tLe Alsolute is translerreo immeoiately ano unconsciously
to tLe spLere ol oiscursive representation.
77
SucL personilying proceoure
is lor Hlsen cLaracteristic ol all early Luman tLougLt. 1Letic juogment
is tLe oistinctive lorm ol antiquity`s consciousness exemplineo ly Greek
mytLology.
78

Das Wandelbare in Baune und in der Zeit konnte kein letzter Grund des
Wissens se,n. Man erkannte bald lieran niclts als Accidenzen, die in Strone
der Zeit entstelen, und in Entstelen gegen einander zerscluinden. Ursprng-
licl zuar setzte nan [.| , alle Sinnenerscleinungen absolut. Aber nit der
Walrnelnung des Veranderliclen, setzte nan notluendig aucl ein Heer
absoluten Ursaclen, und subordinierte aucl diese uieder unter eine lcleste.
Daler die Gottleiten der Grieclen. ]ede uelle lat ilre N,nple, eder Ha,n
seinen S,ljen. Man suclte also etuas zon den Weclsel der dinge Unablangi-
ges, und in der bildliclen souol als abstrakten Vorstellungsart daler ein Se,n an
Sicl Selbst. Hierbei uar nan, auj den Wege des enpirisclen Fortsclreitens
der Vernunjt zu ilr selber, notluendiger Weise nur in der obektizen Welt.
79


76
See: e NTVS, 18
77
See: i~~ 1pp1, 1o
78
See: e NTVS, 1p-:o
79
e NTVS, 1. e (1;p, :o) aooitionally argues tLat Der Spracl- und
Hlsen
1
Lnconscious translerence oetermineo tLe nnite rational leing`s posit-
ing ol Limsell in Greek mytLology as tLe alsolute source ol experience,
as a suloroinating -in-itsell. Alter Greek mytLology, all Luman intel-
lectual acLievements are logical-Listorical prooucts ol reason. Hlsen`s
interest in tLe Listory ol culture transcenos tLe spLere ol tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy proper. His interest in mytLology as a preluoe to tLe
Listory ol pLilosopLy translorms pLilosopLy`s Listory into a rational
Listory ol tLe Luman species.
80

Hlsen claimeo tLat tLrougL a process ol translerence tLe logical-
Listorical epocLs ol anti-tLetic ano syntLetic tLougLt allecteo ano
structureo tLe Listory ol culture. 1Ley enalleo tLe estallisLment ol tLe
lamily ano otLer sucL Luman relations.
81
!or Hlsen, tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy ano tLe pLilosopLy ol Listory are ioentical.
82

PLilosopLical reconstruction sLovs tLat tLetic, anti-tLetic, ano syn-
tLetic tLougLt are tLe tLree logical-Listorical stages vLerely tLe sell-
reecting laculty ol juogment is estallisLeo. Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe
nrst possille oiscursive syntLesis results in a LigLer oiscursive tLesis
(unincation). 1Le sell-reecting laculty ol juogment impels pro-
gressing reason lorvaro metLooically ly an ascenoing repetition ol tLe
juoging acts ol tLesis, anti-tLesis ano syntLesis. n tLis vay, reason
progresses. !rom tLe oeveloping Listorical perspective ol tLe juoging
sulject, tLis evolutionary mecLanism is not yet sell-consciously reec-
teo. 1Lis requires tLat progressing reason strive ano sell-oetermine lor
itsell tLe transcenoental possilility ol tLe laculty ol juogment. Cnly
tLe logical-Listorical emergence ol critical pLilosopLy enalles tLis

Altertlurnsjorscler uird eine geistlose Untersuclung anstellen, uenn er niclt
nacl diesen notluendigen Gesetze unsers Geistes beobacltet.
80
See: c 1p1, . Hlsen`s stanopoint is an original position vitLin
German ioealism. AltLougL tLere is no oirect evioence tLat Hlsen inuenceo
Hegel on tLis point, tLe Listory ol ioeas coulo still recoro Hlsen`s Preissclrijt
as a preoecessor ol tLe Hegelian PLenomenology ol Spirit. See: cLp~
1p8, 118. !or coincioences letveen Hlsen ano Hegel, see: d 1p,, 1,;
81
See: e NTVS, :o
82
See: h~ 1p;;, 1p
Part
1
tLrougL an ascenoing series ol sell-positeo systems ol tLougLt, i. e., tLe
entire Listory ol pLilosopLy.
. 1Le Asking-Ansvering MecLanism ol ]uogment
maginative activity is tLe Alsolute `s vay to attain tLe constitutive
cLaracter ol a logical-Listorical agent. Progressing reason proouces a
system ol knovleoge tLrougL an ascenoing sell-sulsuming series ol
imaginative syntLeses, tLe emerging olject ol vLicL are nev oeve-
loping tLeses ano anti-tLeses. Accoroing to Hlsen, critical pLilosopLy,
tLe Wissensclajtslelre, is an empirically reacLalle goal ol reason, its
teleological lunction is to provioe striving activity vitL a progressing
oirection. WitL juogment`s emergence, it ceases to le progressing
reason`s exclusive means. !or Hlsen oiscursive knovleoge is more
tLan tLe sell-positeo result ol logical-Listorical juogment. t is also tLe
conconitant proouct ol an asking-ansuering mecLanism. All ois-
cursively oeveloping stages ol tLe system ol knovleoge attain tLe
simultaneous cLaracter ol selj-posited ansuers tLat progressing reason
gives to previously lormulateo selj-posited questions. Leouction ol tLis
concomitant mecLanism ol juogment enalles oetermination ol tLe
transcenoental possilility ol vLat is assumeo in EeinLolo`s early
Elenentarplilosoplie: pLilosopLizing reason`s alility to progress
Listorically ly ansvering questions.
Hlsen anticipates Heioegger. Hlsen legins ly assuming tLe lac-
tual existence ol questions. ike Heioegger, Hlsen oiscusses tLe
essential nature (Wesen) ol a question as sucL. 1Le uncovering ol tLis
essence vill reveal tLe existence ol a transcenoental asking-ansvering
mecLanism ol juogment.
83
Hlsen`s assumption is tLat
]ede Frage berlaupt nun ist notluendig dadurcl nur nglicl, und nur
dadurcl eine Frage dass sie ilren ganzen Wesen nacl auj ein t ge-
ricltet se,n nuss. Es ist unnglicl, e zu jragen, olne etuas uissen zu

83
See: e NTVS, 8
Hlsen
1,
uollen, und alles uirklicle Wissen, oder die Alluissenleit berlaupt, sclliesst
notluendig daler alles Fragen aus.
84

1Lis preliminary oennition Las tLe status ol an uncritically estallisLeo
lact ol consciousness (Tlatsacle des Beuusstse,ns). 1Le lact tLat tLe
attainment ol oiscursive knovleoge is tLe essence ol a question as sucL,
suggests tLat tLis essence sLoulo le a transcenoentally conoitioneo
proouct ol reason.
85
Hlsen`s assumption is tLat tLe discursize proce-
oures ol asking ano ansuering are udging proceoures ol tLe Luman
spirit, tLe necessary systematic location ol vLicL sLoulo le oeouceo
lrom its oeveloping nature. Hlsen vill tLus uncover tLe grouno ol a
key, tLougL critically ooogeo proceoure ol all pLilosopLizing activity:
tLe transcenoental mecLanism vLerely questions are lormulateo ano
replieo.
86

Hlsen assumes tLat asking ano ansvering are proceoures ol tLe
Luman spirit. l so, tLeir regulation ly transcenoental lreeoom`s sell-
reecting activity (or tLe imagination) lollovs. nsigLt into tLetic
juogment reveals tLe constitutive existence ol tvo concomitant or
nonentar, proceoures, vLicL Hlsen vill later cLaracterize as (1)
question (Frage) ano (:) ansver (Antuort). Asking ano ansvering are
not temporally separateo, lut complementary aspects ol one single
logical-Listorical act ol reason.
87
Hlsen argues tLat
Bei dieser Beexion [i.e., tLetic juogment| nun asseren sicl zuei Monente.
Einnal dass die Freileit ber den ganzen Akt als bloss nglicl reektiere,
d.i. iln als Handlung aujgebe, und Zueitens dass sie ber iln in actu, d.i. als

84
e NTVS, 8
85
Hlsen applies tLe same circular oeouctive metLoo applieo ly !icLte to
oetermine tLe original cLaracter ol tLe Tlatlandlung.
86
See: e NTVS, 8, p
87
Hlsen ooes not call tLis oiscursive activity tLetic juogment, lut reecteo
activity (reektierte Tlatigkeit). t represents tLe same activity vLerely tLe
sell-reects on its syntLetically counter-positeo olject ol intuition ano lecomes
an intelligent agent [See: e NTVS, p|. 1Lis is precisely tLe lunction tLat
Hlsen attrilutes to tLe imaginative proceoure tLat lurnisLes tLe grouno ol
tLetic juogment.
Part
1
gesclelend reektiere, und jolglicl als eine notluendige Handlung pragna-
tiscl darstelle.
88

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLese nonents constitute tLe (1) content ano (:)
tLe jorn ol tLetic juogment. 1Le nrst moment represents tLat rational
act vLerely tLe grouno ol intuitional representation is lrougLt alout
in concreto, tLe secono, tLat ensuing act vLerely reason selj-deter-
nines jor itselj intuitional representation`s transcendental possibilit,.
Pragmatic portrayal is reason`s only sell-reective means to deduce tLe
necessary cLaracter ol its anteceoent act ol intuitional representation.
1Letic juogment enoovs intuitional representation vitL an aooitional
qualitatize status, vLicL translorms it into a systematically sell-oeter-
mineo content. 1Lis content conoition is exclusizel, a sinultaneous
result ol tLetic juogment`s jornal sell-reective act. 1Lat is vLy
intuitional representation appears lrom tLis logical-Listorical angle as a
transcenoental nonent ol tLetic tLougLt. Hlsen calls tLetic juog-
ment`s nrst moment tLe prollem (Problen) ano tLe secono moment
tLe result (Besultat) ol reection. BotL moments vill later emerge as
equivalents ol (1) question ano (:) ansver, respectively.
89

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe problen oj reection relers to tLat sell-
reective act vLerely reason lrings alout tLe grouno ol intuitional
representation, vLile tLe result oj reection relers to reason`s ensuing
pragmatic sell-oetermination ol intuitional representation. Cnly tLetic
juogment allovs prollem ano result to le cLaracterizeo as simul-
taneous moments ol tLe discursize act ol asking-ansvering. !or
Hlsen, tLis conoition cannot le estallisLeo ly intuitional represen-
tation, lut ly vLat Le alternatively calls reection as sucl (Beexion
berlaupt). Asking-ansvering, Le claims, is tLe outcome ol jree
reection (Beexion aus Freileit), ol reason`s nrst discursize sell-
oetermining act, ano not ol intuitional representation or reection as
sucL.
90


88
e NTVS, p
89
See: e NTVS, p-;
90
See: e NTVS, p8
Hlsen
1;
Critical insigLt sLovs tLat tLe outcome ol reection as sucl is a syn-
tLesizeo counter-positing ol an intuitively representing sulject (tLesis)
ano an intuitively representeo olject (anti-tLesis). At tLe logical-
Listorical stage ol intuitional representation, Hlsen claims, tLe in-
tuiting sulject is not avare ol tLe syntLetic cLaracter ol its intuition.
Cnly jree reection enalles oiscursive sell-oetermination ol tLis in-
tuition. Accoroing to Hlsen, tLis proceoure, tLetic juogment, takes
place tLrougL tvo nonentar, stages. At nrst, lor tLe tLetically juoging
sulject intuitional representation is a problen. 1Le tLetic reality ol tLe
representing sulject (quantineo ), ano tLe anti-tLetic negation causeo
ly tLe representeo olject (quantineo ot-), appear as reciprocally
excluoing principles. Sulsequently, tLe juoging sulject appreLenos tLe
syntLetic cLaracter ol its act ol intuitional representation. 1Lis secono
moment is tLe result ol reection. 1Letic juogment`s tvo concomitant
moments enalle sell-oetermining insigLt into tLe syntLetically counter-
positeo cLaracter ol tLe tvo agents ol representation.
91
Hlsen`s next
ioentines problen ano result oj reection vitL tLe constitutive pro-
ceoures ol question ano ansuer.
Wir laben in S,stene des nensclliclen Geistes etzt den Ort bestinnt, uo
die Frage, als Handlung der jreien Selbsttlatigkeit, durcl die Bedingung der
Beexion inlren jesten und unzeranderliclen Sitz lat. Ilr Begrijj ergiebt
sicl aus der Errterung nun leiclt. Sie ist nelnlicl niclt anders, als die
durcl Tlesis und Antitlesis zllig bestinnte aujgabe zu einer S,ntlesis.
Durcl die Antuort soll diese S,ntlesis uirklicl gegeben, und die Antitlesis
der Tlesis also gleicl gesetzt uerden. Beide Frage und Antuort, naclen
daler den ganzen Unjang der jreien Beexion aus, und lier ergiebt sicl nun
bestinnt, uie ganz unnglicl es ist, irgend eine Aujgabe ricltig aujzustellen
und zu lsen, uenn das lcleste Problen das Niclt-Icl = Icl, niclt scln
ricltig gejast und durcl die Idee gelst ist.
92

!or Hlsen, tLetic juogment provioes tLe grouno lor an ensuing
qualitative oevelopment ol juogment as a simultaneous act ol asking-

91
See: e NTVS, p8-p
92
e NTVS, pp-1oo
Part
18
ansvering.
93
1Letic juogment sets up a logical-Listorical mecLanism
tLat regulates all ensuing questions ano ansvers. !or Hlsen, pro-
gressing reason`s oiscursive proouction-oeouction ol tLe system ol all
knovleoge represents a universally extenoeo act ol asking-ansvering.
94

Asking-ansvering is a proouct ol tLe logically-Listorically oeve-
lopeo laculty ol juogment. ts essence is tLe attainment ol oiscursive
knovleoge. Hlsen proves Lis point ly oiscussing a supplementary
aspect ol tLe moment ol asking. Hlsen intenos to provioe aooitional
evioence ol tLe coincioences ol juoging ano asking-ansvering. Hlsen
claims tLat insigLt into tLetic juogment reveals tLat tLe moment ol
asking is itsell constituteo ly tvo aooitional moments: (1) sometLing
(etuas) vLicL one vLisLes to knov, a potentially sell-reecteo olject,
ano (:) sometLing lrom vLicL (uozon) or ratLer vLerely tLis olject
can le knovn, a sell-reecting sulject.
95

Die Frage berlaupt nelnlicl ist, als Handlung der jreien Beexion, die
aujgabe zu einen Wissen, oder, in uie jern durcl die Frage die Freileit sicl
zun uirkliclen [i.e., oiscursive| Beektieren erst bestinnt ein Wissen-
Wollen. Wer also jragt, uill irgend etuas uissen, und in eder Frage nuss
daler notluendig zorkonnen 1) etuas, das nan uissen uill, und :) etuas,
uozon nan es uissen uill. Ausser diesen Bedingungen kann scllecltlin
keine Frage Statt nden, denn sie gelren zu ilren innern Wesen, und die
Frage is daler durcl sie aucl zllig ersclpjt.
96

very possille question contains sometLing tLat one visLes to knov,
sometLing vLereupon (uonacl) one asks, namely a potential olject.
Hlsen assigns tLis olject tLe preliminary status ol a deterninatize
(Zubestinnendes) moment. n any question an intuitional ano ot-
appear to tLe tLetically juoging sulject as tvo mutually excluoing
tLesis ano anti-tLesis. Cnly ensuing sell-oetermination ol tLis sell-
annulling olject reveals its sulsequent syntLetically deterninable (Be-
stinnbares) moment conoition. acL olject emerges as a potential

93
See: e NTVS, p;-8
94
See: e NTVS, 1o
95
See: e NTVS, 1oo
96
e NTVS, 1oo-1
Hlsen
1p
deterninatize-deterninable (Zubestinnend-Bestinnbares) positeo
proouct. very possille question presupposes sonetling original lrom
vLicL (uozon) or ratLer vLerely all asking is possille, a pure sulject
or reason. 1Lis pure agent must not le ioentineo vitL tLat vLereupon
one asks, vitL tLat one visLes to knov, namely vitL a potential syn-
tLetically sell-oetermineo olject. 1Lese tvo principles are opposites.
1Le pure sulject is lor Hlsen tLe original lounoation ol tLe question,
tLat vLicL enalles tLat all questions le sell-positeo. 1Le unconoitional
cLaracter ol tLis original agent precluoes asking alout it, no ansver can
sell-oetermine it syntLetically. 1Lis original sulject is a non-deterni-
natize-deterninable agent, vLicL sLoulo le presupposeo meta-logical-
ly as a purely sell-oetermineo agent.
97
1Le asking-ansvering mecLanism
coincioes vitL progressing reason`s sell-oetermining juoging mecLa-
nism.
Ist dies nun die Natur der beiden Bestandtleile der Frage, so bestinnt sicl
aus ilnen selbst aucl ilr Verlaltniss zu einander. Das Zubestinnend-
Bestinnbare soll nelnlicl durcl die Antuort den scllecltlin und bestinnt
Gesetzten gleicl gesetzt uerden. Dies gesclielt dennacl durcl S,ntlesis.
Mitlin zerlalt sicl in der Frage das Zubestinnend-Bestinnbare zu den
scllecltin Bestinnten uie das Bedingte zu seiner Bedingung als Un-
bedingten.
98

WLenever tLe transcenoental possilility ol a systematic instance is sell-
oetermineo, progressing reason creates an aooitional instance, tLe
transcenoental possilility ol vLicL is oeouceo vitL ensuing sell-re-
ection. 1Le same, Hlsen next claims, Lolos true lor tLe act ol asking-
ansvering. very deduced ansuer (syntLesis) lrings alout tLe logical-
Listorical grouno lor an ensuing question (tLesis/anti-tLesis).

97
See: e NTVS, 1o:-. As e ENTVSI NSVF alternatively puts it: Es ist jr
die Vernunjt, in so jern sie plilosopliert, eine notluendige Voraussetzung, dass
unser Wissen, als Wissen, irgend etuas seinen Grund labe. Hatte es keinen
Grund, d.l. uare Niclts sein Grund, so uare aucl Niclts uozon uir Etuas
ussten, und uir ussten also niclts zon Niclts, nitlin uare unser Wissen selbst
eine Negation."
98
e NTVS, 1o
Part
1o
Nacl den Wesen einer S,ntlesis ist in derselben nun die Tlesis zuar niclt
ueiter zu bestinnen, ueil nan nacl den niclt jragen kann, Wozon nan
etuas uissen uill. Aber dies ist allerdings in einer andern Frage nglicl.
]enes Wozon nan etuas uissen uill, uird in dieser alsdann das, uas nan
uissen uill, nur nuss notluendig aucl lier uieder etuas scllecltlin gesetz
se,n, Wozon nan es uissen uill. So ueit daler die Tlesis selbst eine S,ntlesis
ist, kann das scllecltlin Gesetzte inner uieder bedingt gesetzt uerden und
daraus lasst sicl einselen, dass ede nglicle Frage durcl regelnassig jort-
gesetzte Zergliederung auj dasenige zurckgebraclt uerden kann, uonacl
scllecltlerdings kein Fragen ueiter Statt ndet, sondern Wozon zielnelr
alles Fragen scllecltlin ausgelen nuss.
99

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe Alsolute can never appear unoer tLe lorm
ol an ansver-content. 1Le Alsolute is a purely sell-ioentical, an un-
conoitioneo (un-bedingte) agent, tLat is, an agent tLat cannot le ob-
ectied. 1Lat is tLe reason Hlsen concluoes tLat tLe Alsolute can
never appear in tLe logical-Listorical spLere ol syntLetically oetermineo
counter-positing, tLat is, ansvereo questions.
100

Progressing reason attains lor Hlsen tLe status ol a questioning
(jragende Icl).
101
Hlsen so oetermines tLe exact systematic location
ano explains tLe transcenoental possilility ol a vague logical-Listorical
leature ol EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie. All juoging activity is
a oeveloping asking-ansvering activity. ts regulative goal is reason`s
meoiateo sell-positing ol itsell as reason. nquiry into tLe transcenoen-
tal possilility ol a question as sucL enalles oetermination ol tLe onl,
possible dezeloping question tLat can le askeo ano ansvereo in pLilo-
sopLy: Lov a system ol knovleoge, Wissensclajtslelre, is possille. 1Le
possilility ol asking non-systematically oetermineo questions can nov
le avoioeo, incluoing EeinLolo`s oisputing questions (streit Frage) as
tLe causes lor pLilosopLical oisputes. Hlsen so takes anotLer step
tovaros tLe estallisLment ol universal sell-oetermineo consensus, cri-
tical pLilosopLy.

99
e NTVS, 1o-;
100
See: e NTVS, 1o;-8
101
See: e NTVS, 1o8
Hlsen
11
.; 1Le Crigins ol Systematic PLilosopLy
Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe nrst oiscursive syntLesis results in a LigLer
oiscursive tLesis (unincation). ualitatively, tLe sell-reecting laculty
ol juogment ooes not oevelop any lurtLer. uantitative oevelopment,
intentional expansion, is vLat tLis laculty pursues until tLe emergence
ol tLe sell-conscious juoging act ol critical pLilosopLy. 1Le mecLanism
ol juogment enalles progressing reason`s nrst s,stenatic integration ol
its intuiteo plurality ol oljects (nature). ]uoging syntLeses result in a
oeveloping alility to conceptualize nature`s plural cLaracter, vLicL
emerges unoer consciousness` oiscursive unity (Einleit des Beuusst-
se,ns).
102

Durcl jortgesetzte S,ntlesis entstand die Intelligenz, die das Melrere zu
Einen zusannenjasst, nun selbst in Beuusstse,n, und dadurcl in ganzen
Unjange der Urtleile aucl Einleit des Beuusstse,ns. Aber Einleit des Be-
uusstse,ns, als Einleit der Urtleile in Beuusstse,n, ist p~ b,
und diese also, trozt der ngliclen Sprnge und Inkonsequenz, sclon notl-
uendig ein lebendiger Versucl zur Plilosoplie als Wissensclajt zon der
Mgliclkeit alles Wissens.
103

1Lis nrst possille oiscursive syntLesis is tLe lounoation lor all sul-
sequent s,stenatic plilosopl,. acL nev syntLesis enLances progressing
reason`s alility to unily natural plurality. SyntLetic activity is
juogment`s vay to exteno its intentional scope ano instil s,stenatic
order in tLe oiscursively undeternined claos ol natural plurality. As a
sell-oetermining proceoure, tLis enalles a graoual expansion ol Luman
lreeoom ano vitL it, trutL.
104
!or tLe juoging sulject tLis striving
mecLanism is Lovever not yet a selj-auare mecLanism. 1Lis oemanos

102
See: e NTVS, 1p-:o
103
e NTVS, :1 [my lolo|
104
Hlsen`s position Las implications lor a potential skeptic opponent. As Willy
c (1p1, ,) comments, Wollte nan an der Tatsaclliclkeit eines ersten
Versucles zueijeln, so uare das ein Zueijel gegen alles Wissen, und gegen ede
Skepsis stande den Peritrope entgegen aucl die skeptiscle Belauptung uare ein
Versucl zun Wissen.
Part
1:
tLat progressing reason sell-reect on ano sell-oetermine lor itsell tLe
transcenoental possilility ol tLe rationally sell-grounoeo asking-
ansvering laculty ol juogment. Cnly tLe logical-Listorical emergence
ol sell-consciousness, critical pLilosopLy, can oetermine tLis possi-
lility. An entire ascenoing series ol sell-positeo systems ol tLougLt, tLe
entire Listory ol pLilosopLy, Hlsen concluoes, vill le necessary lor
progressing reason to reacL tLis stage.
Accoroing to Hlsen, all systematizing activity is exclusively per-
sonal, it oevelops only tLrougL inoivioual juoging or pLilosopLizing.
1Letic tLougLt enalles progressing reason`s alility to sell-reect on an
intuiteo olject ol representation, say A. evertLeless, Hlsen
claims, tLis personal sell-oetermining proceoure can potentially reler to
otLer intuiteo oljects, say B, C, L, etc. so tLat intentionally, in-
tuitional representation can vary lrom sulject to sulject. 1Le laculty ol
juogment`s logical-Listorical oevelopment presupposes tLis particular
oljective oetermination.
105
WLat lollovs is
Die Natur scluj iln [i.e., tLe rational leing| aus ilrer Flle der Versclieden-
leit, und bildete auj die Art, an ilren Tleile, das ganze Mensclengesclleclt
als ein Mannicljaltiges. So uurde daler notluendig in zersclidenen Sub-
ekten die Kette der Vorstellungen, als Urtleile durcl Freileit, aucl den-
enigen zersclieden, uas niclt Freileit uar. In einen eden also nusste die
Urtleilskrajt in ilrer intensizen Erueiterung einen eigenen Spielraun er-
lalten. In einen eden uar Einleit aus seinen Gesicltspunkte, und in einen
eden das Dase,n der Welt berlaupt nacl eigenen Gesetzen der Beexion
bestinnt.
106

All rational leings Lave tLe same transcenoental constitution. 1Le
scope ol tLeir intentional contents, tLe empirical representation ol
reason`s original leing, oillers Lovever in quantity. !or Hlsen tLis
position explains tLe possilility ol oillerent simultaneous pLilosopLical
systems, syntLetic juogment inaugurates tLe listor, oj plilosopl,.
Accoroing to Hlsen, all previous tLougLt is only a preluoe to tLis
Listory. 1Le possilility ol simultaneous systematic multiplicity opens

105
See: e NTVS, :1
106
e NTVS, ::-
Hlsen
1
an epocL ol practical expansion. Eeason is nov reaoy to strive alter
true pLilosopLical knovleoge. 1Le laculty ol juogment vill create
simultaneous, tLougL quantitatively oisparate systems. 1Le logical-
Listorical securing ol critical pLilosopLy enalles tLat tLis laculty sell-
consciously reect on itsell, uncover its universal regulative nature, ano
strive alter an exLaustive sell-sulsuming ol reason`s original leing.
Accoroing to Hlsen, partisan oisputes are a result ol tLe logical-
Listorical possilility ol systematic multiplicity. All pre-critical vere
unilaterally oetermineo stanopoints. As non-sell-conscious stages ol
tLe only true possille oeveloping pLilosopLy, eacL one ol tLese logical-
Listorical stages asserts itsell as tLe exclusive representative ol universal
trutL, ano Lence oisputes.
107
Hlsen`s claim is a oevelopment ano
Lolistic explanation ol EeinLolo`s tLesis tLat reason`s logical-Listorical
ignorance ol critical pLilosopLy oetermines tLe epocL ol partisan
controversies. A oillerence letveen Preissclrijt ano EeinLolo`s early
Elenentarplilosoplie is Hlsen`s oeouction ol pre-critical reason`s
alility to oevelop Listorically.
Hlsen`s conclusions paveo tLe vay lor re-articulating critical
pLilosopLy`s introouction in a rational Listory ol pLilosopLy. Hlsen`s
acLievement louno a pLilosopLical grouno lor !icLte`s Listorical
stanopoint. Hlsen so completes !icLte`s re-articulating ol EeinLolo`s
stanopoint. Hlsen`s Preissclrijt provioes tLe reaoer vitL tLe logical-
Listorical tool to uncover Lis true unenoing vocation. As in EeinLolo`s
early Elenentarplilosoplie, pLilosopLy`s personal securing enalles
sell-oetermineo vitLoraval lrom tLe spLere ol partisan oisputes ano
universal consensus.
.8 1Le Systematic CLaracter ol Partisan Lisputes
Hlsen sLares EeinLolo`s viev tLat pLilosopLical knovleoge is
teleologically acLievalle. Hlsen`s leliel tLat tLe Wissensclajtslelre is
science enalleo Lim to ameno ano improve EeinLolo`s position. 1Le

107
See: e NTVS, :
Part
1
emergence ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre, i.e., critical knovleoge, represents
lor Hlsen tLe general-personal qualitatize eno ol tLe rational Listory
ol pLilosopLy, tLe eno ol reason`s empirical oevelopment. Accoroing
to Hlsen, pLilosopLy enalleo progressing reason`s sell-conscious
reection on tLe unconoitionally sell-grounoeo laculty ol juogment,
exLaustive sell-oetermination ol tLe transcenoental, ano Lence tLe
qualitative possilility ol a logically-Listorically oeveloping system ol
knovleoge. 1Le Wissensclajtslelre unoerstooo spiritually implies an
unenoing striving alter a quantitatize overcoming ol tLe /ot-
contraoiction positeo ly reason`s translormation into a pure-empirical
agent. PLilosopLy`s universal qualitative insigLt enalles a personal sell-
oetermining recognition ol unenoing striving as tLe true Luman moral
vocation. Moreover, tLe Wissensclajtslelre enalles tLe rational leing
to improve Lis moral perlormances signincantly.
So zerstanden jallt nun die Besorgniss zon selbst ueg, dass uns in Gebiete
der Plilosoplie, als einer zollendeten Wissensclajt, niclts nelr zu tlun
brig bleibe. Wir laben nelnlicl bis dalin nocl niclts getlan, denn uir
uaren nocl gar niclt da. Wir erlalten also nit den Erkentniss unser selbst
erst die Aujgabe zon den, uas uir alle Euigkeit lindurcl zu tlun laben
uerden jolglicl sind uir durcl die Plilosoplie nur erst in den Stand gesetzt,
uirklicl anzujangen.
108

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe partisan cLaracter ol all pre-critical tLougLt
is oetermineo ly tLe rational leing`s qualitative inalility to recognize
Lis true moral vocation as an unenoing logical-Listorical task ol
quantitative sell-conscious striving. Hlsen lolloving EeinLolo
lurtLermore claims tLat critical insigLt enalles a universally sell-
grounoeo consensus on tLe true concept ol pLilosopLy. PLilosopLy as
science not only assures personal vitLoraval lrom tLe spLere ol
partisan oisputes, as EeinLolo tLougLt, lut also sell-oetermineo coor-
oination.
109
!or Hlsen tLe estallisLment ol pLilosopLical consensus
also requires tLat its possilility, tLe transcenoental conoition ol its

108
e NTVS, 1-,
109
See: e NTVS, :, :p-:
Hlsen
1,
Listorical attainment (Erreiclbarkeit), le sell-oetermineo.
110
AcLieving
tLis, Hlsen claims, is tantamount to lotL justilying tLe logical-
Listorical emergence ano overcoming ol tLe morally aoverse epocL ol
partisan oisputes, a critical cLallenge tLat EeinLolo`s early Elenentar-
plilosoplie oio not meet.
Hlsen lolloving EeinLolo argueo tLat tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy is
oivioeo in epocLs. Hlsen ooes not oiscuss tLe possilility ol tLis
oivision.
111
nsteao, Le relerreo to eilniz vLose original ellort to
translorm pLilosopLy into a real scientinc oiscipline lrougLt alout a
nev Listorical level ol pLilosopLical inquiry. Accoroing to Hlsen,
eilniz`s alility to lormulate an avant-garoe system ol pLilosopLy
reveals tLe oistinguisLeo oegree ol Lis practical sell-activity or expano-
ing autonomy. !or Hlsen, eilniz is a proouctive mastermino, or
in Lis EeinLoloian language, a sell-tLinker (Selbstdenker). Still, Hlsen
lurtLermore agrees vitL EeinLolo tLat tLe quest lor a systematic
expression ol pLilosopLical trutL vas a leitnotiz ol all pre-critical
tLougLt. 1aking eilniz`s system as an example ol a pre-critical system
ol pLilosopLical trutL, Hlsen ascriles to it as to all pre-critical systems
a oisputative polemical cLaracter.
112

Aber eben das tlun alle brigen Selbstdenker, und sie tlun es nur aus den
Grunde, ueil keines einzigen S,sten gltig se,n kann, uenn alle brigen
zugleicl glten, d.l. ein eder suclet sein S,sten gegen alle brigen zu
belaupten. Dadurcl entstlet nun unter allen ein notuendiger Widerstreit.
Wird daler das eine S,sten gesetzt, so sind zugleicl aucl alle brigen iln
entgegengesetzt. Aber sie sind ursprnglicl alle gesetzt insojern ein edes jr
sicl ein S,sten ist, nitlin sind alle aucl gesetzt, insojern irgend eines gesetzt
ist, das in einen geuissen Zeitraune uirklicl zorlanden ist.
113

!or Hlsen, all oisputing systems are non-universal representatives ol
tLe only true possille oeveloping pLilosopLy. Lisputing systems are
sell-positeo prooucts ol pLilosopLizing reason. n oillerent pre-critical

110
See: e NTVS,
111
See: e NTVS, 11
112
See: e NTVS, 1
113
e NTVS, 1;
Part
1
epocLs, reason proouces a given numler ol oeveloping systems. n
eilniz`s epocL, Hlsen louno a syntLetic counter-positing letveen
tLe tleticall, posited eilnizian systemtLe epocL-making system,
ano tLe anti-tleticall, posited systems ol Lis contemporary opponents.
!or Hlsen tLe syntLetically counter-positeo cLaracter ol tLese sys-
tems is an unnoticeo pLenomenon ol pre-critical (non-sell-conscious)
tLougLt. Eeason vas not perceiveo tLrougLout it as an injrastructural
lolistic agent. ts s,ntleticall, counter-positing activity vas mistakenly
unoerstooo as an opposition or contradiction among oillerent mutually
excluoing systematic positions. 1LrougLout tLis pre-moral epocL ol
Lumanity, tLe olserver can only perceive a persisting state ol pLiloso-
pLical oisputes, revealing reason`s still unsolveo Leteronomic sell-con-
traoiction. Lntil pLilosopLy lecomes Wissensclajtslelre, all rationally
sell-positeo systems, tLetic or anti-tLetic, mistakenly assert tLemselves
as tLe exclusive representatives ol pLilosopLical trutL.
114

n Hlsen`s Preissclrijt, eilniz`s system is tLe only example ol a
pre-critically sell-positeo system ol pLilosopLy.
115
onetLeless, tLe
logical-Listorical unoermining ol eilniz`s system allovs us to learn
tLe lolloving alout progressing reason`s nodus operandi in all otLer
cases. acL tLetically positeo system inaugurates a nev logical-
Listorical epocL, lor as a tLetic system, eilniz`s system estallisLeo a
LigLer syntLetic lorm ol unity, tLe olject ol vLicL vas tLe systematic
counter-positing (oispute) ol its preceoing epocL. Lntil tLe Wissen-
sclajtslelre, eacL nev tLetically positeo system is counter-positeo ly
its contemporary systematic opponents. n tLis vay, eacL system is

114
See: e NTVS, 1;
115
Hlsen mentions Spinoza, tLougL only in passing, as tLe Lero ol tLe pre-
critical Listory ol pLilosopLy. Cn tLe one Lano, Hlsen rates Spinoza`s system,
tLe Lolistic lorm ol vLicL Le sLares, as tLe papacy ol all times ano places,
vLile on tLe otLer Lano, Le criticizes it lor its oogmatic lounoation, tLat is, lor
its assertion ol an Alsolute ot- as an original grounoing principle. Hlsen`s
position is tLat Spinoza`s system is rigLt as to its lorm, lut vrong as to its con-
tent. Hlsen concluoes tLat no otLer pLilosopLical system vas simultaneously
as consistent ano inconsistent as Spinoza`s system. See: e NTVS, 18
Hlsen
1;
translormeo into tLe olject ol a LigLer syntLetic lorm ol systematic
unity.
116

Hlsen claims tLat pLilosopLical consensus must le universally valio
(Allgeneingltig). one ol tLe oisputing systems lulnls tLis oemano,
all ol tLem are one-sioeo, sulject to relutation. acL oisputing system
is a oeveloping lorerunner ol tLe only possille true pLilosopLy. Accor-
oing to Hlsen, oisputes or conict as sucL (Widerstreit berlaupt) is a
jactual or ratLer nateriall, deternining conoition ol true pLilosopLical
tLougLt. otvitLstanoing, insigLt into tLe ellorts ol sell-tLinkers
reveals tLe joint cLaracter ol tLeir pLilosopLizing activity, all strive to
translorm pLilosopLy into a rigorous scientinc oiscipline. 1Le ex-
posure ol logical-Listorical contraoiction (antinomy) is tLe key lor tLe
settlement ol partisan controversies.
117

1Le vay to reconcile contenoing parties is to legin vitL vLat tLey
Lave in common. As in EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie, tLe
point ol convergence is tLe sLareo oemano ol tLe parties tLat pLilo-
sopLy le a universal oiscipline. 1Lis common goal sLovs tLat tLeir
activity is a oint strizing actizit, oj reason alter universal sell-oe-
termineo consensus.
118
Manlreo !rank elucioates Hlsen`s position.
Widerstreit kann aber nur lerrsclen [.| , uo es Hinsicltnalne auj ein ge-
neinsanes Ziel und nit iln auj Geltung, a Allgeneingltigkeit gibt.
Denn nur uenn A und B Bestinnungen eines und
dasselben zerneinten Gegenstandes sind, prallen sie aujeinander, landelt es
sicl nur un Positionen, so laben sie niclt Krajt zur ueclsel-
seitigen Aujlebung und knnen selr gut in einen und denselben Uberzeu-
gungss,sten niteinander koexistieren. So kann Hlsen die nur auj den ersten
Blick paradoxe Konsequenz zielen, da gerade der uidersprcllicle Fort-

116
1Lis is implieo in e (1;p, 18-p) assertion tLat Die Forderung gelt
dennacl auj das endlicle und durclaus ber allen Widersreit linausliegende
Besultat der plilosoplierende Vernunjt auj ilren gegenuartigen Standpunkte,
denn das, uas uir uissen uollen [i.e., critical pLilospLy|, soll denenigen, uas
uir sclon uissen, durcl S,ntlesis gleicl gesetzt uerden."

117
See: e NTVS, :, 18-p
118
See: e NTVS, 18
Part
18
gang der Plilosoplie ein Negatizbeueis dajr ist, alle ilre Einzelpositionen
eigentlicl auj Konsens aus uaren.
119

Hlsen lolloving EeinLolo Lolos tLat tLe state ol oisputes is tLe
exclusive olject or content ol a oeveloping Listory ol pLilosopLy.
120

Cnly critical pLilosopLy opens tLe roao lor a justincation, or ratLer
sell-sulsuming explanation ol consensus, tLe resolving ol oisputes, as
progressing reason`s teleologically sell-positeo outcome. Accoroing to
Hlsen, a pLilosopLical solving ol oisputes is a necessary conoition lor
sell-oetermining tLe possilility ol consensus. Critical insigLt, Hlsen
argues, reveals tLe existence ol a rational ground leLino tLe oiss-
ociating state ol oisputes. !rom tLis perspective, all sell-excluoing
systems ol pLilosopLy emerge as antinomically oevelopeo prooucts ol
reason. 1Le epocL ol partisan oisputes constitutes an unavoioalle
cLapter ol reason`s logical Listory. 1Le rational cLaracter ol tLis Lis-
tory provioes a consensual grouno lor tLe universal unincation ol all
systems ol pLilosopLy as necessary evolving stages ol an exclusive sell-
positeo critical system. Eational ioentity, or in Hlsen`s ovn voros,
pure consensus (Einzerstandniss scllecltlin), is tLe nnal sell-oeter-
mineo outcome ol reason`s Listory. Sell-oetermination ol tLe lactually
sell-positeo state ol oisputes enalles tLe critical sulsuming ol tLe only
possille olject ol pLilosopLy`s Listory: rational contraoiction.
121

Hat die Vernunjt nun den Widerstreit aus ilr selbst als notluendig, und
daler in dieser Belexion jr sie als Einzerstandniss zu erklaren, so ist
zuisclen der Beexion des Widerstreits und den uirkliclen Widerstreit aucl
kein anderer Untersclied, als das die Vernunjt in ener, als bloss tleoretiscl,
es zllig bestinnt ueiss, dass und uie gestritten uerde in diesen aber, als
bloss praktiscl, das Obekt der Beexion nocl allererst lerzorbringt. In
uirkliclen Widerstreite ist daler die Beexion der Vernunjt ber ilr eignes
Produkt d.i. die tleoretiscle Vernunjt, oder die Tleorie selbst, als eine
Wissensclajt, nocl gar niclt nglicl. Aber eben so uenig bleibt in der
uirkliclen Beexion des Widerstreits ein Widerstreit denkbar. Es giebt also

119
c~ 1pp8, p1:
120
See: e NTVS, 1p
121
See: e NTVS, 1p-:
Hlsen
1p
aucl keinen absoluten Widerstreit, sondern nur einen relatizen, denn er lrt
auj ein Widerstreit zu se,n, so bald er erklart ist.
122

Critical knovleoge is tLe nrst lully sell-conscious logical-Listorical
knovleoge. 1Le entire Listory ol pLilosopLy, an ascenoing series ol
practically sell-positeo systems, enalles pLilosopLizing reason to reacL
tLe tLeoretical stanopoint ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre. 1Le realization
tLat all contradiction is only a tLeoretical lorm ol s,ntletic counter-
positing reveals tLe relative ano tLerelore surmountalle cLaracter ol
logical-Listorical controversies. 1Le state ol oisputes, Hlsen Lolos, is
not settleo ly negating its conoitioning contraoiction. nsteao, a sell-
conscious act ol sell-sulsuming reection enalles qualitatize rejornu-
lation as a contextual act ol syntLetic counter-positing.
123
n tLis vay,
Hlsen explaineo lotL tLe emergence ol tLe state ol oisputes ano tLe
possilility ol sell-oetermineo consensus, ano so vas alle to solve
EeinLolo`s prollem in a critical vay.
Hlsen oevelops tLe concept ol pLilosopLical consensus ly oiscussing
tLree supplementary aspects.
Hlsen lelieveo tLat Le Lao oiscovereo tLe conoitions vLicL
pLilosopLy Las to lulnl in oroer to lecome a real critical oiscipline to
vLicL no otLer pLilosopLical system can le counter-positeo. Alsolute
unity (absolute Einleit), all-inclusive universality, pertain to critical
pLilosopLy as tLe LigLest sell-sulsuming knovleoge possille. Hlsen
inlers lrom tLis tLat every pre-critical oisputing must also Lave claimeo
a universal grounoing.
124


122
e NTVS, 11-:
123
As Willy c (1p1, -) aoos, Eigentnlicl ist, uie Hlsen den Begrijj
des plilosoplisclen Widerstreits ausdelnt er uird berlaupt identiscl nit den
Endlicluerden des absoluten Icl. So uird es nglicl, das cltescle Wissen, das
die Absolutleit uiederlerstellen uill, als Beexion des Widerstreits zu bezeiclnen,
als Beuutnaclung des Zusannenlangs aller Handlungsueisen, die zon Wider-
streit des Icl und Niclticl produziert uerden.
124
See: e NTVS, 1:-. e counts EeinLolo, ScLultz, Beck, ano Mellin
among tLe most outstanoing Iantian proponents ol sucL a universally grounoeo
oiscipline. ]acoli, lerLaro, ano Maas stano out among tLe anti-Iantians. See:
e 1;p, 1
Part
1,o
Hlsen claimeo tLat tLe rational Listory ol pLilosopLy, ano pLilosopLy`s
precursor, Greek mytLology, reveal sucL an original grouno in a leing-
in-itsell (Se,n an Sicl Selbst). SucL transcenoently grounoeo positions
it oevelopeo, constitute tLat oiscipline vLicL Aristotle nameo meta-
pLysics. Lntil !icLte, all pLilosopLical progress vas oetermineo ly tLe
personal alility to ansver tLe same question: lou netapl,sics is
possible as a unizersall, grounded discipline. Accoroing to Hlsen, tLis
is tLe only question, vLicL coulo le askeo ano ansvereo in pre-critical
tLougLt. 1Le Wissensclajtslelre teacLes tLat lotL tLis question ano its
possille ansvers are sell-positeo outcomes ol reason`s asking-ans-
vering activity. ogical-Listorical ellorts, Lolistically inoiviouateo acts
ol sell-reection, vere neeoeo, Hlsen claims, to lring on tLe aovent
ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre. 1Le possilility ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre is
estallisLeo exclusively tLrougL its emerging reality in Listory.
125

MetapLysics accoroing to Hlsen is tLat teleologically oeveloping

125
Hlsen`s claim Las implications lor tLe skeptic opponents ol tLe Grundsatz
traoition, ano lor Paul ]oLann Anselm !euerlacL in particular, vLo in Lis 1;p,
Ueber die Unngliclkeit eines ersten absoluten Grundsaes der Plilosoplie
criticizeo tLe possilility ol lounoing metapLysics on an alsolute Grundsatz.
Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe Wissensclajtslelre Las sLovn tLat to prove tLis im-
possilility an act ol sell-reection is neeoeo. 1Lis act, Lovever, can only appear
as a necessary asking-ansvering ellort ol reason tovaros tLe inevitalle universal
sell-grounoing ol metapLysics. Hlsen tLerelore concluoes tLat !euerlacL`s
position is untenalle. [See: e NTVS, 1,|. Moreover, Hlsen`s claim alout
tLe unconoitionally sell-grounoeo relation ol eacL pragmatically sell-oeter-
mineo stage ol tLe logical-Listorical system ol knovleoge to its preceoing
conoition is an attempt to tackle !euerlacL`s criticism. !or one ol c~
(1pp, 18-p) claims vas tLat Die Vernunjt ist das Verngen zu begreijen, so
uie der Verstand das Verngen zu denken. Ilr Verngen bestelet also darin
sicl das Gegrndete in Zusannenlang nit seinen Grund, das Bedingte in
Zusannenlang nit seiner Bedingung zorzustellen. Krajt dieses Verngens ist
sie in Besitz der Ideen des Unbedingten, die sie als Principien alles Begreijens an
die Spitze des Bedingten set. Diese Ideen sind aber nicl constitutize Principien,
sondern lediglicl Vorausseungen der Vernunjt zu Begulierung ilres Ge-
braucls. Hlsen`s strong commitment to tLe Grundsatz traoition, as Manlreo
c~ poins out, vas a key reason lor !icLte`s recommenoation ol Preissclrijt
as an introouctory stuoy to Lis ovn Wissensclajtslelre. See: c~ 1pp8, p1
Hlsen
1,1
oiscipline, tLe expanoing possilility ol vLicL is sell-oetermineo per-
sonally ly tLe lactual ansvering ellorts ol oillerent sell-tLinkers.
126

Hierdurcl ojjenbart sicl aber bestinnt, dass der Grund des ganzen Wider-
streits aucl lediglicl in den Urtleile ber das Se,n an Sicl, oder ber das
Selbst-Se,n, liege, und das der Widerstreit daler aucl in nindesten niclt
geloben urde, uenn gleicl alle Welt sicl in den S,stene eines einzigen
Selbstdenkers [i.e., tLe Wissensclajtslelre| zereinigen uollte. Die Tlatsacle
der Uebereinstinnung entscleidet daler nocl gar niclt, sondern diese kann
selr zujallig se,n. Ist sie in S,stene gegrndet, so nuss sie nit den Fort-
gange desselben, in praktiscler Bezielung, aucl notluendig zon selbst kon-
nen. Ist sie das aber niclt, so giebt es kein Mittel ueiter, das ein redlicler
Selbstdenker zur Verbereitung seines S,stens sicl erlauben drjte, als das
Selbstdenken.
127

SyntLetic juogment enalles all systematic pLilosopLy. Still, accoroing to
Hlsen, critical insigLt reveals tLat in pre-critical tLougLt, progressing
reason vas neitLer avare ol tLe selj-reectize cLaracter ol syntLetic
juogment, nor ol its universally sell-grounoeo nature. Progressing
reason vas tLerelore incapalle ol sell-reecting on tLe alsolute loun-
oational grouno ol knovleoge, pure reason. n no vay can reason appear
to itsell as sell-oetermineo content. All juogments appear to tLe pre-
critical olserver as mistaken transitize juogments, provoking a logical-
Listorical state ol oisputes in vLicL oillerent systematic positions
emerge as unazoidable errors oj udgnent.
128


126
See: e NTVS, 1-.
127
e NTVS, 1;
128
See: e NTVS, J. As e (1;p, 1,;) aoos tLe critical estallisLment
ol metapLysics, konnte nur durcl Unkelrung der Prinzipien gesclelen. Bisler
setzte nan das An sicl selbst se,n in die obektize Welt und zernicltete also das
Icl. Die Wissensclajtslelre zeigt dagegen, dass alles auser den Icl gesetzte, aucl
notluendig Niclt-Icl, und als absolut also genonnen, scllecltlin Niclts se,.
Dieses Niclts ist den Icl in so jern daler entgegen gesetzt, als das Icl absolutes
Selbstse,n ist. Giebt es nun ursprnglicl keine andere Bealitat, als die Bealitat
des Icl, und ist alles brige scllecltlin Niclts, so uird aus diesen Niclts aucl
nie etuas uerden knnen, olne das es seine Bealitat zon absoluten Icl erlalte,
und als Etuas daler durcl Icl, jr das Icl und = den Icl se,. So uie nan diese
Part
1,:
Hlsen`s improveo Wissensclajtslelre sLovs tLat all non-universally
oetermineo stanopoints engage in oisputes lecause universal consensus
is tLeir necessary logical-Listorical goal.
129

Dennacl giebt es einen Widerstreit, ueil es jr die praktiscle Vernunjt ein
Ziel giebt, und es soll zugleicl un dieses Zieles uillen, aucl eben so notl-
uendig aller Widerstreit niclt se,n d.l. das Ziel soll, eben ueil es jr uns ein
Ziel ist, aucl durcl uns erreiclt uerden.
130

Willy !litner sums up Hlsen`s insigLt into tLe possilility ol settling
partisan oisputes ano reacLing pLilosopLical consensus:
Darin liegt eine Ansiclt zon den Wesen der Vernunjt eingescllossen, die jr
die Gesclicltsplilosoplie entscleidend uird die Vernunjt nu, un zu sicl
selber zu konnen, sicl spalten und durcl den Widersprucl lindurclgelen.
[.| Die Vernunjt lat also eine Gescliclte. Sie gelt zon ilrer ursprngliclen,
beuutlosen Einleit zueckzoll ber die Stuje des Widerstreits bis zu der
lleren dritten Stuje, uo der Widerstreit eingeselen uird, und die Vernunjt
uieder Einleit ist, nun aber in zollkonnener Weise. [.| Der Irrtunder
nit den tleoretisclen Widerstreit zugleicl gegeben ist lat also darin
seinen Sinn, da er sicl selbst zerniclten und Walrleit durcldringen uill.
Eine Folgerung jlrt zu der ueiteren Stuje, den Irrtun zun Zustande-
konnen der Wissensclajt jr notuendig zu erklaren. Danit erst uird die
Tleodicee zollendet. Sie ist aus der cltesclen Lelre zon Beuutsein
lerausgelolt Danit die llere Beexion die Einleit der Selbsterkenntnis
lerbeijlren kann, nu sicl das Icl durcl ein Niclticl einsclranken und
spalten lassen. Die Teilung in Icl, der Widerstreit des Niclticls lat dennacl

Idee rein und ricltig aujjasst, nuss sicl notluendig aus unsern Urtleilen aucl
der ~ Gesicltpunkt zerlielren. [my lolo|
129
See: e NTVS, :-. As Lieter h~ (1p;;, 1p-) points out, Die
Forderung nacl seiner Uberuindung [i.e., ol tLe state ol oisputes| sttzt Hlsen
nit einer ueiteren Uberlegung. Wenn Widerstreit gedaclt uerden kann, so nu
notuendig aucl sein Gegenteil gedaclt uerden knnen, nanlicl Ubereinstin-
nung, Harnonie. Logiscl Notuendiges aber besitzt jr iln die Garantie der Ver-
uirkliclung, aucl deslalb ist der Weg zur Harnonie unabanderlicl zorgezeicl-
net."
130
e NTVS,
Hlsen
1,
die Funktion, die llere Einleit zu stijten, durcl uelcle das Icl erst ein
zolles (selbstbeuutes) Icl uird.
131

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe insigLt tLat all lorms ol juogment are sell-
reective ano not transitive lorms paves tLe vay lor an unenoing
quantitative realization ol rational sell-ioentity: a conoition requireo to
inaugurate an unpreceoenteo epocL ol LigLest gooo. Hlsen`s initial
assertion tLat tLe rational leing`s apparent rejection ol Lis moral
vocation is only really an unconscious striving lor it is so critically
justineo. Hlsen reinlorceo EeinLolo`s position tLat tLe eno ol tLe
Listory ol pLilosopLy enalles a lull oisplay ol reason`s practical poten-
tiality in tle establislnent oj a neu noral order. Hlsen oescriles tLis
nev reoeeming epocL as die Epoke der Ideen als euig gltigen
Gesetzen jr alles, uas e durcl Vernunjt uirklicl uerden nag.
132

Es gibt nur Ein Ziel, und es ist eine so notluendige als erlabene Idee, dass es
in den grossen Gebiete der Wissensclajten docl nur Wissensclatj berlaupt
und ilre Gescliclte geben soll. ]ene zeigt uns den Mensclen in seiner
errungenen Freileit, ualrend die letztere iln in Kanpje nit sicl selber
aujstellt. Beide sind uns aujgegeben in der Idee der Freileit und des
unendliclen Strebens, und diese Idee nur ist es, zu der uir uns auj den Wege
unsers enpirisclen Fortsclreitens irgend einnal erleben.
133

Accoroing to Hlsen, Lis oeouction ol pLilosopLical consensus maoe
all past ellorts to solve partisan oisputes, incluoing EeinLolo`s ellort,
olsolete.
Keines der bislerigen S,stene lat dasselbe [i.e., tLe prollem ol oisputes|
sclon lsen knnen, ueil sicl nocl keines durcl die Frage uie ein Widerstreit
selbst nglicl se,: ber allen Widerstreit linauslob. Kant legte zuar diese
Beexion seinen Kritiken zun Grunde, aber so uenig bestinnt docl, dass er
ilr aucl keinesueges getreu geblieben ist. Nocl ueniger Beinlold. Dieser
belauptet zielnelr ausdrcklicl dass die gesannten bislerigen S,stene der
Plilosoplie lalb ualr und lalb jalscl uaren, d.l. ualr in so jern sie nit
seiner Tleorie bereinstinnen, und jalscl in so jern sie derselben ent-

131
c 1p1, ,
132
e NTVS, :
133
e NTVS, 1
Part
1,
gegen stelen. Folglicl belauptet er es nur durcl einen Widerstreit, und die
Tleorie des Vorstellungszerngens lst daler so uenig das Problen zon der
Mgliclkeit eines Einzerstandnisses in der Plilosoplie, das sie, .] docl nur
nit in den Unjang des Widerstreits gelrt, und lier also selbst nocl erst
erklart uerden nuss.
134

Accoroing to Hlsen, EeinLolo vas unalle to explain tLe epocL ol
partisan oisputes ano tLeir critical resolution as a necessary event ol
reason`s logical Listory. mplicit is tLe claim tLat EeinLolo vas unalle
to eitLer oetermine tLe material conoition requireo to estallisL tLe
possilility ol consensus, or justily tLe teleological overcoming ol
oisputes.
.p 1Le Concept ol tLe History ol PLilosopLy
n keeping vitL tLe spirit ol EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie,
Hlsen argueo tLat all pre-critical systems ol pLilosopLy until tLe
Wissensclajtslelre are progressing reason`s sell-positeo lacts (Tlat-
sacle). 1Lese lacts put togetLer constitute a single logically-Listorically
sell-positeo lact ol reason. Eeason`s mutually excluoing prooucts are
logical-Listorical stages ol a single reconciling concept ol pLilosopLy.
Lntil tLe Wissensclajtslelre, pLilosopLy`s sell-sulsuming activity vas
unnoticeo. 1Lis activity alone enalles tLe universal syntLetic inte-
gration ol all apparently atomic lacts ol reason (systems). Lniversal
unincation opens tLe roao lor an innovative s,stenatic articulation ol
tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy as an inLerent cLapter ol reason`s logical
Listory.
135
1Le Listory ol pLilosopLy emerges nov as
Die getrojjene Darstellung des gesannten Fortsclreitens der plilosplieren-
den Vernunjt zur Plilosoplie als Wissensclajt, oder die Wissensclajt zon der
uerdenden Wissensclajt.
136


134
e NTVS, 11
135
See: e NTVS, :, :-
136
e NTVS, :
Hlsen
1,,
1Le rational Listory ol pLilosopLy reveals tLe teleological oevelopment
ol progressing or pLilosopLizing reason. Hlsen`s oennition seems to
tally in part vitL EeinLolo`s, lor vLom reason`s Listory reveals tLe
systematic mooel ol tLe logical-Listorical cLanges tLat tLe tLeory ol
representation unoervent lrom pre-critical times until its exLaustive
articulation.
137
Still, tLe crucial oillerence letveen EeinLolo`s early
Elenentarplilosoplie ano Hlsen`s Preissclrijt is tLat in EeinLolo`s
system a oeouction ol pLilosopLical Listoricity vas alsent. EeinLolo
coulo neitLer explain tLe logical-Listorical emergence ol partisan ois-
putes, tLe exclusive content ol tLe rational Listory ol pLilosopLy, nor
explain tLe integrative possilility ol systematic articulation, Listory`s
universal sell-oetermining jorn. Accoroing to Hlsen, EeinLolo coulo
not explain tLe possilility ol true pLilosopLical consensus.
Hlsen lolloving EeinLolo argueo tLat articulation vas possille
only alter tLe emergence ol critical pLilosopLy. Hlsen agrees vitL
EeinLolo tLat lack ol critical insigLt prevents pLilosopLizing reason
lrom recognizing its ovn teleological oirection. o systematic oroer
among pLilosopLizing reason`s unilateral, ano apparently atomic
systems, can le estallisLeo prior to critical pLilosopLy. 1Le attainment
ol an aoequate ioea ol reason`s Listorical contextual conoition is also
impossille.
Zuar lat nan sicl nirgends so sicler geglaubt, als in Gebiete der Gescliclte,
sobald nur die Tlatsaclen Tlatsaclen uaren. Aber nan alndete niclt, das
die Walrleit der Bezielung, uorauj docl alles eigentlicl ankonnt, gar
niclts in Tlatsaclen liege, sondern Urtleilskrajt ejrordere, und das eben
diese jr irgend eine Intelligenz, und also bis zun Zeitpunkt der Wissensclajt
nocl selbst nur ein listoriscler Gegenstand uar.
138

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy ougLt to le unoer-
stooo as a pLilosopLically sell-grounoeo oiscipline. As systematiseo or
syntLesizeo outcomes ol tLe same universal logical-Listorical agent, all

137
[.| der dargestellte Inbegrij der Veranderungen, uelcle die Wissensclajt des
notluendigen Zusannenlanges der Dinge zon ilrer Enstelung bis auj unsre
Zeiten erjalren lat." o NTVN, :1
138
e NTVS, :
Part
1,
pre-critically sell-positeo systems gain an inLerent coLesion (Zusan-
nenlang). As outcomes ol tLe same unconoitionally sell-grounoeo
agent, tLey Lave a sceptically immune certainty (Geuissleit).
139
Hl-
sen`s locus on pre-critical systems as stages ol an exclusive logically-
Listorically secureo pLilosopLy enalles an expansion ol !icLte`s
genetic criteria ol articulation, innovative application ol Lis oeouctive
metLoo ol pragmatic Listoricity.
Es liegt in die Natur der Sacle, dass eine solcle Gescliclte, als Gescliclte des
Fortsclreitens zur Wissensclajt oder zur Freileit der Vernunjt, pragnatiscl
se,. [.| Begreijt nun die Beexion in ilren Besultate die gesannten
Handlungen des nensclliclen Geistes, durcl uelcle das Icl zur Intelligenz
[i.e., sell-counscious (in context)| uird, jolglicl die Handlungen, durcl
uelcle berlaupt ein Wissen Wirklicl uird, so ist aucl das Besultat, uelcles
notluendig ene Handlungen als gesclelend oder pragnatiscl, nitlin in
ilrer Folge oder s,stenatiscl begreijt, eine Wissensclajt zon der Mgliclkeit
alles Wissens berlaupt, und also niclts anders als eine Wissensclajtslelre.
140

Critical insigLt, Hlsen Lolos, makes s,stenatic articulation ol tLe
Listory ol pLilosopLy as an accurate netlodical reproouction ol pLilo-
sopLizing reason`s true logical-Listorical sell-positing course possille.
n Hlsen`s Preissclrijt, deductize netlod and s,sten oj knouledge
are intinatel, jused.
PLilosopLizing reason`s sell-grounoeo genesis is tLe systematic loun-
oation ol Hlsen`s pLilosopLical approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy.
Hlsen`s stanopoint completes ano corrects EeinLolo`s approacL to tLe
Listory ol pLilosopLy.

139
See: e NTVS, :. n Lis 1;p, Uebersiclt des Vorzgliclsten, uas jr die
Gescliclte der Plilosoplie seit 1,8o geleistet uorden, an essay tLat Hlsen
prolally knev, tLe Iantian pLilosopLer ol tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy WilLelm
Gottliel 1ennemann oemanoeo a similar systematic coLesion ol all apparently
atomic lacts ol reason (systems). Accoroing to 1ennemann, pLilosopLical re-
ection sLoulo uncover a rational contextual lrame, tLe grasping ol vLicL
cannot le immeoiately perceiveo in tLe alorementioneo lacts. See: q~
NTVR, :8
140
e NTVS, :;, 1-
Hlsen
1,;
Die zieljaltigen Versucle, uelcle biz etzt ber die Gescliclte der Pliloso-
plie zorlanden sind, nssen zergessen uerden. [.| Es gab nocl keine
Plilosoplie als Wissensclajt, nocl kein geendetes Fortsclreiten der Vernunjt
zu ilr selbst. Wie zu diesen Ziele der Gang sicl nocl uinden nclte, uar
daler notluendig unbekannt, und auj diesen Wege also niclts zu anti-
cipieren. Zuar latte nan nit eden Augenblik eine zerossne Zeit, und also
aucl die dalin gelrigen Fortsclritte zur Wissensclajt. Aber gerade aucl
darun jellte nocl die Intelligenz diese Fortsclritte als gerade diese zu
reektieren, und die nonente der Zeit als in aller Zeit des Fortsclreitens
genau zu bestinnen. Eine uissensclajtlicle Untersuclung, die niclt aus den
Ganzen in die Tleile gelt, uiderspriclt sicl selbst, denn sie lat kein Obekt
als Ein Obekt. So uar es nit der Gescliclte der Plilosoplie. Nocl rang die
Vernunjt nur nacl ilrer Idee, und uas lier daler gesclelen ist, nuss zllig
zergessen uerden.
141

EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie is not sulnciently consistent ano
complete to estallisL ano grouno a pragmatic or genetic account lor a
rational Listory ol pLilosopLy. EeinLolo`s system ooes not allov tLe
logical-Listorical stages (unilateral systems) tLat constitute tLe olject ol
pLilosopLy`s Listory to attain a sell-grounoeo certainty ano inLerent
systematic coLesion. !or Hlsen, in a rational Listory ol pLilosopLy,
eacL oeveloping stage is a necessary result ol a monistically sell-grouno-
eo stanopoint. n Preissclrijt, eacL stage (part) ol pLilosopLy appears as
an inLerent sell-limiteo particularization ol an ontic-epistemic Lolistic
agent: pure reason (tLe vLole). A sell-limiting movement lrom tLe
vLole to its oeveloping parts assures tLat tLe systematizeo olject ol
pLilosopLy`s Listory, reason`s mutually-excluoing systems, appears as
a sell-sulsumeo or reconcileo olject (Ein Obekt in Hlsen`s language).
n EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie, reason is exclusively an epis-
temic agent. 1Le grouno ol ontology is a transcenoent presupposition.
EeinLolo`s agent is not an all-emlracing agent. EeinLolo`s system lacks
a logical-Listorical agent vitL a truly universal grouno. Cnly a monistic-
Lolistic approacL, can supply tLe universal grouno lor tLe rational sell-
limiting movement. eitLer EeinLolo, nor any otLer Iantian tLinker,
can acLieve a critical approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy.

141
e NTVS, :;-8
Part
1,8
Accoroing to Hlsen, retrospectize insiglt enalles articulation ol pLilo-
sopLy`s Listory as an accurate reproouction ol pLilosopLizing reason`s
proouctive course. Hlsen, lor vLom pLilosopLizing reason is a Lolis-
tically inoiviouateo agent, augments EeinLolo`s Ueber den Begrij der
Gescliclte der Plilosoplie ly oiscussing tLe metLooical guioelines oe-
manoeo lor articulation. 1Lis requires lor Hlsen critical knovleoge,
ly oennition, a personal outcome.
Alle Gescliclte berlaupt stelet notluendig in genausten Verlaltnisse nit
den Mensclen. Wie der Menscl, so seine Gescliclte. Ist er nocl in Werden,
nocl in Fortsclreiten zu sicl selber, so giebt es aucl jr iln nocl keine
Gescliclte, als ualre Gescliclte, sondern nur eine Intelligenz auser iln
knnte sie setzen.
142

Hlsen lolloving !icLte argues tLat tLe attainment ol critical knovl-
eoge oemanos a personal selj-reecting act ol sell-knovleoge (Selbst-
erkenntniss).
143
PLilosopLy is a particularizeo expression ol tLe living
spirit (lebendige Geist). n it, reason appears as a oiscursively sell-
relating agent. Cnly sucL an act assures tLat PLilosopLy`s content,
one`s ovn personal representation ol reason, emerge as a real content:
lor Hlsen an inoispensalle requirement ol all tLeoretical knovleoge.
Sie [i.e., tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy| soll Wissensclajt se,n, jolglicl innern
Zusannenlang und Geuissleit laben. Mitlin nuss sie aus den Geiste des
Mensclen lebendig lerzorgelen. Nienand noge sicl also an die Darstellung
dieser Gescliclte uagen und uenn er aucl zon Gelelrsankeit in Bucl-
staben strotzte der niclt zor allen in Spiegel der Selbsterkenntniss die
ganze Vergangenleit zurckrujen kann, der in sicl selbst also niclt die ersten
Keine des Dase,ns bis zur gereijten Fruclt der Freileit, bis zun Selbst-
Erkennen, zu nden ueiss.
144

!olloving EeinLolo, Hlsen concluoes tLat tLe articulation ol pLilo-
sopLy`s Listory is a personal retrospectize task to le pursueo exclusive-
ly ly scientincally cultivateo inoiviouals. Cnly critical insigLt
enalles appreLension ol tLe true ioea ol pLilosopLy`s Listory. o sell-

142
e NTVS, :-
143
See: e NTVS, :8
144
e NTVS, :-;
Hlsen
1,p
oetermination is possille prior to tLe personal estallisLment ol a sell-
sulsuming oroer among tLe oisputing outcomes ol pLilosopLizing
reason. Sell-oetermination oemanos personal retrospective unoerstano-
ing ol tLe logical-Listorical relation ol pLilosopLy to all its evolutionary
stages. eitLer autonomy, nor vitLoraval lrom tLe suloroinating
spLere ol partisan oisputes, is possille prior to tLe personal articulation
ol tLe concluoing cLapter ol tLe system ol knovleoge.
145
1Lis
!icLtean insigLt enalles Hlsen`s relormulation ol anotLer aspect ol
EeinLolo`s approacL to tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy.
.1o 1Le General-Personal PLilosopLizing 1ask ol tLe Sell-1Linker
Hlsen`s oeouction ol pLilosopLizing reason as a general-personal
agent enalles tLe lusion ol tvo unsystematically integrateo stems ol
EeinLolo`s system: reason`s pLilosopLical Listory ano tLe personal
pLilosopLizing lalour ol tLe sell-tLinker (Selbstdenker). !icLte implieo
tLis integration in Ueber die Bestinnung des Gelelrten vitLout
making it explicit. !icLte`s position vas tLat tLe logical-Listorical
process tLat leaos to tLe Wissensclajtslelre is a general process, tLe
arcLitects ol vLicL are pLilosopLers or scLolars. Hlsen`s implicit
criticism is tLat EeinLolo oio not oeouce tLe logical possilility ol
Listorical agents, EeinLolo`s stanopoint tLerelore contains unjustineo
premises. Hlsen`s oeouction vill estallisL an innovative connection
letveen tLe tLeoretical ano tLe practical oivisions ol !icLte`s early
ioealism. Hlsen vill supply a solution to a prollem raiseo vaguely ly
!icLte`s improveo Elenentarplilosoplie.

145
See: e NTVS, . Hans e (1p:, :,) stresses tLe intimate cLaracter ol
articulation: Der Plilosoplielistoriker soll niclt nur die jrenden Meinungen
auerlicl rejerieren, sondern er soll sicl der innersten Tendenzen der Plilo-
sopliegescliclte zerstelend benacltigen. Sentinental, einjllend ist das neue
Verlaltnis zur Gescliclte, niclt nelr ausscllielicl netlodologiscl, uissen-
sclajtstleoretiscl orientiert. Aus der lclsten Krajt der Gegenuart soll die
Vergangenleit gedeutet uerden. Die lebendige Erjalrung der eigenen Seelen-
gescliclte soll die Vergangenleit lebendig naclen.
Part
1o
Hlsen legins ly commenting on tLe prize-question ol tLe Berlin
Acaoemy. 1Le purpose ol tLe acaoemic autLorities is to oltain an
exLaustive ansver alout tLe progress ol metapLysics since eilniz ano
Woll, ano so eno tLe controversies arouno Iant`s Kritik. Hlsen`s
position is tLat most scLolars unoerstooo Iant`s masterpiece oog-
matically, lor tLey locuseo on its letter. Accoroing to Hlsen,
ignorance ol tLe spirit ol critical pLilosopLy is a major contem-
porary cause leLino reason`s still persisting sell-contraoiction, leLino
Lumanity`s morally imperlect situation.
146
Critical analysis ol tLe
prize-question reveals tLat an acaoemic task cannot oeal aoequately
vitL tLe personal concept ol practical progression. Giving a scientic
or pragnatic ansver to tLe acaoemic question requires tLat tLis ansver
emerge spontaneously in personal asking-ansvering striving. Hlsen`s
ironical conclusion is tLat tLe question askeo ly tLe Berlin Acaoemy ol
Sciences, an institution tLat intenoeo to supervise olncially pLilo-
sopLical progress, vas not only a senseless, lut also an unscientic
question.
147
Hlsen stresses empLatically tLe Larmlul consequences,
vLicL a vinning nomination voulo Lave lor tLe practical purposes ol
rational leings tLat strive alter critical sell-oetermination.
Aber so unscluldig die Preisjrage der Akadenie an sicl ist, und so zutraglicl
es sogar jr ziele se,n knnte, sicl auj eine genaue Beantuortung derselben

146
e (NTVS, 18-) locuses on Iant`s vork lrom a !icLtean perspective: Icl
sprecle niclt zon der Kritik in den uas sie uirklicl ist, sondern uas sie se,n
urde, uenn nan zon ilren Geiste abstralieren und den blossen Buclstaben
ergreijen uollte. [.| den Buclstaben zon ilr absondern und ilren Geist darstel-
len, das ist das Gesclajt einer Wissensclajtslelre, und zur zollkonnen Einsiclt
in die Kritik durclaus erjorderlicl.
147
See: e NTVS, ;-1, , ,. As Iarl l~ (1p1o, :) comments,
Hlsen`s position LigLligLts once again tLe spirit ol !icLte`s ioealism: Diese,
bei aller Elrliclkeit und Ernstlajtigkeit so seltsan dialektiscle Polenik, die
dazon ausgelt, da diesselbe Frage, zon auen gegeben, olne Sinn, zon uns
selbst gestellt aber sinzoll sei, setzt die Annalne des plilosoplisclen Idealisnus
Ficltes zoraus, der lelrt, alles in Icl aujzusuclen, und den die Welt eine die
jreie Tatigkeit besclrankende Maclt ist. Hlsen zeigt, uie sicl diese allgeneine
plilosopliscle Lelre auj besondere Falle, bei der Untersuclung ber das Wesen
einer Frage, konsequent anuenden lat.
Hlsen
11
einzulassen so nacltleilig urde es zugleicl aucl uieder se,n, uenn die
Akadenie irgend eine an sie ergangene Antuort nit ilren Beijalle krnen
uollte. Dadurcl urde das Beste der Wissensclajten niclt nur niclt ge-
jrdert, sondern notluendig gelindert uerden, denn es liesse niclts anders
als den Buclstaben leiligen, den der selbstdenkende Gelelrte docl als den
Geualttlater des Geistes zerstlren soll. .] Ein solcles Urtleil aber ist ein
Macltsprucl der Autoritat, der den nacl Freileit strebenden Geiste in seine
Fesseln zurcksclrekt, und der Fortgang der Wissensclajten dadurcl
notluendig aujlalt.
148

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe intention ol tLe Acaoemy vas lotL un-
scientic ano innoral. Critical pLilosopLy teacLes tLat sell-oetermi-
nation requires a personal spontaneous act ol sell-knovleoge. !or
Hlsen an acaoemic contest olstructs personal lreeoom, it prevents
rational leings tLat strive lor sell-oetermination to reacL tLe stano-
point ol pLilosopLical consensus. Hlsen Lence concluoes tLat tLe
Berlin Acaoemy paraooxically reinlorces tLe partisan controversies
tLat it ostensilly vas trying to settle.
149

Hlsen uses tLese conclusions to oiscuss in oetail tLe connection ol
pLilosopLy`s rational Listory ano tLe personal pLilosopLizing lalour
ol tLe sell-oetermineo scLolar (Gelelrte) or sell-tLinker.
150




148
e NTVS, ,-
149
See: e NTVS, ;. !rieoricL g reproouces tLe Berlin Acaoemy`s reaction
to Hlsen`s essay: Eine Ablandlung eines geuissen Hlsen, uelcle benerkte,
so Etuas uie das, uas die Herren Fragesteller Metlapl,sic' nannten, existiere
eigentlicl seit 1,81 [i.e., tLe year Iant`s Kritik appeareo in print| niclt nelr,
lielt nan nur jr einen Sclerz. [Citeo in: h~ 1p;;, 18|. n opposition to
tLat, Iarl o~ (1p8;, ,) comments: Die grndliclste und geistzoll-
ste, in unablangigten Geist gesclriebene, ungekrnte Beantuortung der Auj-
gabe der Akadenie gab August Luduig Hlsen. [.| Er representiert darin den
d t~, uie sie sicl nocl jr eine bloe c
h lielt. [my lolo|
150
Willy c (1p1, :p) stresses Hlsen`s innovation on tLis point: Hier
konnt die andere Wurzel der deutsclen Gesclicltsplilosoplie leraus, entlalten
in einen neuen Begrijj des Mensclen. Hlsen ist nun der erste, der in einer selb-
standigen Untersuclung die beiden Strnungen zereinigt.
Part
1:
Hlsen`s purpose vas to enligLten tLe scLolar`s true vocation ano
oetermine vLicL type ol knovleoge is requireo to enalle a moral
improvement ol tLe Luman species. As Hlsen learneo lrom !icLte,
recognition ol tLe scLolar`s vocation oemanos a preliminary inquiry
into tLe vocation ol man. !or Hlsen tLe acLievement ol Luman vo-
cation cannot le oissociateo lrom tLe logically-Listorically oeveloping
concept ol pLilosopLy. CtLervise, pLilosopLy`s emerging content, a
personalizeo oynamic representation ol reason, is a meaningless alst-
raction. 1rue pLilosopLical knovleoge is tLe concrete proouct ol
spontaneous sell-activity (Selbsttlatigkeit)
151
or lree expanoing spirit, it
is grounoeo necessaril, on personal practical striving.
152
n Hlsen`s
Preissclrijt, !icLte`s position tLat true pLilosopLy is etLical antLro-
pology, a lounoation ol knovleoge accoroing to tLe metapLysical ioea
ol our practical vocation is augmenteo Listorically.
153

Hlsen learneo lrom !icLte`s Ueber die Bestinnung des Gelelrten
tLat tLe scLolar`s (Gelelrter) vocation coincioes vitL tLe rational leing`s
vocation. Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe task ol tLe scLolar, a pLilosopLy
expert, consists in ongoing practical sell-oetermination. 1Le scLolar
sLoulo sell-reect or tLink on Lis ovn pure sell. He sLoulo grasp tLe
practical cLaracter ol Lis ovn proouctive tLougLt ano renoer it
intelligille to Limsell. Leveloping !icLte`s tLougLt Hlsen maintaineo
tLat tLe true vocation ol tLe scLolar is selj-tlinking (Selbstdenken),
154

ano elucioateo tLe intimate relation ol tLe critical concepts Luman
leing ano sell-tLinking scLolar:
Der Gelelrte als blosser Gelelrte, d.i. als Selbstdenker, ist nocl keinesuegs
der Menscl. Das Gelelrtse,n gelrt zielnelr nur zu den Bestinnungen des
Mensclen, und soll also, uo es ist, in Mensclen se,n, d.l. der Gelelrte soll
kein Gelelrter, sondern er soll ein Menscl se,n. Nacl den praktisclen
Begrijje zon Mensclen is es so notluendig. Der Menscl soll Er Selbst, er soll
ein Ganzes se,n. In diesen liegt aucl das Gelelrtse,n. Es ist also geuiss soll

151
1Lis concept ougLt to le interpreteo as (1) a spontaneously sell-proouceo acti-
vity, ano as (:) an activity ol tLe sell or reason.
152
See: e NTVS, 8
153
See: _~~ 1p;, 1o; [Hlsen not mentioneo|.
154
See: e NTVS, p, ,1-:
Hlsen
1
es Mensclen geben, so darj keine Gelelrte geben, sondern dieser Nane nuss
zor den des Mensclen zerscluinden. Aber es ist aucl geuiss, dass der
Menscl, un den praktisclen Begrijje zon iln entspreclen zu knnen, seine
Bestinnung uissen nuss. In so jern ist es ualr, dass uenn der Menscl ein
Menscl se,n soll, er zor allen die Anlage zun Wissen in sicl entuikkeln, und
der Gelelrte oder Selbstdenker also der ualre Menscl se,n soll. Dann aber
nssen die Gelelrten aucl nur allein nacl den Pradikate zernnjtig
traclten, und zor den Mensclen in ilnen sicl sclanen, nocl etuas anders
als das se,n zu uollen.
155

Practical sell-oetermination compels tLe scLolar or tLe sell-tLinker to
keep Lis ovn jorun internus, pLilosopLizing is a personalizeo sell-
reecting activity. As an exclusive sell-conscious tLinker ol Lis ovn
sell, tLe sell-tLinker unoerstanos Limsell as tLe arcLitect ol Lis ovn
practical proouction. 1Lis means tLat tLe sell-tLinker is an inoepenoent
tLinker. Cnly personal unoerstanoing assures attainment ol tLe status
ol a true sell-tLinker. Sell-conscious insigLt is tLe sell-tLinker`s vay to
realize tLat only Lis pLilosopLizing activity, a Lolistically inoiviouateo
manilestation ol reason, provioes pLilosopLy vitL systematic unity. So
Hlsen concluoes, pLilosopLical tLougLt appears to tLe sell-tLinker as
Lis ovn intimate spiritual proouct.
156

!icLte`s inuence on Hlsen on tLis point is unamliguous. n Ueber
den Untersclied !icLte`s position vas tLat pLilosopLical knovleoge is
grounoeo exclusively on spiritual activity, no epistemic outcome can le
oivorceo lrom tLe personal activity tLat lrings it alout. Accoroing to
!icLte, no printeo text can convey tLis activity. Hlsen vas a raoical
supporter ol !icLte`s spiritualism. Hlsen`s conviction alout tLe prac-
tical primacy ol spirit explains Lis sLort pLilosopLical career. n
Preissclrijt ano in Lis sulsequent sLort vritings, Hlsen stresses tLe
oogmatic risk ol mistaking pLilosopLical knovleoge (spirit) vitL
printeo pLilosopLy (letter).
Das uas nan uns in Bclern aujjstellt ist nie Plilosoplie, und nie Wissensclajt,
sondern nur eines zon den zielen Mitteln, uelcle die Freileit zersuclt, un

155
e NTVS, p-,o
156
See: e NTVS, ,o-1
Part
1
den lebendigen Mensclen zu eruekken und sicl selbst sicltbar zu naclen. [.|
Mitlin ist dasenige, uas uns Ficlte darstellt, aucl niclt die Wissensclajtslelre,
ilren Geiste nacl, sondern nur das Instrunent jr jreie und zernnjtige
Wesen, dieselbe jreie Beexion aucl ber sicl zorzunelnen, und dadurcl
erst den Geist in die gegebene Darstellung linein zu legen.
157

!or Hlsen, lolloving !icLte, tLe printeo text ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre
vas only a lormal or alstract tool. Cnly its personal use, a spon-
taneous sell-reective entrance into a series ol genetically portrayeo
stages, leaos to sell-oetermining knovleoge. Personal insigLt into one`s
ovn lecoming spiritual nature, Hlsen Lolos, lrees our striving spirit
ano enalles moral improvement. PLilosopLy is exclusively tLe spiritual
outcome ol personal sell-reecting activity. Hlsen concluoes tLat
pLilosopLy exists only tLrougL, lor, ano ly concrete rational leings.
158

[.| ist die Plilosoplie nur durcl einen eden jr einen eden Wissensclajt,
und also nur in den lebendigen Geiste einen eden, so ist aucl zollkonnen
klar, uas uir unter ilr uns zu denken laben, und uas der Verj. des Wissen-
sclajtslelre aucl bestinnt genug ausgedrckt lat. Sie ist nelnlicl, die Pli-
losoplie, sclleclterdings niclts ueiter als die Beexion eines zernnjtigen
Wesens ber sicl selber d.i. die bestinnte und zollstandige Erklarung seines
eignen Dase,ns. Diese Beexion kann und darj in niclts ueiter ilren Grund
laben, in so jern daler ilre Mgliclkeit durcl die Wirkliclkeit gegeben, und
sie jolglicl absolut ist, ist sie aucl der jreie und zernnjtige Menscl selber,
der in dieser seiner Freileit und Vernnjtigkeit sicl ueiss.
159

Cnly as a spiritually sell-grounoeo oiscipline, can pLilosopLical knov-
leoge attain an alsolute ano Lence skeptically immune cLaracter.
1Lus, Hlsen coulo take later as Lis pLilosopLical motto tLe pLrase
neine Plilosoplie ist kein Bucl.
160


157
e NTVS, 1, 11
158
See: e NTVS, 1,p-1
159
e NTVS, 1
160
e NTVS, . e (NTVS, :1o) aooitionally argueo tLat auj Bcler
nicl berujen uird nur das Ende neiner Plilosplie se,n. Wer niclt so denkt, der
denkt anders zon der Walrleit, und er denkt, nacl neiner Ueberzeugung, selbst
nocl gar niclt.
Hlsen
1,
Accoroing to Hlsen, critical insigLt is tLe sell-tLinker`s vay to un-
cover tLe innnite cLaracter ol Lis Lolistically oeveloping activity ano
attain knovleoge ol reason`s regulative ioea: alsolute autonomy (or
sell-ioentity). xLaustive acLievement ol tLis ioea is tLe sell-tLinker`s
only moral purpose. 1Le ioea ol reason oetermines tLe progressing
oirection ol Lis striving. Conscious lulnlment ol Lis moral vocation is
impossille prior to tLe personal oiscovery ol critical pLilosopLy.
1LougL conscious or not, practical striving is tLe sell-tLinker`s un-
avoioalle vocation.
161

gnorance ol reason`s regulative ioea, Hlsen claims, vas a oistinc-
tive leature ol pre-critical tLougLt, ouring vLicL tLe Luman spirit lays
oormant. acking critical insigLt, Hlsen Lolos, sell-tLinkers sougLt
ano seek pLilosopLical knovleoge in tLe printeo voro. Many spon-
taneous unsuccesslul ellorts vere necessary lor sell-tLinkers to set
tLeir spirit lree ano cLange Lumanity`s moral situation. acking critical
insigLt, sell-tLinkers attaineo tLeoretical knovleoge vitLout knoving
exactly Lov.
162
1Le immeoiate result ol critical pLilosopLy`s oiscovery
is apooictic.
Von da an erkennen uir nur dasenige jr das unsrige, uas uir durcl Freileit
in uns setzen. Aber uir erkennen zugleicl aucl, dass ausser uns niclts se,n
soll, das niclt das unsrige se,n nsste jolglicl dass uir alles Wirklicle und
alle Mglicle berlaupt, d.i. eine Welt berlaupt die unsrige nennen und als
solcle in uns setzen sollen. ]ene llere Beexion jlrt uns also zu einer
Aujgabe, die uir olne das Denken unsers Denkens, d.i. olne Selbstdenken,
gar niclt laben konnten. Der Punkt ist gegeben, an den uir alles zu
knpjen laben Wir Selbst nelnlicl sind es in unseren reinen Wessen, und

161
See: e NTVS, ,1
162
See: e NTVS, ,:. Compare Hlsen`s statement vitL c (~ J:, 1)
Progrannsclrijt statement tLat Der nenscllicle Geist naclt nanclerlei Ver-
sucle, er konnt durcl blindes Heruntappen zur Dannerung, und gelt erst aus
dieser zun lellen Tage ber. Er uird Anjangs durcl dunkle Gejlle (deren
Ursprung und Wirkliclkeit die Wissensclaslelre darzulegen lat) geleitet, und
uir latten nocl leute keinen deutliclen Begrijj, und uaren nocl inner der
Erdkloss, der sicl den Boden entuand, uenn uir niclt angejangen latten,
dunkel zu jllen, uas uir erst spater deutlicl erkannten.
Part
1
die Aujgabe leisst daler Uns Selbst in diesen reinen Wesen enpiriscl zu
erreiclen.
163

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLis practical task compels tLe sell-tLinker to
strive lor an alsolute sell-positing ol empirical reality. 1Lis implies tLat
quantit, le sell-positeo as sucl. 1Lis moral goal is alsolutely ne-
cessary. WLat is at stake is personal autonomy unoerstooo in tLe
strictest sense. !ulnlling tLis task is an unconoitional moral commano,
vLicL sLoulo le accepteo alsolutely vitLout any lurtLer grouno. ot
to le a sell (niclts Selbst se,n), Hlsen concluoes, is Larmlul prac-
tically. t is tantamount to leing nolooy or notLingness (Niclts se,n):
to give up lreeoom.
164

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLis LigLest rational task is poseo ly tLe
regulative ioea ol tLe vLole. ts spLere is all-emlracing ano alsolutely
conoitioning. 1Lis task is an exclusively necessary task ol reason.
Hlsen inlers lrom tLat tLat in no moment ol Lis existence, ooes tLe
sell-tLinker set Limsell a ranoom task. Solving sucL an exclusively
rational necessary task ol reason requires an exclusively necessary or
alsolute solution.
165

Aujgeben berlaupt nelnlicl leisst Etuas setzen, den etuas anders gleicl
gesetzt uerde. Es nuss also durcl die Ausung einer eden Aujgabe etuas
uerden, uas in und nit der Aujgabe, als bloss solcler, nocl niclt ist. Mitlin
nuss bei einer eden blossen Aujgabe etuas se,n und etuas niclt se,n, und
durcl die Ausung also das Niclt-Se,n den Se,n gleicl gesetzt uerden,
jolglicl dasenige, uas niclt ist zun Se,n uerden. Ist nun unsere lclste
Aujgabe, das reine Selbst enpiriscl zu realisieren, so ist in ilr also gesetzt 1)
das reine Selbst als ein Se,n scllecltlin, und :) etuas den reinen Selbst,
oder den Se,n scllecltlin Gleiclzusetzendes, jolglicl etuas, das niclt selbst
ist, also jr sicl Niclts ist, sondenr nur ist, in uie jern etuas anderes,
nelnlicl ein Selbst, ist, dadurcl es ist, nitlin ein den Selbst Entgegen-

163
e NTVS, ,:
164
See: e NTVS, o
165
See: e NTVS, ,, ,p-o, :-. n e (NTVS, ,p) voros: Aber die
Notluendigkeit einer ^~, die durcl die f bestinnt uuerde, ist zu-
gleicl aucl die Notluendigkeit ilrer ^.
Hlsen
1;
gesetztes. Denancl liegt in unsern Selbst die notluendige Aujgabe das es
absolut Alles se,.
166

1Le sell-tLinker`s ultimate moral goal is to reacL Lis alsolute sell
empirically. His entire experience must lecome a manilestation ol Lis
pure spiritual leing. Eeason`s LigLest task must le solveo Lolistically.
Solving tLis task sLoulo le tLe LigLest oetermining conoition ol all
practical sell-activity. onetLeless, our nnite conoition prevents us as
empirical leings lrom solving tLis task alsolutely. Cnly as a pure
rational leing, as non-empirical, can tLe sell-tLinker tLink ol Lis
positeo leing as a vLole. His alsolute lreeoom ano Lis positeo leing
are congruent in tLougLt. onetLeless, our empirical existence
(Dase,n) constitutes a part ol our original leing (Se,n). 1Lis compels
us to strive lor tLe restitution ol our pure leing`s missing quantity.
1Lis is negatively positeo in us as an inLerent oisappearance (Ver-
scluinden), oetermineo ly pure reason`s translormation into a general-
personal logical-Listorical agent. 1Le sell-tLinker`s empirical existence
is a spatiotemporal oljective lecoming (Werden).
167
Space ano time are
inLerent constitutive conoitions ol striving activity. n Hlsen`s voros:
So lange sicl also das Icl Obekte gegenber stellt, nitlin dieselben sicl
gleicl stellt, d.i. das Icl ein Niclt-Icl zu realisieren strebt, sind Baun und
Zeit aucl die notluendigen Bedingungen dieses seines Strebens. Sie sind es
aber niclt nur bis zu den euig zon uns unerreiclbaren Ziele, sondern sie
sind eben so notluendig aucl nur die einziegngliclen.
168

!or Hlsen, our moral vocation consists in personal teleological
striving alter tLe empirical lulnllment ol our pure sell. 1Le sell-tLinker
sLoulo lring alout an exLaustive ioentity letveen Lis spatiotemporal
existence ano Lis pure or alsolute leing. He sLoulo overcome all tLose
empirical limitations vLicL stano in tLe vay ol Lis attainment ol
alsolute causality (autonomy). onetLeless, space ano time conoition
tLe Lolistic or alsolute solution oemanoeo ly our supreme moral task.

166
e NTVS, o-1
167
See: e NTVS, -, ,
168
e NTVS, ,8
Part
18
!or us tLis is an unenoing task, a process tLat lasts tLrougLout our
spatiotemporal eternity.
169

Hierdurcl gelet nun zuar die lclste Aujgabe keinesueges zerlolren, aber
ilre Ausung stelet nunnelr unter Zeitbedingungen, inden die Selbst-
tlatigkeit nur streben kann, das absolute Se,n [.| zu realisieren Es ent-
stelet also durcl das Streben ein blosses Werden zun Se,n. [.| Gelet das
Streben der Vernunjt ilre lclste Aujgabe zu lsen nun in das Unendlicle,
so erlalten uir durcl dies Streben, also durcl die unendlicle Ausung, aucl
eine unendicle Beile bestinnter Aujgaben d.l die eine und lclste Aujgabe
uird durcl die uirklicle Ausung als durcl das Streben der Vernunjt sie in
Monente zu zollenden, unendlicl eingesclrankt, und so ist also ede andere
Aujgabe, auser der lclsten, selbst diese lclste in einer unendlicle Beile
zon Bedingungen ilrer Ausung. Dadurcl erlalt nun ede Aujgabe in den
unendliclen Progressus niclt nur notluendig ilren bestinnten Ort, sondern
ueil sie diesen lat, und also irgend uo auj den Wege unsers euigen
Fortstrebens liegt, so nuss sie an ilren Orte aucl notluendig gelst uerden
denn sie ist niclt anders, als nur in so jern etuas gesclielet, dadurcl sie
gerade und zllig bestinnt nglicl uird. [.| Nur auj die Art sclreiten uir
unter bestandiger Einleit des Strebens auj ein Ganzes aucl uirklicl jort zu
der lclesten Einleit dieses Ganzen.
170

Hlsen claims tLat as nnite rational leings ve cannot solve our
supreme moral task as a vLole. !or us, tLe unceasingly counter-positeo
ot- vill never le an alsolutely sell-oetermineo entity. onetLeless,
regulative morality requires its ioeal sell-oetermination. 1Le sell-
tLinker`s ultimate moral purpose is to equate all possille counter-
positeo ot- (empirical existence) to Lis ovn original sell (pure
leing).
171
Pure reason`s translormation into a general-personal oevelo-

169
See: e NTVS, ,, ,-
170
e NTVS, ,-
171
See: e NTVS, :. As Manlreo c~ (1pp8, p1,) comments, Hlsen va-
cillates letveen tvo oillerent approacLes to reason`s regulative goal: Einnal
benutzt er [ i.e., Hlsen| den traditionellen, z. B. Leibnizsclen Begrijj, uonacl
Wirkliclkeit Vollbestinntleit eines zunaclst Unterbestinnten neint. Und dann
kann das Werden des Selbst zun Sein in Wortsinne als seine Bealisierung zer-
standen uerden [.| . Nacl dieser Aujjasung ist die Wirkliclkeit einjacl ~die ab-
solute Totalitat ilrer Bestinnungen, deren ~Alles Liebe in Einen. Anderer-
Hlsen
1p
ping agent oetermines tLe transcenoental possilility ol an innnitely
sell-actualizing logical-Listorical solution to Lis LigLest task. n tLis
vay, Hlsen oeouces tLe inLerent existence ol an unenoing teleological
series ol correlative tasks, in vLicL eacL emerges as a sell-oetermineo
part ol tLe only possille task ol reason.
!or Hlsen tLe personal unoerstanoing ly tLe sell-tLinker tLat
alsolute knovleoge Las not leen yet attaineo compels Lim to act. acL
act is a step in Lis innnite positing striving alter regulative autonomy.
Sell-oetermination ol eacL step is Lis vay to make purposive progress,
none can le taken prior to its actual sell-positing. Hlsen Lolos tLat
tLe sell-tLinker constantly compares Lis ovn progress vitL Lis
regulative ioea ol tLe vLole. 1Lis comparison enalles contrast ol Lis
ovn actual concept ol empirical reality ano Lis regulative concept ol
original leing. Sell-tLinkers tLerely attain knovleoge ol tLe em-
pirically covereo extent ol tLeir moral vocation. Accoroing to Hlsen,
progress oemanos tLat tLe sell-tLinker locus on Lis actual empirical
stanopoint lrom tLe perspective ol tLe innnite ano seek its sell-
oetermination tLrougL tLe regulative ioea ol tLe alsolute. 1Lis
persistent gap letveen tLe ioeal ano tLe real compels tLe sell-tLinker to
take aooitional striving steps continually.
172
o teleological striving is
possille vitLout reason`s regulative ioea, as it alone provioes tLe sell-
tLinker vitL a necessary progressing oirection (Bicltung).
173

Accoroing to Hlsen, pLilosopLizing activity, graoual attainment ol
logical-Listorical knovleoge, is tLe sell-tLinker`s vay to strive alter
regulative morality. 1Lis ongoing sell-oetermining activity pusLes

seits uird der Bestand eines reinen Selbst clteaniscl auj eine absolute Tlesis
gegrndet, die a in der Crusius-Kantsclen Tradition nit Wirkliclkeit einerlei
ist, also nit Sinn in nodalontologisclen Sinne ( [.| uo die Wirkliclkeit der
Selbstsetzung uie bei Hlderlin seiner Mgliclkeit zorausgelen soll).
172
n e (1;p, :o) voros: Der Ausdrck Icl bin, in absoluten Sinne, gilt
daler nur als Aujgabe, in uie jern Niclts den icl entgegen gesetzt, jolglicl gleicl
gesetzt und also Icl se,n nuss. Kein Menscl kann sagen Icl bin! Mit absoluter
Identitat, sondern uo er es sagt, da denkt er es bloss als den scllecltlin notl-
uendigen Erklarungsgrund seines Strebens.
173
See: e NTVS, ,-, ,-p
Part
1;o
pLilosopLizing reason lorvaro ano expanos, teleologically, tLe general-
personal spLere ol Luman lreeoom. n tLis vay, Hlsen strengtLens Lis
ioentincation or connection letveen tle selj-tlinker's personal strizing
actizit, ano tle rational listor, oj plilosopl,. Hlsen`s oeouction Las
crucial implications lor Lis critique ol EeinLolo, lor vLom also tLe
personal pLilosopLizing activity ol tLe sell-tLinker ano pLilosopLizing
reason`s alility to progress are connecteo. Hlsen oevelops an insigLt
only vaguely asserteo in EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie. WLat
is lacking in EeinLolo`s approacL accoroing to Hlsen is a connection
letveen tLe sell-tLinker`s practical pLilosopLizing activity ano
pLilosopLizing reason`s general-personal alility to oevelop Listorically.
Hlsen`s Preissclrijt Las a peoagogical lunction. 1Le task ol tLe sell-
tLinker is to convince concrete rational leings ol tLeir true practical
vocation, to sLov reason`s unenoing task, ano enalle a oramatic
improvement ol man`s moral situation. Hlsen ano !icLte oo not
entirely agree on tLe peoagogical means oemanoeo lor accomplisLing
tLis. Accoroing to !icLte, moral improvement requires pLilosopLical,
Listorical, ano pLilosopLical-Listorical (logical-Listorical) knovleoge.
1ogetLer, tLese tLree kinos ol knovleoge constitute scLolarsLip (Ge-
lelrsankeit). AltLougL !icLte seems to stress tLe preoominance ol
logical-Listorical knovleoge, Le insists tLat to promote moral im-
provement a joint application ol tLese tLree types ol knovleoge is
requireo. Hlsen`s oeouction ol tLe sell-tLinker`s activity as an ex-
clusive logical-Listorical activity is a spiritual mooincation ol !icLte`s
position. 1Le trinomial cLaracter ol scLolarsLip is implicitly lor Hlsen
a grounoless presupposition. Persisting sell-oetermining activity, on-
going attainment ol logical-Listorical knovleoge, is tLe sell-tLinker`s
onl, vay to make practical progress. As tLe only possille expression ol
true pLilosopLical knovleoge, logical-Listorical knovleoge must le
universal in cLaracter. Hlsen`s mooincation ol !icLte entails a
rejection ol pure pLilosopLical versus pure Listorical knovleoge.
Hlsen implies tLat !icLte`s system, like EeinLolo`s, lacks a universal-
personal concept ol logical-Listorical progress. ogical-Listorical
knovleoge alone is lor Hlsen tLe sell-tLinker`s vay to promote moral
improvement. Hlsen so estallisLeo an innovative connection letveen
Hlsen
1;1
tLe tLeoretical ano tLe practical oivisions ol !icLte`s early ioealism.
Hlsen provioes in tLis vay a solution to a prollem lelt unresolveo in
!icLte`s improveo Elenentarplilosoplie.
ogical-Listorical knovleoge is tLe sell-tLinker`s vay to strive ano
approximate regulative morality. xpanoing empirical knovleoge ol
Lis ovn pure sell (sell-knovleoge), or ol lreeoom as sucL, is tLe sole
olject ol Lis sell-oetermining activity. 1Lis means tLat lor Hlsen only
a personally sell-positeo task, an asking-ansvering sell-task (Selbst-
Aujgabe), Las a true pLilosopLical meaning. Eeality, an inoispensalle
leature ol true tLeoretical knovleoge is, Hlsen claims, a preoicate ol
tLose correlative question-ansver tasks tLat tLe sell-tLinker nnos in Lis
logical-Listorical striving lor a solution to reason`s necessary task.
174

1Le personalizeo cLaracter ol all pLilosopLizing activity prevents
tLe sell-tLinker lrom acknovleoging tLe oljective autLority ol a
jorun externus, say an acaoemy ol sciences or any otLer similar
institution. All pLilosopLical oljectivity is laseo on a personal or
suljective oegree ol logical-Listorical oevelopment. Hlsen concluoes
tLat eacL consistent sell-tLinker is tLe ultimate juoge ol Lis ovn
practical proouction.
175

As a practically sell-oetermineo leing, tLe sell-tLinker ooes not rely
on tLe vay otLer rational leings tLink. 1Le personalizeo cLaracter ol
Lis pLilosopLizing activity prevents tLis. As tLe exclusive tLinker ol Lis
ovn sell, tLe sell-tLinker realizes tLat Le is tLe only source ol Lis ovn
practical proouction. So lor Hlsen lolloving EeinLolo, a consistent
sell-tLinker must le a resolutely independent tlinker. BotL Hlsen`s

174
See: e NTVS, 8-p
175
As to tLe contest ol tLe Berlin Acaoemy, e (1;p, 8, p;o) argues :
Indes lasst sicl aucl uoll zeigen, dass durclaus kein Gelelrter, der sicl die
Preisjrage als eine Vernunjtaujgabe beantuortet konnte, sie jr die Akkadenie
ausen uerde. Das uiderspracle seinen Zuekke. [.| Fr den Selbstdenkenden
Gelelrten lat also die Preisjrage, als solcle, gar keine Bedeutung. [.| Die
Aujgabe der Akadenie bleibt also nur bloss jr [.| Manner und ]nglinge, die
nocl nie ilre Aujgabe daclten, und die aucl die gegenuartige darun niclt
denken knnen, sondern denen es nur Beruj ist, gesclriebene Gesetze zu zer-
tleidigen und als Buclstabe durcl Sprcle berlnter Manner zu zerbreiten.
Part
1;:
claim tLat tLe sell-tLinker is tLe sole juoge ol Lis ovn practical pro-
gress, ano Lis rejection ol a jorun externun in pLilosopLy, vere
inspireo ly EeinLolo`s program. 1Le unizersal-particular cLaracter ol
all rational activity is Hlsen`s vay to realize EeinLolo`s enligLteneo
project ol making pLilosopLy concrete, ano enooving it vitL a per-
sonal or oirect popular-scientinc grounoing. Hlsen learneo lrom
EeinLolo tLat pLilosopLical knovleoge ougLt to le maoe availalle to
tLe masses. 1Lis claim unoerlies Hlsen`s ioentincation ol tLe vocations
ol tLe sell-tLinker (or scLolar) ano tLe rational leing.
176
!or Hlsen as
lor EeinLolo lelore Lim, tLe sell-tLinker ougLt to le committeo to an
autonomous replacement ol all metLooological, etLical, religious, ano
political autLoritarianism ly a pLilosopLy tLat can lring alout ano
secure enligLteneo ano universal sell-oetermination.
177

.11 1Le Concept ol a 1rue Acaoemy ol Sciences
Hlsen`s position enalleo Lim to oevelop !icLte`s concept ol a true
acaoemy ol sciences, mentioneo in passing in tLe 1ste Vorlesung. In
Winter-Halbalr. zon der Bestinnung der Gelelrten].
Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe sell-tLinker or tLe scLolar is an inoepenoent
tLinker. 1Le attempt to oetermine tLe vill tLrougL tLe imposition ol
oljective knovleoge, lor Hlsen an acaoemic commonplace occur-
rence, suloroinates tLe sell-tLinker`s spiritual lreeoom, ano even contra-
oicts tLe moral lav: personal sell-oetermination. t also interleres vitL
tLe autonomous acLievement ol tLe sell-tLinker`s practical vocation.
Hlsen is an arouous critic ol tLe acaoemic estallisLment. He calls lor
its enligLteneo retLinking ano reorganization. Hlsen`s oljection to
tLe Berlin Acaoemy reveals tLe irrelevance tLat sucL outoateo in-
stitutions nov Lave lor true scLolars.

176
See: h~ 1p;;, 1p [EeinLolo not mentioneo|. AltLougL !icLte sLares tLis
ioentincation, Lis position is tLat scLolars sLoulo keep tLeir oistinctive status ol
promoters ano supervisors ol pLilosopLical culture. !or Hlsen`s lurtLer ois-
cussion ol popular-scientinc pLilosopLy, see Lis 1;p; Plilosopliscle Brieje an
Hrn. z. Briest in Nennlausen. Erster Briej. Ueber Popularitat in der Plilosoplie.
177
^ :ooo, 8; [Hlsen not mentioneo|.
Hlsen
1;
Er [i.e., tLe scLolar| soll ein Selbstdenker se,n, und uo er es nocl niclt ist, da
nssen uir auj seine Selbststandigkeit zuar krajtigst zu uirken suclen, aber
geuiss niclt durcl Institute, uo die Mndigkeit dekretiert uird. Die Aka-
denie und alle ilr alnlicle Anstalten sind das Werk einer Zeit, die in sicl
selbst uieder zurkkelrt, sicl selbst also besclliesst. Es ist daler geuiss, dass
sie in derselben geuirkt, und die Fortsclritte des nensclliclen Geistes bis
zun Ziele seiner selbst gejrdert laben. Aber diesen Zirkel einselen, und iln
besclrieben laben, ist zollkonnen eines. Wir sollen iln also niclt nocl
einnal durclkrieclen, so bald enes Statt ndet, sondern auj bessern Wege
Einsiclt bejrdern, und darun in eine Splare uns scluingen, uo uir nur
durcl Unendliclkeit auj uns selbst uieder zurkkonen. Hier erst beginnen
die Augjaben der Vernunjt durcl jreie Selbstbestinnung, und nit ilnen der
geuise Erjolg unsers Naclstrebens.
178

Hlsen learneo lrom !icLte tLat tLe scLolar ougLt to le tLe etLically
lest man ol Lis time. Guioeo ly tLe Wissensclajtslelre, tLe scLolar is
acquainteo vitL tLe means requireo to improve our moral per-
lormances. As tLe eoucator ol Lumanity, tLe scLolar ougLt to make Lis
lellovmen avare ol tLeir true etLical neeos. He sLoulo also acquaint
tLem vitL tLe means necessary lor satislying tLese neeos. 1Lis peo-
agogic task enalles tLe scLolar to employ moral means to inuence
society. Cn tLis point Hlsen`s agreement vitL !icLte is unamliguous.
Hlsen argues, Lovever, tLat pLilosopLy cannot le oltaineo in insti-
tutions in vLicL uncritical means are useo to coerce practical lreeoom.
Hlsen rejects tLe teacLing ol positive or invasive knovleoge.
179
As
purveyors ol lacts acaoemic institutions are olsolete Listorical pro-
oucts. n tLe logical-Listorical epocL ol autonomous sell-oetermi-
nation, sucL training scLools in vLicL no true spiritual knovleoge can
le oltaineo are no longer necessary. n place ol traoitional acaoemies
ano universities, Hlsen presents Lis ovn innovative ioea ol a true
acaoemy ol sciences.
180


178
e NTVS, ;o
179
CL. e 1p, 1o8
180
Preissclrijt ooes not oiscuss tLe acaoemic oltaining ol critical knovleoge. t
oiscusses only tLe role tLat mooern institutions sLoulo Lave in tLe unenoing
moral improvement ol tLeir memlers. By 1;p8, Hlsen rejecteo an oller to col-
Part
1;
Hlsen useo !icLte`s peoagogic tLougLt to retLink tLe concept ol a
true acaoemy ol sciences. n Lis 1ste Vorlesung, !icLte exLorteo Lis

lalorate vitL !icLte at tLe Lniversity ol ]ena. Hlsen insteao lounoeo Lis ovn
institute in entzke lei !eLrlellin, a small village near Berlin. 1Le purpose ol tLis
institution, as Hlsen Limsell reporteo to August W. ScLlegel on ovemler 1,,
1;p8, ano to Mrs. von EocLov (tLe motLer ol tvo ol Lis stuoents) on !elruary ,,
18oo, vas tLe pLilosopLical cultivation ol young pupils. Hlsen`s letters reveals
tLe extent ol Lis anti-positive peoagogic ioeas: Icl bleibe jre, und unablangig
und braucle jr das Senestrun kein anderes Lelrbucl, als das der Natur und des
lebendigen Mensclen. Das auere Gerauscl soll neine Sclule niclt enpjellen,
aber uoll die Walrleit, die sicl auj Einsiclt in die Natur des Mensclen grndet.
[.| Man kann inde ungen Mannern inner etuas Gutes sagen, uenn nan aucl
ein Lelrbucl in der Hand lat, so bald nan sie nur errinert, da der Menscl
eigentlicl kein Lelrbucl se,, und da nan docl berall auj iln zurckkonen
ne. Bei solclen Vorlesungen, uie Sie ualrscleinlicl uallen, lat die lerge-
braclte Forn den uenigsten Nacltleil. Sie naclen ilre Scller nit der Krajt des
Gesanges bekant, und jlren sie bis zu seinen leiligen Urquell [c 1p1,
1oo|. Den Mensclen auj sicl selbst jlren, dies also ist die Kunst und die einzige
Art und Weise, uie unsere Erzielung zon geuissen und grossen Erjolgen sein
kann [CL. e 1p, 1o8|. As tLese passages reveal, tLe task ol tLe scLolar is
to promote personal sell-oetermining activity. Some remaining excerpts ol
Hlsen`s letter to Mrs. von EocLov reveal tLe peoagogic metLoo to le lolloveo.
Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe scLolar sLoulo ioentily tLe lree, tLougL still oormant
spirit ol Lis non-pLilosopLically cultivateo pupil, ano tLen instruct Lim so tLat Le
spontaneously sell-reects on it ly Limsell. [See: CL. e 1p, 1o8|. 1Le task
ol tLe scLolar is to Lelp pupils spiritualize tLeir ovn sell-knovleoge, make it
concrete, ano avoio uncritical alstractions [See: CL. e 1p, 1|. Euooll
i~~ (1p;o, 1o,) summarizes tLe pLilosopLical ioeas leLino Hlsen`s peoa-
gogic position: Der Menscl kann nur das Werk seiner selbst sein. Niclt Sclule-
lalten ist Aujgabe des Erzielers, sondern die innerualrende Aujjorderung zur
jreien Selbstgestaltung. [.| Das Gesclajt der Bildung nu eder Menscl selbst
zollbringen. [.| Hlsen erkannte, da das Begreijen der larnonisclen Ent-
uicklung aller Krajte den ungen Mensclen nocl jellen nu. Eine Aujgabe des
Erzielers bestelt deslalb in der notuendigen Voruegnalne. Aus den, uas ist,
nu er scllieen auj das, uas sein soll. Lebendige Erzielung zollzielt sicl in die-
sen Spannungsjeld zuisclen Sein und Sollen. 1Le peoagogic task ol tLe scLolar,
as Hlsen nnally vill vrite to August W. ScLlegel on ]uly 8, 1;pp, is to eoucate
pupils lor unconoitioneo sell-eoucation (Selbstbildung), lor lreeoom ano true
morality. See: c 1p1, 1o
Hlsen
1;,
stuoents to unconoitioneo or autonomous scLolarsLip. !icLte oemano-
eo tLat acaoemies ol sciences, tLe Leaoquarters ol tLe scLolar, assemlle
sell-oetermineo pLilosopLers ano so promote scientinc culture. SucL
institutions, Le claimeo, must not le mere scLools ol tLeory, lut
scLools ol practical action. Cnly tLe scLolar as sell-tLinker can trans-
mit scientinc culture. n any case, tLe moral lav compels tLe scLolar
to preserve Lis practical lreeoom ly avoioing tLe suloroination ol Lis
vill to acaoemic institutions. Hlsen, as ve sLall see, takes !icLte`s
moral concept ol purposive cooroinateo community as Lis ovn mooel
lor an acaoemy ol sciences.
Accoroing to Hlsen, every acaoemy ol sciences presupposes a
community or a society ol true scLolars (Gesellsclajt zon Gelelrten) as
its practical oetermining grouno. Morality oemanos tLat a true acao-
emy ol sciences relates unconoitionally to its grounoing society ol
scLolars as a oetermineo conoition relates to its alsolute conoitioning
grouno. 1Le scLolars vLo are memlers ol tLis unconoitionally
estallisLeo institution are tLemselves sell-oetermineo agents. !reeoom
so lurnisLes tLe practical grouno ol every true acaoemy ol sciences, it
preserves tLe rational autonomy ol its interacting memlers.
181
Hlsen
takes !icLte`s concept ol moral community as a mooel lor a true acao-
emy ol sciences. n it, all lellov memlers are lreely cooroinateo leings.
Suloroination unoermines tLe moral lounoations ol an acaoemy, as it
contraoicts tLe moral lav. !reeoom is tLe vay a scLolar alnliates to
sucL an acaoemy. As a universal sell-oetermining conoition, lreeoom
assures tLe inoepenoent ano tLe qualitatizel, equal noral status ol all
acaoemy memlers. !or Hlsen a true acaoemy ol sciences is not only
an autonomous, lut also a norall, non-lierarclical institution.
182

xpanoing sell-oetermination, logical-Listorical striving alter regu-
lative morality, is tLe exclusive vocation ol tLe scLolar. 1o make tLis

181
Hlsen is prolally tLinking Lere alout tLe Bund der jreien Manner, a group ol
stuoents tLat Le joineo in ]ena, ano vLicL committeo itsell to tLe moral-
repullican implications ol !icLte`s pLilosopLy. !or tLe moral purposes ol tLe
Bund, see tLe Constitution der Literarisclen Gesellsclajt zu ]ena in: j~
1pp:, :-:
182
See: e NTVS, ;-p
Part
1;
possille is tLe premise ol a true acaoemy ol sciences. Hlsen aoapts
tvo aooitional leatures ol !icLte`s concept ol moral community: tLe
true Luman vocation vitLin society: cooroinateo striving, ano com-
munal purposive regulation.
!or Hlsen tLe sell-oetermineo integration ol tLe personal striving
ol tLe scLolars, universal consensus, is possille at a certain logical-
Listorical stage. 1Le Wissensclajtslelre Las sLovn tLat tLe regulative
striving courses ol all scLolars intersect, all scLolars strive alter tLe
same single moral perlection. WLat lollovs is tLe sell-oetermineo
possilility ol an unenoing cooroinateo striving.
183
1Lis is tLe
lounoation ol a true scientinc acaoemic setting, vLicL enalles
scLolars to assemlle spontaneously ano approximate tLeir supreme
moral ioeal collectively. Hlsen concluoes tLat tLe grounoing autLority
ol a true acaoemy ol sciences, its unconoitionally estallisLeo society ol
cooroinateo scLolars, is in aooition a morally purposive autLority.
184

Critical pLilosopLy is tLe general-personal consensual result ol
logical-Listorical striving. n tLeir strivings, all inoiviouals cover tLe
same rational progressive course. Hlsen Lolos tLat eacL concrete step
taken ly a leaoing scLolar opens up tLe roao lor pLilosopLizing rea-
son`s general progress. Attainment ol tLis progress oemanos personal
sell-oetermineo evaluation ol reason`s proouction, tLe partial anti-
cipatory solving ol reason`s supreme task is tLe avant-garoe scLolar`s
vay to enalle a moral improvement ol tLe Luman species. Hlsen`s
argument oevelops ano explains an aspect ol !icLte`s concept ol
communal morality: to strive lor onesell is tantamount as to striving
lor one`s ovn lellovmen. 1Le regulative purpose ol joint striving is tLe
alsolutely cooroinateo unity ol all scLolars.
185
1o promote a joint

183
As c ENVNPI PM) comments: Wenn der s,stenatiscle Zusannenlang be-
uut ist, lat sicl das lclste Ziel dieser Generation erreiclen, Einigkeit eines
eden nit sicl selbst und Ganzleit des ungetrennten Mensclen. Der Zusannen-
lang konnt zun Beuutsein durcl Selbsterkenntnis, durcl plilosopliscle
Metlode. Der Menscl soll Er selbst und er soll ein Ganzes sein, sind [.| zuei
zllig identiscle Satze'.
184
See: e NTVS, p, ;1-
185
Accoroing to c ENVNPI POF, Hlsen`s conclusion enalles letter unoerstano-
Hlsen
1;;
acLievement ol reason`s innnite task, Hlsen concluoes, is tLe raison-
d'etre ol every true acaoemy ol sciences.
186

Accoroing to Hlsen, eacL step ly a sell-tLinking scLolar enalles a
lurtLer progress ol reason or Lumanity. Selj-deternined udging ezalua-
tion enLances personal (spiritual) sell-knovleoge. Hlsen`s purpose is
to oevelop !icLte`s moral concepts ol giving ano receiving:
187
tvo
spiritual skills to all cooroinateo acaoemic activity.
1Le strivings ol all sell-tLinking scLolars intersect. All rational leings
are compelleo ly reason to solve tLe same task. Accoroing to Hlsen,
to lenent lrom rational progress requires tLe oevelopment ol tLe skill
ol openness or receptivity (Enpjangliclkeit). Eeceptivity is a practical-
ly selj-cultizated skill as a means to personal moral improvement.
Eeceptivity alone is not enougL to attain progress. 1Le personal
reception ol pLilosopLizing reason`s leaoing general-personal progress
oemanos tLat receptivity le supplementeo ly a sell-oetermineo
juoging alility: lree examination (jreie Prjung).
188


ing ol Lumanity`s pre-critical moral situation: Wenn Einigkeit die Bestinnung
des Mensclen ist, dann ist es sicler, da die Mensclen sicl gegen niclts so selr
gestraubt laben als [.| gegen ilre eigene, in ilnen gelegene Bestinnung. Auj
Uneinigkeit (Widerstreit) jlrt Hlsen die Not der ]alrtausende zurck, sie ist
der Sitz des Ubels. Auj zueijacle Art auert sicl der Widerstreit als Uneinigkeit
auj tleoretisclen Gebiet, uo eder seine Meinung allen gegenber durclsetzen
nclte, und allgeneiner als Uneinigkeit des Mensclen nit sicl selber, Trennung
seiner Krajte und Verngen, Unnoralitat berlaupt. Beide Arten uerden niclt
auseinandergelalten und sind aucl niclt zu trennen, uie durcl kritiscles Wissen
eder an sicl selbst zeruiesen und danit den Streit der Ansiclten entloben ist,
so uird er nit denselben Wissensakt aucl nit sicl selbst einig, d.l. sittlicl besser.
186
See: e NTVS, ;:-, 8
187
et us recall tLat giving represents lor !icLte tLe spontaneous alility to
perlect one`s ovn moral skills ly making use ol tLe lormative ellect tLat otLer
rational leings Lave on onesell. Eeceiving is in turn tLe personal alility to
perlect one`s ovn lellovmen ly acting upon tLem as upon sell-oetermineo
rational leings.
188
See: e NTVS, 18-;
Part
1;8
Alles Obekt der Beexion nuss nacl den Verlaltniss des Bedingten zu seiner
Bedingung als Unbedingten beurtleilt uerden.
189

Accoroing to Hlsen, lree examination enalles a scLolar to sell-oeter-
mine lor Limsell tLe otLer scLolar`s progress, it enalles unconoitional
sell-conoitioning or critical appropriation ol someone else`s superior
stanopoint. !ree examination allovs tLe personalized spiritualization",
ano tLerely selj-actualization ol pLilosopLizing reason`s progress.
Conlormation to a particularizing oegree ol logical-Listorical oevelop-
ment, oetermines lree examination`s indizidualized outcone.
190
n ao-
oition, lree examination enalles a sell-tLinking scLolar to spontaneous-
ly locus on a pLilosopLical text ano estallisL a practical linit betueen
its spirit and its letter, a proceoure overlookeo ly !icLte, ano
vitLout vLicL a personal spiritualized" understanding ol Lis Wissen-
sclajtslelre is impossille. !ree examination allovs personal non-
coercize adequac, ano incorporation ol tLe spirit ol superior syste-
matic trutL. t enalleo Hlsen, a resolute sell-tLinker, to appreLeno tLe
spirit ol !icLte`s approacL, as !icLte Limsell oio vitL Iant`s Kritik,
191

mooily it normatively, ano still call it Wissensclajtslelre. As Hlsen
acknovleoges
Es ist aber darun gar niclt notluendig, die Wissensclajtslelre anzuerken-
nen, oder aucl so jort keinen Ansprucl auj Vernunjt zu naclen. Nein es ist
nur notluendig, als zernnjtiges Wesen die Wlarleit zu elren und unser
edesnaliges Wissen also nit redlicler Ueberzeugung unser bestes Wissen zu
nennen, jolglicl dasselbe aucl andern, die es uoll eben so redlicl neinen
knnen, niclt aujdringen zu uollen. Das nur jordert die Wissensclajtslelre,

189
e NTVS, 18;
190
AltLougL qualitatively no oillerences are possille, particularization is causeo ly
intentional oivergence, ly tLe oisparate quantitative insigLts tLat nnite rational
leings gain into reason`s original leing.
191
n e (1;p, 1p) voros: Ficlte, der nit Kant aus einer uelle sclpjt,
aus einer uelle, die nocl den nelresten Kantianern ein Geleinniss zu se,n
scleint, dasenige nur an das Liclt bringt, uas Kant in den Tiejen seiner
Untersuclungen tleils uirklicl bearbeitete, tleils aber nur naclueiss. Daler ist
der d der Kritik selbst die Wissensclajtslelre, oder diese, uie Ficlte sicl
ausdrckt, der durclgejlrte kritiscle idealisnus." [my lolo|
Hlsen
1;p
und uo eine solcle Gesinnung Statt ndet, da uird sicl aucl ilr d geuiss
jrucltbar beueisen.
192

!or Hlsen lree examination cannot le useo prior to a personal veri-
ncation or justincation ol its critical suitalility as a valio practical
means grounoeo on tLe Luman spirit.
193
All true scLolars sLoulo agree
as to lree examination`s capacity to assert tLe trutL.
194
!ree examination
is Hlsen`s improveo version ol !icLte`s concept ol receiving.
Nur unter den Sclutze dieses Gesetzes gibt es jr nicl eine Vernunjt, und
darj icl selbst nir eine solcle einraunen. Die Voraussetzung ist daler dass
nir obektize kein Absolutes gegeben uerden knne, ueil es dadurcl, dass es
notluendig neine jreie Prjung aujlbe, aucl sclleclterdinges niclt in
nein Beuusstse,n aujgenonnen uerden knnte.
195

Hlsen assumes tvo oillerent uses ol lree examination. 1Le emergence
ol critical pLilosopLy oetermines tLe qualitative eno ol pLilosopLizing
reason`s Listory. 1Le scLolar can employ lree examination eitLer as a
quantitatize means to pursue joint regulatize striving,
196
or as a qual-
itatize means to reconstruct pLilosopLizing reason`s Listory. As a
qualitative means it enalles a personal retrospectize systematization ol
all logical-Listorical cLanges unoervent ly pLilosopLizing reason.

192
e NTVS, 1,8-p [my lolo|
193
1Le circular cLaracter ol tLis proceoure ooes not entail an inconsistency, as all
rational activity is sell-reective.
194
See: e NTVS, 18-;. !or Hlsen lree examination also sLovs tLat knovl-
eoge cannot le grounoeo on an alsolute olject. e (1;p, 1;-8) vrites:
Soll aber das aujgestellte Gesetz zur jreien Beurtleilung durclaus erjorderlicl
se,n, so kann ein lclstes Prinzip der Plilosoplie, durcl die Zurckjlrung des
Ganzen unsers Wissen auj iln, aucl niclts anders als das Unbedingte, und daler
auj keine Weise ein obektizes Prinzip se,n. Denn das Obektize stelet notl-
uendig in den Verlaltniss des Bedingten zu seiner Bedingung als Unbedingten,
oder es ist jr die jreie Beexion scllecltlin Niclts, und nur als solcles erst ein
absolutes Obekt.
195
e NTVS, 18;
196
Hlsen ooes not oiscuss tLis use ol lree examination. t Lovever is implieo ly
tLe lact tLat morality compels tLe rational leing to an unenoing striving alter
alsolute cooroination.
Part
18o
!ree examination enalles tLe actualization ol pLilosopLizing reason`s
progress. 1LrougL tLeir personal ellorts, all scLolars can contrilute to
tLe pLilosopLical progress ol Lumanity, an improveo explanation ol
!icLte`s concept ol giving.
197
Giving (or sLaring) ano receiving,
oetermine tLe possilility ol a joint regulative striving. 1Lese tvo
spiritual skills are tLe scLolar`s keys to all purposively cooroinateo
acaoemic activity. 1Le social vocation ol tLe !icLtean scLolar is so
institutionalizeo.
.1: 1Le Systematic Eeconstruction ol PLilosopLy`s History
!ree examination makes a possille critical upoate or appropriation
ol pLilosopLizing reason`s leaoing progress. 1ogetLer vitL giving
(sLaring), it enalles a joint regulative striving alter alsolute ioentity.
!or Hlsen, Lovever, acaoemic alnliation is neitLer a necessary
requirement to accomplisL tLese tvo sell-oetermineo activities, nor a
conoition to le a scLolar. Eeceiving ano giving as personal pro-
ceoures, transceno tLe spLere ol acaoemic institutions ano can oevelop
among non-alnliateo scLolars. Hlsen also maintains tLat a Listorically
extenoeo interaction, a mutual receiving ano giving, took place
among scLolars ano sell-tLinkers ouring tLe pre-critical oevelopment
ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre. So oillerent Listorically situateo pLilosopLers
appropriateo pLilosopLizing reason`s progress, ano contriluteo to
its sulsequent teleological oevelopment. Hlsen clarines tLis ly
expanoing Lis argument alout avant-garoe pLilosopLizing.
198

[.| der Menscl ist unter Mensclen, und kann nie anders gedaclt uerden.
Die Mensclleit ist dennacl nur denkbar durcl das Eingreijen der Tlatig-
keit eines eden Einzelnen in die Tlatigkeit Aller, und eder Einzelnen [.|
soll Antleil an den Fortsclreiten des Ganzen laben, ueil das Ganze nur ein

197
See: e NTVS, 18,-. 1Le term giving ooes not appear in tLe text. t is
implieo ly tLe lact tLat striving lor onesell is tantamount as to striving lor all
rational leings (reason). See: e NTVS, 1:p
198
See: e NTVS, 18,-, 1:p
Hlsen
181
Ganzes durcl das Verlaltniss seiner Tleile ist. [.| Wir streben nur euig
nacl der Einen Vernunjt, denn euig stelet die Einleit nit der Mannicl-
jaltigkeit in Kanpje. Hier tritt daler, unter Begnstigung der Natur, stets
der Starke zoran, und bezeiclnet in irgend einer Bezielung die Stujenjolge
des Weges der allgeneinen Mensclenzernunjt. [.| uas diese uaren und
tlaten, das ist Erlebung und Verlerligung der Mensclleit berlaupt. Aucl
uir sollen und uerden durcl Freileit dalin konnen, denn eine gleicle Flle
der Krajt ist es, die in uns allen uolnt, und die nur unter ungleiclen
Bicltungen und Hindernissen sicl entuikkelt. Aber aucl sie nssen zer-
scluinden, denn eder Kanpj nit ilnen ist nur ein Sieg der Vernunjt nelr.
Das se, der Mannern gedankt, uelcle die Wege zor uns linbalnen.
199

1Le personalizeo activity (giving) ol a numler ol avant-garoe
pLilosopLers conoitions reason`s Listorical oevelopment. n tLeir per-
sonal strivings, all rational leings cover tLe same qualitative progress,
tLe result ol vLicL is critical pLilosopLy. Attaining someone else`s
progress oemanos personal reproouction (receiving). 1LrougL a
teleological process ol giving ano receiving, pLilosopLizing reason
graoually accumulateo ano communicateo its logical-Listorical pro-
gress. A oiscussion ol sucL a systematic process is lacking in EeinLolo`s
early Elenentarplilosoplie.
Hlsen oiscusseo only in passing tLe pre-critical status ol giving.
So lange sicl die Plilosoplie in Progressus nocl bendet, ist es lediglicl nur
die Urtleilskrajt uelcle eigentlicl jortsclreitet. ]e jreier daler diese bleibt, e
jrler nuss sie aucl zu ilren Ziele zordringen. Das bezeugt uns allerdings
aucl die Gescliclte der Plilosoplie. Nur dadurcl erlob sicl nacl ojt langen
Zuisclenraunen ein einzelner Selbstdenker [i.e., !icLte|, dass er sicl zon der
geuolnten Vorstellungsart losriss und selbst Gesetztgeber uurde.
200

As to receiving, Hlsen says notLing specinc. He implies tLat tLroug-
Lout pre-critical tLougLt lotL giving ano receiving manilesteo
tLemselves unconsciously, as tLe rational leing is oestineo, spiritually,
to logical-Listorical striving ano tLe acquisition ol critical pLiloso-
pLy.
201
!or Hlsen all pLilosopLers vLo contrilute to pLilosopLizing

199
e NTVS, 1:8, 1:p, 1o
200
e NTVS, 1;-8
201
See: e NTVS, 18,-
Part
18:
reason`s progress are sell-tLinkers. AltLougL ignorant ol tLe Wissen-
sclajtslelre, tLeir systematic positions nonetLeless enalleo tLeir
practical lreeoom to expano. eilniz vas lor Hlsen one ol tLese pre-
critical proouctive geniuses. 1LrougL giving ano receiving, sell-
tLinkers lilteo tLemselves up to a nev pLilosopLical level ano con-
triluteo to pLilosopLizing reason`s oevelopment.
202
As Lieter Ilavon
sums it up,
Irrtner auj der Sucle nacl Erkenntnis zerscllagen lierbei der Sacle jast
niclts, solange sie in subektizen Beuutsein der Walrleit zorgetragen und
bei erueiterten Wissen als solcle eingestanden uerden. .] Hlsen ninnt
eden Plilosoplen ernst, insojern er als Selbstdenker (eines seiner Lieb-
lingsuorte), d.l. nit Anspucl auj Originalitat an der groen Aujgabe
nitarbeitet.
203

Accoroing to Hlsen, personal sell-oetermination enalles tLe unoer-
stanoing ol tLe systems vLerely pLilosopLizing reason progresses
teleologically. t is tLe personal means necessary to articulate pLilo-
sopLy`s Listory. Hlsen lolloving EeinLolo argues tLat universal
consensus is possille only vLen sell-tLinkers sell-reect ano sell-
sulsume reason`s oisputing stanopoints unoer tLeir ovn spiritually
attaineo concept ol critical pLilosopLy.
Die Wissensclajt in Geiste ist das euige Liclt, uelcles in die Unendliclkeit
linausstralt, und uns darun aucl die dstern Wege der Vergangenleit
erleuclten nuss, dass uir sagen knnen dieses sind die Fortsclritte des
Mensclengesclleclts. [.| Die Vernunjt als Vernunjt, kann durclaus niclt
anders, als in die Vergangenleit zurckzugelen und sicl selbst aujzusuclen.
Nur dadurcl erst erlalt sie ilren bestinnten Standpunkt, denn sie lernt den
Mensclen begreijen, uie er durcl alle Stujen seines Werdens zun endliclen
Dase,n lerzorging.
204

Pre-critical pLilosopLy`s Listory is a cLapter ol reason`s logical Lis-
tory. !or Hlsen tLe Wissensclajtslelre requires tLe systematic
articulation ol tLis cLapter. Eetrospective sell-conscious insigLt into

202
See: e NTVS, 11-:
203
h~ 1p;;, 18-,
204
e NTVS, 1
Hlsen
18
one`s ovn unavare acts ol positing is tLe patL to attain universal sell-
oetermineo knovleoge. Cnly it allovs tLe pLilosopLer to grasp
reason`s lull systematic cLaracter ly integrating all partisan stanopoints
vitL critical pLilosopLy as its LigLest reconciling stanopoint, ano so to
legin a cooroinateo striving lor regulative sell-ioentity.
205
Accoroing to
Hlsen, lolloving EeinLolo, tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy ougLt to take
systems ol pLilosopLy, investigate tLem vitLin a rational Lolistic
context, apply to tLem lree examination, ano sell-oetermine ano re-
articulate tLem. 1Le correct oelimitation ol eacL system is lor Hlsen a
key conoition to oetermine its systematic location vitLin reason`s
universal logical-Listorical spLere.
206

As Hlsen learneo lrom EeinLolo, tLe articulation ol pLilosopLy`s
Listory oemanos tLat all partisan stanopoints le oeouceo lrom or
traceo lack to tLe universal concept ol critical pLilosopLy. !or Hlsen
tLis strategy sLovs tLeir ultimate ioentity vitL tLe Wissensclajtslelre.
Suloroination allovs all oisputing stanopoints to exLaust tLeir sys-
tematic grounos, ano to translorm tLemselves into a universally sell-
grounoeo oiscipline, ano so nno a systematic location vitLin a s,n-
tleticall, grounded Listory ol pLilosopLy.
207

Mitlin uare ilr, als Wissensclajt, scllecltlin kein einziges S,sten entgegen
gesetzt, sonder sie nur uare das eine und absolute S,sten. Alle brigen also
knnten nur das Werden der Wissensclajt bezeiclnen, und die Wissensclajt
nsste jolglicl das Ziel aller Progressen der plilosoplierende Vernunjt das

205
Critical insigLt sLovs tLat tLe acaoemic task alout metapLysics` progress since
eilniz ano Woll must appear in tLe practical asking-ansvering course ol every
single sell-tLinker. As e (1;p, 1-;) vrites: Die Aujgabe ist also eine
notluendige Vernunjtaujgabe. Sie begreijt aber als solcle nur einen bestinnten
Tleil der Gescliclte. Mitlin ist sie durcl ilr Verlaltniss zun Ganzen bedingt.
Der durcl Leibniz genonnene Standpunkt nuss erst jest stelen, und also sclon
ein Besultat der Untersuclung se,n, bezor uir ueiter zorsclreiten knnen. Dies
ist uenigstens jr die Darstellung des Ganzen notluendig.
206
See: e NTVS, 1;
207
See: e NTVS, 1,8
Part
18
bestinnte und durclaus unbestreitbare Besultat ilres gesannten plilo-
soplisclen Naclsterbens se,n.
208

PLilosopLy sLovs tLe vay progress sLoulo le oetermineo. PLilosopLy
is tLe logical-Listorical result ol all previous rational inquiry into its
systematic possilility: nov a sell-oetermineo result ol its ovn reality.
PLilosopLy`s sell-reection encompasses reason`s lull empirical course
ol progress, summarizeo in a practically sell-positeo lact: tLe Wissen-
sclajtslelre. Eeason appears in tLe Wissensclajtslelre as tLe result ol
vLat in tLe past vas reason-in-beconing. PLilosopLy`s insigLt, as
Hlsen learneo lrom EeinLolo, is reason`s vay to recognize its logical-
Listorical progress, to systematize it as an inoisputally unineo proouct
ol its ovn striving. PLilosopLy also sLovs tLat tLe olject alout vLicL
one asks (etuas), tLe Listory ol pLilosopLy, can le equally positeo to
tLat lrom vLicL (uozon) or ratLer vLerely one asks: reason. PLilo-
sopLy`s Listory is so unconoitionally sell-oetermineo ly reason.
209

Giebt daler die Freileit sicl das Gesetz der Wissensclajt, un das Fortsclreiten
zur Wissensclajt zu reektieren, und also die successize Stujenjolge desselben
uissensclajtlicl zu bestinnen so kann sie zollkonnen sicler se,n jesten
Trittes jortzusclreiten, denn ilr Gesetz gebietet in Beicle alles nensclliclen
Wissens. [.| Durcl diesen Kreis, den die jreie Beexion gelt, stelen notl-
uendig alle plilosoplisclen S,stene, die sie selbigen zorndet, unter den
gleiclen Sclutze der Wissensclajt. Denn uas diese ist, das sind sie in uerden.
Die Beexion plilosopliert also in eden Monente ilres Kreises nit allen
S,stenen zugleicl, d.l. alle sind in ilr Eines, und nitlin bleibt in ilr kein
Widerstreit nglicl.
210

PLilosopLizing takes place exclusively vitLin a jorun internun. 1Le
articulation ol pLilosopLy`s Listory is personal. Accoroingly, no exter-
nal oljections, even ly a sceptic, can olstruct or oisqualily personal
articulation. Hlsen makes tLis point ly claiming tLat Sell-Being
(Selbstse,n) is tLe source ano tLe ultimate goal ol all logical-Listorical
striving. 1Le general-personal searcLing ol Sell-Being, sLovs tLat all

208
e NTVS, 1,:
209
See: e NTVS, 1,
210
e NTVS, 1,-
Hlsen
18,
systematic ellorts vere meant to nno an original searcLing agent (das
Suclende): reason. WitL critical pLilosopLy, reason ioentines itsell as
tLe alsolute qualitatize ground ol all knovleoge. 1Le sell-oetermineo
lact tLat knovleoge springs lrom Sell-Being proves as in !icLte`s
Wissensclajtslelre tLat a system ol pLilosopLy can emerge only in, lor
ano ly concrete rational leings.
211
WLat lollovs is tLis:
Den Begrijje zu Folge, den uir durcl diese ganze Sclrijt zon der Plilosoplie
als Wissensclajt aujgestellt laben, kann es durclaus niclts zerscllagen ob
Ficlte oder Caus, oder uer es se,n nge, als Urleber gennant uerde. Sie ist
nur Wissensclajt durcl einen eden jr einen eden, nitlin nur Wissensclajt
berlaupt, in so jern edes zernnjtige Wesen als Urleber gedaclt uird. Das
zernnjtige Wesen aber kann niclt anders als Urleber gedaclt uerden, als
in so jern es sicl selbst als Urleber denkt, jolglicl ist eder Urleber der
Wissensclajt, der dieselbe in sicl setzt.
212

!or Hlsen pLilosopLy is an actize product ol tLe Luman spirit or
reason, it cannot oljectively stano ly itsell. Eealizing tLis is tantamount
as to unoerstanoing tLat eacL concrete rational leing is pLilosopLy`s
practical producer. 1Lis Las implications lor tLe suppression ol partisan
alnliations. Hlsen lolloving EeinLolo claims tLat pLilosopLy`s
personal cLaracter reveals tLat all scLool oivision (Scluluesen) is a
rioiculous peoantry (eine laclerlicle Pedanterei). on-alnliation is a
necessary result ol all critical tLougLt.
213

n Hlsen`s Preissclrijt as in !icLte`s Wissensclajtslelre, oeveloping
some ol EeinLolo`s ioeas, personal proouction ano critical knovleoge
are connecteo. 1Le articulation ol pLilosopLy`s Listory is a personal
task tLat must le pursueo ly sell-oetermineo inoiviouals only. Sell-
oetermination is impossille prior to tLe estallisLment ol a systematic
oroer among pLilosopLizing reason`s practically positeo prooucts. Sell-
oetermination requires a personal critical unoerstanoing ol pLiloso-
pLy`s logical-Listorical relation to its evolutionary stages. !or Hlsen,
reason`s suppression ol partisan oisputes tLrougL reconciling sell-unity

211
See: e NTVS, 1,,-
212
e NTVS, 1,
213
See: e NTVS, 1,-;
Part
18
oetermines tLe enoing point ol a pragmatic approacL to tLe Listory ol
pLilosopLy. WitL tLe Wissensclajtslelre, all allegeo atomically positeo
systems reacL an ultimate limit ano acLieve a oennitive rational-
systematic (or contextual) measurement.
214

n tLis vay, Hlsen re-articulateo tLe last imperlect aspect ol
EeinLolo`s early Elenentarplilosoplie, supplementeo !icLte`s Wissen-
sclajtslelre, ano lecame a co-lounoer ol German ioealism.


214
See: c 1p1, :p. Hans e (1p:p, :,) summarizes tLese tvo points:
Die Plilosopliegescliclte geuinnt eine neue Wrde. [.| Die zeitlose Vernunjt
nu die zeitliclen Stujen ilrer Selbstzeruirkliclung, innerlalb deren sie sicl zu
inner grerer Vollendung enporarbeitet, kennen lernen. Sie uird berlaupt
erst zollstandig durcl die Gescliclte ilres Werdens. Die Vernunjt als Vernunjt
kann durclaus niclt anders als in die Vergangenleit zurckzugelen und sicl
selbst aujzusuclen. Nur dadurcl erst erlalt sie ilren bestinnten Standpunkt'. Sie
besitzt ilre Freileit niclt anders als durcl Beexion ilres enpirisclen Pro-
gressus'.
18;
Appenoix A

]akol Sigismuno Beck`s Einzignglicler Standpunkt
as a Eeconstructive xample ol a CLapter
ol tLe Systematic History ol PLilosopLy
Hlsen closes vitL a supplementary section appenoeo on 1;p. 1Lis
section oiscusses ]akol Sigismuno Beck`s Einzignglicler Standpunkt,
aus uelclen die Kritiscle Plilosoplie beurtleilt uerden nuss (1;p),
an essay tLat Hlsen oio not knov vLile oeveloping Lis Listorically
augmenteo Wissensclajtslelre.
1
1Le oiscussion ol Beck`s system pro-
vioes an example ol Lov to reconstruct, autonomously, a cLapter ol
tLe systematic Listory ol pLilosopLy. Hlsen`s purpose is to sLov Lis
jree exanining reader Lov to exLaust tLe uncritically estallisLeo loun-
oations ol Beck`s approacL.
2
Comparison ano contrast to tLe universal
concept ol pLilosopLy is Hlsen`s vay to correct Beck`s misjuogements,
ano trace Lis system lack to tLe consensual or non-contraoictalle
stanopoint ol tLe alsolutely sell-grounoeo .
3

Dennocl nuss der Versucl des Hrn. B[eck| niclt ueniger eben so beurtleilt
uerden, uie die Kritik d.r.V. Folglicl als das, uas er uirklicl ist, und das
andernnal als das, uas er se,n urde, uenn nan zon den lleren Voraus-
setzungen abstralieren uollte. Dieses letztere gesclielet nun zun Beluje des
erstern, und gelet also auj blosse Bericltigung eines Irrtluns in Urtleile.

1
See: e NTVS, 1;1-:
2
!or Hlsen`s empLasis on tLe personal claracter ol tLis lree examining task, see:
e NTVS, 1;:, :op-1o. Hlsen acknovleoges tLat Le Las reacLeo tLe stano-
point ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre vitLout knoving Beck`s approacL. Still, Hlsen`s
position is consistent, as tLe rational Listory ol pLilosopLy represents only a
quantitatively oisparate general-personal process. ualitatively, Hlsen implies,
Beck`s stanopoint ooes not oiller lrom EeinLolo`s.
3
See: e NTVS, :1o, ano c 1p1, ,
Appendix A
188
]enes erstere aber betrijjt die Sclrijt als ein Produkt der jreien Selbsttlatig-
keit, olne uelcle sie [.| gar niclt da se,n urde.
4

1Le articulation ol pLilosopLy`s Listory is personal. t is tLe key to
overcome partisan oisputes ano acLieve sell-oetermining cooroination.
Beck`s system Las a precise general-personal location vitLin pLilo-
sopLizing reason`s logical Listory.
5
!olloving EeinLolo, Hlsen Lolos,
tLis comparing-contrasting proceoure enalles personal critical insigLt
into asking-ansvering`s logical-Listorical proouction.
Hlsen`s interest in Beck`s system is not gratuitous. Beck is lor Lim
tLe only non-!icLtean commentator tLat Las approacLeo tLe Vernunjt-
kritik lrom Iant`s ovn stanopoint. He tLerelore is tLe only commen-
tator tLat Las completely unoerstooo Iant.
6
Hlsen assigns Beck a
preeminent place in tLe systematic Listory ol Iantian pLilosopLy.
7

Hlsen opens vitL tvo remarks. (1) PLilosopLy unines all rational
leings on tLe same systematic stanopoint. (:) PLilosopLy emerges in
one`s ovn general-personal striving, vLile its exLaustivity is oetermineo
ly a universal grounoing principle. 1Lat is vLy pLilosopLy`s stanopoint
is tLe exclusizel,-possible (einzignglicler) stanopoint. on-universally
oetermineo juogments provoke oivergent ano incomplete systematic
insigLts ol knovleoge`s lounoational grouno. Lniversal consensus
compels rational leings tLat strive alter critical knovleoge to rectily
tLeir erroneous juogments. Grasping tLe true lorm ol juogment (Forn
der Beurtleilung), Hlsen vill sLov Beck, reveals tLat no ultimate
oivergence among systems ano stanopoints is possille.
8


4
e NTVS, 1p
5
See: e NTVS,
6
See: e NTVS, 1;:
7
See: e NTVS, 18-p. Guioo k~ speculates tLat Hlsen`s interest in
Beck can le traceo lack to 1;p1. Beck coulo Lave leen one ol Hlsen`s pLilo-
sopLy teacLers at tLe Lniversity ol Halle, vLere Le enrolleo in 1;8,. See:
k~ 1pp8, 11,
8
See: e NTVS, 1;o-1. t sLoulo le recalleo tLat lor Hlsen tLe universal
stanopoint ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre requires a personal sell-oetermining account,
or ratLer, a normative interpretative appreLension ol reason`s activity.
]acob Sigisnund Beck's Einzignglicler Standpunkt
18p
Accoroing to Hlsen, Beck`s essay is an attempt at a systematic estal-
lisLment ol tLe LigLest or ratLer tLe exclusively-possille stanopoint ol
pLilosopLy. l so, Beck`s system sLoulo oetermine knovleoge`s spLere
universally. As to tLe inter-oetermination ol all lorm ano content ol
knovleoge, a sulstantial conoition ol critical tLougLt, Beck`s approacL
sLoulo express unity as sucL (Einleit scllecltlin), neitLer epistemic,
nor ontological oualism, lut a monistic realism-ioealism. 1Lis is tLe
cornerstone ol Hlsen`s criticism ol Beck.
9

Beck`s presentation is oivioeo into lour sections. 1Le nrst oiscusses
tLe oilnculties concerning tLe spirit ol Iant`s Kritik. Beck`s ovn
position accoroing to Hlsen vas tLat mistaken oiscursive insigLts into
tLe grounoing principle ol knovleoge, tLe proto-conscious act ol
representation (ursprnglicl zorzustellen), preventeo a true grasping ol
tLe spirit ol Iant`s approacL, tLus olstructing insigLt into tLe true
meaning ol critical pLilosopLy. Hlsen agrees vitL Beck ano sLares Lis
viev tLat a lull insigLt into proto-conscious representation is necessary
to grasp tLe true spirit ol critical pLilosopLy. Hlsen Lovever claims
tLat Beck omitteo tLe oiscussion ol a crucial topic: tLe oillerence
letveen tLe spirit ano tLe letter ol critical pLilosopLy, only a
critically oevelopeo insigLt, a personal alility tLat tLe Kritik itsell
sLoulo loster, can penetrate tLe universal spirit ol critical pLilo-
sopLy.
10
1Lis omission preventeo Beck lrom grounoing Lis system on a
universal grouno. Beck arriveo at tLe uncritical conclusion tLat tLe nrst
principle ol knovleoge is a transcenoental lact.
11
Critical pLilosopLy,
Hlsen reminos us, proves tLat
Das Icl soll niclt nur keine Tlatsacle se,n, sondern durcl dasselbe uird
zielnelr alle Tlatsacle, als lclstes Prinzip, in Ansprucl genonnen, und
als zllig nicltig eruiesen. Icl nerke dies nun an, un des Irrtluns uillen,
denn die Wissensclajtslelre selbst labe icl niclt zu recltjertigen. Sie uird
sicl selbst recltjertigen, und uo sie zerkannt uird, nacl und nacl das
Erkenntniss sclon jjnen. Nur auj diesen Wege lat sie ilre Bestinnung, nur

9
See: e NTVS, 1;-
10
n e (1;p, 1;,-) voros: Daraus urde sicl ergeben laben, das nan
nur nit Geist in Geist eindringen knne."
11
See: e NTVS, 1;-, 1p-;
Appendix A
1po
durcl Selbsterkenntniss uill sie aujgenonnen se,n, und nutlet sicl daler
Nienanden obektiz an, uie dieenigen Tleorien tlun nssen, die sicl nur
durcl Widerstreit Eingang zersclajjen knnen.
12

Accoroing to Hlsen, tLe core ol Beck`s look is in section tvo,
entiteleo Darstellung des transcendentalen unserer Erkenntniss, als des
ualren Standpunkts, aus uelclen die Kritik der reinen Vernunjt
beurtleilt uerden nuss. ts topic is a oiscussion ol 1Le Grundsatz ol
pLilosopLy, tLe exclusively-possille principle ol all knovleoge. Hlsen
reminos us tLat every lree examining reaoer ougLt to oemano tLat
Beck`s system lulnl tLe lolloving critical criteria: (1) original re-
presentation, lor Beck tLe nrst possille syntLetic unity ol cons-
ciousness, sLoulo provioe tLe system ol knovleoge vitL lormal ano
material certainty. (:) As an exclusively-possille principle, it also
sLoulo Lolo lully in ano ly itsell, it sLoulo attain an alsolute
systematic status.
13
1Le critical oemanos tLat Beck sLoulo satisly are
(1) logical certainty ano (:) systematic sell-sustainalility.
Hlsen claims tLat Beck`s principle is imperlect. Critical contrast
reveals tLat ly estallisLing original representation as tLe LigLest
principle ol knovleoge, Beck grounoeo Lis system only on one ol tLe
oivisions ol a universal system ol knovleoge: tLe tLeoretical. More-
over, Beck`s principle ooes not lulnl tLe critical criteria ol logical
certainty ano sell-sustainalility. !or Hlsen tLe Einzignglicler
Standpunkt lails to oiscuss tLe criteria, vLicL its nrst principle ol
knovleoge sLoulo lulnl.
14

[.| kann es jr die Wissensclajt gleiclgltig se,n, ob gejragt uird lier ist
jr alle Plilosoplie das einzignglicle Prinzip, oder lier ist ein Prinzip,
uelcles den notluendigen Anjorderungen an ein lclstes Prinzip zollkon-
nen entspriclt: Dieses letztere setzt zoraus, dass nan bei der Aujstellung
eines solclen Prinzip, einen bestinnten Zuek latte, uelclen Zuekke zu
jolge das zundende Prinzip nur in so jern das lclste se,n konnte, als sicl
der Zuek aus iln selbst uieder zolkonnen recltjertigte, und daler durcl

12
e NTVS, 1p;
13
See: e NTVS, 1;-;
14
See: e NTVS, 1;;
]acob Sigisnund Beck's Einzignglicler Standpunkt
1p1
seine Geuissleit scllecltlin aucl das in seiner Aujstellung zorausgesetzte
nun zllige Geuissleit erlielt.
15

Accoroing to Hlsen, in Beck`s Standpunkt tLe universally sell-grouno-
eo or sell-sustainalle principle sucL as tLat ol tLe Wissensclajtslelre is
alsent. 1Lis oversigLt Las oramatic implications. Cnly a principle tLat
can lurnisL tLe universal grouno ol logical certainty, can grouno tLe
necessary corresponoence ol tLe lorm ano tLe content ol all possille
knovleoge.
16
!or Beck, original representation is tLe exclusively-
possille principle ol pLilosopLy. His principle is tLerelore arlitrary. !or
Hlsen original representation is only an alstraction, or in Lis ovn
language, a pure assertion (blosse Belauptung).
17
!or Hlsen tLis oeter-
mines tLe disputable claracter ol Beck`s principle. An uncritically
estallisLeo principle can le replaceo ly any otLer principle ol its kino.
1Le consequence is a potential plurality ol unjustineo nrst principles,
ano Lence tLe impossilility ol vitLoraving lrom tLe spLere ol ois-
putes.
18

Hlsen`s next targets lotL tLe jornal ano tLe naterial imperlections
ol Beck`s principle.
Hlsen claims tLat as sell-unavare ano tLerelore unjustineo as-
sertions all pre-critical nst principles are postulateo as alsolute in
cLaracter. Critical insigLt sLovs tLat qualitatizel,, no oistinction
among tLem is possille. Hlsen asks vLicL ol tLese nrst principles
(incluoing Beck`s) can attain tLe status ol tLe LigLest principle ol
knovleoge. His ansver is none. Beck`s principle is lormally unois-
tinguisLalle lrom otLer nrst principles, it cannot claim universality
as true nrst principle ol pLilosopLy. 1Lis compels tLat ve searcL lor
oistinction in tLe contents ol tLe principles in question, tLat ve sul-
oroinate tLem accoroing to tLeir lunctional material aovantages.
19


15
e NTVS, 1;8
16
See: e NTVS, 1;8
17
See: e NTVS, 1;8-p
18
See: e NTVS, 1;p
19
See: e NTVS, 1;8-8o
Appendix A
1p:
Accoroing to Hlsen, pLilosopLy oemanos tLat tLe Grundsatze ol all
possille nrst principles le traceo lack to a common ano universally
sell-positeo lact: tLe Wissensclajtslelre. Hlsen takes Beck`s Grund-
satz (ursprnglicl zorzustellen) LypotLetically as tLe lact in question,
ano asks vLetLer it coulo contain otLer Grundsatze vitLin its allegeo
universal spLere. Beck`s Grundsatz is lormally unoistinguisLalle. Cnly
its content remains to enalle a sulsuming or suloroination ol all
Grundsatze unoer its allegeo universality. Lsing tLis strategy, pro-
visionally, Hlsen enligLtens tLe lull prollematic cLaracter ol Beck`s
Grundsatz. Hlsen asks vLetLer tLe content (Belauptung) ol Beck`s
Grundsatz, a oetermineo olject ol representation, say A or B, can
oetermine tLe material possilility ol otLer Grundsatze. 1Le Wissen-
sclajtslelre Las sLovn tLat all representational contents are oetermineo
prooucts ol an act ol positing. Positing cannot le oetermineo ly ori-
ginal representation. l it coulo, tLe lolloving voulo le tLe results:
(1) positing voulo only le a oeriveo proceoure, ano not tLe act vLerely
original representation attains tLe content tLat enalles its LypotLetic
material assertion as pLilosopLy`s Grundsatz. (:) t voulo le impossille
to nno any otLer oistinguisLing content tLan tLe one asserteo ly original
representation.
20
Hlsen`s concluoes ly enligLtening tLe material in-
sulnciency ol Beck`s Grundsatz:
In Hinsiclt der Belauptung ist dennacl das ursprnglicle Vorstellen durcl-
aus niclt ueiter als edes A und B, und darun ist es zollkonnen dasselbe, ob
A, oder ob B, oder ob beide und nocl nelrere, als lclste Grundsatze,
belauptet uerden.
21

Materially, Beck`s Grundsatz cannot claim universality or exclusivity.
t ooes not prevent propositional plurality. Critical insigLt sLovs tLat
lotL lormally ano materially Beck`s principle is imperlect. 1aken as
pLilosopLy`s Grundsatz, original representation reavakens oisputes.
Hlsen uses !icLte`s approacL in Grundlage to oevelop Lis oiscus-
sion ol Beck`s nrst principle. All uncritically asserteo nrst principles
sucL as Beck`s sLare tLe same imperlect logical status, tLey are all

20
See: e NTVS, 18o-1
21
e NTVS, 181
]acob Sigisnund Beck's Einzignglicler Standpunkt
1p
positeo as originally counter-positeo principles.
22
gnorance ol tLe
act ol positing results in tLe simultaneous alsolute assertion ol tvo
nrst principles, A ano B. 1Leir alsoluteness compels lotL
principles to excluoe eacL otLer ano engage in a oispute. !or Hlsen
tLe alsolutely counter-positeo cLaracter ol A ano B presupposes
tLeir prezious particular positing as counter-positalle principles. 1Lis
means tLat tLe uncritical assertion ol A oetermines its ovn counter-
positalle cLaracter to B ano vice versa.
23
BotL A ano B are sell-
contraoictalle.
24
Hlsen`s concluoes tLat
Dieses lat jr alle nglicle Tlatsaclen Gltigkeit, denn .] das Verjalren
in Belaupten ist eines und dasselbe, ist eine und dieselbe blosse Appellation
an den geneinen Mensclenzerstand. Weil lier nun ede Becltjertigung eben
in der Appellation bestelt, so giebt es jr den edesnal belaupteten Satz kein
anderes Kriteriun der Geuissleit, als das subektize Frualrlalten, uo nan
bloss zu Folge des Angenonnenen niclt einselen kann, uie uol nocl etuas
anderes als das Angenonnene ualr se,n knnte.
25

!icLte`s insigLt into tLe circular positing relation ol grounoing ano
grounoeo in Grundlage enalles tLe overcoming ol sucL uncritical
linear ellorts.
26

AnotLer lailure ol Beck`s system accoroing to Hlsen is tLat Beck`s
ioealism is a oestructive ioealism (zerstlrenden Idealisnus). As tLe
LigLest principle ol knovleoge, original representation ougLt to le
tLat sell-oetermining act vLerely all possille reality is originally
positeo. 1Lat is vLy tLe Wissensclajtslelre's cornerstone, tLe alsolute-
ly sell-grounoeo , can only appear lrom Beck`s perspective as a pro-
duct ol original representation. Beck accoroingly cannot oetermine tLe
Alsolute as a true sell-positeo agent. n tLe Einzignglicler Stand-
punkt tLe Alsolute ougLt to le sometLing oetermineo (ein Be-
stinntes), sometLing tLat is lecause tLere is sometLing else, original

22
An exclusive leature ol critical pLilosopLy is its non-counter-positalle cLaracter.
23
e NTVS, 18:: Also A ist niclt den B durcl A, und B niclt den A durcl B,
sondern A den B durcl B, und B den A durcl A entgegengesetzt.
24
See: e NTVS, 18:
25
e NTVS, 18:
26
See: e NTVS, 18-,
Appendix A
1p
representation, vLerely it is. Consequently, tLe Alsolute cannot
emerge in Beck`s approacL as a spiritually sell-relateo agent, as a sell.
!or Beck, tLe Alsolute ougLt to le a mere representational olject.
27

Hlsen asks:
Aber uo ist nun das Bestinnende, uenn das Icl das Bestinnte ist: und uas
soll dennacl erklaren, dass das ursprnglicle Vorstellen ein solcles uirklicl
se,: Aus seiner eignen Bealitat, se, es ursprnglicl oder diskursiz, kann
ueder nittelbar nocl unnittelbar nelr als ein Vorstellen, und nie ein Se,n
abgeleitet uerden. Wie ist das Vorstellen nun selbst aber zu bestinnen, und
uie also berlaupt ein Beuusstse,n nglicl:
28

Accoroing to Hlsen, Beck`s position is untenalle. Beck ollers only a
oetermineo lut not a oetermining . Beck posits only an explanandun,
not an explanans. 1Lat is vLy Beck cannot exLaustively ansver tLe
question alout consciousness` possilility. Critical contrast also sLovs
tLat Beck`s partial nrst principle is a sell-contraoictory principle, its
non-exLaustivity cancels its allegeo original conoition. 1Le lailure ol
tLe Einzignglicler Standpunkt is Beck`s omission ol a critical account
ol tLe original proto-conscious syntLesis presupposeo ly Lis original
act ol representation. Hlsen concluoes tLat Beck`s principle neitLer
grounos, nor explains tLe possilility ol consciousness.
29

1Lis proves lor Hlsen tLat Beck`s stanopoint is oestructive
ioealism. (1) 1Le alsence ol an original explanans- proves tLat reality
in tLe Einzignglicler Standpunkt is not tLe proouct ol spontaneous
positing lut ol unoetermineo representation. Beck cannot explain tLe
emergence ol an oljective vorlo. (:) 1Le alsence ol an original selj-
reecting explanans- leaves tLe question open: vLo accomplisLeo tLe
act necessary to grouno tLe act ol original representation 1Lese tvo
lailures reveal tLe sell-contraoictory cLaracter ol Beck`s ioealism. Cri-
tical contrast sLovs tLat lotL lormally ano materially, Beck`s non-
exLaustive premise negates or unoermines its contention to le critical

27
See: e NTVS, 188-p
28
e NTVS, 18p-po
29
See: e NTVS, 18p-p1
]acob Sigisnund Beck's Einzignglicler Standpunkt
1p,
pLilosopLy, ano Lence Hlsen`s assessment ol it as a oestructive
ioealism.
30

onetLeless, accoroing to Hlsen, Beck came close to unoerstanoing
tLe systematic relevance ol a sell-reecting explanans-. Beck Limsell
argueo tLat das ursprnglicle Vorstellen ist das Obekt der Plilosoplie
als Wissensclajt. Accoroing to Hlsen, tLis is vLat tLe Wissensclajts-
lelre teacLes. t essentially constitutes a sell-conscious explanation ol
consciousness` lounoations, a systematic representation ol tLe original
proto-conscious acts leLino tLe nrst possille representation. WLat
Beck overlookeo is tLe primacy ol tLe original acts vLerely original
representation is translormeo into an olject ol inquiry. Beck`s
supporters unavoioally perlorm tLese acts, as critical pLilosopLy itsell
compels tLeir oeouction. 1Le sell-conscious grasping ol tLese acts is
vLat Hlsen calls scientic plilosoplizing.
31

Hlsen claims tLat Beck oemanos lrom Lis reaoer to aoopt tLe
stanopoint ol original representation. But Hlsen corrects Beck ly
claiming tLat transcenoental lreeoom must sell-oetermine itsell to sell-
reect on original representation, a spiritual relation must connect
transcenoental lreeoom ano original representation. 1Lis relation is
tLe unconoitional relation ol a oetermineo olject to its unconoitional
conoitioner (tLe Alsolute ). Beck`s overlooking ol tLis proves tLat Lis
nrst principle is not exLaustive.
32

Hr. Beck] latte also seine Anjorderung sicl auj den Standpunkt des ur-
sprngliclen Vorstellens zu zersetzen, gar niclt berlegt, da er sonst ualr-
genonnen laben nsste, dass sicl das ursprnglicle Vorstellen gar niclt
durcl sicl selbst erklare, sondern einen Erklarungsgrund erjordete. Nacl

30
See: e NTVS, 18p, 1p1
31
e (1;p, 1p) reminos us tLat Alle Versucle in Plilosoplieren gingen
nur darauj aus, das ursprnglicle Vorstellen ualr und ricltig zu reektieren.
Mitlin ist dieenige Beexion, uelcle ilren Gegenstande zollkonnen ent-
spriclt, das endlicle resultat aller Versucle, und daler die Wissensclajt zon den
Handlungsueisen, uodurcl die obektiz s,ntletiscle Einleit des Beuusstse,ns
eine solcle ist, d.i. eine Wissensclajt zon der Mgliclkeit alles Wissens, oder eine
Wissensclajtslelre.
32
See: e NTVS, 1p1-
Appendix A
1p
seiner Ansiclt setzt er Sicl Selbst nit seinen ganzen Plilosoplieren als ein
Produkt des ursprngliclen Vorstellens. Ware den uirklicl nun so, so uare
aucl seine Anjorderung ganz unstattlajt und sicl selbst uiderspreclend.
Nun nuss nan es unkelren ueil eine solcle Anjorderung notluendig ist, so
ist ene Ansiclt in sicl selbst uiderspreclend und unstattlajt.
33

n section tLree, Beck oiscusses Iant`s Kritik der praktisclen Vernunjt.
!or Hlsen tLis transition is arlitrary. Accoroing to Hlsen, Beck ooes
not even try to justily tLis transition. Contraoicting Lis ovn grounoing
criteria, Beck grounos tLe practical oivision ol Lis system on a secono
exclusively-possille principle: practical lreeoom. 1o Hlsen`s as-
tonisLment, Beck Lolos, tLis secono principle cannot le traceo lack to
original representation. Beck oiscusses Lis tvo principles separately.
nconsistently, Beck presupposes an original ouality in tLe Luman
spirit. nconsistently, inoepenoent treatment is tLe sell-contraoictory
cause ol Beck`s locus on eacL one ol tLese principles as grounoing
principles. Accoroing to Hlsen, critical contrast sLovs tLat il Beck`s
tLeoretical principle (original representation) vere ascrileo exLaustive
priority, all it coulo le proveo is tLe lormal alility to tLink (Gedenk-
barkeit) tLe principle ol practice, lut not its reality (Wirkliclkeit).
Beck`s system leaves room neitLer lor real lreeoom, nor lor tLe
articulation ol pLilosopLy`s practical oivision. l Beck`s practical prin-
ciple vere ascrileo exLaustive priority, tLat is, tLe role ol estallisLing
an original spiritual ouality, an inconsistency voulo lollov. 1Le
systematic oetermination ol tLis ouality voulo oemano its tLeoretical
assertion, its translormation into a oetermineo olject ol tLougLt.
34

Hlsen`s criticism is tLat consioereo as tvo separateo, tLougL simul-
taneously asserteo nrst principles, tLe sell-complementary principles
ol tLeory ano practice relatizize eacL otLer ano unoermine tLe original
conoition tLat Beck ascriles tLem.
Eegaroing Beck`s concept ol moral ougLt (sittlicles Sollen), Hlsen`s
criticism is tLat Beck assigns tLis concept tLe status ol an arlitrarily
estallisLeo lact (Tlatsacle), vLile ioentilying it vitL practical reason

33
e NTVS, 1p
34
See: e NTVS, :oo-:
]acob Sigisnund Beck's Einzignglicler Standpunkt
1p;
or lreeoom. 1Lis ioentincation allovs Beck to cLaracterize moral
ougLt as tLe LigLest principle ol practice. Accoroing to Hlsen, critical
pLilosopLy must oeouce tLe possilility ol tLis lact. As an arlitrarily
estallisLeo lact, Beck`s concept ol moral cannot explain a lunoamental
leature ol critical tLougLt: reason`s practical alility to strive. qually
uncritical is Beck`s approacL to tLe LigLest gooo, vLicL provioes a
systematic lounoation lor our necessary leliel in Goo ano immortality.
Accoroing to Hlsen, attainment ol tLe LigLest gooo, a lull sell-
conscious lulnlment ol our spiritual nature, oemanos innnite sell-
reective striving alter regulative sell-ioentity. Hlsen`s locus on tLe
LigLest gooo as a unitary concept, as a juoging syntLesis ol moral
action ano Lappiness, allovs a systematic equation ol tLe concepts
reason ano Goo. Beck, apart lrom lacking sucL a unitary concept,
misses tLe lact tLat a rationally grounoeo leliel in Goo ano im-
mortality is tLe rational leing`s key to regulate Lis supreme moral task:
tLe exLaustive suloroination ol all possille ot-.
35

Die enpiriscle Erscleinung, uelcle uir Tod nennen, lat dennacl in den
reinen Begrijje zon unserer Unsterbliclkeit gar keinen Sinn. Haben uir
einnal den Willen seine Aujgabe gegeben, so liegt jortlin auj unsern Wege
jr uns kein Tod nelr, und iln jrclten leisst eben so ziel, als das Fort-
sclreiten zun Vollkonnnern jrclten. Der sittliclgute Menscl bedarj also
der Ueberzeugung zon Gott und Unsterbliclkeit etzt, in diesen Augen-
blikke, den er uill etzt, un in diesen Augenbikke, scln jr die Euigkeit
landeln. .] Selen uir nun auj den lclsten Zueck unserer landlungen, so
ndet sicl da niclts zon Uebereinstinung der Glckseligkeit nit der
noralisclen Wrdigkeit, sondern die Glckseligkeit liegt sclon als notl-
uendig in unsern Willen, und der lclste Gegenstand unsers Strebens ist die
Vernunjt selber. In so jern sie dieses ist, und sicl selbst also eine Aujgabe ist,
liegt aucl Vollendung in der Unendliclkeit in ilren praktisclen Wesen.
Seine Aujgabe denken, und die Unendliclkeit in sicl ausnelnen ist darun
zllig identiscl.
36

1Le main lailure ol Beck`s system is tLe alsence ol a sell-conscious
insigLt into tLe circular relation ol pLilosopLy to its exclusive olject:

35
See: e NTVS, :o,-;, :op
36
e NTVS, :o;-8
Appendix A
1p8
tLe system ol knovleoge.
37
Critical insigLt sLoulo sLov tLe precise
systematic location ol Einzignglicler Standpunkt vitLin a personally
articulateo rational Listory ol pLilosopLy, it sLoulo sLov Lov to
exLaust, augment, ano correct Beck`s grounoing principle, acLieve sell-
oetermination, vitLorav lrom tLe spLere ol partisan oisputes, ano
integrate autonomously in a cooroinateo striving alter alsolute sell-
ioentity.

37
See: e NTVS, :o. Hlsen closes vitLout oiscussing section ol Beck`s
essay.
1pp
Appenoix B: Hlsen`s ile
August uovig Hlsen vas lorn on MarcL , 1;, in Aken an oer
lle, a small village in Saxony-AnLalt. Hlsen vas tLe eigLtL son ol
tLe preacLer Paul Gottlrieo Hlsen ano ]oLanna LorotLea Stutz. ot
mucL alout Hlsen`s cLiloLooo ano youtL is knovn, except tLat Le
liveo in Premnitz, a small village in Branoenlurg vLere Lis latLer
preacLeo.
Cn tLe summer semester ol 1;8,, Hlsen enrolleo at tLe Lniversity
ol Halle to stuoy tLeology. nsteao, Le stuoieo classical pLilology.
!rieoricL August Woll (1;,p-18:) vas Hlsen`s most important aca-
oemic teacLer. Woll introouceo Hlsen in tLe interpretation ol Homer.
Hlsen completeo Lis stuoies in 1;8p. 1Lis same year Le lecame tLe
private tutor ol tLe Baron !rieoricL oe la Motte !ouqu (1;;;-18),
sulsequently a romantic vriter ano poet, ano tLe autLor ol tLe
prologue ol Hlsen`s postLumously pullisLeo lragments. Hlsen`s
peoagogic activity enoeo in tLe spring ol 1;p, vLen !ouqu lecame a
solioer. A strong interest in critical pLilosopLy encourageo Hlsen`s
enrolment lor tLe 1;p summer semester at tLe Lniversity ol Iiel
vLere EeinLolo vas prominent. Hlsen`s purpose vas to oeepen Lis
knovleoge ol Iant`s ano EeinLolo`s pLilosopLy. Very soon, Lovever,
Hlsen louno tLat EeinLolo Lao cLangeo Lis pLilosopLical position
raoically. Hlsen`s oisillusionment vitL EeinLolo motivateo Lis sLilt
to ]ena in aster 1;p,, vLere lor some montLs, !icLte vas teacLing Lis
Wissensclajtslelre. n ]ena, Hlsen joineo tLe Bund der jreien Manner,
a group ol young stuoents tLat committeo itsell to tLe repullican
implications ol !icLte's pLilosopLy.
1
Hlsen`s stay at ]ena prompteo
Lis Preissclrijt ano Lis nrst collaloration vitL !icLte`s Plilosopliscles
]ournal: tLe Plilosopliscle Brieje an Hrn. z. Briest in Nennlausen.
Erster Briej. Ueber Popularitat in der Plilosoplie.

1
!or a sLort account ol tLe Bund's Listory see: o 1p8, ,;;-8 ano o~~
1p,p, ;-
Appendix B
:oo
!rom tLe spring ol 1;p ano until tLe autumn ol 1;p;, Hlsen joineo
some Bund memlers in a journey to Svitzerlano, vLere Le met tLe
Sviss peoagogue ]oLann HeinricL Pestalozzi (1;-18:;). Hlsen`s
return to ]ena in 1;p; prompteo Lis secono article in !icLte`s journal:
Ueber den Bildungstrieb, vLicL appeareo in print a year later. !icLte`s
satislaction vitL Hlsen`s acLievements persuaoeo Lim to oller Hlsen
in 1;p8 a cLair ol pLilosopLy at tLe Lniversity ol ]ena. Hlsen, vLo
sav Limsell as an inoepenoent tLinker, rejecteo !icLte`s oller ano
openeo in 1;pp an eoucational institute lor loys in entzke lei !eLr-
lellin, a small village near Berlin. Hlsen conceiveo Lis institute as a
Socratic scLool. Hlsen`s purpose vas to promote introspective sell-
knovleoge tLrougL active pLilosopLical oelate, Lis success vas sLort-
liveo. AltLougL LorotLea Veit planneo to seno Ler son PLilip to
entzke, Hlsen`s institute closeo alter one year. Cn ]uly 1;p8, Hlsen
estallisLeo Lis nrst contacts vitL tLe early German romantics, Le
legan corresponoing vitL August W. ScLlegel.
2

n MarcL 1;pp, Hlsen marrieo CLristiane Posern ano resumeo Lis
literary projects. !rieoricL ScLlegel inviteo Lim to collalorate vitL tLe
Atlenaun. 1Lis same year Hlsen`s Ueber die natrlicle Gleiclleit
der Mensclen appeareo in print. Hlsen`s acLievement attracteo
ScLleiermacLer`s interest. BotL tLinkers legan corresponoing on Ccto-
ler 1;pp.
3
Hlsen`s secono Atlenaun essay, tLe Natur-Betracltungen
auj einer Beise durcl die Sclueiz, lolloveo in 18oo. otvitLstanoing
tLe interest ano tLe respect Hlsen`s tLougLt receiveo lrom tLe early
romantics, tLe Natur-Betracltungen enoeo Hlsen`s collaloration
vitL tLe Atlenaun. Hlsen claimeo tLat tLe Atlenaun Lao a scLolarly
elitist pronle, vLicL preventeo tLe promotion ol a popularizeo
spiritual culture: one ol Hlsen`s major interests.
Hlsen`s vile oieo in Cctoler 18oo. Hlsen moveo to Seekamp to
tLe estate ol Lis Bund lrieno tLe LanisL pLilosopLer ]oLann ricL von

2
!or Hlsen`s corresponoence vitL August W. ScLlegel (1;p8-18o), see:
c 1p1, p;-1:1, ano h 1p;, ,-
3
!or Hlsen`s corresponoence vitL ScLleiermacLer (1;pp-18o:), see: e
NVNP, 1-o
Hlsen's Lije
:o1
Berger (1;;:-18). 1ogetLer vitL otLer ex-Bund memlers, Hlsen
lounoeo tLe Mnenos,ne, a popular alternative to tLe scLolarly Atle-
naun. 1Le journal appeareo just once. o contrilutions ly Hlsen
vLo planneo to take part ol tLe project vere incluoeo in tLis only
issue. 1Lis enoeo Hlsen`s sLort pLilosopLical career. otvitLstanoing
!rieoricL ScLlegel`s recurrent collaloration ollers, Hlsen remaineo
reluctant to pullisL.
n 18o:, Hlsen laileo into a oeep emotional crisis, as Lis re-
lationsLip vitL !rieoerike von uck, enoeo laoly. His nnancial
situation also lecame extremely oilncult. August W. ScLlegel`s ellorts
to interceoe on Hlsen`s leLall vitL tLe Count von IalkelreutL,
lormerly Salomon Maimon`s lenelactor, vere unsuccesslul. !or some
montLs, Hlsen vacillateo letveen Holstein ano Berlin. Some years
alter, Hlsen relerreo to tLis perioo ol Lis lile as an epocL ol
oisorientation ano existential conlusion. Hlsen`s situation cLangeo
oramatically in tLe autumn ol 18o alter von Berger ano some otLer
ex-Bund lrienos inviteo Lim to join an agricultural commune tLey
lounoeo in Holstein. 1Lis same year Hlsen legun vorking as a
larmer ano enoeo Lis corresponoence vitL tLe early romantics. A
strong supporter ol lreeoom, Hlsen rejecteo ano criticiseo severely
!rieoricL ano August W. ScLlegel`s increasing sympatLy to tLe
meoieval past, vLicL Le consioereo reactionary.
4

n tLe spring ol 18o, Hlsen`s lrienos lougLt Lim a larm in tLe
village ol Wagersrott. 1Le orvegian pLilosopLer Henrik Stellens
(1;;-18,), in 18o; a visitor ol Hlsen, reporteo tLat Hlsen ano von
Berger lecame oeeply interesteo in tLe speculative grounoing ol tLe

4
See e letter to August W. ScLlegel lrom Lecemler 18, 18o in h
1p;, ,,-. Hlsen`s criticism ol tLe ScLlegel lrotLers attracteo Walter Benja-
min`s attention. n Lis 1p8 reviev ol ]osel h`s Krisenalre der Frl-
ronantik, containeo in Der Stratege in Literaturkanpj, _~ (NVTQ, ,1)
rateo Hlsen`s letter as one ol tLe [.| seltenen Dokunenten, in denen das
Grundnotiz der Aujklarung nit enen unzergleiclliclen Klange zibriert, den es
ber den Besonanzboden der Bonantik anninnt. Er denunziert die Unnndig-
keit des deutsclen Brgertuns, die in diesen Krisenalren zun Verlangnis der
Frlronantik geuorden ist.
Appendix B
:o:
nev natural sciences, tLey lotL conoucteo several pLysical experiments.
5

1Le pLilosopLical lragments tLat ScLelling pullisLeo alter Hlsen`s
oeatL vere vritten apparently ouring tLis time.
n ]une 18o, Hlsen marrieo SopLie CLristine !rieoerica von
Wilel. 1Le marriage oio not last long, as Hlsen`s vile oieo in MarcL
18o8 alter giving lirtL to a son, vLo also oieo a sLort time alter. Cn
MarcL 1, 18op, Hlsen marrieo Maria lisaletL WilLelmine 1Lor-
malen, Lis tLiro vile. 1Le couple moveo to StecLov bei EatLenov,
vLere Hlsen`s lrotLer Lelo olnce as a pastor, a oaugLter vas lorn on
]uly 18op. A lev montLs alter, on Septemler :, 18op, Hlsen oieo.
Alter Hlsen`s oeatL, !icLte, von Berger, ano a Motte !ouqu, sup-
porteo Hlsen`s vioov nnancially. !icLte even ollereo tLe vioov to
take care ol Ler oaugLter.
6



5
See: q 1p8, 1:,
6
See: h :oo1, 18. !or an exLaustive liograpLy ol Hlsen see LlricL
h`s . neine Plilosoplie ist kein Bucl. August Luduig Hlsen (1,-
18o,) Leben und Sclreiben eines Selbstdenkers und S,nplilosoplen zur Zeit
der Frlronantik. Parts ol my sLort account ol Hlsen`s lile vere taken lrom
MattLias t` internet entry in tLe Biograpliscl-Bibliograpliscles Kirclen-
lexicon. See: t :ooo
:o
BilliograpLy
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Grunosatzes oer PLilosopLie, in: Plilosopliscles ]ournal einer Ge-
sellscLalt 1euscLer GeleLrten, EeprogranscLer acLoruck oer Ausg.
eu-Strelitz 1;p,, HiloesLeim: Clms, , 1pp
c, ]oLann Gottliel (GA): Ficlte-Gesantausgabe oer Bayer. Akao.
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:o
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Band 1 Ulrich Arnswald (Hrsg.)
In Search of Meaning. Ludwig Wittgenstein on Ethics, Mysticism and Religion. 2009
ISBN 978-3-86644-218-4
Band 2 Luis Miguel Carrujo Covas
Worte am Werk. Wittgenstein ber Sprache und Welt. 2008
ISBN 978-3-86644-291-7
Band 3 Christian Hofstadt
Denkrume und Denkbewegungen. Untersuchungen zum metaphorischen
Gebrauch der Sprache der Rumlichkeit. 2009
ISBN 978-3-86644-378-5
Band 4 Ulrich Arnswald, Hans-Peter Schtt (Hrsg.)
Tomas Morus Utopia und das Genre der Utopie in der Politischen Philosophie. 2010
ISBN 978-3-86644-403-4
Band 5 Ezequiel L. Posesorski
Between Reinhold and Fichte. August Ludwig Hlsens Contribution to the
Emergence of German Idealism. 2012
ISBN 978-3-86644-861-2
Die Bnde sind unter www.ksp.kit.edu als PDF frei verfgbar oder als Druckausgabe bestellbar.
Europische Kultur und Ideengeschichte
(ISSN 1867-5018)
Herausgeber: Bernd Tum, Hans-Peter Schtt
Institut fr Philosophie, Karlsruher Institut fr Technologie (KIT)
9 783866 448612
ISBN 978-3-86644-861-2
ISBN 978-3-86644-861-2
ISSN 1867-5018
August Ludwig Hlsen (1765-1809) was a contributor to the emergence of German idealism. Not-
withstanding, his name and works are up to this day almost entirely unknown to most scholars in
the feld. Tis monograph discusses the historical importance of Hlsens Prfung der von der Akade-
mie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin aufgestellten Preisfrage: Was hat die Metaphysik seit Leibniz und Wolf
fr Progressen gemacht? (1796), his only book, for the emergence of German idealism, especially the
thought of Reinhold and Fichte during the 1790s.
Te usual way of focusing on the Wissenschaftslehre, and hence, on the emergence of German ide-
alism, is as a response of Fichte to the skeptical objections of Schulze-Aenesidemus to Reinholds
early Elementarphilosophie. Tis response, as Fichte himself recognized in 1798, was far from com-
plete. Hlsen, a Fichtean thinker, restructured and regrounded those aspects of Reinholds system
that Fichte left intact: in particular, Reinholds almost forgotten approach to the rational history of
philosophy. In 1797, Hlsens achievement prompted Fichtes recommendation of Hlsens book
in Annalen des philosophischen Tons as an introduction to his Wissenschaftslehre. Tis indicates that
Fichte recognized Hlsen as a partner in the development of his incomplete system. Accordingly, the
historical importance of Hlsens book is that it completed Fichtes attempt to overcome Reinholds
standpoint and contributed to the emergence of German idealism.
About the Author
Ezequiel Leandro Posesorski was born in 1975 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. He studied philosophy,
English language and literature at the University of Haifa, where he obtained PhD. Posesorski has
been a grant holder of the Research Authority of the University of Haifa, the Switzerland-Israel
Philosophy Foundation, and the Bucerius Institute for Research of Contemporary German History
and Society. In 2010, Te Minerva Stiftung (Max-Planck Gesellschaft) awarded him a fellowship
for a research residence at the Eberhard Karls Universitt Tbingen. His current topic of research is
Hlsens later philosophical works and their signifcance for the history of early German romanticism,
especially with respect to the thought of Friedrich Schlegel, Novalis and Schleiermacher.
Studien 5