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<p><point16>R.</point16></p> <p><hw>R</hw> (&auml;r). <def>R, the eighteenth letter of the English alphabet, is a vocal consonant. It is sometimes called a <i>semivowel</i>, and a <i>liquid</i>. See <i>Guide to Pronunciation</i>, &sect;&sect; 178, 179, and 250-254.</def> "<i>R</i> is the dog's letter and hurreth in the sound." <i>B. Jonson.</i></p> <p> In words derived from the Greek language the letter <i>h</i> is generally written after <i>r</i> to represent the aspirated sound of the Greek <grk>"r</grk>, but does not affect the pronunciation of the English word, as <i>rhapsody</i>, <i>rhetoric</i>.</p> <p> The English letter derives its form from the Greek through the Latin, the Greek letter being derived from the Ph&oelig;nician, which, it is believed, is ultimately of Egyptian origin. Etymologically, R is most closely related to <i>l</i>, <i>s</i>, and <i>n</i>; as in bando<i>r</i>e, mando<i>l</i>e; purp<i>l</i>e, L. purpu<i>r</i>a; E. chapte<i>r</i>, F. chapit<i>r</i>e, L. capitu<i>l</i>um; E. wa<i>s</i>, we<i>r</i>e; ha<i>r</i>e, G. ha<i>s</i>e; E. orde<i>r</i>, F. ord<i>r</i>e, L. ordo, ordi<i>n</i>is; E. coffe<i>r</i>, coffi<i>n.</i> </p> <p><col><b>The three Rs</b></col>, <cd>a jocose expression for reading, (w)riting, and (a)rithmetic, -- the fundamentals of an education.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ra</hw> (r&auml;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A roe; a deer.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra-</hw>. <def>A prefix, from the Latin <i>re</i> and <i>ad</i> combined, coming to us through the French and Italian. See <u>Re-</u>, and <u>Ad-</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Raash</hw> (r&auml;sh), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. Ar. <i>ra'ash</i> trembling, tremor.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The electric catfish.</def> [Written also <i>raasch</i>.]</p>

<p><hw>Rab</hw> (r&abreve;b), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rod or stick used by masons in mixing hair with mortar.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"at</hw> (r&abreve;b"&abreve;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Rabot</u>.] <def>A polishing material made of potter's clay that has failed in baking.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*bate"</hw> (r&adot;*b&amacr;t"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>rabattre</i> to beat down; pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>abattre</i>. See <u>Abate</u>, and cf. <u>Rebate</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <i>(Falconry)</i> <def>To recover to the fist, as a hawk.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rab"a*tine</hw> (r&abreve;b"&adot;*t&ibreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Rabato</u>.] <def>A collar or cape.</def> [Obs.] <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra*ba"to</hw> (r&adot;*b&amacr;"t&osl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>rabat</i>, fr. <i>rabattre</i>. See <u>Rabate</u>.] <def>A kind of ruff for the neck; a turned-down collar; a rebato.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rab*bate"</hw> (r&abreve;b*b&amacr;t"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [See <u>Rabate</u>.] <def>To abate or diminish.</def> [Obs.] -<pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Abatement.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rab"bet</hw> (r&abreve;b"b&ebreve;t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rabbeted</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rabbeting</u>.] [F. <i>raboter</i> to plane, plane down,<i>rabot</i> a plane; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + OF. <i>abouter</i>, <i>aboter</i>. See <u>Abut</u>, and cf. <u>Rebut</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To cut a rabbet in; to furnish with a rabbet.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To unite the edges of, as boards, etc., in a rabbet joint.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"bet</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Rabbet</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>, and cf. <u>Rebate</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Carp.)</i> <def>A longitudinal channel, groove, or recess cut out of the edge or face of any body; especially, one intended to receive another member, so as to break or cover the joint, or more easily to hold the members in place; thus, the groove cut for a panel, for a pane of glass, or for a door, is a <i>rabbet</i>, or rebate.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Same as <i>Rabbet joint</i>, below.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rabbet joint</b></col> <i>(Carp.)</i>, <cd>a joint formed by fitting together rabbeted boards or timbers; -- called also <i>rabbet</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rabbet plane</b></col>, <cd>a joiner's plane for cutting a rabbet.</cd> <i>Moxon.</i></p> <p><hw>Rab"bi</hw> (r&abreve;b"b&imacr; or -b&ibreve;; 277), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Rabbis</b></plw> (-b&imacr;z

or -b&ibreve;z) or <plw><b>Rabbies</b></plw>. [L., fr. Gr. <grk>"rabbi`</grk>, Heb. <i>rab&imacr;</i> my master, from <i>rab</i> master, lord, teacher, akin to Ar. <i>rabb</i>.] <def>Master; lord; teacher; -- a Jewish title of respect or honor for a teacher or doctor of the law.</def> "The gravest <i>rabbies</i>." <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Be not ye called <i>Rabbi</i>, for one is your Master, even Christ, and all ye are brethren.</blockquote> <i>Matt. xxiii. 8.</i></p> <p><hw>Rab"bin</hw> (r&abreve;b"b&ibreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.] <def>Same as <u>Rabbi</u>.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Rab*bin"ic</hw> (r&abreve;b*b&ibreve;n"&ibreve;k), <hw>Rab*bin"ic*al</hw> (-&ibreve;*k<i>a</i>l), } <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rabbinique</i>.] <def>Of or pertaining to the rabbins or rabbis, or pertaining to the opinions, learning, or language of the rabbins.</def> "Comments staler than <i>rabbinic</i>." <i>Lowell.</i></p> <p><blockquote>We will not buy your <i>rabbinical</i> fumes.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Rab*bin"ic</hw> (r&abreve;b*b&ibreve;n"&ibreve;k), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The language or dialect of the rabbins; the later Hebrew.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab*bin"ic*al*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rabbinical manner; after the manner of the rabbins.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"bin*ism</hw> (r&abreve;b"b&ibreve;n*&ibreve;z'm), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rabbinisme</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A rabbinic expression or phraseology; a peculiarity of the language of the rabbins.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The teachings and traditions of the rabbins.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"bin*ist</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rabbiniste</i>.] <def>One among the Jews who adhered to the Talmud and the traditions of the rabbins, in opposition to the <i>Karaites</i>, who rejected the traditions.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"bin*ite</hw> (-&imacr;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Same as <u>Rabbinist</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"bit</hw> (r&abreve;b"b&ibreve;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>rabet</i>, akin to OD. <i>robbe</i>, <i>robbeken</i>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Any of the smaller species of the genus Lepus, especially the common European species (<i>Lepus cuniculus</i>), which is often kept as a pet, and has been introduced into many countries. It is remarkably prolific, and has become a pest in some parts of Australia and New Zealand.</def></p> <p>&fist; The common American rabbit (<i>L. sylvatica</i>) is similar but smaller. See <u>Cottontail</u>, and <i>Jack rabbit</i>, under 2d <u>Jack</u>. The larger species of Lepus are commonly called <i>hares</i>. See <u>Hare</u>.</p>

<p><col><b>Angora rabbit</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a variety of the domestic rabbit having long, soft fur.</cd> -- <col><b>Rabbit burrow</b></col>, <cd>a hole in the earth made by rabbits for shelter and habitation.</cd> -- <col><b>Rabbit fish</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>The northern chim&aelig;ra (<i>Chim&aelig;ra monstrosa</i>)</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>Any one of several species of plectognath fishes, as the bur fish, and puffer. The term is also locally applied to other fishes.</cd> -<col><b>Rabbits' ears</b></col>. <i>(Bot.)</i> <cd>See <u>Cyclamen</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rabbit warren</b></col>, <cd>a piece of ground appropriated to the breeding and preservation of rabbits.</cd> <i>Wright.</i> -- <col><b>Rock rabbit</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>See <u>Daman</u>, and <u>Klipdas</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Welsh rabbit</b></col>, <cd>a dish of which the chief constituents are toasted bread and toasted cheese, prepared in various ways. The name is said to be a corruption of <i>Welsh rare bit</i>, but perhaps it is merely a humorous designation.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rab"bit*ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The hunting of rabbits.</def> <i>T. Hughes.</i></p> <p><hw>Rab"bit*ry</hw> (-r&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A place where rabbits are kept; especially, a collection of hutches for tame rabbits.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"ble</hw> (r&abreve;b"b'l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Etymol. uncertain.] <i>(Iron Manuf.)</i> <def>An iron bar, with the end bent, used in stirring or skimming molten iron in the process of puddling.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"ble</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To stir or skim with a rabble, as molten iron.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"ble</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [Akin to D. <i>rabbelen</i>, Prov. G. <i>rabbeln</i>, to prattle, to chatter: cf. L. <i>rabula</i> a brawling advocate, a pettifogger, fr. <i>rabere</i> to rave. Cf. <u>Rage</u>.] <def>To speak in a confused manner.</def> [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]</p> <p><hw>Rab"ble</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Probably named from the noise made by it (see <u>Rabble</u>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos>); cf. D. <i>rapalje</i> rabble, OF. & Prov. F. <i>rapaille</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A tumultuous crowd of vulgar, noisy people; a mob; a confused, disorderly throng.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I saw, I say, come out of London, even unto the presence of the prince, a great <i>rabble</i> of mean and light persons.</blockquote> <i>Ascham.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Jupiter, Mercury, Bacchus, Venus, Mars, and the whole <i>rabble</i> of licentious deities.</blockquote> <i>Bp. Warburton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A confused, incoherent discourse; a medley of voices; a chatter.</def></p> <p><col><b>The rabble</b></col>, <cd>the lowest class of people,

without reference to an assembly; the dregs of the people.</cd> "<i>The rabble</i> call him &lsquo;lord.'" <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rab"ble</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of or pertaining to a rabble; like, or suited to, a rabble; disorderly; vulgar.</def> [R.] <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Rab"ble</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rabbled</u> (-b'ld); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rabbling</u> (-bl&ibreve;ng).] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To insult, or assault, by a mob; to mob; as, to <i>rabble</i> a curate.</def> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The bishops' carriages were stopped and the prelates themselves <i>rabbled</i> on their way to the house.</blockquote> <i>J. R. Green.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To utter glibly and incoherently; to mouth without intelligence.</def> [Obs. or Scot.] <i>Foxe.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To rumple; to crumple.</def> [Scot.]</p> <p><hw>Rab"ble*ment</hw> (r&abreve;b"b'l*m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A tumultuous crowd of low people; a rabble.</def> "Rude <i>rablement</i>." <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>And still, as he refused it, the <i>rabblement</i> hooted.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rab"bler</hw> (-bl&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See 2d <u>Rabble</u>.] <i>(Mech.)</i> <def>A scraping tool for smoothing metal.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"ble-rout`</hw> (-b'l-rout`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A tumultuous crowd; a rabble; a noisy throng.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab*doid"al</hw> (r&abreve;b*doid"<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Gr. <grk>"ra`bdos</grk> a rod + <i>-oid + al</i>.] <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>See <u>Sagittal</u>.</def> [Written also <i>rhabdoidal</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Rab*dol"o*gy</hw> (-d&obreve;l"&osl;*j&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Gr. <grk>"ra`bdos</grk> rod, stick + <i>logy</i>: cf. F. <i>rabdologie</i>.] <def>The method or art of performing arithmetical operations by means of Napier's bones. See <u>Napier's bones</u>.</def> [Written also <i>rhabdology</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Rab"do*man`cy</hw> (r&abreve;b"d&osl;*m&abreve;n`s&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Gr. <grk>"ra`bdos</grk> rod + <i>-mancy</i>.] <def>Divination by means of rods or wands.</def> [Written also <i>rhabdomancy</i>.] <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><hw>Rab"id</hw> (r&abreve;b"&ibreve;d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>rabidus</i>, from <i>rabere</i> to rave. See <u>Rage</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Furious; raging; extremely violent.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>rabid</i> flight<BR>

Of winds that ruin ships.</blockquote> <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Extreme, unreasonable, or fanatical in opinion; excessively zealous; as, a <i>rabid</i> socialist.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Affected with the distemper called <i>rabies</i>; mad; as, a <i>rabid</i> dog or fox.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Med.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to rabies, or hydrophobia; as, <i>rabid</i> virus.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*bid"i*ty</hw> (r&adot;*b&ibreve;d"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Rabidness; furiousness.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"id*ly</hw> (r&abreve;b"&ibreve;d*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rabid manner; with extreme violence.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"id*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being rabid.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra"bi*es</hw> (r&amacr;"b&ibreve;*&emacr;z), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. See <u>Rage</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <def>Same as <u>Hydrophobia</u> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd>; canine madness.</def></p> <p><hw>Rab"i*net</hw> (r&abreve;b"&ibreve;*n&ebreve;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Etymol. uncertain.] <i>(Mil.)</i> <def>A kind of small ordnance formerly in use.</def> [Written also <i>rabanet</i>.] <i>Ainsworth.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"bi*ous</hw> (r&amacr;"b&ibreve;*&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Fierce.</def> [Obs.] <i>Daniel.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"bot</hw> (r&amacr;"b&obreve;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.] <def>A rubber of hard wood used in smoothing marble to be polished.</def> <i>Knight.</i></p> <p><hw>||Ra"ca</hw> (r&amacr;"k&adot;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Gr. <grk>"raka`</grk>, from Chaldee <i>r&emacr;k&amacr;</i>.] <def>A term of reproach used by the Jews of our Savior's time, meaning "worthless."</def></p> <p><blockquote>Whosoever shall say to his brother, <i>Raca</i>, shall be in danger of the council.</blockquote> <i>Matt. v. 22.</i></p> <p><hw>||Ra`ca`hout"</hw> (r&adot;`k&adot;`&oomac;"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>racahout</i>, probably fr. Ar. <i>r&amacr;qaut</i>.] <def>A preparation from acorns used by the Arabs as a substitute for chocolate, and also as a beverage for invalids.</def></p> <p><hw>Rac*coon"</hw> (r&abreve;k*k&oomac;n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>raton</i>, prop., a little rat, fr. <i>rat</i> rat, perhaps of German origin. See <u>Rat</u>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A North American nocturnal carnivore (<i>Procyon lotor</i>) allied to the bears, but much smaller, and having a long, full tail, banded with black and gray. Its body is gray, varied with black and white. Called

also <i>coon</i>, and <i>mapach</i>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Raccoon dog</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the tanate.</cd> -- <col><b>Raccoon fox</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the cacomixle.</cd></p> <p><hw>Race</hw> (r&amacr;s), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To raze.</def> [Obs.] <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><! p. 1182 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Race</hw> (r&amacr;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OF. <i>ra&iuml;z</i>, L. <i>radix</i>, <i>-icis</i>. See <u>Radix</u>.] <def>A root.</def> "A <i>race</i> or two of ginger." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><col><b>Race ginger</b></col>, <cd>ginger in the root, or not pulverized.</cd></p> <p><hw>Race</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>race</i>; cf. Pr. & Sp. <i>raza</i>, It. <i>razza</i>; all from OHG. <i>reiza</i> line, akin to E. <i>write</i>. See <u>Write</u>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The descendants of a common ancestor; a family, tribe, people, or nation, believed or presumed to belong to the same stock; a lineage; a breed.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The whole <i>race</i> of mankind.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Whence the long <i>race</i> of Alban fathers come.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p>&fist; Naturalists and ethnographers divide mankind into several distinct varieties, or races. Cuvier refers them all to three, Pritchard enumerates seven, Agassiz eight, Pickering describes eleven. One of the common classifications is that of Blumenbach, who makes five races: the <i>Caucasian</i>, or white race, to which belong the greater part of the European nations and those of Western Asia; the <i>Mongolian</i>, or yellow race, occupying Tartary, China, Japan, etc.; the <i>Ethiopian</i>, or negro race, occupying most of Africa (except the north), Australia, Papua, and other Pacific Islands; the <i>American</i>, or red race, comprising the Indians of North and South America; and the <i>Malayan</i>, or brown race, which occupies the islands of the Indian Archipelago, etc. Many recent writers classify the Malay and American races as branches of the Mongolian. See <i>Illustration</i> in Appendix.</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Company; herd; breed.</def></p> <p><blockquote>For do but note a wild and wanton herd,<BR> Or <i>race</i> of youthful and unhandled colts,<BR> Fetching mad bounds.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A variety of such fixed character that it may be propagated by seed.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Peculiar flavor, taste, or strength, as of wine; that quality, or assemblage of qualities, which indicates origin

or kind, as in wine; hence, characteristic flavor; smack.</def> "A <i>race</i> of heaven." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Is it [the wine] of the right <i>race</i> ?</blockquote> <i>Massinger.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Hence, characteristic quality or disposition.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>And now I give my sensual <i>race</i> the rein.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Some . . . great <i>race</i> of fancy or judgment.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Temple.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Lineage; line; family; house; breed; offspring; progeny; issue.</p> <p><hw>Race</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>ras</i>, <i>res</i>, <i>rees</i>, AS. <i>r&aemacr;s</i> a rush, running; akin to Icel. <i>r&amacr;s</i> course, race. &radic;118.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A progress; a course; a movement or progression.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Esp., swift progress; rapid course; a running.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The flight of many birds is swifter than the <i>race</i> of any beasts.</blockquote> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Hence: The act or process of running in competition; a contest of speed in any way, as in running, riding, driving, skating, rowing, sailing; in the plural, usually, a meeting for contests in the running of horses; as, he attended the <i>races</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>race</i> is not to the swift.</blockquote> <i>Eccl. ix. 11.</i></p> <p><blockquote>I wield the gauntlet, and I run the <i>race</i>.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Competitive action of any kind, especially when prolonged; hence, career; course of life.</def></p> <p><blockquote>My <i>race</i> of glory run, and <i>race</i> of shame.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>A strong or rapid current of water, or the channel or passage for such a current; a powerful current or heavy sea, sometimes produced by the meeting of two tides; as, the Portland <i>Race</i>; the <i>Race</i> of Alderney.</def></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>The current of water that turns a water wheel, or the channel in which it flows; a mill race.</def></p> <p>&fist; The part of the channel above the wheel is sometimes called the <i>headrace</i>, the part below, the <i>tailrace</i>.</p>

<p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <i>(Mach.)</i> <def>A channel or guide along which a shuttle is driven back and forth, as in a loom, sewing machine, etc.</def></p> <p><col><b>Race cloth</b></col>, <cd>a cloth worn by horses in racing, having pockets to hold the weights prescribed.</cd> -- <col><b>Race course</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>The path, generally circular or elliptical, over which a race is run.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>Same as <i>Race way</i>, below.</cd> -- <col><b>Race cup</b></col>, <cd>a cup given as a prize to the victor in a race.</cd> -- <col><b>Race glass</b></col>, <cd>a kind of field glass.</cd> -- <col><b>Race horse</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>A horse that runs in competition; specifically, a horse bred or kept for running races.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>A breed of horses remarkable for swiftness in running.</cd> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>The steamer duck.</cd> <sd><i>(d)</i></sd> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>A mantis.</cd> -- <col><b>Race knife</b></col>, <cd>a cutting tool with a blade that is hooked at the point, for marking outlines, on boards or metals, as by a pattern, -used in shipbuilding.</cd> -- <col><b>Race saddle</b></col>, <cd>a light saddle used in racing.</cd> -- <col><b>Race track</b></col>. <cd>Same as <i>Race course</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd>, above.</cd> -<col><b>Race way</b></col>, <cd>the canal for the current that drives a water wheel.</cd></p> <p><hw>Race</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Raced</u> (r&amacr;st); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Racing</u> (r&amacr;"s&ibreve;ng).] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To run swiftly; to contend in a race; as, the animals <i>raced</i> over the ground; the ships <i>raced</i> from port to port.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Steam Mach.)</i> <def>To run too fast at times, as a marine engine or screw, when the screw is lifted out of water by the action of a heavy sea.</def></p> <p><hw>Race</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To cause to contend in a race; to drive at high speed; as, to <i>race</i> horses.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To run a race with.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*ce"mate</hw> (r&adot;*s&emacr;"m&asl;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>A salt of racemic acid.</def></p> <p><hw>Rac`e*ma"tion</hw> (r&abreve;s`&esl;*m&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>racematio</i> a gleaning, fr. <i>racemari</i> to glean, <i>racemus</i> a cluster of grapes. See <u>Raceme</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A cluster or bunch, as of grapes.</def> <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Cultivation or gathering of clusters of grapes.</def> [R.] <i>Bp. Burnet.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra*ceme"</hw> (r&adot;*s&emacr;m"; 277), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>racemus</i> a bunch of berries, a cluster of grapes. See <u>Raisin</u>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A flower cluster with an elongated

axis and many one-flowered lateral pedicels, as in the currant and chokecherry.</def></p> <p><col><b>Compound raceme</b></col>, <cd>one having the lower pedicels developed into secondary racemes.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ra*cemed"</hw> (r&adot;*s&emacr;md"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Arranged in a raceme, or in racemes.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*ce"mic</hw> (r&adot;*s&emacr;"m&ibreve;k), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rac&eacute;mique</i>. See <u>Raceme</u>.] <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>Pertaining to, or designating, an acid found in many kinds of grapes. It is also obtained from tartaric acid, with which it is isomeric, and from sugar, gum, etc., by oxidation. It is a sour white crystalline substance, consisting of a combination of dextrorotatory and levorotatory tartaric acids.</def> <i>Gregory.</i></p> <p><hw>Rac`e*mif"er*ous</hw> (r&abreve;s`&esl;*m&ibreve;f"&etilde;r*&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>racemifer</i> bearing clusters; <i>racemus</i> cluster + <i>ferre</i> to bear: cf. F. <i>rac&eacute;mif&egrave;re</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Bearing racemes, as the currant.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*cem"i*form</hw> (r&adot;*s&ebreve;m"&ibreve;*f&ocirc;rm), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Having the form of a raceme.</def> <i>Gray.</i></p> <p><hw>Rac"e*mose`</hw> (r&abreve;s"&esl;*m&omacr;s`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>racemosus</i> full of clusters.] <def>Resembling a raceme; growing in the form of a raceme; as, <i>(Bot.)</i> <i>racemose</i> berries or flowers; <i>(Anat.)</i> the <i>racemose</i> glands, in which the ducts are branched and clustered like a raceme.</def> <i>Gray.</i></p> <p><hw>Rac"e*mous</hw> (r&abreve;s"&esl;*m&ubreve;s or r&adot;*s&emacr;"-; 277), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rac&eacute;meux</i>.] <def>See <u>Racemose</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rac"e*mule</hw> (r&abreve;s"&esl;*m&umacr;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A little raceme.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*cem"u*lose`</hw> (r&adot;*s&ebreve;m"&usl;*l&omacr;s`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Growing in very small racemes.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"cer</hw> (r&amacr;"s&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who, or that which, races, or contends in a race; esp., a race horse.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And bade the nimblest <i>racer</i> seize the prize.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The common American black snake.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Mil.)</i> <def>One of the circular iron or

steel rails on which the chassis of a heavy gun is turned.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Rach</hw>, <hw>Rache</hw> (r&abreve;ch) }, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>r&aelig;cc</i>; akin to Icel. <i>rakki</i>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A dog that pursued his prey by scent, as distinguished from the greyhound.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>||Ra`chi*al"gi*a</hw> (r&amacr;`k&ibreve;*&abreve;l"j&ibreve;*&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [NL., fr. Gr. <grk>"ra`chis</grk> backbone + <grk>'a`lgos</grk> pain.] <i>(Med.)</i> <def>A painful affection of the spine; especially, Pott's disease; also, formerly, lead colic.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*chid"i*an</hw> (r&adot;*k&ibreve;d"&ibreve;*<i>a</i>n), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [See <u>Rachis</u>.] <i>(Anat. & Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to the rachis; spinal; vertebral. Same as <u>Rhachidian</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra*chil"la</hw> (r&adot;*k&ibreve;l"l&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [NL.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Rhachilla</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"chi*o*dont</hw> (r&amacr;"k&ibreve;*&osl;*d&obreve;nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Rhachiodont</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra"chis</hw> (r&amacr;"k&ibreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> E. <plw><b>Rachises</b></plw> (-&ebreve;z), L. <plw><b>Rachides</b></plw> (r&abreve;k"&ibreve;*d&emacr;z). [NL., fr. Gr. <grk>"ra`chis</grk>, <grk>-ios</grk>.] [Written also <i>rhachis</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>The spine; the vertebral column.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Bot. & Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Rhachis</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*chit"ic</hw> (r&adot;*k&ibreve;t"&ibreve;k), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rachitique</i>. See <u>Rachitis</u>.] <i>(Med.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to rachitis; affected by rachitis; rickety.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra*chi"tis</hw> (r&adot;*k&imacr;"t&ibreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [NL., fr. Gr. <grk>"rachi^tis</grk> (sc. <grk>nosos</grk>), fr. <grk>"ra`chis</grk>, <grk>-ios</grk>, the spine.] [Written also <i>rhachitis</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Med.)</i> <def>Literally, inflammation of the spine, but commonly applied to the rickets. See <u>Rickets</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A disease which produces abortion in the fruit or seeds.</def> <i>Henslow.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"chi*tome</hw> (r&amacr;"k&ibreve;*t&omacr;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. Gr. <grk>"ra`chis</grk>, <grk>ios</grk>, the spine + <grk>te`mnein</grk> to cut.] <def>A dissecting instrument for opening the spinal canal.</def> [Written also <i>rachiotome</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Ra"cial</hw> (r&amacr;"sh<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos>

<def>Of or pertaining to a race or family of men; as, the <i>racial</i> complexion.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"ci*ly</hw> (r&amacr;"s&ibreve;*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a racy manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"ci*ness</hw> (r&amacr;"s&ibreve;*n&ebreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality of being racy; peculiar and piquant flavor.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The general characteristics of his [Cobbett's] style were perspicuity, unequaled and inimitable; . . . a purity always simple, and <i>raciness</i> often elegant.</blockquote> <i>London Times.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"cing</hw> (r&amacr;"s&ibreve;ng), <def><pos><i>a. & n.</i></pos> from <u>Race</u>, <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos></def></p> <p><col><b>Racing crab</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>an ocypodian.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rack</hw> (r&abreve;k), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Same as <u>Arrack</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>hracca</i> neck, hinder part of the head; cf. AS. <i>hraca</i> throat, G. <i>rachen</i> throat, E. <i>retch</i>.] <def>The neck and spine of a fore quarter of veal or mutton.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Wreck</u>.] <def>A wreck; destruction.</def> [Obs., except in a few phrases.]</p> <p><col><b>Rack and ruin</b></col>, <cd>destruction; utter ruin.</cd> [Colloq.] -- <col><b>To go to rack</b></col>, <cd>to perish; to be destroyed.</cd> [Colloq.] "All <i>goes to rack</i>." <i>Pepys.</i></p> <p><hw>Rack</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Prob. fr. Icel. <i>rek</i> drift, motion, and akin to <i>reka</i> to drive, and E. <i>wrack</i>, <i>wreck</i>. &radic;282.] <def>Thin, flying, broken clouds, or any portion of floating vapor in the sky.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The winds in the upper region, which move the clouds above, which we call the <i>rack</i>, . . . pass without noise.</blockquote> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><blockquote>And the night <i>rack</i> came rolling up.</blockquote> <i>C. Kingsley.</i></p> <p><hw>Rack</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To fly, as vapor or broken clouds.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Racked</u> (r&abreve;kt); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Racking</u>.] [See <u>Rack</u> that which stretches, or <u>Rock</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <def>To amble fast, causing a rocking or swaying motion of the body; to pace; -- said of a horse.</def> <i>Fuller.</i></p>

<p><hw>Rack</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A fast amble.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Cf. OF. <i>vin raqu&eacute;</i> wine squeezed from the dregs of the grapes.] <def>To draw off from the lees or sediment, as wine.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It is in common practice to draw wine or beer from the lees (which we call <i>racking</i>), whereby it will clarify much the sooner.</blockquote> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><col><b>Rack vintage</b></col>, <cd>wine cleansed and drawn from the lees.</cd> <i>Cowell.</i></p> <p><hw>Rack</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Probably fr. D. <i>rek</i>, <i>rek</i>bank, a rack, <i>rekken</i> to stretch; akin to G. <i>reck</i>, <i>reck</i>bank, a rack, <i>recken</i> to stretch, Dan. <i>r&aelig;kke</i>, Sw. <i>r&auml;cka</i>, Icel. <i>rekja</i> to spread out, Goth. <i>refrakjan</i> to stretch out; cf. L. <i>porrigere</i>, Gr. <grk>'ore`gein</grk>. &radic;115. Cf. <u>Right</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>, <u>Ratch</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>An instrument or frame used for stretching, extending, retaining, or displaying, something.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>An engine of torture, consisting of a large frame, upon which the body was gradually stretched until, sometimes, the joints were dislocated; -- formerly used judicially for extorting confessions from criminals or suspected persons.</def></p> <p><blockquote>During the troubles of the fifteenth century, a <i>rack</i> was introduced into the Tower, and was occasionally used under the plea of political necessity.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>An instrument for bending a bow.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>A grate on which bacon is laid.</def> <sd><i>(d)</i></sd> <def>A frame or device of various construction for holding, and preventing the waste of, hay, grain, etc., supplied to beasts.</def> <sd><i>(e)</i></sd> <def>A frame on which articles are deposited for keeping or arranged for display; as, a clothes <i>rack</i>; a bottle <i>rack</i>, etc.</def> <sd><i>(f)</i></sd> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>A piece or frame of wood, having several sheaves, through which the running rigging passes; -- called also <i>rack block</i>. Also, a frame to hold shot.</def> <sd><i>(g)</i></sd> <i>(Mining)</i> <def>A frame or table on which ores are separated or washed.</def> <sd><i>(h)</i></sd> <def>A frame fitted to a wagon for carrying hay, straw, or grain on the stalk, or other bulky loads.</def> <sd><i>(i)</i></sd> <def>A distaff.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Mech.)</i> <def>A bar with teeth on its face, or edge, to work with those of a wheel, pinion, or worm, which is to drive it or be driven by it.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>That which is extorted; exaction.</def> [Obs.] <i>Sir E. Sandys.</i></p> <p><col><b>Mangle rack</b></col>. <i>(Mach.)</i> <cd>See under <u>Mangle</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></cd> -- <col><b>Rack block</b></col>. <i>(Naut.)</i> <cd>See def. 1 <sd><i>(f)</i></sd>, above.</cd> -- <col><b>Rack lashing</b></col>, <cd>a lashing or

binding where the rope is tightened, and held tight by the use of a small stick of wood twisted around.</cd> -- <col><b>Rack rail</b></col> <i>(Railroads)</i>, <cd>a toothed rack, laid as a rail, to afford a hold for teeth on the driving wheel of a locomotive for climbing steep gradients, as in ascending a mountain.</cd> -<col><b>Rack saw</b></col>, <cd>a saw having wide teeth.</cd> -<col><b>Rack stick</b></col>, <cd>the stick used in a rack lashing.</cd> -- <col><b>To be on the rack</b></col>, <cd>to suffer torture, physical or mental.</cd> -- <col><b>To live at rack and manger</b></col>, <cd>to live on the best at another's expense.</cd> [Colloq.] -- <col><b>To put to the rack</b></col>, <cd>to subject to torture; to torment.</cd></p> <p><blockquote>A fit of the stone <i>puts</i> a king <i>to the rack</i>, and makes him as miserable as it does the meanest subject.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Temple.</i></p> <p><hw>Rack</hw> (r&abreve;k), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To extend by the application of force; to stretch or strain; specifically, to stretch on the rack or wheel; to torture by an engine which strains the limbs and pulls the joints.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He was <i>racked</i> and miserably tormented.</blockquote> <i>Foxe.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To torment; to torture; to affect with extreme pain or anguish.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Vaunting aloud but <i>racked</i> with deep despair.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To stretch or strain, in a figurative sense; hence, to harass, or oppress by extortion.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The landlords there shamefully <i>rack</i> their tenants.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>They [landlords] <i>rack</i> their rents an ace too high.</blockquote> <i>Gascoigne.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Grant that I may never <i>rack</i> a Scripture simile beyond the true intent thereof.</blockquote> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Try what my credit can in Venice do;<BR> That shall be <i>racked</i> even to the uttermost.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Mining)</i> <def>To wash on a rack, as metals or ore.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>To bind together, as two ropes, with cross turns of yarn, marline, etc.</def></p> <p><col><b>To rack one's brains</b></col> or <col><b>wits</b></col>, <cd>to exert them to the utmost for the purpose of accomplishing something.</cd></p>

<p><b>Syn.</b> -- To torture; torment; rend; tear.</p> <p><hw>Rack"a*bones`</hw> (r&abreve;k"&adot;*b&omacr;nz`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A very lean animal, esp. a horse.</def> [Colloq. U. S.]</p> <p><hw>Rack"er</hw> (r&abreve;k"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who racks.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A horse that has a racking gait.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack"et</hw> (r&abreve;k"&ebreve;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>raquette</i>; cf. Sp. <i>raqueta</i>, It. <i>racchetta</i>, which is perhaps for <i>retichetta</i>, and fr. L. <i>rete</i> a net (cf. <u>Reticule</u>); or perh. from the Arabic; cf. Ar. <i>r&amacr;ha</i> the palm of the hand (used at first to strike the ball), and OF. <i>rachette</i>, <i>rasquette</i>, carpus, tarsus.] [Written also <i>racquet</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A thin strip of wood, having the ends brought together, forming a somewhat elliptical hoop, across which a network of catgut or cord is stretched. It is furnished with a handle, and is used for catching or striking a ball in tennis and similar games.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Each one [of the Indians] has a bat curved like a crosier, and ending in a <i>racket</i>.</blockquote> <i>Bancroft.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A variety of the game of tennis played with peculiar long-handled rackets; -- chiefly in the plural.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A snowshoe formed of cords stretched across a long and narrow frame of light wood.</def> [Canada]</p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>A broad wooden shoe or patten for a man or horse, to enable him to step on marshy or soft ground.</def></p> <p><col><b>Racket court</b></col>, <cd>a court for playing the game of rackets.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rack"et</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To strike with, or as with, a racket.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Poor man [is] <i>racketed</i> from one temptation to another.</blockquote> <i>Hewyt.</i></p> <p><hw>Rack"et</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Gael. <i>racaid</i> a noise, disturbance.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Confused, clattering noise; din; noisy talk or sport.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A carouse; any reckless dissipation.</def> [Slang]</p> <p><hw>Rack"et</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Racketed</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Racketing</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To make a confused noise or

racket.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To engage in noisy sport; to frolic.</def> <i>Sterne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To carouse or engage in dissipation.</def> [Slang]</p> <p><hw>Rack"et*er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who makes, or engages in, a racket.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack"ett</hw> (-&ebreve;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Etymol. uncertain.] <i>(Mus.)</i> <def>An old wind instrument of the double bassoon kind, having ventages but not keys.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack"et-tail`</hw> (-t&amacr;l`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Any one of several species of humming birds of the genus <i>Steganura</i>, having two of the tail feathers very long and racket-shaped.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack"et-tailed`</hw> (-t&amacr;ld`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Having long and spatulate, or racket-shaped, tail feathers.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack"et*y</hw> (-&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Making a tumultuous noise.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack"ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>Spun yarn used in racking ropes.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack"-rent`</hw> (-r&ebreve;nt`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rent of the full annual value of the tenement, or near it; an excessive or unreasonably high rent.</def> <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><hw>Rack"-rent`</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To subject to rack-rent, as a farm or tenant.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack"-rent`er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who is subjected to paying rackrent.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>One who exacts rack-rent.</def></p> <p><! p. 1183 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Rack"tail`</hw> (r&abreve;k"t&amacr;l`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Horol.)</i> <def>An arm attached to a swinging notched arc or rack, to let off the striking mechanism of a repeating clock.</def></p> <p><hw>Rack"work`</hw> (-w&ucirc;rk`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Any mechanism having a rack, as a rack and pinion.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"cle</hw> (r&auml;"k'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Rakel</u>.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"cle*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Rakelness</u>.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p>

<p><hw>||Ra`con`teur"</hw> (r&adot;`k&ocirc;N`t&etilde;r"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.] <def>A relater; a storyteller.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra*coon"da</hw> (r&adot;*k&oomac;n"d&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From a native name.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The coypu.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*co"vi*an</hw> (r&adot;*k&omacr;"v&ibreve;*<i>a</i>n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From <i>Racow</i>.] <i>(Eccl. Hist.)</i> <def>One of a sect of Socinians or Unitarians in Poland.</def></p> <p><hw>Rac"quet</hw> (r&abreve;k"k&ebreve;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Racket</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"cy</hw> (r&amacr;"s&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<pos><i>Compar.</i></pos> <u>Racier</u> (-s&ibreve;*&etilde;r); <pos><i>superl.</i></pos> <u>Raciest</u>.] [From <u>Race</u> a tribe, family.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Having a strong flavor indicating origin; of distinct characteristic taste; tasting of the soil; hence, fresh; rich.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>racy</i> wine,<BR> Late from the mellowing cask restored to light.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence: Exciting to the mental taste by a strong or distinctive character of thought or language; peculiar and piquant; fresh and lively.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Our <i>raciest</i>, most idiomatic popular words.</blockquote> <i>M. Arnold.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Burns's English, though not so <i>racy</i> as his Scotch, is generally correct.</blockquote> <i>H. Coleridge.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The rich and <i>racy</i> humor of a natural converser fresh from the plow.</blockquote> <i>Prof. Wilson.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Spicy; spirited; lively; smart; piquant. -<u>Racy</u>, <u>Spicy</u>. <i>Racy</i> refers primarily to that peculiar flavor which certain wines are supposed to derive from the soil in which the grapes were grown; and hence we call a style or production <i>racy</i> when it "smacks of the soil," or has an uncommon degree of natural freshness and distinctiveness of thought and language. <i>Spicy</i>, when applied to style, has reference to a spirit and pungency added by art, seasoning the matter like a condiment. It does not, like <i>racy</i>, suggest native peculiarity. A <i>spicy</i> article in a magazine; a <i>spicy</i> retort. <i>Racy</i> in conversation; a <i>racy</i> remark.</p> <p><blockquote>Rich, <i>racy</i> verses, in which we<BR> The soil from which they come, taste, smell, and see.</blockquote> <i>Cowley.</i></p> <p><hw>Rad</hw> (r&abreve;d), obs. <def><pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> of <u>Read</u>, <u>Rede</u>.</def> <i>Spenser.</i></p>

<p><hw>Rad"de</hw> (r&abreve;d"d<i>e</i>), obs. <def><pos><i>imp.</i></pos> of <u>Read</u>, <u>Rede</u>.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Rad"dle</hw> (r&abreve;d"d'l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. G. <i>r&auml;der</i>, <i>r&auml;del</i>, sieve, or perhaps E. <i>reed</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A long, flexible stick, rod, or branch, which is interwoven with others, between upright posts or stakes, in making a kind of hedge or fence.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A hedge or fence made with raddles; -called also <i>raddle hedge</i>.</def> <i>Todd.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>An instrument consisting of a wooden bar, with a row of upright pegs set in it, used by domestic weavers to keep the warp of a proper width, and prevent tangling when it is wound upon the beam of the loom.</def></p> <p><hw>Rad"dle</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To interweave or twist together.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Raddling</i> or working it up like basket work.</blockquote> <i>De Foe.</i></p> <p><hw>Rad"dle</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. <u>Ruddle</u>.] <def>A red pigment used in marking sheep, and in some mechanical processes; ruddle.</def> "A <i>raddle</i> of rouge." <i>Thackeray.</i></p> <p><hw>Rad"dle</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To mark or paint with, or as with, raddle.</def> "Whitened and <i>raddled</i> old women." <i>Thackeray.</i></p> <p><hw>Rad"dock</hw> (-d&ubreve;k), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The ruddock.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Rade</hw> (r&amacr;d), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A raid.</def> [Scot.]</p> <p><hw>||Ra`deau"</hw> (r&adot;`d&omacr;"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.] <def>A float; a raft.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Three vessels under sail, and one at anchor, above Split Rock, and behind it the <i>radeau</i> Thunderer.</blockquote> <i>W. Irving.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*al</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>radial</i>. See <u>Radius</u>.] <def>Of or pertaining to a radius or ray; consisting of, or like, radii or rays; radiated; as, <i>(Bot.)</i> <i>radial</i> projections; <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <i>radial</i> vessels or canals; <i>(Anat.)</i> the <i>radial</i> artery.</def></p> <p><col><b>Radial symmetry</b></col>. <i>(Biol.)</i> <cd>See under <u>Symmetry</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>||Ra`di*a"le</hw> (r&amacr;`d&ibreve;*&amacr;"l&esl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Radialia</b></plw> (l&ibreve;*&adot;) [NL. See <u>Radial</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn>

<i>(Anat.)</i> <def>The bone or cartilage of the carpus which articulates with the radius and corresponds to the scaphoid bone in man.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>pl.</i> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Radial plates in the calyx of a crinoid.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*al*ly</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*<i>a</i>l*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a radial manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*an</hw> (-<i>a</i>n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From <u>Radius</u>.] <i>(Math.)</i> <def>An arc of a circle which is equal to the radius, or the angle measured by such an arc.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Ra"di*ance</hw> (-<i>a</i>ns), <hw>Ra"di*an*cy</hw> (<i>a</i>n*s&ybreve;), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality of being radiant; brilliancy; effulgence; vivid brightness; as, the <i>radiance</i> of the sun.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Girt with omnipotence, with <i>radiance</i> crowned.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>What <i>radiancy</i> of glory,<BR> What light beyond compare !</blockquote> <i>Neale.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Luster; brilliancy; splendor; glare; glitter.</p> <p><hw>Ra"di*ant</hw> (-<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>radians</i>, <i>-antis</i>, p. pr. of <i>radiare</i> to emit rays or beams, fr. <i>radius</i> ray: cf. F. <i>radiant</i>. See <u>Radius</u>, <u>Ray</u> a divergent line.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Emitting or proceeding as from a center; resembling rays; radiating; radiate.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Especially, emitting or darting rays of light or heat; issuing in beams or rays; beaming with brightness; emitting a vivid light or splendor; as, the <i>radiant</i> sun.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Mark what <i>radiant</i> state she spreads.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Beaming with vivacity and happiness; as, a <i>radiant</i> face.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Her.)</i> <def>Giving off rays; -- said of a bearing; as, the sun <i>radiant</i>; a crown <i>radiant</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Having a raylike appearance, as the large marginal flowers of certain umbelliferous plants; -- said also of the cluster which has such marginal flowers.</def></p> <p><col><b>Radiant energy</b></col> <i>(Physics)</i>, <cd>energy given out or transmitted by radiation, as in the case of light and radiant heat.</cd> -- <col><b>Radiant heat</b></col>, <cd>heat proceeding in right lines, or directly from the heated body, after the manner of light, in distinction from heat <i>conducted</i> or carried by intervening media.</cd> -- <col><b>Radiant point</b></col>.

<i>(Astron.)</i> <cd>See <u>Radiant</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>, 3.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*ant</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Opt.)</i> <def>The luminous point or object from which light emanates; also, a body radiating light brightly.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Geom.)</i> <def>A straight line proceeding from a given point, or fixed pole, about which it is conceived to revolve.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Astron.)</i> <def>The point in the heavens at which the apparent paths of shooting stars meet, when traced backward, or whence they appear to radiate.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*ant*ly</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*<i>a</i>nt*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a radiant manner; with glittering splendor.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*a*ry</hw> (-&asl;*r&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>radiaire</i>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A radiate.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>||Ra`di*a"ta</hw> (-&amacr;"t&adot;), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [NL., fr. <i>radiatus</i>, p. p. See <u>Radiate</u>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>An extensive artificial group of invertebrates, having all the parts arranged radially around the vertical axis of the body, and the various organs repeated symmetrically in each ray or spheromere.</def></p> <p>&fist; It includes the c&oelig;lenterates and the echinoderms. Formerly, the group was supposed to be a natural one, and was considered one of the grand divisions of the animal kingdom.</p> <p><hw>Ra"di*ate</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Radiated</u> (&amacr;`t&ebreve;d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Radiating</u>.] [L. <i>radiatus</i>, p. p. of <i>radiare</i> to furnish with spokes or rays, to radiate, fr. <i>radius</i> ray. See <u>Radius</u>, <u>Ray</u> a divergent line.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To emit rays; to be radiant; to shine.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Virtues shine more clear<BR> In them [kings], and <i>radiate</i> like the sun at noon.</blockquote> <i>Howell.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To proceed in direct lines from a point or surface; to issue in rays, as light or heat.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Light <i>radiates</i> from luminous bodies directly to our eyes.</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*ate</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To emit or send out in direct lines from a point or points; as, to <i>radiate</i> heat.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To enlighten; to illuminate; to shed light or brightness on; to irradiate.</def> [R.]</p>

<p><hw>Ra"di*ate</hw> (-&asl;t), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>radiatus</i>, p. p.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Having rays or parts diverging from a center; radiated; as, a <i>radiate</i> crystal.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Having in a capitulum large ray florets which are unlike the disk florets, as in the aster, daisy, etc.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Belonging to the Radiata.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*ate</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>One of the Radiata.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*a`ted</hw> (-&amacr;`t&ebreve;d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Emitted, or sent forth, in rays or direct lines; as, <i>radiated</i> heat.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Formed of, or arranged like, rays or radii; having parts or markings diverging, like radii, from a common center or axis; as, a <i>radiated</i> structure; a <i>radiated</i> group of crystals.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Belonging to the Radiata.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*ate*ly</hw> (-&asl;t*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a radiate manner; with radiation or divergence from a center.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*ate-veined`</hw> (-v&amacr;nd`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Having the principal veins radiating, or diverging, from the apex of the petiole; -- said of such leaves as those of the grapevine, most maples, and the castor-oil plant.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra`di*at"i*form</hw> (-&abreve;t"&ibreve;*f&ocirc;rm), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Having the marginal florets enlarged and radiating but not ligulate, as in the capitula or heads of the cornflower.</def> <i>Gray.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra`di*a"tion</hw> (-&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>radiatio</i>: cf. F. <i>radiation</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of radiating, or the state of being radiated; emission and diffusion of rays of light; beamy brightness.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The shooting forth of anything from a point or surface, like the diverging rays of light; as, the <i>radiation</i> of heat.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*a*tive</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*&asl;*t&ibreve;v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of radiating; acting by radiation.</def> <i>Tyndall.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*a`tor</hw> (-&amacr;`t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>That which radiates or emits rays, whether of light or heat; especially, that part of a heating apparatus from which the heat is

radiated or diffused; as, a steam <i>radiator</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cal</hw> (r&abreve;d"&ibreve;*k<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F., fr. L. <i>radicalis</i> having roots, fr. <i>radix</i>, <i>-icis</i>, a root. See <u>Radix</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Of or pertaining to the root; proceeding directly from the root.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence: Of or pertaining to the root or origin; reaching to the center, to the foundation, to the ultimate sources, to the principles, or the like; original; fundamental; thorough-going; unsparing; extreme; as, <i>radical</i> evils; <i>radical</i> reform; a <i>radical</i> party.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The most determined exertions of that authority, against them, only showed their <i>radical</i> independence.</blockquote> <i>Burke.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Belonging to, or proceeding from, the root of a plant; as, <i>radical</i> tubers or hairs.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Proceeding from a rootlike stem, or one which does not rise above the ground; as, the <i>radical</i> leaves of the dandelion and the sidesaddle flower.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Philol.)</i> <def>Relating, or belonging, to the root, or ultimate source of derivation; as, a <i>radical</i> verbal form.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Math.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to a radix or root; as, a <i>radical</i> quantity; a <i>radical</i> sign. See below.</def></p> <p><col><b>Radical axis of two circles</b></col>. <i>(Geom.)</i> <cd>See under <u>Axis</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Radical pitch</b></col>, <cd>the pitch or tone with which the utterance of a syllable begins.</cd> <i>Rush.</i> -- <col><b>Radical quantity</b></col> <i>(Alg.)</i>, <cd>a quantity to which the radical sign is prefixed; specifically, a quantity which is not a perfect power of the degree indicated by the radical sign; a surd.</cd> -- <col><b>Radical sign</b></col> <i>(Math.)</i>, <cd>the sign &radic; (originally the letter <i>r</i>, the initial of <i>radix</i>, root), placed before any quantity, denoting that its root is to be extracted; thus, &radic;<i>a</i>, or &radic;(<i>a</i> + <i>b</i>). To indicate any other than the square root, a corresponding figure is placed over the sign; thus, &cuberoot;<i>a</i>, indicates the third or cube root of <i>a</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Radical stress</b></col> <i>(Elocution)</i>, <cd>force of utterance falling on the initial part of a syllable or sound.</cd> -- <col><b>Radical vessels</b></col> <i>(Anat.)</i>, <cd>minute vessels which originate in the substance of the tissues.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Primitive; original; natural; underived; fundamental; entire. -- <u>Radical</u>, <u>Entire</u>. These words are frequently employed as interchangeable in describing some marked alteration in the condition of things. There is, however, an obvious difference between them. A <i>radical</i> cure, reform, etc., is one which goes to the root of the thing in question; and it is

<i>entire</i>, in the sense that, by affecting the root, it affects in an appropriate degree the <i>entire</i> body nourished by the root; but it may not be <i>entire</i> in the sense of making a change complete in its nature, as well as in its extent. Hence, we speak of a <i>radical</i> change; a <i>radical</i> improvement; <i>radical</i> differences of opinion; while an <i>entire</i> change, an <i>entire</i> improvement, an <i>entire</i> difference of opinion, might indicate more than was actually intended. A certain change may be both <i>radical</i> and <i>entire</i>, in every sense.</p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cal</hw> (r&abreve;d"&ibreve;*k<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Philol.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A primitive word; a radix, root, or simple, underived, uncompounded word; an etymon.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A primitive letter; a letter that belongs to the radix.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The words we at present make use of, and understand only by common agreement, assume a new air and life in the understanding, when you trace them to their <i>radicals</i>, where you find every word strongly stamped with nature; full of energy, meaning, character, painting, and poetry.</blockquote> <i>Cleland.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Politics)</i> <def>One who advocates radical changes in government or social institutions, especially such changes as are intended to level class inequalities; -- opposed to <i>conservative</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>In politics they [the Independents] were, to use the phrase of their own time, "Root-and-Branch men," or, to use the kindred phrase of our own, <i>Radicals</i>.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Chem.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A characteristic, essential, and fundamental constituent of any compound; hence, sometimes, an atom.</def></p> <p><blockquote>As a general rule, the metallic atoms are basic <i>radicals</i>, while the nonmetallic atoms are acid <i>radicals</i>.</blockquote> <i>J. P. Cooke.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Specifically, a group of two or more atoms, not completely saturated, which are so linked that their union implies certain properties, and are conveniently regarded as playing the part of a single atom; a residue; -- called also a <i>compound radical</i>. Cf. <u>Residue</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Alg.)</i> <def>A radical quantity. See under <u>Radical</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos></def></p> <p><blockquote>An indicated root of a perfect power of the degree indicated is not a <i>radical</i> but a rational quantity under a radical form.</blockquote> <i>Davies & Peck (Math. Dict.)</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>A radical vessel. See under <u>Radical</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos></def></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cal*ism</hw> (-&ibreve;z'm), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>radicalisme</i>.] <def>The quality or state of being radical;

specifically, the doctrines or principles of radicals in politics or social reform.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Radicalism</i> means root work; the uprooting of all falsehoods and abuses.</blockquote> <i>F. W. Robertson.</i></p> <p><hw>Rad`i*cal"i*ty</hw> (-k&abreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Germinal principle; source; origination.</def> [Obs.] <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Radicalness; relation to a root in essential nature or principle.</def></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cal*ly</hw> (r&abreve;d"&ibreve;*k<i>a</i>l*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>In a radical manner; at, or from, the origin or root; fundamentally; as, a scheme or system <i>radically</i> wrong or defective.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Without derivation; primitively; essentially.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote>These great orbs thus <i>radically</i> bright.</blockquote> <i>Prior.</i></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cal*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Quality or state of being radical.</def></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cant</hw> (-k<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>radicans</i>, p. pr.: cf. F. <i>radicant</i>. See <u>Radicate</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Taking root on, or above, the ground; rooting from the stem, as the trumpet creeper and the ivy.</def></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cate</hw> (-k&asl;t), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>radicatus</i>, p. p. of <i>radicari</i> to take root, fr. <i>radix</i>. See <u>Radix</u>.] <def>Radicated.</def></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cate</hw> (-k&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To take root; to become rooted.</def> <i>Evelyn.</i></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cate</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Radicated</u> (-k&amacr;`t&ebreve;d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Radicating</u>.] <def>To cause to take root; to plant deeply and firmly; to root.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Time should . . . rather confirm and <i>radicate</i> in us the remembrance of God's goodness.</blockquote> <i>Barrow.</i></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*ca`ted</hw> (-k&amacr;`t&ebreve;d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Rooted</def>; specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Having roots, or possessing a well-developed root.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Having rootlike organs for attachment.</def></p> <p><hw>Rad`i*ca"tion</hw> (-k&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>radication</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The process of taking root, or state of being rooted; as, the <i>radication</i> of habits.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>The disposition of the roots of a plant.</def></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cel</hw> (r&abreve;d"&ibreve;*s&ebreve;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Dim. of <i>radix</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A small branch of a root; a rootlet.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*dic`i*flo"rous</hw> (r&adot;*d&ibreve;s`&ibreve;*fl&omacr;"r&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>radix</i>, <i>-icis</i>, root + <i>flos</i>, <i>floris</i>, a flower.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Rhizanthous.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*dic"i*form</hw> (r&adot;*d&ibreve;s"&ibreve;*f&ocirc;m), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Having the nature or appearance of a radix or root.</def></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cle</hw> (r&abreve;d"&ibreve;*k'l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>radicula</i>, dim. of <i>radix</i>, <i>-icis</i>, root: cf. F. <i>radicule</i>. See <u>Radix</u>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The rudimentary stem of a plant which supports the cotyledons in the seed, and from which the root is developed downward; the stem of the embryo; the caulicle.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A rootlet; a radicel.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*dic"u*lar</hw> (r&adot;*d&ibreve;k"&usl;*l&etilde;r), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of or pertaining to roots, or the root of a plant.</def></p> <p><hw>Rad"i*cule</hw> (r&abreve;d"&ibreve;*k&umacr;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A radicle.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*dic"u*lose`</hw> (r&adot;*d&ibreve;k"&usl;*l&omacr;s`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Producing numerous radicles, or rootlets.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*i</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*&imacr;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>, <def><pos><i>pl.</i></pos> of <u>Radius</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*o-</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*&osl;-). <def>A combining form indicating <i>connection with</i>, or <i>relation to</i>, <i>a radius</i> or <i>ray</i>; specifically <i>(Anat.)</i>, <i>with the radius of the forearm</i>; as, <i>radio</i>-ulnar, <i>radio</i>muscular, <i>radio</i>-carpal.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra`di*o-flag`el*la"ta</hw> (fl&abreve;j`&ebreve;l*l&amacr;"t&adot;), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [NL. See <u>Radiate</u>, and <u>Flagellata</u>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A group of Protozoa having both flagella and pseudopodia.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*o*graph</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*&osl;*gr&abreve;f), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [<i>Radio-</i> + <i>-graph</i>.] <i>(Phys.)</i> <def>A picture produced by the R&ouml;ntgen rays upon a sensitive surface, photographic or fluorescent, especially a picture of opaque objects traversed by the rays.</def></p>

<p><! p. 1184 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>||Ra`di*o*la"ri*a</hw> (r&amacr;`d&ibreve;*&osl;*l&amacr;"r&ibreve;*&adot;), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [NL. See <u>Radioli</u>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Order of rhizopods, usually having a siliceous skeleton, or shell, and sometimes radiating spicules. The pseudopodia project from the body like rays. It includes the polycystines. See <u>Polycystina</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra`di*o*la"ri*an</hw> (r&amacr;`d&ibreve;*&osl;*l&amacr;"r&ibreve;*<i>a</i>n), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to the Radiolaria.</def> -- <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One of the Radiolaria.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra*di"o*li</hw> (r&adot;*d&imacr;"&osl;*l&imacr;), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos>; sing. <singw><b>Radiolus</b></singw> (-l&ubreve;s). [NL., dim. of L. <i>radius</i> radius: cf. L. <i>radiolus</i> a feeble sunbeam.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The barbs of the radii of a feather; barbules.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*o*lite</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*&osl;*l&imacr;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>radius</i> ray + <i>-lite</i>: cf. F. <i>radiolithe</i>.] <i>(Paleon.)</i> <def>A hippurite.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra`di*om"e*ter</hw> (-&obreve;m"&esl;*t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>radius</i> radius + <i>-meter</i>: cf. F. <i>radiom&egrave;tre</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>A forestaff.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Physics)</i> <def>An instrument designed for measuring the mechanical effect of radiant energy.</def></p> <p>&fist; It consists of a number of light disks, blackened on one side, placed at the ends of extended arms, supported on a pivot in an exhausted glass vessel. When exposed to rays of light or heat, the arms rotate.</p> <p><hw>Ra`di*o*mi*crom"e*ter</hw> (&osl;*m&isl;*kr&obreve;m"&esl;*t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [<i>Radio-</i> + <i>micrometer</i>.] <i>(Physics)</i> <def>A very sensitive modification or application of the thermopile, used for indicating minute changes of radiant heat, or temperature.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*o*phone</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*&osl;*f&omacr;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [<i>Radio-</i> + Gr. <grk>fwnh`</grk> sound.] <i>(Physics)</i> <def>An apparatus for the production of sound by the action of luminous or thermal rays. It is essentially the same as the photophone.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra`di*oph"o*ny</hw> (-&obreve;f"&osl;*n&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Physics)</i> <def>The art or practice of using the radiophone.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*ous</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>radiosus</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Consisting of rays, as light.</def> [R.] <i>Berkeley.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Radiating; radiant.</def> [Obs.] Fletcher.</i></p>


<p><hw>Rad"ish</hw> (r&abreve;d"&ibreve;sh), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>radis</i>; cf. It. <i>radice</i>, Pr. <i>raditz</i>; all fr. L. <i>radix</i>, <i>-icis</i>, a root, an edible root, especially a radish, akin to E. <i>wort</i>. See <u>Wort</u>, and cf. <u>Eradicate</u>, <u>Race</u> a root, <u>Radix</u>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>The pungent fleshy root of a well-known cruciferous plant (<i>Raphanus sativus</i>); also, the whole plant.</def></p> <p><col><b>Radish fly</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a small twowinged fly (<i>Anthomyia raphani</i>) whose larv&aelig; burrow in radishes. It resembles the onion fly.</cd> -- <col><b>Rat-tailed radish</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>an herb (<i>Raphanus caudatus</i>) having a long, slender pod, which is sometimes eaten.</cd> -<col><b>Wild radish</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>the jointed charlock.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ra"di*us</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;*&ubreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> L. <plw><b>Radii</b></plw> (&imacr;); E. <plw><b>Radiuses</b></plw> (-&ubreve;s*&ebreve;z). [L., a staff, rod, spoke of a wheel, radius, ray. See <u>Ray</u> a divergent line.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Geom.)</i> <def>A right line drawn or extending from the center of a circle to the periphery; the semidiameter of a circle or sphere.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>The preaxial bone of the forearm, or brachium, corresponding to the tibia of the hind limb. See <i>Illust.</i> of <u>Artiodactyla</u>.</def></p> <p>&fist; The radius is on the same side of the limb as the thumb, or pollex, and in man it is so articulated that its lower end is capable of partial rotation about the ulna.</p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A ray, or outer floret, of the capitulum of such plants as the sunflower and the daisy. See <u>Ray</u>, 2.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>pl.</i> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The barbs of a perfect feather.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Radiating organs, or color-markings, of the radiates.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>The movable limb of a sextant or other angular instrument.</def> <i>Knight.</i></p> <p><col><b>Radius bar</b></col> <i>(Mach.)</i>, <cd>a bar pivoted at one end, about which it swings, and having its other end attached to a piece which it causes to move in a circular arc.</cd> -<col><b>Radius of curvature</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Curvature</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>||Ra"di*us vec"tor</hw> (v&ebreve;k"t&obreve;r). <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Math.)</i> <def>A straight line (or the length of such line) connecting any point, as of a curve, with a fixed point, or pole, round which the straight line turns, and to which it serves

to refer the successive points of a curve, in a system of polar co&ouml;rdinates. See <u>Co&ouml;rdinate</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Astron.)</i> <def>An ideal straight line joining the center of an attracting body with that of a body describing an orbit around it, as a line joining the sun and a planet or comet, or a planet and its satellite.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"dix</hw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;ks), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> L. <plw><b>Radices</b></plw> (r&abreve;d"&ibreve;*s&emacr;z), E. <plw><b>Radixes</b></plw> (r&amacr;"d&ibreve;ks*&ebreve;z). [L. <i>radix</i>, <i>-icis</i>, root. See <u>Radish</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Philol.)</i> <def>A primitive word, from which spring other words; a radical; a root; an etymon.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Math.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A number or quantity which is arbitrarily made the fundamental number of any system; a base. Thus, 10 is the <i>radix</i>, or base, of the common system of logarithms, and also of the decimal system of numeration.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <i>(Alg.)</i> <def>A finite expression, from which a series is derived.</def> [R.] <i>Hutton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>The root of a plant.</def></p> <p><hw>||Rad"u*la</hw> (r&abreve;d"&usl;*l&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Radul&aelig;</b></plw> (l&emacr;). [L., a scraper, fr. <i>radere</i> to scrape.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The chitinous ribbon bearing the teeth of mollusks; -- called also <i>lingual ribbon</i>, and <i>tongue</i>. See <u>Odontophore</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*du"li*form</hw> (r&adot;*d&umacr;"l&ibreve;*f&ocirc;rm), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>radula</i> a scraper + <i>-form</i>.] <def>Rasplike; as, <i>raduliform</i> teeth.</def></p> <p><hw>Raff</hw> (r&adot;f), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Raffed</u> (r&adot;ft); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Raffing</u>.] [OF. <i>raffer</i>, of German origin; cf. G. <i>raffen</i>; akin to E. <i>rap</i> to snatch. See <u>Rap</u>, and cf. <u>Riffraff</u>, <u>Rip</u> to tear.] <def>To sweep, snatch, draw, or huddle together; to take by a promiscuous sweep.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Causes and effects which I thus <i>raff</i> up together.</blockquote> <i>Carew.</i></p> <p><hw>Raff</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A promiscuous heap; a jumble; a large quantity; lumber; refuse.</def> "A <i>raff</i> of errors." <i>Barrow.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The sweepings of society; the rabble; the mob; -- chiefly used in the compound or duplicate, <i>riffraff</i>.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A low fellow; a churl.</def></p> <p><col><b>Raff merchant</b></col>, <cd>a dealer in lumber and odd refuse.</cd> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Raf`fa*el*esque"</hw> (r&abreve;f`f&adot;*&ebreve;l*&ebreve;sk"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Raphaelesque.</def></p> <p><hw>Raf"fi*a</hw> (r&abreve;f"f&ibreve;*&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A fibrous material used for tying plants, said to come from the leaves of a palm tree of the genus <i>Raphia</i>.</def> <i>J. Smith (Dict. Econ. Plants).</i></p> <p><hw>Raf"fi*nose`</hw> (r&abreve;f"f&ibreve;*n&omacr;s`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>raffiner</i> to refine.] <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>A colorless crystalline slightly sweet substance obtained from the molasses of the sugar beet.</def></p> <p><hw>Raff"ish</hw> (r&adot;f"&ibreve;sh), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Resembling, or having the character of, raff, or a raff; worthless; low.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A sad, <i>raffish</i>, disreputable character.</blockquote> <i>Thackeray.</i></p> <p><hw>Raf"fle</hw> (r&abreve;f"f'l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>rafle</i>; <i>faire rafle</i> to sweep stakes, fr. <i>rafler</i> to carry or sweep away, <i>rafler tout</i> to sweep stakes; of German origin; cf. G. <i>raffeln</i> to snatch up, to rake. See <u>Raff</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A kind of lottery, in which several persons pay, in shares, the value of something put up as a stake, and then determine by chance (as by casting dice) which one of them shall become the sole possessor.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A game of dice in which he who threw three alike won all the stakes.</def> [Obs.] <i>Cotgrave.</i></p> <p><hw>Raf"fle</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Raffled</u> (-f'ld); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Raffling</u> (-fl&ibreve;ng).] <def>To engage in a raffle; as, to <i>raffle</i> for a watch.</def></p> <p><hw>Raf"fle</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To dispose of by means of a raffle; -- often followed by <i>off</i>; as, to <i>raffle</i> off a horse.</def></p> <p><hw>Raf"fler</hw> (r&abreve;f"fl&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who raffles.</def></p> <p><hw>||Raf*fle"si*a</hw> (r&abreve;f*fl&emacr;"zh&ibreve;*&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [NL. Named from its discoverer, Sir S. <i>Raffles</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A genus of stemless, leafless plants, living parasitically upon the roots and stems of grapevines in Malaysia. The flowers have a carrionlike odor, and are very large, in one species (<i>Rafflesia Arnoldi</i>) having a diameter of two or three feet.</def></p>

<p><hw>Raft</hw> (r&adot;ft), obs. <def><pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> of <u>Reave</u>.</def> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Raft</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Originally, a rafter, spar, and fr. Icel. <i>raptr</i> a rafter; akin to Dan. <i>raft</i>, Prov. G. <i>raff</i> a rafter, spar; cf. OHG. <i>r&amacr;fo</i>, <i>r&amacr;vo</i>, a beam, rafter, Icel. <i>r&amacr;f</i> roof. Cf. <u>Rafter</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A collection of logs, boards, pieces of timber, or the like, fastened together, either for their own collective conveyance on the water, or to serve as a support in conveying other things; a float.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A collection of logs, fallen trees, etc. (such as is formed in some Western rivers of the United States), which obstructs navigation.</def> [U.S.]</p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> [Perhaps akin to <i>raff</i> a heap.] <def>A large collection of people or things taken indiscriminately.</def> [Slang, U. S.] "A whole <i>raft</i> of folks." <i>W. D. Howells.</i></p> <p><col><b>Raft bridge</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>A bridge whose points of support are rafts</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>A bridge that consists of floating timbers fastened together.</cd> -<col><b>Raft duck</b></col>. [The name alludes to its swimming in dense flocks.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>The bluebill, or greater scaup duck; -- called also <i>flock duck</i>. See <u>Scaup</u>.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>The redhead.</cd> -<col><b>Raft port</b></col> <i>(Naut.)</i>, <cd>a large, square port in a vessel's side for loading or unloading timber or other bulky articles; a timber or lumber port.</cd></p> <p><hw>Raft</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rafted</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rafting</u>.] <def>To transport on a raft, or in the form of a raft; to make into a raft; as, to <i>raft</i> timber.</def></p> <p><hw>Raf"te</hw> (r&adot;f"t<i>e</i>), obs. <def><pos><i>imp.</i></pos> of <u>Reave</u>.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Raft"er</hw> (r&adot;ft"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A raftsman.</def></p> <p><hw>Raft"er</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>r&aelig;fter</i>; akin to E. <i>raft</i>, n. See <u>Raft</u>.] <i>(Arch.)</i> <def>Originally, any rough and somewhat heavy piece of timber. Now, commonly, one of the timbers of a roof which are put on sloping, according to the inclination of the roof. See <i>Illust.</i> of <u>Queen-post</u>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>[Courtesy] oft is sooner found in lowly sheds,<BR> With smoky <i>rafters</i>, than in tapestry halls.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Raft"er</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To make into rafters, as timber.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To furnish with rafters, as a house.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Agric.)</i> <def>To plow so as to turn the grass side of each furrow upon an unplowed ridge; to ridge.</def> [Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Raft"ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The business of making or managing rafts.</def></p> <p><hw>Rafts"man</hw> (r&adot;fts"m<i>a</i>n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Raftsmen</b></plw> (-m<i>e</i>n). <def>A man engaged in rafting.</def></p> <p><hw>Raf"ty</hw> (r&adot;f"t&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Perhaps akin to G. <i>reif</i> hoarfrost.] <def>Damp; musty.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Rag</hw> (r&abreve;g), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Cf. Icel. <i>r&aelig;gja</i> to calumniate, OHG. <i>ruogen</i> to accuse, G. <i>r&uuml;gen</i> to censure, AS. <i>wr&emacr;gan</i>, Goth. <i>wr&omacr;hjan</i> to accuse.] <def>To scold or rail at; to rate; to tease; to torment; to banter.</def> [Prov. Eng.] <i>Pegge.</i></p> <p><hw>Rag</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>ragge</i>, probably of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. <i>r&ouml;gg</i> a tuft, shagginess, Sw. <i>ragg</i> rough hair. Cf. <u>Rug</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A piece of cloth torn off; a tattered piece of cloth; a shred; a tatter; a fragment.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Cowls, hoods, and habits, with their wearers, tossed.<BR> And fluttered into <i>rags</i>.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Not having otherwise any <i>rag</i> of legality to cover the shame of their cruelty.</blockquote> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>pl.</i> <def>Hence, mean or tattered attire; worn-out dress.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And virtue, though in <i>rags</i>, will keep me warm.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A shabby, beggarly fellow; a ragamuffin.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The other zealous <i>rag</i> is the compositor.</blockquote> <i>B. Jonson.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Upon the proclamation, they all came in, both tag and <i>rag</i>.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Geol.)</i> <def>A coarse kind of rock, somewhat cellular in texture.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Metal Working)</i> <def>A ragged edge.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>A sail, or any piece of canvas.</def> [Nautical Slang]</p> <p><blockquote>Our ship was a clipper with every <i>rag</i> set.</blockquote> <i>Lowell.</i></p> <p><col><b>Rag bolt</b></col>, <cd>an iron pin with barbs on its shank to retain it in place.</cd> -- <col><b>Rag carpet</b></col>, <cd>a carpet of which the weft consists of narrow strips of cloth sewed together, end to end.</cd> -- <col><b>Rag dust</b></col>, <cd>fine particles of ground-up rags, used in making papier-mach&eacute; and wall papers.</cd> -- <col><b>Rag wheel</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>A chain wheel; a sprocket wheel</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>A polishing wheel made of disks of cloth clamped together on a mandrel.</cd> -- <col><b>Rag wool</b></col>, <cd>wool obtained by tearing woolen rags into fine bits; shoddy.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rag</hw> (r&abreve;g), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ragged</u> (r&abreve;gd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ragging</u> (-g&ibreve;ng).] <def>To become tattered.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rag</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To break (ore) into lumps for sorting.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To cut or dress roughly, as a grindstone.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Rag"a*bash`</hw> (-&adot;*b&abreve;sh`), <hw>Rag"a*brash`</hw> (-br&abreve;sh`), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>An idle, ragged person.</def> <i>Nares.</i> <i>Grose.</i></p> <p><hw>Rag`a*muf"fin</hw> (-m&ubreve;f"f&ibreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. <i>Ragamofin</i>, the name of a demon in some of the old mysteries.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A paltry or disreputable fellow; a mean wretch.</def> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A person who wears ragged clothing.</def> [Colloq.]</p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The long-tailed titmouse.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Rage</hw> (r&amacr;j), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. L. <i>rabies</i>, fr. <i>rabere</i> to rave; cf. Skr. <i>rabh</i> to seize, <i>rabhas</i> violence. Cf. <u>Rabid</u>, <u>Rabies</u>, <u>Rave</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Violent excitement; eager passion; extreme vehemence of desire, emotion, or suffering, mastering the will.</def> "In great <i>rage</i> of pain." <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><blockquote>He appeased the <i>rage</i> of hunger with some scraps of broken meat.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Convulsed with a <i>rage</i> of grief.</blockquote> <i>Hawthorne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Especially, anger accompanied with raving; overmastering wrath; violent anger; fury.</def></p>

<p><blockquote>Torment, and loud lament, and furious <i>rage</i>.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A violent or raging wind.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>The subject of eager desire; that which is sought after, or prosecuted, with unreasonable or excessive passion; as, to be all the <i>rage</i>.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Anger; vehemence; excitement; passion; fury. See <u>Anger</u>.</p> <p><hw>Rage</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Raged</u> (r&amacr;jd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Raging</u> (r&amacr;"j&ibreve;ng).] [OF. <i>ragier</i>. See <u>Rage</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To be furious with anger; to be exasperated to fury; to be violently agitated with passion.</def> "Whereat he inly <i>raged</i>." <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>When one so great begins to <i>rage</i>, he is hunted<BR> Even to falling.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To be violent and tumultuous; to be violently driven or agitated; to act or move furiously; as, the <i>raging</i> sea or winds.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Why do the heathen <i>rage</i>?</blockquote> <i>Ps. ii. 1.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The madding wheels<BR> Of brazen chariots <i>raged</i>; dire was the noise.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To ravage; to prevail without restraint, or with destruction or fatal effect; as, the plague <i>raged</i> in Cairo.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To toy or act wantonly; to sport.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To storm; fret; chafe; fume.</p> <p><hw>Rage</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To enrage.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rage"ful</hw> (-f&usd;l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Full of rage; expressing rage.</def> [Obs.] "<i>Rageful</i> eyes." <i>Sir P. Sidney.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"ger*y</hw> (r&amacr;"j&etilde;r*&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Wantonness.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p>

<p><hw>Rag"ged</hw> (r&abreve;g"g&ebreve;d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [From <u>Rag</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Rent or worn into tatters, or till the texture is broken; as, a <i>ragged</i> coat; a <i>ragged</i> sail.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Broken with rough edges; having jags; uneven; rough; jagged; as, <i>ragged</i> rocks.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Hence, harsh and disagreeable to the ear; dissonant.</def> [R.] "A <i>ragged</i> noise of mirth." <i>Herbert.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Wearing tattered clothes; as, a <i>ragged</i> fellow.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Rough; shaggy; rugged.</def></p> <p><blockquote>What shepherd owns those <i>ragged</i> sheep?</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><col><b>Ragged lady</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>the fennel flower (<i>Nigella Damascena</i>).</cd> -- <col><b>Ragged robin</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a plant of the genus <i>Lychnis</i> (<i>L. Floscuculi</i>), cultivated for its handsome flowers, which have the petals cut into narrow lobes.</cd> -- <col><b>Ragged sailor</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>prince's feather (<i>Polygonum orientale</i>).</cd> -- <col><b>Ragged school</b></col>, <cd>a free school for poor children, where they are taught and in part fed; -- a name given at first because they came in their common clothing.</cd> [Eng.]</p> <p>-- <wf>Rag"ged*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -<wf>Rag"ged*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p>{ <hw>Rag"gie</hw> (r&abreve;g"g&ibreve;), or <hw>Rag"gy</hw> }, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Ragged; rough.</def> [Obs.] "A stony and <i>raggie</i> hill." <i>Holland.</i></p> <p><hw>||Ragh`u*van"sa</hw> (r&ubreve;g`&usd;*v&ubreve;n"s&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Skr. <i>Raguva&msdot;&ccedil;a</i>.] <def>A celebrated Sanskrit poem having for its subject the Raghu dynasty.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"ging</hw> (r&amacr;"j&ibreve;ng), <def><pos><i>a. & n.</i></pos> from <u>Rage</u>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos></def> -<wf>Ra"ging*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Ra"gious</hw> (r&amacr;"j&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Raging; furious; rageful.</def> [Obs.] -- <wf>Ra"gious*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rag"lan</hw> (r&abreve;g"l<i>a</i>n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A loose overcoat with large sleeves; -- named from Lord <i>Raglan</i>, an English general.</def></p> <p><hw>Rag"man</hw> (-m<i>a</i>n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Ragmen</b></plw> (-m<i>e</i>n). <def>A man who collects, or deals in, rags.</def></p>

<p><hw>Rag"man</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Ragman's roll</u>.] <def>A document having many names or numerous seals, as a papal bull.</def> [Obs.] <i>Piers Plowman.</i></p> <p><hw>Rag"man's roll`</hw> (-m<i>a</i>nz r&omacr;l`). [For <i>ragman roll</i> a long list of names, the devil's roll or list; where <i>ragman</i> is of Scand. origin; cf. Icel. <i>ragmenni</i> a craven person, Sw. <i>raggen</i> the devil. Icel. <i>ragmenni</i> is fr. <i>ragr</i> cowardly (another form of <i>argr</i>, akin to AS. <i>earg</i> cowardly, vile, G. <i>arg</i> bad) + <i>menni</i> (in comp.) man, akin to E. <i>man</i>. See <u>Roll</u>, and cf. <u>Rigmarole</u>.] <def>The rolls of deeds on parchment in which the Scottish nobility and gentry subscribed allegiance to Edward I. of England, <u>A. D.</u> 1296.</def> [Also written <i>ragmanroll</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Ra*gout"</hw> (r&adot;*g&oomac;"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>rago&ucirc;t</i>, fr. <i>rago&ucirc;ter</i> to restore one's appetite, fr. L. pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>ad</i> to + <i>gustare</i> to taste, <i>gustus</i> taste. See <u>Gust</u> relish.] <def>A dish made of pieces of meat, stewed, and highly seasoned; as, a <i>ragout</i> of mutton.</def></p> <p><hw>Rag"pick`er</hw> (r&abreve;g"p&ibreve;k`&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who gets a living by picking up rags and refuse things in the streets.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Ra*guled"</hw> (r&adot;*g&umacr;ld"), <hw>Rag*guled"</hw> (r&abreve;g-), } <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>raguer</i> to chafe, fret, rub, or E. <i>rag</i>.] <i>(Her.)</i> <def>Notched in regular diagonal breaks; -- said of a line, or a bearing having such an edge.</def></p> <p><! p. 1185 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Rag"weed`</hw> (r&abreve;g"w&emacr;d`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A common American composite weed (<i>Ambrosia artemisi&aelig;folia</i>) with finely divided leaves; hogweed.</def></p> <p><col><b>Great ragweed</b></col>, <cd>a coarse American herb (<i>Ambrosia trifida</i>), with rough three-lobed opposite leaves.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rag"work`</hw> (-w&ucirc;rk`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Masonry)</i> <def>A kind of rubblework. In the United States, any rubblework of thin and small stones.</def></p> <p><hw>Rag"wort`</hw> (-w&ucirc;rt`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A name given to several species of the composite genus <i>Senecio</i>.</def></p> <p>&fist; <i>Senecio aureus</i> is the golden ragwort of the United States; <i>S. elegans</i> is the purple ragwort of South Africa.</p> <p><hw>||Ra"ia</hw> (r&amacr;"y&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L., a ray. Cf. <u>Ray</u> the fish.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A genus of rays which includes the skates. See <u>Skate</u>.</def></p>

<p><hw>||Ra"i&aelig;</hw> (r&amacr;"y&emacr;), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [NL. See <u>Raia</u>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The order of elasmobranch fishes which includes the sawfishes, skates, and rays; -- called also <i>Raj&aelig;</i>, and <i>Rajii</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Raid</hw> (r&amacr;d), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Icel. <i>rei&eth;</i> a riding, raid; akin to E. <i>road</i>. See <u>Road</u> a way.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A hostile or predatory incursion; an inroad or incursion of mounted men; a sudden and rapid invasion by a cavalry force; a foray.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Marauding chief! his sole delight<BR> The moonlight <i>raid</i>, the morning fight.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p> <p><blockquote>There are permanent conquests, temporary occupations, and occasional <i>raids</i>.</blockquote> <i>H. Spenser.</i></p> <p>&fist; A Scottish word which came into common use in the United States during the Civil War, and was soon extended in its application.</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>An attack or invasion for the purpose of making arrests, seizing property, or plundering; as, a <i>raid</i> of the police upon a gambling house; a <i>raid</i> of contractors on the public treasury.</def> [Colloq. U. S.]</p> <p><hw>Raid</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Raided</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Raiding</u>.] <def>To make a raid upon or into; as, two regiments <i>raided</i> the border counties.</def></p> <p><hw>Raid"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who engages in a raid.</def> [U.S.]</p> <p><hw>Rail</hw> (r&amacr;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>reil</i>, <i>re&yogh;el</i>, AS. <i>hr&aelig;gel</i>, <i>hr&aelig;gl</i>, a garment; akin to OHG. <i>hregil</i>, OFries. <i>hreil</i>.] <def>An outer cloak or covering; a neckerchief for women.</def> <i>Fairholt.</i></p> <p><hw>Rail</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [Etymol. uncertain.] <def>To flow forth; to roll out; to course.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Streams of tears from her fair eyes forth <i>railing</i>.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Rail</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Akin to LG. & Sw. <i>regel</i> bar, bolt, G. <i>riegel</i> a rail, bar, or bolt, OHG. <i>rigil</i>, <i>rigel</i>, bar, bolt, and possibly to E. <i>row</i> a line.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A bar of timber or metal, usually horizontal or nearly so, extending from one post or support to another, as in fences, balustrades, staircases, etc.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Arch.)</i> <def>A horizontal piece in a frame or paneling. See <i>Illust.</i> of <u>Style</u>.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Railroad)</i> <def>A bar of steel or iron, forming part of the track on which the wheels roll. It is usually shaped with reference to vertical strength, and is held in place by chairs, splices, etc.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Naut.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The stout, narrow plank that forms the top of the bulwarks.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The light, fencelike structures of wood or metal at the break of the deck, and elsewhere where such protection is needed.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rail fence</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Fence</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Rail guard</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>A device attached to the front of a locomotive on each side for clearing the rail of obstructions</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>A guard rail. See under <u>Guard</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rail joint</b></col> <i>(Railroad)</i>, <cd>a splice connecting the adjacent ends of rails, in distinction from a <i>chair</i>, which is merely a seat. The two devices are sometimes united. Among several hundred varieties, the <i>fish joint</i> is standard. See <i>Fish joint</i>, under <u>Fish</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rail train</b></col> <i>(Iron & Steel Manuf.)</i>, <cd>a train of rolls in a rolling mill, for making rails for railroads from blooms or billets.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rail</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Railed</u> (r&amacr;ld); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Railing</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To inclose with rails or a railing.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It ought to be fenced in and <i>railed</i>.</blockquote> <i>Ayliffe.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To range in a line.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>They were brought to London all <i>railed</i> in ropes, like a team of horses in a cart.</blockquote> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><hw>Rail</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&acirc;le</i>, fr. <i>r&acirc;ler</i> to have a rattling in the throat; of German origin, and akin to E. <i>rattle</i>. See <u>Rattle</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Any one of numerous species of limicoline birds of the family <i>Rallid&aelig;</i>, especially those of the genus <i>Rallus</i>, and of closely allied genera. They are prized as game birds.</def></p> <p>&fist; The common European water rail (<i>Rallus aquaticus</i>) is called also <i>bilcock</i>, <i>skitty coot</i>, and <i>brook runner</i>. The best known American species are the clapper rail, or salt-marsh hen (<i>Rallus longirostris</i>, var. <i>crepitans</i>); the king, or red-breasted, rail (<i>R. elegans</i>) (called also <i>fresh-water marsh-hen</i>); the lesser clapper, or Virginia, rail (<i>R. Virginianus</i>); and the Carolina, or sora, rail (<i>Porzana Carolina</i>). See <u>Sora</u>.</p> <p><col><b>Land rail</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the corncrake.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rail</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [F. <i>railler</i>; cf. Sp.

<i>rallar</i> to grate, scrape, molest; perhaps fr. (assumed) LL. <i>radiculare</i>, fr. L. <i>radere</i> to scrape, grate. Cf. <u>Rally</u> to banter, <u>Rase</u>.] <def>To use insolent and reproachful language; to utter reproaches; to scoff; -- followed by <i>at</i> or <i>against</i>, formerly by <i>on</i>.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>And <i>rail</i> at arts he did not understand.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Lesbia forever on me <i>rails</i>.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><hw>Rail</hw> (r&amacr;l), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To rail at.</def> [Obs.] <i>Feltham.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To move or influence by railing.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote><i>Rail</i> the seal from off my bond.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rail"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who rails; one who scoffs, insults, censures, or reproaches with opprobrious language.</def></p> <p><hw>Rail"ing</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Expressing reproach; insulting.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Angels, which are greater in power and might, bring not <i>railing</i> accusation against them.</blockquote> <i>2 Pet. ii. 11.</i></p> <p><hw>Rail"ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A barrier made of a rail or of rails.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Rails in general; also, material for making rails.</def></p> <p><hw>Rail"ing*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>With scoffing or insulting language.</def></p> <p><hw>Rail"ler*y</hw> (r&abreve;l"l&etilde;r*&ybreve; <i>or</i> r&amacr;l"-; 277), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>raillerie</i>, fr. <i>railler</i>. See <u>Rail</u> to scoff.] <def>Pleasantry or slight satire; banter; jesting language; satirical merriment.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Let <i>raillery</i> be without malice or heat.</blockquote> <i>B. Jonson.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Studies employed on low objects; the very naming of them is sufficient to turn them into <i>raillery</i>.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><hw>||Rail`leur"</hw> (r&adot;`ly&etilde;r" or r&adot;`y&etilde;r"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.] <def>A banterer; a jester; a mocker.</def> [R.] <i>Wycherley.</i></p>

<p>{ <hw>Rail"road`</hw> (r&amacr;l"r&omacr;d`), <hw>Rail"way`</hw> (w&amacr;`), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A road or way consisting of one or more parallel series of iron or steel rails, patterned and adjusted to be tracks for the wheels of vehicles, and suitably supported on a bed or substructure.</def></p> <p>&fist; The modern railroad is a development and adaptation of the older tramway.</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The road, track, etc., with all the lands, buildings, rolling stock, franchises, etc., pertaining to them and constituting one property; as, a certain <i>railroad</i> has been put into the hands of a receiver.</def></p> <p>&fist; <i>Railway</i> is the commoner word in England; <i>railroad</i> the commoner word in the United States.</p> <p>&fist; In the following and similar phrases <i>railroad</i> and <i>railway</i> are used interchangeably: --</p> <p><col><b>Atmospheric railway</b></col>, <col><b>Elevated railway</b></col>, <cd>etc. See under <u>Atmospheric</u>, <u>Elevated</u>, etc.</cd> -- <col><b>Cable railway</b></col>. <cd>See <i>Cable road</i>, under <u>Cable</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Ferry railway</b></col>, <cd>a submerged track on which an elevated platform runs, for carrying a train of cars across a water course.</cd> -<col><b>Gravity railway</b></col>, <cd>a railway, in a hilly country, on which the cars run by gravity down gentle slopes for long distances after having been hauled up steep inclines to an elevated point by stationary engines.</cd> -- <col><b>Railway brake</b></col>, <cd>a brake used in stopping railway cars or locomotives.</cd> -<col><b>Railway car</b></col>, <cd>a large, heavy vehicle with flanged wheels fitted for running on a railway.</cd> [U.S.] -- <col><b>Railway carriage</b></col>, <cd>a railway passenger car.</cd> [Eng.] -<col><b>Railway scale</b></col>, <cd>a platform scale bearing a track which forms part of the line of a railway, for weighing loaded cars.</cd> -- <col><b>Railway slide</b></col>. <cd>See <i>Transfer table</i>, under <u>Transfer</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Railway spine</b></col> <i>(Med.)</i>, <cd>an abnormal condition due to severe concussion of the spinal cord, such as occurs in railroad accidents. It is characterized by ataxia and other disturbances of muscular function, sensory disorders, pain in the back, impairment of general health, and cerebral disturbance, -- the symptoms often not developing till some months after the injury.</cd> -- <col><b>Underground railroad</b></col> or <col><b>railway</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>A railroad or railway running through a tunnel, as beneath the streets of a city</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>Formerly, a system of co&ouml;peration among certain active antislavery people in the United States, by which fugitive slaves were secretly helped to reach Canada</cd>. [In the latter sense <i>railroad</i>, and not <i>railway</i>, was used.] "Their house was a principal <i>entrep&ocirc;t</i> of the <i>underground railroad</i>." <i>W. D. Howells.</i></p> <p><hw>Rail"road`ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The construction of a railroad; the business of managing or operating a railroad.</def> [Colloq. U. S.]</p>

<p><hw>Rai"ment</hw> (r&amacr;"m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Abbrev. fr. <i>arraiment</i>. See <u>Array</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Clothing in general; vesture; garments; -- usually singular in form, with a collective sense.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Living, both food and <i>raiment</i> she supplies.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>An article of dress.</def> [R. or Obs.] <i>Sir P. Sidney.</i></p> <p><hw>Rain</hw> (r&amacr;n), <pos><i>n. & v.</i></pos> <def>Reign.</def> [Obs.] <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Rain</hw> (r&amacr;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>rein</i>, AS. <i>regen</i>; akin to OFries. <i>rein</i>, D. & G. <i>regen</i>, OS. & OHG. <i>regan</i>, Icel., Dan., & Sw. <i>regn</i>, Goth. <i>rign</i>, and prob. to L. <i>rigare</i> to water, to wet; cf. Gr. <grk>bre`chein</grk> to wet, to rain.] <def>Water falling in drops from the clouds; the descent of water from the clouds in drops.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Rain</i> is water by the heat of the sun divided into very small parts ascending in the air, till, encountering the cold, it be condensed into clouds, and descends in drops.</blockquote> <i>Ray.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Fair days have oft contracted wind and <i>rain</i>.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p>&fist; <i>Rain</i> is distinguished from <i>mist</i> by the size of the drops, which are distinctly visible. When water falls in very small drops or particles, it is called <i>mist</i>; and <i>fog</i> is composed of particles so fine as to be not only individually indistinguishable, but to float or be suspended in the air. See <u>Fog</u>, and <u>Mist</u>.</p> <p><col><b>Rain band</b></col> <i>(Meteorol.)</i>, <cd>a dark band in the yellow portion of the solar spectrum near the sodium line, caused by the presence of watery vapor in the atmosphere, and hence sometimes used in weather predictions.</cd> -- <col><b>Rain bird</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the yaffle, or green woodpecker. [Prov. Eng.] The name is also applied to various other birds, as to <i>Saurothera vetula</i> of the West Indies.</cd> -- <col><b>Rain fowl</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the channel-bill cuckoo (<i>Scythrops Nov&aelig;-Hollandi&aelig;</i>) of Australia.</cd> -- <col><b>Rain gauge</b></col>, <cd>an instrument of various forms for measuring the quantity of rain that falls at any given place in a given time; a pluviometer; an ombrometer.</cd> -- <col><b>Rain goose</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the red-throated diver, or loon.</cd> [Prov. Eng.] -- <col><b>Rain prints</b></col> <i>(Geol.)</i>, <cd>markings on the surfaces of stratified rocks, presenting an appearance similar to those made by rain on mud and sand, and believed to have been so produced.</cd> -- <col><b>Rain quail</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>See <u>Quail</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>, 1.</cd> -- <col><b>Rain water</b></col>, <cd>water that has fallen from the clouds in rain.</cd></p>

<p><hw>Rain</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rained</u> (r&amacr;nd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Raining</u>.] [AS. <i>regnian</i>, akin to G. <i>regnen</i>, Goth. <i>rignjan</i>. See <u>Rain</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To fall in drops from the clouds, as water; -- used mostly with <i>it</i> for a nominative; as, it <i>rains</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The rain it <i>raineth</i> every day.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To fall or drop like water from the clouds; as, tears <i>rained</i> from their eyes.</def></p> <p><hw>Rain</hw> (r&amacr;n), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To pour or shower down from above, like rain from the clouds.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Then said the Lord unto Moses, Behold, I will <i>rain</i> bread from heaven for you.</blockquote> <i>Ex. xvi. 4.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To bestow in a profuse or abundant manner; as, to <i>rain</i> favors upon a person.</def></p> <p><hw>Rain"bow`</hw> (-b&omacr;`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>regenboga</i>, akin to G. <i>regenbogen</i>. See <u>Rain</u>, and <u>Bow</u> anything bent.] <def>A bow or arch exhibiting, in concentric bands, the several colors of the spectrum, and formed in the part of the hemisphere opposite to the sun by the refraction and reflection of the sun's rays in drops of falling rain.</def></p> <p>&fist; Besides the ordinary bow, called also <i>primary rainbow</i>, which is formed by two refractions and one reflection, there is also another often seen exterior to it, called the <i>secondary rainbow</i>, concentric with the first, and separated from it by a small interval. It is formed by two refractions and two reflections, is much fainter than the primary bow, and has its colors arranged in the reverse order from those of the latter.</p> <p><col><b>Lunar rainbow</b></col>, <cd>a fainter arch or rainbow, formed by the moon.</cd> -- <col><b>Marine rainbow</b></col>, or <col><b>Sea bow</b></col>, <cd>a similar bow seen in the spray of waves at sea.</cd> -- <col><b>Rainbow trout</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a bright-colored trout (<i>Salmo irideus</i>), native of the mountains of California, but now extensively introduced into the Eastern States, Japan, and other countries; -- called also <i>brook trout</i>, <i>mountain trout</i>, and <i>golden trout</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rainbow wrasse</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>See under <u>Wrasse</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Supernumerary rainbow</b></col>, <cd>a smaller bow, usually of red and green colors only, sometimes seen within the primary or without the secondary rainbow, and in contact with them.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rain"bowed`</hw> (-b&omacr;d`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Formed with or like a rainbow.</def></p> <p><hw>Rain"deer`</hw> (-d&emacr;r`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>

<i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>See <u>Reindeer</u>.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rain"drop`</hw> (-dr&obreve;p`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A drop of rain.</def></p> <p><hw>Rain"fall`</hw> (r&amacr;n"f&add;l`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A fall or descent of rain; the water, or amount of water, that falls in rain; as, the average annual <i>rainfall</i> of a region.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Supplied by the <i>rainfall</i> of the outer ranges of Sinchul and Singaleleh.</blockquote> <i>Hooker.</i></p> <p><hw>Rain"i*ness</hw> (-&ibreve;*n&ebreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The state of being rainy.</def></p> <p><hw>Rain"less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Destitute of rain; as, a <i>rainless</i> region.</def></p> <p><hw>Rain"-tight`</hw> (-t&imacr;t`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>So tight as to exclude rain; as, a <i>rain-tight</i> roof.</def></p> <p><hw>Rain"y</hw> (-&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [AS. <i>regenig</i>.] <def>Abounding with rain; wet; showery; as, <i>rainy</i> weather; a <i>rainy</i> day or season.</def></p> <p><hw>Raip</hw> (r&amacr;p), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. Icel. <i>reip</i> rope. Cf. <u>Rope</u>.] <def>A rope; also, a measure equal to a rod.</def> [Scot.]</p> <p><hw>Rais</hw> (r&imacr;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Same as 2d <u>Reis</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rais"a*ble</hw> (r&amacr;z"&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of being raised.</def></p> <p><hw>Raise</hw> (r&amacr;z), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Raised</u> (r&amacr;zd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Raising</u>.] [OE. <i>reisen</i>, Icel. <i>reisa</i>, causative of <i>r&imacr;sa</i> to rise. See <u>Rise</u>, and cf. <u>Rear</u> to raise.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To cause to rise; to bring from a lower to a higher place; to lift upward; to elevate; to heave; as, to <i>raise</i> a stone or weight.</def> Hence, figuratively: --</p> <p><sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>To bring to a higher condition or situation; to elevate in rank, dignity, and the like; to increase the value or estimation of; to promote; to exalt; to advance; to enhance; as, to <i>raise</i> from a low estate; to <i>raise</i> to office; to <i>raise</i> the price, and the like.</def></p> <p><blockquote>This gentleman came to be <i>raised</i> to great titles.</blockquote> <i>Clarendon.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The plate pieces of eight were <i>raised</i> three pence in the piece.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Temple.</i></p>

<p><sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>To increase the strength, vigor, or vehemence of; to excite; to intensify; to invigorate; to heighten; as, to <i>raise</i> the pulse; to <i>raise</i> the voice; to <i>raise</i> the spirits or the courage; to <i>raise</i> the heat of a furnace.</def></p> <p><sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>To elevate in degree according to some scale; as, to <i>raise</i> the pitch of the voice; to <i>raise</i> the temperature of a room.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To cause to rise up, or assume an erect position or posture; to set up; to make upright; as, to <i>raise</i> a mast or flagstaff.</def> Hence: --</p> <p><sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>To cause to spring up from a recumbent position, from a state of quiet, or the like; to awaken; to arouse.</def></p> <p><blockquote>They shall not awake, nor be <i>raised</i> out of their sleep.</blockquote> <i>Job xiv. 12.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>To rouse to action; to stir up; to incite to tumult, struggle, or war; to excite.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He commandeth, and <i>raiseth</i> the stormy wind.</blockquote> <i>Ps. cvii. 25.</i></p> <p><blockquote>&AElig;neas . . . employs his pains,<BR> In parts remote, to <i>raise</i> the Tuscan swains.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>To bring up from the lower world; to call up, as a spirit from the world of spirits; to recall from death; to give life to.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Why should it be thought a thing incredible with you, that God should <i>raise</i> the dead ?</blockquote> <i>Acts xxvi. 8.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To cause to arise, grow up, or come into being or to appear; to give rise to; to originate, produce, cause, effect, or the like.</def> Hence, specifically: --</p> <p><sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>To form by the accumulation of materials or constituent parts; to build up; to erect; as, to <i>raise</i> a lofty structure, a wall, a heap of stones.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I will <i>raise</i> forts against thee.</blockquote> <i>Isa. xxix. 3.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>To bring together; to collect; to levy; to get together or obtain for use or service; as, to <i>raise</i> money, troops, and the like.</def> "To <i>raise</i> up a rent." <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>To cause to grow; to procure to be produced, bred, or propagated; to grow; as, to <i>raise</i> corn, barley, hops, etc.; to<i>raise</i> cattle.</def> "He <i>raised</i>

sheep." "He <i>raised</i> wheat where none grew before." <i>Johnson's Dict.</i></p> <p><! p. 1186 pr=vmg !></p> <p>&fist; In some parts of the United States, notably in the Southern States, <i>raise</i> is also commonly applied to the rearing or bringing up of children.</p> <p><blockquote>I was <i>raised</i>, as they say in Virginia, among the mountains of the North.</blockquote> <i>Paulding.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(d)</i></sd> <def>To bring into being; to produce; to cause to arise, come forth, or appear; -- often with <i>up</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I will <i>raise</i> them up a prophet from among their brethren, like unto thee.</blockquote> <i>Deut. xviii. 18.</i></p> <p><blockquote>God vouchsafes to <i>raise</i> another world<BR> From him [Noah], and all his anger to forget.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(e)</i></sd> <def>To give rise to; to set agoing; to occasion; to start; to originate; as, to <i>raise</i> a smile or a blush.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Thou shalt not <i>raise</i> a false report.</blockquote> <i>Ex. xxiii. 1.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(f)</i></sd> <def>To give vent or utterance to; to utter; to strike up.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Soon as the prince appears, they <i>raise</i> a cry.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(g)</i></sd> <def>To bring to notice; to submit for consideration; as, to <i>raise</i> a point of order; to <i>raise</i> an objection.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To cause to rise, as by the effect of leaven; to make light and spongy, as bread.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Miss Liddy can dance a jig, and <i>raise</i> paste.</blockquote> <i>Spectator.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Naut.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>To cause (the land or any other object) to seem higher by drawing nearer to it; as, to <i>raise</i> Sandy Hook light.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>To let go; as in the command, <i>Raise</i> tacks and sheets, <i>i. e.</i>, Let go tacks and sheets.</def></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>To create or constitute; as, to <i>raise</i> a use, that is, to create it.</def> <i>Burrill.</i></p> <p><col><b>To raise a blockade</b></col> <i>(Mil.)</i>, <cd>to remove or break up a blockade, either by withdrawing the ships or forces employed in enforcing it, or by driving them away or dispersing

them.</cd> -- <col><b>To raise a check</b></col>, <col><b>note</b></col>, <col><b>bill of exchange</b></col>, <cd>etc., to increase fraudulently its nominal value by changing the writing, figures, or printing in which the sum payable is specified.</cd> -<col><b>To raise a siege</b></col>, <cd>to relinquish an attempt to take a place by besieging it, or to cause the attempt to be relinquished.</cd> -- <col><b>To raise steam</b></col>, <cd>to produce steam of a required pressure.</cd> -- <col><b>To raise the wind</b></col>, <cd>to procure ready money by some temporary expedient.</cd> [Colloq.] -- <col><b>To raise Cain</b></col>, or <col><b>To raise the devil</b></col>, <cd>to cause a great disturbance; to make great trouble.</cd> [Slang]</p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To lift; exalt; elevate; erect; originate; cause; produce; grow; heighten; aggravate; excite.</p> <p><hw>Raised</hw> (r&amacr;zd), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Lifted up; showing above the surroundings; as, <i>raised</i> or embossed metal work.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Leavened; made with leaven, or yeast; -used of bread, cake, etc., as distinguished from that made with cream of tartar, soda, etc. See <u>Raise</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>, 4.</def></p> <p><col><b>Raised beach</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Beach</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></cd></p> <p><hw>Rais"er</hw> (r&amacr;z"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, raises (in various senses of the verb).</def></p> <p><hw>Rai"sin</hw> (r&amacr;"z'n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>raisin</i> grape, raisin, L. <i>racemus</i> cluster of grapes or berries; cf. Gr. <grk>"ra`x</grk>, <grk>"rago`s</grk>, berry, grape. Cf. <u>Raceme</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A grape, or a bunch of grapes.</def> [Obs.] <i>Cotgrave.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A grape dried in the sun or by artificial heat.</def></p> <p><col><b>Raisin tree</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>the common red currant bush, whose fruit resembles the small raisins of Corinth called <i>currants</i>.</cd> [Eng.] <i>Dr. Prior.</i></p> <p><hw>Rais"ing</hw> (r&amacr;z"&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of lifting, setting up, elevating, exalting, producing, or restoring to life.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Specifically, the operation or work of setting up the frame of a building; as, to help at a <i>raising</i>.</def> [U.S.]</p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>The operation of embossing sheet metal, or of forming it into cup-shaped or hollow articles, by hammering, stamping, or spinning.</def></p> <p><col><b>Raising bee</b></col>, <cd>a bee for raising the frame of a

building. See <u>Bee</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>, 2.</cd> [U.S.] <i>W. Irving.</i> -- <col><b>Raising hammer</b></col>, <cd>a hammer with a rounded face, used in raising sheet metal.</cd> -- <col><b>Raising plate</b></col> <i>(Carp.)</i>, <cd>the plate, or longitudinal timber, on which a roof is raised and rests.</cd></p> <p><hw>||Rai`son`n&eacute;"</hw> (r&asl;`z&osl;`n&asl;"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F. <i>raisonn&eacute;</i>, p. p. of <i>raisonner</i> to reason.] <def>Arranged systematically, or according to classes or subjects; as, a catalogue <i>raisonn&eacute;</i>. See under <u>Catalogue</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rai"vel</hw> (r&amacr;"v<i>e</i>l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Weaving)</i> <def>A separator.</def> [Scot.]</p> <p><hw>||Raj</hw> (r&auml;j), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Rajah</u>.] <def>Reign; rule.</def> [India]</p> <p><hw>||Ra"ja</hw> (r&auml;"j&auml; or r&amacr;"j&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Same as <u>Rajah</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"jah</hw> (r&auml;"j&auml; or r&amacr;"j&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Hind. <i>r&amacr;j&amacr;</i>, Skr. <i>r&amacr;jan</i>, akin to L. <i>rex</i>, <i>regis</i>. See <u>Regal</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>] <def>A native prince or king; also, a landholder or person of importance in the agricultural districts.</def> [India]</p> <p><hw>Ra"jah*ship</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The office or dignity of a rajah.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>||Raj`poot"</hw>, <hw>||Raj`put"</hw> } (r&auml;j`p&oomac;t"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Hind. <i>r&amacr;jp&umacr;t</i>, Skr. <i>r&amacr;ja-putra</i> king's son.] <def>A Hindoo of the second, or royal and military, caste; a Kshatriya; especially, an inhabitant of the country of Rajpootana, in northern central India.</def></p> <p><hw>Rake</hw> (r&amacr;k), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>race</i>; akin to OD. <i>rake</i>, D. <i>reek</i>, OHG. <i>rehho</i>, G. <i>rechen</i>, Icel. <i>reka</i> a shovel, and to Goth. <i>rikan</i> to heap up, collect, and perhaps to Gr. <grk>'ore`gein</grk> to stretch out, and E. <i>rack</i> to stretch. Cf. <u>Reckon</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>An implement consisting of a headpiece having teeth, and a long handle at right angles to it, -- used for collecting hay, or other light things which are spread over a large surface, or for breaking and smoothing the earth.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A toothed machine drawn by a horse, -- used for collecting hay or grain; a horserake.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> [Perhaps a different word.] <i>(Mining)</i> <def>A fissure or mineral vein traversing the strata vertically, or nearly so; -- called also <i>rake-vein</i>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Gill rakes</b></col>. <i>(Anat.)</i> <cd>See under 1st <u>Gill</u>.</cd></p>

<p><hw>Rake</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Raked</u> (r&amacr;kt); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Raking</u>.] [AS. <i>racian</i>. See 1st <u>Rake</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To collect with a rake; as, to <i>rake</i> hay; -- often with <i>up</i>; as, he <i>raked</i> up the fallen leaves.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> Hence: <def>To collect or draw together with laborious industry; to gather from a wide space; to scrape together; as, to <i>rake</i> together wealth; to <i>rake</i> together slanderous tales; to <i>rake</i> together the rabble of a town.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To pass a rake over; to scrape or scratch with a rake for the purpose of collecting and clearing off something, or for stirring up the soil; as, to <i>rake</i> a lawn; to <i>rake</i> a flower bed.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To search through; to scour; to ransack.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The statesman <i>rakes</i> the town to find a plot.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To scrape or scratch across; to pass over quickly and lightly, as a rake does.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Like clouds that <i>rake</i> the mountain summits.</blockquote> <i>Wordsworth.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <i>(Mil.)</i> <def>To enfilade; to fire in a direction with the length of; in naval engagements, to cannonade, as a ship, on the stern or head so that the balls range the whole length of the deck.</def></p> <p><col><b>To rake up</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>To collect together, as the fire (live coals), and cover with ashes</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>To bring up; to search out and bring to notice again; as, <i>to rake up</i> old scandals.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rake</hw> (r&amacr;k), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To use a rake, as for searching or for collecting; to scrape; to search minutely.</def></p> <p><blockquote>One is for <i>raking</i> in Chaucer for antiquated words.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To pass with violence or rapidity; to scrape along.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Pas could not stay, but over him did <i>rake</i>.</blockquote> <i>Sir P. Sidney.</i></p> <p><hw>Rake</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. dial. Sw. <i>raka</i> to reach, and E. <i>reach</i>.] <def>The inclination of anything from a perpendicular direction; as, the <i>rake</i> of a roof, a staircase, etc.</def>; especially <i>(Naut.)</i>, <def>the inclination of a mast or funnel, or, in general, of any part of a vessel not perpendicular to the keel.</def></p>

<p><hw>Rake</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To incline from a perpendicular direction; as, a mast <i>rakes</i> aft.</def></p> <p><col><b>Raking course</b></col> <i>(Bricklaying)</i>, <cd>a course of bricks laid diagonally between the face courses in a thick wall, to strengthen it.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rake</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>rakel</i> rash; cf. Icel. <i>reikall</i> wandering, unsettled, <i>reika</i> to wander.] <def>A loose, disorderly, vicious man; a person addicted to lewdness and other scandalous vices; a debauchee; a rou&eacute;.</def></p> <p><blockquote>An illiterate and frivolous old <i>rake</i>.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><hw>Rake</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> [Icel. <i>reika</i>. Cf. <u>Rake</u> a debauchee.] <def>To walk about; to gad or ramble idly.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> [See <u>Rake</u> a debauchee.] <def>To act the rake; to lead a dissolute, debauched life.</def> <i>Shenstone.</i></p> <p><col><b>To rake out</b></col> <i>(Falconry)</i>, <cd>to fly too far and wide from its master while hovering above waiting till the game is sprung; -- said of the hawk.</cd> <i>Encyc. Brit.</i></p> <p><hw>Rake"hell`</hw> (r&amacr;k"h&ebreve;l`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Rakel</u>.] <def>A lewd, dissolute fellow; a debauchee; a rake.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It seldom doth happen, in any way of life, that a sluggard and a <i>rakehell</i> do not go together.</blockquote> <i>Barrow.</i></p> <p>{ <hw>Rake"hell`</hw>, <hw>Rake"hell`y</hw> (-&ybreve;), } <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Dissolute; wild; lewd; rakish.</def> [Obs.] <i>Spenser. B. Jonson.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"kel</hw> (r&auml;"k&ebreve;l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [OE. See <u>Rake</u> a debauchee.] <def>Hasty; reckless; rash.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i> -- <wf>Ra"kel*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Rak"er</hw> (r&amacr;k"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See 1st <u>Rake</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who, or that which, rakes</def>; as: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A person who uses a rake.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A machine for raking grain or hay by horse or other power.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>A gun so placed as to rake an enemy's ship.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>See <i>Gill rakers</i>, under 1st <u>Gill</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rak"er*y</hw> (-&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Debauchery; lewdness.</def></p>

<p><blockquote>The <i>rakery</i> and intrigues of the lewd town.</blockquote> <i>R. North.</i></p> <p><hw>Rake"shame`</hw> (r&amacr;k"sh&amacr;m`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. <u>Rakehell</u>, <u>Ragabash</u>.] <def>A vile, dissolute wretch.</def> [Obs.] <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Rake"stale`</hw> (-st&amacr;l`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [<i>Rake</i> the instrument + <i>stale</i> a handle.] <def>The handle of a rake.</def></p> <p><blockquote>That tale is not worth a <i>rakestele</i>.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Rake"-vein`</hw> (-v&amacr;n`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Rake</u>, a mineral vein.</def></p> <p><hw>Rak"ing</hw> (r&amacr;k"&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act or process of using a rake; the going over a space with a rake.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A space gone over with a rake; also, the work done, or the quantity of hay, grain, etc., collected, by going once over a space with a rake.</def></p> <p><hw>Rak"ish</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Dissolute; lewd; debauched.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The arduous task of converting a <i>rakish</i> lover.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><hw>Rak"ish</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>Having a saucy appearance indicative of speed and dash.</def> <i>Ham. Nav. Encyc.</i></p> <p><hw>Rak"ish*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rakish manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Rak"ish*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being rakish.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra"ku ware`</hw> (r&auml;"k&oomac; w&acirc;r`). <def>A kind of earthenware made in Japan, resembling Satsuma ware, but having a paler color.</def></p> <p><hw>||R&acirc;le</hw> (r&auml;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&acirc;le</i>. Cf. <u>Rail</u> the bird.] <i>(Med.)</i> <def>An adventitious sound, usually of morbid origin, accompanying the normal respiratory sounds. See <u>Rhonchus</u>.</def></p> <p>&fist; Various kinds are distinguished by pathologists; differing in intensity, as loud and small; in quality, as moist, dry, clicking, whistling, and sonorous; and in origin, as tracheal, pulmonary, and pleural.</p> <p><hw>||Ral`len*tan"do</hw> (r&auml;l`l&ebreve;n*t&auml;n"d&osl;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [It.] <i>(Mus.)</i> <def>Slackening; -- a direction to perform a passage with a gradual decrease in time and

force; ritardando.</def></p> <p><hw>Ral"li*ance</hw> (r&abreve;l"l&ibreve;*<i>a</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. OF. <i>raliance</i>. See <u>Rally</u> to reunite.] <def>The act of rallying.</def></p> <p><hw>Ral"li*er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who rallies.</def></p> <p><hw>Ral"line</hw> (-l&imacr;n), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Pertaining to the rails.</def></p> <p><hw>Ral"ly</hw> (r&abreve;l"l&ybreve;), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rallied</u> (-l&ibreve;d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rallying</u>.] [OF. <i>ralier</i>, F. <i>rallier</i>, fr. L. pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>ad</i> + <i>ligare</i> to bind. See <u>Ra-</u>, and 1st <u>Ally</u>.] <def>To collect, and reduce to order, as troops dispersed or thrown into confusion; to gather again; to reunite.</def></p> <p><hw>Ral"ly</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To come into orderly arrangement; to renew order, or united effort, as troops scattered or put to flight; to assemble; to unite.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The Grecians <i>rally</i>, and their powers unite.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Innumerable parts of matter chanced just then to <i>rally</i> together, and to form themselves into this new world.</blockquote> <i>Tillotson.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To collect one's vital powers or forces; to regain health or consciousness; to recuperate.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To recover strength after a decline in prices; -- said of the market, stocks, etc.</def></p> <p><hw>Ral"ly</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Rallies</b></plw> (-l&ibreve;z). <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act or process of rallying (in any of the senses of that word).</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A political mass meeting.</def> [Colloq. U. S.]</p> <p><hw>Ral"ly</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>railler</i>. See <u>Rail</u> to scoff.] <def>To attack with raillery, either in good humor and pleasantry, or with slight contempt or satire.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Honeycomb . . . <i>rallies</i> me upon a country life.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Strephon had long confessed his amorous pain,<BR> Which gay Corinna <i>rallied</i> with disdain.</blockquote> <i>Gay.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To banter; ridicule; satirize; deride; mock.</p>

<p><hw>Ral"ly</hw> (r&abreve;l"l&ybreve;), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To use pleasantry, or satirical merriment.</def></p> <p><hw>Ral"ly</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Good-humored raillery.</def></p> <p><hw>Ralph</hw> (r&abreve;lf), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A name sometimes given to the raven.</def></p> <p><hw>Ral"ston*ite</hw> (r&add;l"st&ubreve;n*&imacr;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [So named after J. G. <i>Ralston</i> of Norristown, Penn.] <i>(Min.)</i> <def>A fluoride of alumina and soda occurring with the Greenland cryolite in octahedral crystals.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram</hw> (r&abreve;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>ramm</i>, <i>ram</i>; akin to OHG. & D. <i>ram</i>, Prov. G. <i>ramm</i>, and perh. to Icel. <i>ramr</i> strong.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The male of the sheep and allied animals. In some parts of England a ram is called a <i>tup</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Astron.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Aries, the sign of the zodiac which the sun enters about the 21st of March.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The constellation Aries, which does not now, as formerly, occupy the sign of the same name.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>An engine of war used for butting or battering.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>In ancient warfare, a long beam suspended by slings in a framework, and used for battering the walls of cities; a battering-ram.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A heavy steel or iron beak attached to the prow of a steam war vessel for piercing or cutting down the vessel of an enemy; also, a vessel carrying such a beak.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>A hydraulic ram. See under <u>Hydraulic</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>The weight which strikes the blow, in a pile driver, steam hammer, stamp mill, or the like.</def></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>The plunger of a hydraulic press.</def></p> <p><col><b>Ram's horn</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <i>(Fort.)</i> <cd>A low semicircular work situated in and commanding a ditch</cd>. [Written also <i>ramshorn</i>.] <i>Farrow.</i> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <i>(Paleon.)</i> <cd>An ammonite.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ram</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rammed</u> (r&abreve;md); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ramming</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To butt or strike against; to drive a ram against or through; to thrust or drive with violence; to force in; to drive together; to cram; as, to <i>ram</i> an enemy's vessel; to <i>ram</i> piles, cartridges, etc.</def></p> <p><blockquote>[They] <i>rammed</i> me in with foul shirts, and smocks, socks, foul stockings, greasy napkins.</blockquote>

<i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To fill or compact by pounding or driving.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A ditch . . . was filled with some sound materials, and <i>rammed</i> to make the foundation solid.</blockquote> <i>Arbuthnot.</i></p> <p><hw>||Ram`a*dan"</hw> (r&abreve;m`&adot;*d&abreve;n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Ar. <i>rama&dsdot;&amacr;n</i>, or <i>ramaz&amacr;n</i>, properly, the hot month.] [Written also <i>Ramadhan</i>, <i>Ramadzan</i>, and <i>Rhamadan</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The ninth Mohammedan month.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The great annual fast of the Mohammedans, kept during daylight through the ninth month.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"age</hw> (r&abreve;m"&asl;j; 48), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. L. <i>ramus</i> a branch.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Boughs or branches.</def> [Obs.] <i>Crabb.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Warbling of birds in trees.</def> [Obs.] <i>Drummond.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra*mage"</hw> (r&adot;*m&amacr;j"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Wild; untamed.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Ra*ma"gi*ous</hw> (-m&amacr;"j&ibreve;*&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Wild; not tame.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Now is he tame that was so <i>ramagious</i>.</blockquote> <i>Remedy of Love.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"mal</hw> (r&amacr;"m<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>ramus</i> branch.] <def>Of or pertaining to a ramus, or branch; rameal.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra*ma"ya*na</hw> (r&auml;*m&auml;"y&adot;*n&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Skr. <i>R&amacr;m&amacr;ya&nsdot;a</i>.] <def>The more ancient of the two great epic poems in Sanskrit. The hero and heroine are Rama and his wife Sita.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"berge</hw> (r&abreve;m"b&etilde;rj), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. <i>rame</i> oar + <i>barge</i> barge.] <def>Formerly, a kind of large war galley.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"ble</hw> (r&abreve;m"b'l), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rambled</u> (-b'ld); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rambling</u> (-bl&ibreve;ng).] [For <i>rammle</i>, fr. Prov. E. <i>rame</i> to roam. Cf. <u>Roam</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To walk, ride, or sail, from place to place, without any determinate object in view; to roam carelessly or irregularly; to rove; to wander; as, to <i>ramble</i> about the city; to <i>ramble</i> over the world.</def></p>

<p><blockquote>He that is at liberty to <i>ramble</i> in perfect darkness, what is his liberty better than if driven up and down as a bubble by the wind?</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To talk or write in a discursive, aimless way.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To extend or grow at random.</def> <i>Thomson.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To rove; roam; wander; range; stroll.</p> <p><hw>Ram"ble</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A going or moving from place to place without any determinate business or object; an excursion or stroll merely for recreation.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Coming home, after a short Christmas <i>ramble</i>.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> [Cf. <u>Rammel</u>.] <i>(Coal Mining)</i> <def>A bed of shale over the seam.</def> <i>Raymond.</i></p> <p><hw>Ram"bler</hw> (-bl&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who rambles; a rover; a wanderer.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"bling</hw> (-bl&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Roving; wandering; discursive; as, a <i>rambling</i> fellow, talk, or building.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"bling*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rambling manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"booze</hw> (-b&oomac;z), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A beverage made of wine, ale (or milk), sugar, etc.</def> [Obs.] <i>Blount.</i></p> <p><hw>Ram*bu"tan</hw> (r&abreve;m*b&oomac;"t&abreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Malay <i>ramb&umacr;tan</i>, fr. <i>rambut</i> hair of the head.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A Malayan fruit produced by the tree <i>Nephelium lappaceum</i>, and closely related to the litchi nut. It is bright red, oval in shape, covered with coarse hairs (whence the name), and contains a pleasant acid pulp. Called also <i>ramboostan</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"me*al</hw> (r&amacr;"m&esl;*<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Same as <u>Ramal</u>.</def> <i>Gray.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"me*an</hw> (-<i>a</i>n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A Ramist.</def> <i>Shipley.</i></p> <p><hw>Ramed</hw> (r&abreve;md), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Having the frames, stem, and sternpost adjusted; -- said of a ship on the stocks.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"ee</hw> (r&abreve;m"&esl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>See <u>Ramie</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"e*kin</hw> (r&abreve;m"&esl;*k&ibreve;n),

<pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Ramequin</u>.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Ram"ent</hw> (r&abreve;m"<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>ramenta</i>, pl.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A scraping; a shaving.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>pl.</i> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Ramenta.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra*men"ta</hw> (r&adot;*m&ebreve;n"t&adot;), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [L., scrapings.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Thin brownish chaffy scales upon the leaves or young shoots of some plants, especially upon the petioles and leaves of ferns.</def> <i>Gray.</i></p> <p><! p. 1187 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Ram`en*ta"ceous</hw> (r&abreve;m`&ebreve;n*t&amacr;"sh&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Covered with ramenta.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"me*ous</hw> (r&amacr;"m&esl;*&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>rameus</i>, from <i>ramus</i> branch, bough.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Ramal.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"e*quin</hw> (r&abreve;m"&esl;*k&ibreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.] <i>(Cookery)</i> <def>A mixture of cheese, eggs, etc., formed in a mold, or served on bread.</def> [Written also <i>ramekin</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Ram"ie</hw> (r&abreve;m"&esl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From Malay.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>The grass-cloth plant (<i>B&oelig;hmeria nivea</i>); also, its fiber, which is very fine and exceedingly strong; -- called also <i>China grass</i>, and <i>rhea</i>. See <i>Grass-cloth plant</i>, under <u>Grass</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram`i*fi*ca"tion</hw> (r&abreve;m`&ibreve;*f&ibreve;*k&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>ramification</i>. See <u>Ramify</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The process of branching, or the development of branches or offshoots from a stem; also, the mode of their arrangement.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A small branch or offshoot proceeding from a main stock or channel; as, the <i>ramifications</i> of an artery, vein, or nerve.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A division into principal and subordinate classes, heads, or departments; also, one of the subordinate parts; as, the <i>ramifications</i> of a subject or scheme.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>The production of branchlike figures.</def> <i>Crabb.</i></p> <p><hw>Ram`i*flo"rous</hw> (-fl&omacr;"r&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>ramus</i> branch + <i>flos</i>, <i>floris</i>, flower.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Flowering on the branches.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"i*form</hw> (r&abreve;m"&ibreve;*f&ocirc;rm),

<pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>ramus</i> branch + <i>-form</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Having the form of a branch.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"i*fy</hw> (r&abreve;m"&ibreve;*f&imacr;), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ramified</u> (r&abreve;m"&ibreve;*f&imacr;d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ramifying</u> (r&abreve;m"&ibreve;*f&imacr;`&ibreve;ng).] [F. <i>ramifier</i>, LL. <i>ramificare</i>, fr. L. <i>ramus</i> a branch + <i>-ficare</i> (in comp.) to make. See <u>-fy</u>.] <def>To divide into branches or subdivisions; as, to <i>ramify</i> an art, subject, scheme.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"i*fy</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To shoot, or divide, into branches or subdivisions, as the stem of a plant.</def></p> <p><blockquote>When they [asparagus plants] . . . begin to <i>ramify</i>.</blockquote> <i>Arbuthnot.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To be divided or subdivided, as a main subject.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*mig"er*ous</hw> (r&adot;*m&ibreve;j"&etilde;r*&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>ramus</i> a branch + <i>-gerous</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Bearing branches; branched.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*mip"a*rous</hw> (r&adot;*m&ibreve;p"&adot;*r&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>ramus + parere</i> to bear.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Producing branches; ramigerous.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"mist</hw> (r&amacr;"m&ibreve;st), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A follower of Pierre <i>Ram&eacute;</i>, better known as <i>Ramus</i>, a celebrated French scholar, who was professor of rhetoric and philosophy at Paris in the reign of Henry II., and opposed the Aristotelians.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"line</hw> (r&abreve;m"l&ibreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A line used to get a straight middle line, as on a spar, or from stem to stern in building a vessel.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"mel</hw> (r&abreve;m"m&ebreve;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Refuse matter.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Filled with any rubbish, <i>rammel</i> and broken stones.</blockquote> <i>Holland.</i></p> <p><hw>Ram"mer</hw> (-m&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, rams or drives.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>An instrument for driving anything with force; as, a <i>rammer</i> for driving stones or piles, or for beating the earth to more solidity</def>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A rod for forcing down the charge of a gun; a ramrod</def>. <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <i>(Founding)</i> <def>An implement for pounding the sand of a mold to render it compact.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"mish</hw> (-m&ibreve;sh), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Like a ram; hence, rank; lascivious.</def> "Their savor is so <i>rammish</i>." <i>Chaucer.</i></p>

<p><hw>Ram"mish*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality of being rammish.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"my</hw> (-m&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Like a ram; rammish.</def> <i>Burton.</i></p> <p><hw>Ram`ol*les"cence</hw> (r&abreve;m`&obreve;l*l&ebreve;s"s<i>e</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>ramollir</i> to make soft, to soften; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>amollir</i> to soften; <i>a</i> (L. <i>ad</i>) + <i>mollir</i> to soften, L. <i>mollire</i>, fr. <i>mollis</i> soft.] <def>A softening or mollifying.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Ra*moon"</hw> (r&adot;*m&oomac;n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A small West Indian tree (<i>Trophis Americana</i>) of the Mulberry family, whose leaves and twigs are used as fodder for cattle.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*mose"</hw> (r&adot;*m&omacr;s"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>ramosus</i>, from <i>ramus</i> a branch.] <def>Branched, as the stem or root of a plant; having lateral divisions; consisting of, or having, branches; full of branches; ramifying; branching; branchy.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"mous</hw> (r&amacr;"m&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Ramose.</def></p> <p><hw>Ramp</hw> (r&abreve;mp), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ramped</u> (r&abreve;mt; 215); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ramping</u>.] [F. <i>ramper</i> to creep, OF., to climb; of German origin; cf. G. <i>raffen</i> to snatch, LG. & D. <i>rapen</i>. See <u>Rap</u> to snatch, and cf. <u>Romp</u>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To spring; to leap; to bound; to rear; to prance; to become rampant; hence, to frolic; to romp.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To move by leaps, or as by leaps; hence, to move swiftly or with violence.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Their bridles they would champ,<BR> And trampling the fine element would fiercely <i>ramp</i>.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To climb, as a plant; to creep up.</def></p> <p><blockquote>With claspers and tendrils, they [plants] catch hold, . . . and so <i>ramping</i> upon trees, they mount up to a great height.</blockquote> <i>Ray.</i></p> <p><hw>Ramp</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A leap; a spring; a hostile advance.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The bold Ascalonite<BR> Fled from his lion <i>ramp</i>.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A highwayman; a robber.</def> [Prov.

Eng.]</p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A romping woman; a prostitute.</def> [Obs.] <i>Lyly.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> [F. <i>rampe</i>.] <i>(Arch.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Any sloping member, other than a purely constructional one, such as a continuous parapet to a staircase.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A short bend, slope, or curve, where a hand rail or cap changes its direction.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> [F. <i>rampe</i>.] <i>(Fort.)</i> <def>An inclined plane serving as a communication between different interior levels.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram*pa"cious</hw> (r&abreve;m*p&amacr;"sh&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>High-spirited; rampageous.</def> [Slang] <i>Dickens.</i></p> <p><hw>Ramp"age</hw> (r&abreve;mp"&asl;j; 48), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Ramp</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <def>Violent or riotous behavior; a state of excitement, passion, or debauchery; as, to be on the <i>rampage</i>.</def> [Prov. or Low] <i>Dickens.</i></p> <p><hw>Ramp"age</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To leap or prance about, as an animal; to be violent; to rage.</def> [Prov. or Low]</p> <p><hw>Ram*pa"geous</hw> (r&abreve;m*p&amacr;"j&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Characterized by violence and passion; unruly; rampant.</def> [Prov. or Low]</p> <p><blockquote>In the primitive ages of a <i>rampageous</i> antiquity.</blockquote> <i>Galt.</i></p> <p><hw>Ram*pal"lian</hw> (-p&abreve;l"y<i>a</i>n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. <i>ramp</i> a prostitute, or <i>rabble</i>.] <def>A mean wretch.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Ramp"an*cy</hw> (r&abreve;mp"<i>a</i>n*s&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being rampant; excessive action or development; exuberance; extravagance.</def> "They are come to this height and <i>rampancy</i> of vice." <i>South.</i></p> <p><hw>Ramp"ant</hw> (r&abreve;mp"<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F., p. pr. of <i>ramper</i> to creep. See <u>Ramp</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Ramping; leaping; springing; rearing upon the hind legs; hence, raging; furious.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The fierce lion in his kind<BR> Which goeth <i>rampant</i> after his prey.</blockquote> <i>Gower.</i></p> <p><blockquote>[The] lion . . . <i>rampant</i> shakes his brinded mane.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Ascending; climbing; rank in growth;

exuberant.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>rampant</i> stalk is of unusual altitude.</blockquote> <i>I. Taylor.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Her.)</i> <def>Rising with fore paws in the air as if attacking; -- said of a beast of prey, especially a lion. The right fore leg and right hind leg should be raised higher than the left.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rampant arch</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>An arch which has one abutment higher than the other</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>Same as <i>Rampant vault</i>, below.</cd> -- <col><b>Rampant gardant</b></col> <i>(Her.)</i>, <cd>rampant, but with the face turned to the front.</cd> -- <col><b>Rampant regardant</b></col>, <cd>rampant, but looking backward.</cd> -- <col><b>Rampant vault</b></col> <i>(Arch.)</i>, <cd>a continuous wagon vault, or cradle vault, whose two abutments are located on an inclined plane, such as the vault supporting a stairway, or forming the ceiling of a stairway.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ramp"ant*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rampant manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"part</hw> (r&abreve;m"p&auml;rt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>rempart</i>, OF. <i>rempar</i>, fr. <i>remparer</i> to fortify, <i>se remparer</i> to fence or intrench one's self; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + pref. <i>en-</i> (L. <i>in</i>) + <i>parer</i> to defend, parry, prepare, L. <i>parare</i> to prepare. See <u>Pare</u>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>That which fortifies and defends from assault; that which secures safety; a defense or bulwark.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Fort.)</i> <def>A broad embankment of earth round a place, upon which the parapet is raised. It forms the substratum of every permanent fortification.</def> <i>Mahan.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Bulwark; fence; security; guard. -- <u>Rampart</u>, <u>Bulwark</u>. These words were formerly interchanged; but in modern usage a distinction has sprung up between them. The <i>rampart</i> of a fortified place is the enceinte or entire main embankment or wall which surrounds it. The term <i>bulwark</i> is now applied to peculiarly strong outworks which project for the defense of the <i>rampart</i>, or main work. A single bastion is a <i>bulwark</i>. In using these words figuratively, <i>rampart</i> is properly applied to that which protects by walling out; <i>bulwark</i> to that which stands in the forefront of danger, to meet and repel it. Hence, we speak of a distinguished individual as the <i>bulwark</i>, not the <i>rampart</i>, of the state. This distinction, however, is often disregarded.</p> <p><hw>Ram"part</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ramparted</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ramparting</u>.] <def>To surround or protect with, or as with, a rampart or ramparts.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Those grassy hills, those glittering dells,<BR> Proudly <i>ramparted</i> with rocks.</blockquote>

<i>Coleridge.</i></p> <p><col><b>Rampart gun</b></col> <i>(Fort.)</i>, <cd>a cannon or large gun for use on a rampart and not as a fieldpiece.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rampe</hw> (r&abreve;mp), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [In allusion to its supposed aphrodisiac qualities. See <u>Ramp</u>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>The cuckoopint.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"pier</hw> (r&abreve;m"p&emacr;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Rampart</u>.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Ram"pi*on</hw> (r&abreve;m"p&ibreve;*&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>raiponce</i>, Sp. <i>ruiponce</i>, <i>reponche</i>, L. <i>raperonzo</i>, NL. <i>rapuntium</i>, fr. L. <i>rapum</i>, <i>rapa</i>, a turnip, rape. Cf. <u>Rape</u> a plant.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A plant (<i>Campanula Rapunculus</i>) of the Bellflower family, with a tuberous esculent root; -- also called <i>ramps</i>.</def></p> <p>&fist; The name is sometimes given to plants of the genus <i>Phyteuma</i>, herbs of the Bellflower family, and to the American evening primrose (<i>&OElig;nothera biennis</i>), which has run wild in some parts of Europe.</p> <p><hw>Ram"pire</hw> (-p&imacr;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rampart.</def> [Archaic]</p> <p><blockquote>The Trojans round the place a <i>rampire</i> cast.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Ram"pire</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To fortify with a rampire; to form into a rampire.</def> [Archaic] <i>Chapman.</i> "<i>Rampired</i> walls of gold." <i>R. Browning.</i></p> <p><hw>Ram"pler</hw> (r&abreve;m"pl&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rambler.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"pler</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Roving; rambling.</def> [Scot.]</p> <p><hw>Ram"rod`</hw> (-r&obreve;d`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The rod used in ramming home the charge in a muzzle-loading firearm.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"shac*kle</hw> (-sh&abreve;k*k'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Etymol. uncertain.] <def>Loose; disjointed; falling to pieces; out of repair.</def></p> <p><blockquote>There came . . . my lord the cardinal, in his <i>ramshackle</i> coach.</blockquote> <i>Thackeray.</i></p> <p><hw>Ram"shac*kle</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To search or ransack; to rummage.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Ram"son</hw> (-z'n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>hramsan</i>, pl., akin to G. <i>rams</i>, Sw. <i>rams</i>, <i>rams</i>l&ouml;k; cf. Gr. <grk>kro`myon</grk> onion.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A broad-leaved species of garlic (<i>Allium ursinum</i>), common in European gardens;

-- called also <i>buckram</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"sted</hw> (-st&ebreve;d), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A yellow-flowered weed; -- so named from a Mr. Ramsted who introduced it into Pennsylvania. See <u>Toad flax</u>. Called also <i>Ramsted weed</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"u*lose`</hw> (-&usl;*l&omacr;s`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>ramulosus</i>, fr. <i>ramulus</i>, dim. of <i>ramus</i> a branch.] <i>(Nat. Hist.)</i> <def>Having many small branches, or ramuli.</def></p> <p><hw>Ram"u*lous</hw> (-l&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Nat. Hist.)</i> <def>Ramulose.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ram"u*lus</hw> (-l&ubreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Ramuli</b></plw> (-l&imacr;). <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A small branch, or branchlet, of corals, hydroids, and similar organisms.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra"mus</hw> (r&amacr;"m&ubreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Rami</b></plw> (-m&imacr;). <i>(Nat. Hist.)</i> <def>A branch; a projecting part or prominent process; a ramification.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*mus"cule</hw> (r&adot;*m&ubreve;s"k&usl;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>ramusculus</i>.] <i>(Nat. Hist.)</i> <def>A small ramus, or branch.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran</hw> (r&abreve;n), <def><pos><i>imp.</i></pos> of <u>Run</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>r&amacr;n</i>.] <def>Open robbery.</def> [Obs.] <i>Lambarde.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>Yarns coiled on a spun-yarn winch.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra"na</hw> (r&amacr;"n&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L., a frog.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A genus of anurous batrachians, including the common frogs.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"nal</hw> (r&amacr;"n<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Having a general affinity to ranunculaceous plants.</def></p> <p><col><b>Ranal alliance</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a name proposed by Lindley for a group of natural orders, including Ranunculace&aelig;, Magnoliace&aelig;, Papaverace&aelig;, and others related to them.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rance</hw> (r&abreve;ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Etymol. uncertain.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A prop or shore.</def> [Scot.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A round between the legs of a chair.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran*ces"cent</hw> (r&abreve;n*s&ebreve;s"s<i>e</i>nt),

<pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>rancescens</i>, p. pr. of <i>rancescere</i>, v. incho. from <i>rancere</i> to be rancid.] <def>Becoming rancid or sour.</def></p> <p><hw>Ranch</hw> (r&abreve;nch), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Written also <i>raunch</i>.] [Cf. <u>Wrench</u>.] <def>To wrench; to tear; to sprain; to injure by violent straining or contortion.</def> [R.] <i>Dryden.</i> "Hasting to <i>raunch</i> the arrow out." <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Ranch</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Rancho</u>.] <def>A tract of land used for grazing and the rearing of horses, cattle, or sheep. See <u>Rancho</u>, 2.</def> [Western U. S.]</p> <p><hw>||Ran*che"ro</hw> (r&abreve;n*ch&amacr;"r&osl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Rancheros</b></plw> (r&omacr;z). [Sp.] [Mexico & Western U. S.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A herdsman; a peasant employed on a ranch or rancho.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The owner and occupant of a ranch or rancho.</def></p> <p><hw>Ranch"man</hw> (r&abreve;nch"m<i>a</i>n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Ranchmen</b></plw> (-m<i>e</i>n). <def>An owner or occupant of, or laborer on, a ranch; a herdsman.</def> [Western U. S.]</p> <p><hw>||Ran"cho</hw> (r&abreve;n"ch&osl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Ranchos</b></plw> (-ch&omacr;z). [Sp., properly, a mess, mess room. Cf. 2d <u>Ranch</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A rude hut, as of posts, covered with branches or thatch, where herdsmen or farm laborers may live or lodge at night.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A large grazing farm where horses and cattle are raised; -- distinguished from <i>hacienda</i>, a cultivated farm or plantation.</def> [Mexico & California] <i>Bartlett.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"cid</hw> (r&abreve;n"s&ibreve;d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>rancidus</i>, fr. <i>rancere</i> to be rancid or rank.] <def>Having a rank smell or taste, from chemical change or decomposition; musty; as, <i>rancid</i> oil or butter.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran*cid"i*ty</hw> (r&abreve;n*s&ibreve;d"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rancidit&eacute;</i>.] <def>The quality or state of being rancid; a rancid scent or flavor, as of old oil.</def> <i>Ure.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"cid*ly</hw> (r&abreve;n"s&ibreve;d*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rancid manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"cid*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality of being rancid.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"cor</hw> (r&abreve;&nsm;"k&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Written also <i>rancour</i>.] [OE. <i>rancour</i>, OF. <i>rancor</i>, <i>rancur</i>, F. <i>rancune</i>, fr. L. <i>rancor</i> rancidity, rankness; tropically, an old grudge, rancor, fr. <i>rancere</i> to be rank or rancid.] <def>The deepest malignity or spite; deep-seated

enmity or malice; inveterate hatred.</def> "To stint <i>rancour</i> and dissencioun." <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>It would not be easy to conceive the passion, <i>rancor</i>, and malice of their tongues and hearts.</blockquote> <i>Burke.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Enmity; hatred; ill will; malice; spite; grudge; animosity; malignity. -- <u>Rancor</u>, <u>Enmity</u>. <i>Enmity</i> and <i>rancor</i> both describe hostile feelings; but <i>enmity</i> may be generous and open, while <i>rancor</i> implies personal malice of the worst and most enduring nature, and is the strongest word in our language to express hostile feelings.</p> <p><blockquote><i>Rancor</i> will out; proud prelate, in thy face<BR> I see thy fury.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote><i>Rancor</i> is that degree of malice which preys upon the possessor.</blockquote> <i>Cogan.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"cor*ous</hw> (-&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [OF. <i>rancuros</i>.] <def>Full of rancor; evincing, or caused by, rancor; deeply malignant; implacably spiteful or malicious; intensely virulent.</def></p> <p><blockquote>So flamed his eyes with rage and <i>rancorous</i> ire.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"cor*ous*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rancorous manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Rand</hw> (r&abreve;nd), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>rand</i>, <i>rond</i>; akin to D., Dan., Sw., & G. <i>rand</i>, Icel. <i>r&ouml;nd</i>, and probably to E. <i>rind</i>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A border; edge; margin.</def> [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A long, fleshy piece, as of beef, cut from the flank or leg; a sort of steak.</def> <i>Beau. & Fl.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A thin inner sole for a shoe; also, a leveling slip of leather applied to the sole before attaching the heel.</def></p> <p><hw>Rand</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [See <u>Rant</u>.] <def>To rant; to storm.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>I wept, . . . and raved, and <i>randed</i>, and railed.</blockquote> <i>J. Webster.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"dall grass`</hw> (r&abreve;n"d<i>a</i>l gr&adot;s`). <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>The meadow fescue (<i>Festuca elatior</i>). See under <u>Grass</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"dan</hw> (-d&abreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The product of a second sifting of meal; the finest part of the bran.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p>

<p><hw>Ran"dan</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A boat propelled by three rowers with four oars, the middle rower pulling two.</def></p> <p><hw>Rand"ing</hw> (r&abreve;nd"&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Shoemaking)</i> <def>The act or process of making and applying rands for shoes.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Mil.)</i> <def>A kind of basket work used in gabions.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"dom</hw> (r&abreve;n"d&ubreve;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>randon</i>, OF. <i>randon</i> force, violence, rapidity, &agrave; <i>randon</i>, de <i>randon</i>, violently, suddenly, rapidly, prob. of German origin; cf. G. <i>rand</i> edge, border, OHG. <i>rant</i> shield, edge of a shield, akin to E. <i>rand</i>, n. See <u>Rand</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Force; violence.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>For courageously the two kings newly fought with great <i>random</i> and force.</blockquote> <i>E. Hall.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A roving motion; course without definite direction; want of direction, rule, or method; hazard; chance; -commonly used in the phrase <i>at random</i>, that is, without a settled point of direction; at hazard.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Counsels, when they fly<BR> <i>At random</i>, sometimes hit most happily.</blockquote> <i>Herrick.</i></p> <p><blockquote>O, many a shaft, <i>at random</i> sent,<BR> Finds mark the archer little meant!</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Distance to which a missile is cast; range; reach; as, the <i>random</i> of a rifle ball.</def> <i>Sir K. Digby.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Mining)</i> <def>The direction of a rakevein.</def> <i>Raymond.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"dom</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Going at random or by chance; done or made at hazard, or without settled direction, aim, or purpose; hazarded without previous calculation; left to chance; haphazard; as, a <i>random</i> guess.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Some <i>random</i> truths he can impart.</blockquote> <i>Wordsworth.</i></p> <p><blockquote>So sharp a spur to the lazy, and so strong a bridle to the <i>random</i>.</blockquote> <i>H. Spencer.</i></p> <p><col><b>Random courses</b></col> <i>(Masonry)</i>, <cd>courses of stone of unequal thickness.</cd> -- <col><b>Random shot</b></col>, <cd>a shot not directed or aimed toward any particular object, or a shot with the muzzle of the gun much elevated.</cd> -- <col><b>Random work</b></col> <i>(Masonry)</i>, <cd>stonework consisting of stones of

unequal sizes fitted together, but not in courses nor always with flat beds.</cd></p> <p><! p. 1188 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Ran"dom*ly</hw> (r&abreve;n"d&ubreve;m*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a random manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"don</hw> (-d&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Random.</def> [Obs.] <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"don</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To go or stray at random.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rane"deer`</hw> (r&amacr;n"d&emacr;r`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Reindeer</u>.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>||Ra"nee</hw> (r&auml;"n&emacr;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Same as <u>Rani</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"force`</hw> (r&abreve;n"f&omacr;rs`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>renforcer</i>.] <def>See <u>Re&euml;nforce</u>.</def> [Obs.] <i>Bailey.</i></p> <p><hw>Rang</hw> (r&abreve;ng), <def><pos><i>imp.</i></pos> of <u>Ring</u>, <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos></def></p> <p><hw>Range</hw> (r&amacr;nj), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ranged</u> (r&amacr;njd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ranging</u> (r&amacr;n"j&ibreve;ng).] [OE. <i>rengen</i>, OF. <i>rengier</i>, F. <i>ranger</i>, OF. <i>renc</i> row, rank, F. <i>rang</i>; of German origin. See <u>Rank</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To set in a row, or in rows; to place in a regular line or lines, or in ranks; to dispose in the proper order; to rank; as, to <i>range</i> soldiers in line.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Maccabeus <i>ranged</i> his army by bands.</blockquote> <i>2 Macc. xii. 20.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To place (as a single individual) among others in a line, row, or order, as in the ranks of an army; -usually, reflexively and figuratively, (in the sense) to espouse a cause, to join a party, etc.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It would be absurd in me to <i>range</i> myself on the side of the Duke of Bedford and the corresponding society.</blockquote> <i>Burke.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To separate into parts; to sift.</def> [Obs.] <i>Holland.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To dispose in a classified or in systematic order; to arrange regularly; as, to <i>range</i> plants and animals in genera and species.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To rove over or through; as, to <i>range</i> the fields.</def></p>

<p><blockquote>Teach him to <i>range</i> the ditch, and force the brake.</blockquote> <i>Gay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>To sail or pass in a direction parallel to or near; as, to <i>range</i> the coast.</def></p> <p>&fist; Compare the last two senses (5 and 6) with the French <i>ranger</i> une c&ocirc;te.</p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <i>(Biol.)</i> <def>To be native to, or to live in; to frequent.</def></p> <p><hw>Range</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To rove at large; to wander without restraint or direction; to roam.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Like a <i>ranging</i> spaniel that barks at every bird he sees.</blockquote> <i>Burton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To have range; to change or differ within limits; to be capable of projecting, or to admit of being projected, especially as to horizontal distance; as, the temperature <i>ranged</i> through seventy degrees Fahrenheit; the gun <i>ranges</i> three miles; the shot <i>ranged</i> four miles.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To be placed in order; to be ranked; to admit of arrangement or classification; to rank.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And <i>range</i> with humble livers in content.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To have a certain direction; to correspond in direction; to be or keep in a corresponding line; to trend or run; -- often followed by <i>with</i>; as, the front of a house <i>ranges</i> with the street; to <i>range</i> along the coast.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Which way the forests <i>range</i>.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Biol.)</i> <def>To be native to, or live in, a certain district or region; as, the peba <i>ranges</i> from Texas to Paraguay.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To rove; roam; ramble; wander; stroll.</p> <p><hw>Range</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From <u>Range</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>: cf. F. <i>rang&eacute;e</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A series of things in a line; a row; a rank; as, a <i>range</i> of buildings; a <i>range</i> of mountains.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>An aggregate of individuals in one rank or degree; an order; a class.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The next <i>range</i> of beings above him are the immaterial intelligences.</blockquote> <i>Sir M. Hale.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>The step of a ladder; a rung.</def> <i>Clarendon.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>A kitchen grate.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>He was bid at his first coming to take off the <i>range</i>, and let down the cinders.</blockquote> <i>L'Estrange.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>An extended cooking apparatus of cast iron, set in brickwork, and affording conveniences for various ways of cooking; also, a kind of cooking stove.</def></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>A bolting sieve to sift meal.</def> [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <def>A wandering or roving; a going to and fro; an excursion; a ramble; an expedition.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He may take a <i>range</i> all the world over.</blockquote> <i>South.</i></p> <p><sn><b>8.</b></sn> <def>That which may be ranged over; place or room for excursion; especially, a region of country in which cattle or sheep may wander and pasture.</def></p> <p><sn><b>9.</b></sn> <def>Extent or space taken in by anything excursive; compass or extent of excursion; reach; scope; discursive power; as, the <i>range</i> of one's voice, or authority.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Far as creation's ample <i>range</i> extends.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>range</i> and compass of Hammond's knowledge filled the whole circle of the arts.</blockquote> <i>Bp. Fell.</i></p> <p><blockquote>A man has not enough <i>range</i> of thought.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><sn><b>10.</b></sn> <i>(Biol.)</i> <def>The region within which a plant or animal naturally lives.</def></p> <p><sn><b>11.</b></sn> <i>(Gun.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The horizontal distance to which a shot or other projectile is carried.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Sometimes, less properly, the trajectory of a shot or projectile.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>A place where shooting, as with cannons or rifles, is practiced.</def></p> <p><sn><b>12.</b></sn> <def>In the public land system of the United States, a row or line of townships lying between two successive meridian lines six miles apart.</def></p> <p>&fist; The meridians included in each great survey are numbered in order east and west from the "principal meridian" of that survey, and the townships in the range are numbered north and south from the "base line," which runs east and west; as, township No. 6, N., <i>range</i>

7, W., from the fifth principal meridian.</p> <p><sn><b>13.</b></sn> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>See <i>Range of cable</i>, below.</def></p> <p><col><b>Range of accommodation</b></col> <i>(Optics)</i>, <cd>the distance between the near point and the far point of distinct vision, -- usually measured and designated by the strength of the lens which if added to the refracting media of the eye would cause the rays from the near point to appear as if they came from the far point.</cd> -<col><b>Range finder</b></col> <i>(Gunnery)</i>, <cd>an instrument, or apparatus, variously constructed, for ascertaining the distance of an inaccessible object, -- used to determine what elevation must be given to a gun in order to hit the object; a position finder.</cd> -<col><b>Range of cable</b></col> <i>(Naut.)</i>, <cd>a certain length of slack cable ranged along the deck preparatory to letting go the anchor.</cd> -- <col><b>Range work</b></col> <i>(Masonry)</i>, <cd>masonry of squared stones laid in courses each of which is of even height throughout the length of the wall; -- distinguished from <i>broken range work</i>, which consists of squared stones laid in courses not continuously of even height.</cd> -- <col><b>To get the range of</b></col> (an object) <i>(Gun.)</i>, <cd>to find the angle at which the piece must be raised to reach (the object) without carrying beyond.</cd></p> <p><hw>Range"ment</hw> (r&amacr;nj"m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rangement</i>.] <def>Arrangement.</def> [Obs.] <i>Waterland.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"ger</hw> (r&amacr;n"j&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who ranges; a rover; sometimes, one who ranges for plunder; a roving robber.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which separates or arranges; specifically, a sieve.</def> [Obs.] "The tamis <i>ranger</i>." <i>Holland.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A dog that beats the ground in search of game.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>One of a body of mounted troops, formerly armed with short muskets, who range over the country, and often fight on foot.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>The keeper of a public park or forest; formerly, a sworn officer of a forest, appointed by the king's letters patent, whose business was to walk through the forest, recover beasts that had strayed beyond its limits, watch the deer, present trespasses to the next court held for the forest, etc.</def> [Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Ran"ger*ship</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The office of the keeper of a forest or park.</def> [Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Ran"gle</hw> (r&abreve;n"g'l), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To range about in an irregular manner.</def> [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] <i>Halliwell.</i></p> <p><hw>||Ra"ni</hw> (r&auml;"n&emacr;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Hind.

<i>r&amacr;n&imacr;</i>, Skr. <i>r&amacr;jn&imacr;</i>. See <u>Rajah</u>.] <def>A queen or princess; the wife of a rajah.</def> [Written also <i>ranee</i>.] [India]</p> <p><hw>Ra"nine</hw> (r&amacr;"n&imacr;n), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>rana</i> a frog.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to the frogs and toads.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>Pertaining to, or designating, a swelling under the tongue; also, pertaining to the region where the swelling occurs; -- applied especially to branches of the lingual artery and lingual vein.</def></p> <p><hw>Rank</hw> (r&abreve;&nsm;k), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<pos><i>Compar.</i></pos> <u>Ranker</u> (-&etilde;r); <pos><i>superl.</i></pos> <u>Rankest</u>.] [AS. <i>ranc</i> strong, proud; cf. D. <i>rank</i> slender, Dan. <i>rank</i> upright, erect, Prov. G. <i>rank</i> slender, Icel. <i>rakkr</i> slender, bold. The meaning seems to have been influenced by L. <i>rancidus</i>, E. <i>rancid</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Luxuriant in growth; of vigorous growth; exuberant; grown to immoderate height; as, <i>rank</i> grass; <i>rank</i> weeds.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And, behold, seven ears of corn came up upon one stalk, <i>rank</i> and good.</blockquote> <i>Gen. xli. 5.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Raised to a high degree; violent; extreme; gross; utter; as, <i>rank</i> heresy.</def> "<i>Rank</i> nonsense." <i>Hare.</i> "I do forgive thy <i>rankest</i> fault." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Causing vigorous growth; producing luxuriantly; very rich and fertile; as, <i>rank</i> land.</def> <i>Mortimer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Strong-scented; rancid; musty; as, oil of a <i>rank</i> smell; <i>rank</i>-smelling rue.</def> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Strong to the taste.</def> "Divers sea fowls taste <i>rank</i> of the fish on which they feed." <i>Boyle.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>Inflamed with venereal appetite.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><col><b>Rank modus</b></col> <i>(Law)</i>, <cd>an excessive and unreasonable modus. See <u>Modus</u>, 3.</cd> -- <col><b>To set</b></col> (the iron of a plane, etc.) <col><b>rank</b></col>, <cd>to set so as to take off a thick shaving.</cd> <i>Moxon.</i></p> <p><hw>Rank</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>Rankly; stoutly; violently.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>That rides so <i>rank</i> and bends his lance so fell.</blockquote> <i>Fairfax.</i></p> <p><hw>Rank</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>renk</i>, <i>reng</i>, OF. <i>renc</i>, F. <i>rang</i>, fr. OHG. <i>hring</i> a circle, a

circular row, G. <i>ring</i>. See <u>Ring</u>, and cf. <u>Range</u>, <pos><i>n. & v.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A row or line; a range; an order; a tier; as, a <i>rank</i> of osiers.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Many a mountain nigh<BR> Rising in lofty <i>ranks</i>, and loftier still.</blockquote> <i>Byron.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Mil.)</i> <def>A line of soldiers ranged side by side; -- opposed to <i>file</i>. See 1st <u>File</u>, 1 <sd><i>(a)</i></sd>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Fierce, fiery warriors fought upon the clouds,<BR> In <i>ranks</i> and squadrons and right form of war.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Grade of official standing, as in the army, navy, or nobility; as, the <i>rank</i> of general; the <i>rank</i> of admiral.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>An aggregate of individuals classed together; a permanent social class; an order; a division; as, <i>ranks</i> and orders of men; the highest and the lowest <i>ranks</i> of men, or of other intelligent beings.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Degree of dignity, eminence, or excellence; position in civil or social life; station; degree; grade; as, a writer of the first <i>rank</i>; a lawyer of high <i>rank</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>These all are virtues of a meaner <i>rank</i>.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>Elevated grade or standing; high degree; high social position; distinction; eminence; as, a man of <i>rank</i>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rank and file</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <i>(Mil.)</i> <cd>The whole body of common soldiers, including also corporals. In a more extended sense, it includes sergeants also, excepting the noncommissioned staff.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>See under 1st <u>File</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>The ranks</b></col>, <cd>the order or grade of common soldiers; as, to reduce a noncommissioned officer to <i>the ranks</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>To fill the ranks</b></col>, <cd>to supply the whole number, or a competent number.</cd> -- <col><b>To take rank of</b></col>, <cd>to have precedence over, or to have the right of taking a higher place than.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rank</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ranked</u> (r&abreve;&nsm;kt); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ranking</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To place abreast, or in a line.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To range in a particular class, order, or division; to class; also, to dispose methodically; to place in suitable classes or order; to classify.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Ranking</i> all things under general and special heads.</blockquote> <i>I. Watts.</i></p>

<p><blockquote>Poets were <i>ranked</i> in the class of philosophers.</blockquote> <i>Broome.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Heresy is <i>ranked</i> with idolatry and witchcraft.</blockquote> <i>Dr. H. More.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To take rank of; to outrank.</def> [U.S.]</p> <p><hw>Rank</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To be ranged; to be set or disposed, as in a particular degree, class, order, or division.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Let that one article <i>rank</i> with the rest.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To have a certain grade or degree of elevation in the orders of civil or military life; to have a certain degree of esteem or consideration; as, he <i>ranks</i> with the first class of poets; he <i>ranks</i> high in public estimation.</def></p> <p><hw>Rank"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who ranks, or disposes in ranks; one who arranges.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"kle</hw> (r&abreve;&nsm;"k'l), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rankled</u> (-k'ld); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rankling</u> (-kl&ibreve;ng).] [From <u>Rank</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To become, or be, rank; to grow rank or strong; to be inflamed; to fester; -used literally and figuratively.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A malady that burns and <i>rankles</i> inward.</blockquote> <i>Rowe.</i></p> <p><blockquote>This would have left a <i>rankling</i> wound in the hearts of the people.</blockquote> <i>Burke.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To produce a festering or inflamed effect; to cause a sore; -- used literally and figuratively; as, a splinter <i>rankles</i> in the flesh; the words <i>rankled</i> in his bosom.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"kle</hw> (r&abreve;&nsm;"k'l), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To cause to fester; to make sore; to inflame.</def> [R.] <i>Beau. & Fl.</i></p> <p><hw>Rank"ly</hw> (r&abreve;&nsm;k"l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>With rank or vigorous growth; luxuriantly; hence, coarsely; grossly; as, weeds grow <i>rankly</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rank"ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>rancness</i> pride.] <def>The condition or quality of being rank.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"nel</hw> (r&abreve;n"n&ebreve;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A prostitute.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Ran"ny</hw> (-n&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>araneus

mus</i>, a kind of small mouse.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The erd shrew.</def> [Scot.]</p> <p><hw>Ran"sack</hw> (-s&abreve;k), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ransacked</u> (-s&abreve;kt); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ransacking</u>.] [OE. <i>ransaken</i>, Icel. <i>rannsaka</i> to explore, examine; <i>rann</i> a house (akin to Goth. <i>razn</i> house, AS. <i>r&aelig;sn</i> plank, beam) + the root of <i>s&aelig;kja</i> to seek, akin to E. <i>seek</i>. See <u>Seek</u>, and cf. <u>Rest</u> repose.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To search thoroughly; to search every place or part of; as, to <i>ransack</i> a house.</def></p> <p><blockquote>To <i>ransack</i> every corner of their . . . hearts.</blockquote> <i>South.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To plunder; to pillage completely.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Their vow is made<BR> To <i>ransack</i> Troy.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To violate; to ravish; to defiour.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Rich spoil of <i>ransacked</i> chastity.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"sack</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To make a thorough search.</def></p> <p><blockquote>To <i>ransack</i> in the tas [heap] of bodies dead.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"sack</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of ransacking, or state of being ransacked; pillage.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote>Even your father's house<BR> Shall not be free from <i>ransack</i>.</blockquote> <i>J. Webster.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"som</hw> (r&abreve;n"s&ubreve;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>raunson</i>, <i>raunsoun</i>, OF. <i>ran&ccedil;on</i>, <i>raen&ccedil;on</i>, <i>raan&ccedil;on</i>, F. <i>ran&ccedil;on</i>, fr. L. <i>redemptio</i>, fr. <i>redimere</i> to redeem. See <u>Redeem</u>, and cf. <u>Redemption</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The release of a captive, or of captured property, by payment of a consideration; redemption; as, prisoners hopeless of <i>ransom</i>.</def> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The money or price paid for the redemption of a prisoner, or for goods captured by an enemy; payment for freedom from restraint, penalty, or forfeit.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Thy <i>ransom</i> paid, which man from death redeems.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>His captivity in Austria, and the heavy <i>ransom</i>

he paid for his liberty.</blockquote> <i>Sir J. Davies.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(O. Eng. Law)</i> <def>A sum paid for the pardon of some great offense and the discharge of the offender; also, a fine paid in lieu of corporal punishment.</def> <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><col><b>Ransom bill</b></col> <i>(Law)</i>, <cd>a war contract, valid by the law of nations, for the ransom of property captured at sea and its safe conduct into port.</cd> <i>Kent.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"som</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ransomed</u> (-s&ubreve;md); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ransoming</u>.] [Cf. F. <i>ran&ccedil;onner</i>. See <u>Ransom</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To redeem from captivity, servitude, punishment, or forfeit, by paying a price; to buy out of servitude or penalty; to rescue; to deliver; as, to <i>ransom</i> prisoners from an enemy.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To exact a ransom for, or a payment on.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote>Such lands as he had rule of he <i>ransomed</i> them so grievously, and would tax the men two or three times in a year.</blockquote> <i>Berners.</i></p> <p><hw>Ran"som*a*ble</hw> (-&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Such as can be ransomed.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"som*er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who ransoms or redeems.</def></p> <p><hw>Ran"som*less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Incapable of being ransomed; without ransom.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rant</hw> (r&abreve;nt), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ranted</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ranting</u>.] [OD. <i>ranten</i>, <i>randen</i>, to dote, to be enraged.] <def>To rave in violent, high-sounding, or extravagant language, without dignity of thought; to be noisy, boisterous, and bombastic in talk or declamation; as, a <i>ranting</i> preacher.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Look where my <i>ranting</i> host of the Garter comes!</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rant</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>High-sounding language, without importance or dignity of thought; boisterous, empty declamation; bombast; as, the <i>rant</i> of fanatics.</def></p> <p><blockquote>This is a stoical <i>rant</i>, without any foundation in the nature of man or reason of things.</blockquote> <i>Atterbury.</i></p> <p><hw>Rant"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A noisy talker; a raving declaimer.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Eccl. Hist.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd>

<def>One of a religious sect which sprung up in 1645; -- called also <i>Seekers</i>. See <u>Seeker</u>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>One of the Primitive Methodists, who seceded from the Wesleyan Methodists on the ground of their deficiency in fervor and zeal; -- so called in contempt.</def></p> <p><hw>Rant"er*ism</hw> (-&ibreve;z'm), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Eccl. Hist.)</i> <def>The practice or tenets of the Ranters.</def></p> <p><hw>Rant"ing*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a ranting manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Rant"i*pole</hw> (-&ibreve;*p&omacr;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [<i>Ranty</i> + <i>pole</i>, <i>poll</i>, head.] <def>A wild, romping young person.</def> [Low] <i>Marryat.</i></p> <p><hw>Rant"i*pole</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Wild; roving; rakish.</def> [Low]</p> <p><hw>Rant"i*pole</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To act like a rantipole.</def> [Low]</p> <p><blockquote>She used to <i>rantipole</i> about the house.</blockquote> <i>Arbuthnot.</i></p> <p><hw>Rant"ism</hw> (-&ibreve;z'm), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Eccl. Hist.)</i> <def>Ranterism.</def></p> <p><hw>Rant"y</hw> (-&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Wild; noisy; boisterous.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ran"u*la</hw> (r&abreve;n"&usl;*l&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L., a little frog, a little swelling on the tongue of cattle, dim. of <i>rana</i> a frog.] <i>(Med.)</i> <def>A cyst formed under the tongue by obstruction of the duct of the submaxillary gland.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*nun`cu*la"ceous</hw> (r&adot;*n&ubreve;&nsm;`k&usl;*l&amacr;"sh&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [See <u>Ranunculus</u>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to a natural order of plants (<i>Ranunculace&aelig;</i>), of which the buttercup is the type, and which includes also the virgin's bower, the monkshood, larkspur, anemone, meadow rue, and peony.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*nun"cu*lus</hw> (r&adot;*n&ubreve;&nsm;"k&usl;*l&ubreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> E. <plw><b>Ranunculuses</b></plw> (&ebreve;z), L. <plw><b>Ranunculi</b></plw> (-l&imacr;). [L., a little frog, a medicinal plant, perhaps crowfoot, dim. of <i>rana</i> a frog; cf. <i>raccare</i> to roar.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A genus of herbs, mostly with yellow flowers, including crowfoot, buttercups, and the cultivated ranunculi (<i>R. Asiaticus</i>, <i>R. aconitifolius</i>, etc.) in which the flowers are double and of various colors.</def></p> <p><! p. 1189 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>||Ranz" des` vaches"</hw> (r&auml;Ns" d&asl;` v&adot;sh"). [F., the ranks or rows of cows, the name being given from the fact that the

cattle, when answering the musical call of their keeper, move towards him in a row, preceded by those wearing bells.] <def>The name for numerous simple, but very irregular, melodies of the Swiss mountaineers, blown on a long tube called the <i>Alpine horn</i>, and sometimes sung.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap</hw> (r&abreve;p), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Etymol. uncertain.] <def>A lay or skein containing 120 yards of yarn.</def> <i>Knight.</i></p> <p><hw>Rap</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rapped</u> (r&abreve;pt); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rapping</u>.] [Akin to Sw. <i>rappa</i> to strike, <i>rapp</i> stroke, Dan. <i>rap</i>, perhaps of imitative origin.] <def>To strike with a quick, sharp blow; to knock; as, to <i>rap</i> on the door.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To strike with a quick blow; to knock on.</def></p> <p><blockquote>With one great peal they <i>rap</i> the door.</blockquote> <i>Prior.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Founding)</i> <def>To free (a pattern) in a mold by light blows on the pattern, so as to facilitate its removal.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A quick, smart blow; a knock.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rapped</u> (r&abreve;pt), usually written <u>Rapt</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rapping</u>.] [OE. <i>rapen</i>; akin to LG. & D. <i>rapen</i> to snatch, G. <i>raffen</i>, Sw. <i>rappa</i>; cf. Dan. <i>rappe sig</i> to make haste, and Icel. <i>hrapa</i> to fall, to rush, hurry. The word has been confused with L. <i>rapere</i> to seize. Cf. <u>Rape</u> robbery, <u>Rapture</u>, <u>Raff</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>, <u>Ramp</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To snatch away; to seize and hurry off.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And through the Greeks and Ilians they <i>rapt</i><BR> The whirring chariot.</blockquote> <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><blockquote>From Oxford I was <i>rapt</i> by my nephew, Sir Edmund Bacon, to Redgrove.</blockquote> <i>Sir H. Wotton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To hasten.</def> [Obs.] Plowman.</i></p> <i>Piers

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To seize and bear away, as the mind or thoughts; to transport out of one's self; to affect with ecstasy or rapture; as, <i>rapt</i> into admiration.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I 'm <i>rapt</i> with joy to see my Marcia's tears.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><blockquote><i>Rapt</i> into future times, the bard

begun.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To exchange; to truck.</def> [Obs. & Low]</p> <p><col><b>To rap and ren</b></col>, <col><b>To rap and rend</b></col>. [Perhaps fr. Icel. <i>hrapa</i> to hurry and <i>r&aelig;na</i> plunder, fr. <i>r&amacr;n</i> plunder, E. <i>ran</i>.] <cd>To seize and plunder; to snatch by violence.</cd> <i>Dryden.</i> "[Ye] waste all that ye may <i>rape and renne</i>." <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>All they could <i>rap and rend</i> and pilfer.</blockquote> <i>Hudibras.</i></p> <p>-- <col><b>To rap out</b></col>, <cd>to utter with sudden violence, as an oath.</cd></p> <p><blockquote>A judge who <i>rapped out</i> a great oath.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><hw>Rap</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Perhaps contr. fr. <i>raparee</i>.] <def>A popular name for any of the tokens that passed current for a half-penny in Ireland in the early part of the eighteenth century; any coin of trifling value.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Many counterfeits passed about under the name of <i>raps</i>.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Tie it [her money] up so tight that you can't touch a <i>rap</i>, save with her consent.</blockquote> <i>Mrs. Alexander.</i></p> <p><col><b>Not to care a rap</b></col>, <cd>to care nothing.</cd> -<col><b>Not worth a rap</b></col>, <cd>worth nothing.</cd></p> <p><hw>||Ra*pa"ces</hw> (r&adot;*p&amacr;"s&emacr;z), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [NL. See <u>Rapacious</u>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Accipitres</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra*pa"cious</hw> (-sh&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>rapax</i>, <i>-acis</i>, from <i>rapere</i> to seize and carry off, to snatch away. See <u>Rapid</u>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Given to plunder; disposed or accustomed to seize by violence; seizing by force.</def> " The downfall of the <i>rapacious</i> and licentious Knights Templar." <i>Motley.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Accustomed to seize food; subsisting on prey, or animals seized by violence; as, a tiger is a <i>rapacious</i> animal; a <i>rapacious</i> bird.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Avaricious; grasping; extortionate; also, greedy; ravenous; voracious; as, <i>rapacious</i> usurers; a <i>rapacious</i> appetite.</def></p> <p><blockquote>[Thy Lord] redeem thee quite from Death's <i>rapacious</i> claim</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p>

<p><b>Syn.</b> -- Greedy; grasping; ravenous; voracious.</p> <p>-- <wf>Ra*pa"cious*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -<wf>Ra*pa"cious*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Ra*pac"i*ty</hw> (r&adot;*p&abreve;s"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>rapacitas</i>: cf. F. <i>rapacit&eacute;</i>. See <u>Rapacious</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The quality of being rapacious; rapaciousness; ravenousness; as, the <i>rapacity</i> of pirates; the <i>rapacity</i> of wolves.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The act or practice of extorting or exacting by oppressive injustice; exorbitant greediness of gain.</def> "The <i>rapacity</i> of some ages." <i>Sprat.</i></p> <p><hw>Rap`a*ree"</hw> (r&abreve;p`&adot;*r&emacr;"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Rapparee</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rape</hw> (r&amacr;p), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&acirc;pe</i> a grape stalk.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Fruit, as grapes, plucked from the cluster.</def> <i>Ray.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The refuse stems and skins of grapes or raisins from which the must has been expressed in wine making.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A filter containing the above refuse, used in clarifying and perfecting malt, vinegar, etc.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rape wine</b></col>, <cd>a poor, thin wine made from the last dregs of pressed grapes.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rape</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Akin to <i>rap</i> to snatch, but confused with L. <i>rapere</i>. See <u>Rap</u> to snatch.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of seizing and carrying away by force; violent seizure; robbery.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And ruined orphans of thy <i>rapes</i> complain.</blockquote> <i>Sandys.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>Sexual connection with a woman without her consent. See <i>Age of consent</i>, under <u>Consent</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></def> </p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>That which is snatched away.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Where now are all my hopes? O, never more<BR> Shall they revive! nor death her <i>rapes</i> restore.</blockquote> <i>Sandys.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Movement, as in snatching; haste; hurry.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rape</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To commit rape upon; to

ravish.</def></p> <p><col><b>To rape and ren</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Rap</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>, to snatch.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rape</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To rob; to pillage.</def> [Obs.] <i>Heywood.</i></p> <p><hw>Rape</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Icel. <i>hreppr</i> village, district; cf. Icel. <i>hreppa</i> to catch, obtain, AS. <i>hrepian</i>, <i>hreppan</i>, to touch.] <def>One of six divisions of the county of Sussex, England, intermediate between a hundred and a shire.</def></p> <p><hw>Rape</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>rapa</i>, <i>rapum</i>, akin to Gr. <grk>"ra`pys</grk>, <grk>"ra`fys</grk>, G. <i>r&uuml;be</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A name given to a variety or to varieties of a plant of the turnip kind, grown for seeds and herbage. The seeds are used for the production of rape oil, and to a limited extent for the food of cage birds.</def></p> <p>&fist; These plants, with the edible turnip, have been variously named, but are all now believed to be derived from the <i>Brassica campestris</i> of Europe, which by some is not considered distinct from the wild stock (<i>B. oleracea</i>) of the cabbage. See <u>Cole</u>.</p> <p><col><b>Broom rape</b></col>. <i>(Bot.)</i> <cd>See <u>Broom rape</u>, in the Vocabulary.</cd> -- <col><b>Rape cake</b></col>, <cd>the refuse remaining after the oil has been expressed from the rape seed.</cd> -- <col><b>Rape root</b></col>. <cd>Same as <u>Rape</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Summer rape</b></col>. <i>(Bot.)</i> <cd>See <u>Colza</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rape"ful</hw> (r&amacr;p"f&usd;l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Violent.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Given to the commission of rape.</def> <i>Byron.</i></p> <p><hw>Rap"ful*ly</hw> (r&abreve;p"f&usd;l*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>Violently.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Raph`a*el*esque"</hw> (r&abreve;f`&adot;*&ebreve;l*&ebreve;sk"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Like Raphael's works; in Raphael's manner of painting.</def></p> <p><hw>Raph"a*el*ism</hw> (r&abreve;f"&adot;*&ebreve;l*&ibreve;z'm), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The principles of painting introduced by Raphael, the Italian painter.</def></p> <p><hw>Raph"a*el*ite</hw> (-&imacr;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who advocates or adopts the principles of Raphaelism.</def></p> <p><hw>Raph"a*ny</hw> (r&abreve;f"&adot;*n&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>raphanie</i>.] <i>(Med.)</i> <def>A convulsive disease, attended with ravenous hunger, not uncommon in Sweden and Germany. It was so called because supposed to be caused by

eating corn with which seeds of jointed charlock (<i>Raphanus raphanistrum</i>) had been mixed, but the condition is now known to be a form of ergotism.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"phe</hw> (r&amacr;"f&esl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [NL., fr. Gr. <grk>"rafh`</grk> a seam or suture, fr. <grk>"ra`ptein</grk> to sew or stitch together.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>A line, ridge, furrow, or band of fibers, especially in the median line; as, the <i>raphe</i> of the tongue.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Rhaphe</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>||Raph"i*des</hw> (r&abreve;f"&ibreve;*d&emacr;z), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [F. <i>raphide</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>See <u>Rhaphides</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap"id</hw> (r&abreve;p"&ibreve;d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>rapidus</i>, fr. <i>rapere</i> to seize and carry off, to snatch or hurry away; perhaps akin to Gr. <grk>'arpa`zein</grk>: cf. F. <i>rapide</i>. Cf. <u>Harpy</u>, <u>Ravish</u>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Very swift or quick; moving with celerity; fast; as, a <i>rapid</i> stream; a <i>rapid</i> flight; a <i>rapid</i> motion.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Ascend my chariot; guide the <i>rapid</i> wheels.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Advancing with haste or speed; speedy in progression; in quick sequence; as, <i>rapid</i> growth; <i>rapid</i> improvement; <i>rapid</i> recurrence; <i>rapid</i> succession.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Quick in execution; as, a <i>rapid</i> penman.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap"id</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rapide</i>. See <u>Rapid</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>] <def>The part of a river where the current moves with great swiftness, but without actual waterfall or cascade; -- usually in the plural; as, the Lachine <i>rapids</i> in the St. Lawrence.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Row, brothers, row, the stream runs fast,<BR> The <i>rapids</i> are near, and the daylight's past.</blockquote> <i>Moore.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra*pid"i*ty</hw> (r&adot;*p&ibreve;d"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>rapiditas</i>: cf. F. <i>rapidit&eacute;</i>.] <def>The quality or state of being rapid; swiftness; celerity; velocity; as, the <i>rapidity</i> of a current; <i>rapidity</i> of speech; <i>rapidity</i> of growth or improvement.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Rapidness; haste; speed; celerity; velocity; swiftness; fleetness; quickness; agility.</p> <p><hw>Rap"id*ly</hw> (r&abreve;p"&ibreve;d*l&ybreve;),

<pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rapid manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap"id*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Quality of being rapid; rapidity.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"pi*er</hw> (r&amacr;"p&ibreve;*&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>rapi&egrave;re</i>, perhaps for <i>raspi&egrave;re</i>, and ultimately of German origin, akin to E. <i>rasp</i>, v.] <def>A straight sword, with a narrow and finely pointed blade, used only for thrusting.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rapier fish</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the swordfish.</cd> [Obs.] <i>Grew.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"pi*ered</hw> (-&etilde;rd), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Wearing a rapier.</def> "Scarletcoated, <i>rapiered</i> figures." <i>Lowell.</i></p> <p><hw>||Ra*pil"li</hw> (r&adot;*p&ibreve;l"l&esl;), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [It.] <i>(Min.)</i> <def>Lapilli.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap"ine</hw> (r&abreve;p"&ibreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>rapine</i>; cf. Pr. & It. <i>rapina</i>; all fr. L. <i>rapina</i>, fr. <i>rapere</i> to seize and carry off by force. See <u>Rapid</u>, and cf. <u>Raven</u> rapine.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of plundering; the seizing and carrying away of things by force; spoliation; pillage; plunder.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Men who were impelled to war quite as much by the desire of <i>rapine</i> as by the desire of glory.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Ravishment; rape.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rap"ine</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To plunder.</def> <i>Sir G. Buck.</i></p> <p><hw>Rap"i*nous</hw> (r&abreve;p"&ibreve;*n&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Given to rapine.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rap"page</hw> (-p&asl;j; 48), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Founding)</i> <def>The enlargement of a mold caused by rapping the pattern.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap`pa*ree"</hw> (-p&adot;*r&emacr;"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A wild Irish plunderer, esp. one of the 17th century; -- so called from his carrying a half-pike, called a <i>rapary</i>.</def> [Written also <i>raparee</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Rapped</hw> (r&abreve;pt), <def><pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> of <u>Rap</u>, to strike.</def></p> <p><hw>Rapped</hw>, <def><pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> of <u>Rap</u>, to snatch away.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap*pee"</hw> (r&abreve;p*p&emacr;"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&acirc;p&eacute;</i>, fr. <i>r&acirc;per</i> to grate, to rasp.

See <u>Rasp</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <def>A pungent kind of snuff made from the darker and ranker kinds of tobacco leaves.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap"pel</hw> (r&abreve;p"p&ebreve;l or r&abreve;p*p&ebreve;l"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. Cf. <u>Repeal</u>.] <i>(Mil.)</i> <def>The beat of the drum to call soldiers to arms.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap"per</hw> (r&abreve;p"p&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From <u>Rap</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who, or that which, raps or knocks; specifically, the knocker of a door.</def> <i>Sterne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A forcible oath or lie.</def> [Slang] <i>Bp. Parker.</i></p> <p><hw>Rap*port"</hw> (r&abreve;p*p&omacr;rt"; F. r&adot;`p&ocirc;r"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. <i>rapporter</i> to bring again or back, to refer; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>apporter</i> to bring, L. <i>apportare</i>. Cf. <u>Report</u>.] <def>Relation; proportion; conformity; correspondence; accord.</def></p> <p><blockquote>'T is obvious what <i>rapport</i> there is between the conceptions and languages in every country.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Temple.</i></p> <p><col><b>||En` rap`port"</b></col> (&auml;N` r&adot;`p&ocirc;r") [F.], <cd>in accord, harmony, or sympathy; having a mutual, especially a private, understanding; in mesmerism, in that relation of sympathy which permits influence or communication.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rap*scal"lion</hw> (r&abreve;p*sk&abreve;l"y&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Rascallion</u>.] <def>A rascal; a goodfor-nothing fellow.</def> [Colloq.] <i>Howitt.</i></p> <p><hw>Rapt</hw> (r&abreve;pt), <def><pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> of <u>Rap</u>, to snatch away.</def></p> <p><hw>Rapt</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Snatched away; hurried away or along.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Waters <i>rapt</i> with whirling away.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Transported with love, admiration, delight, etc.; enraptured.</def> "The <i>rapt</i> musician." <i>Longfellow.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Wholly absorbed or engrossed, as in work or meditation.</def> "<i>Rapt</i> in secret studies." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rapt</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From F. <i>rapt</i> abduction, rape, L. <i>raptus</i>, fr. <i>rapere</i> to seize and carry off, to transport; or fr. E. <i>rapt</i>, a. See <u>Rapt</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>, and <u>Rapid</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>An ecstasy; a trance.</def> [Obs.] <i>Bp. Morton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Rapidity.</def> [Obs.] Browne.</i></p> <i>Sir T.

<p><hw>Rapt</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To transport or ravish.</def> [Obs.] <i>Drayton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To carry away by force.</def> [Obs.] <i>Daniel.</i></p> <p><hw>Rap"ter</hw> (r&abreve;p"t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A raptor.</def> [Obs.] <i>Drayton.</i></p> <p><hw>Rap"tor</hw> (r&abreve;p"t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>raptor</i>, from <i>rapere</i> to ravish. See <u>Rapid</u>.] <def>A ravisher; a plunderer.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>||Rap*to"res</hw> (r&abreve;p*t&omacr;"r&emacr;z), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [NL. See <u>Raptor</u>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Accipitres</u>. Called also <i>Raptatores</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap*to"ri*al</hw> (-r&ibreve;*<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Rapacious; living upon prey; -- said especially of certain birds.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Adapted for seizing prey; -- said of the legs, claws, etc., of insects, birds, and other animals.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>Of or pertaining to the Raptores. See <i>Illust.</i> <sd><i>(f)</i></sd> of <u>Aves</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap*to"ri*ous</hw> (-&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>raptorius</i>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Raptorial.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap"ture</hw> (r&abreve;p"t&usl;r; 135), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>rapere</i>, <i>raptum</i>, to carry off by force. See <u>Rapid</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A seizing by violence; a hurrying along; rapidity with violence.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>That 'gainst a rock, or flat, her keel did dash<BR> With headlong <i>rapture</i>.</blockquote> <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The state or condition of being rapt, or carried away from one's self by agreeable excitement; violence of a pleasing passion; extreme joy or pleasure; ecstasy.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Music, when thus applied, raises in the mind of the hearer great conceptions; it strengthens devotion, and advances praise into <i>rapture</i>.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><blockquote>You grow correct that once with <i>rapture</i> writ.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A spasm; a fit; a syncope; delirium.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Bliss; ecstasy; transport; delight; exultation.</p> <p><hw>Rap"ture</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Raptured</u> (-t&usl;rd; 135); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rapturing</u>.] <def>To transport with excitement; to enrapture.</def> [Poetic] <i>Thomson.</i></p>

<p><hw>Rap"tur*ist</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>An enthusiast.</def> [Obs.] <i>J. Spencer.</i></p> <p><hw>Rap"tur*ize</hw> (-&imacr;z), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To put, or be put, in a state of rapture.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Rap"tur*ous</hw> (-&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Ecstatic; transporting; ravishing; feeling, expressing, or manifesting rapture; as, <i>rapturous</i> joy, pleasure, or delight; <i>rapturous</i> applause.</def></p> <p><hw>Rap"tur*ous*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rapturous manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Rare</hw> (r&acirc;r), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. <u>Rather</u>, <u>Rath</u>.] <def>Early.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Rude mechanicals that <i>rare</i> and late<BR> Work in the market place.</blockquote> <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><hw>Rare</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<pos><i>Compar.</i></pos> <u>Rarer</u> (r&acirc;r"&etilde;r); <pos><i>superl.</i></pos> <u>Rarest</u>.] [Cf. AS. <i>hr&emacr;r</i>, or E. <i>rare</i> early. &radic;18.] <def>Nearly raw; partially cooked; not thoroughly cooked; underdone; as, <i>rare</i> beef or mutton.</def></p> <p><blockquote>New-laid eggs, which Baucis' busy care<BR> Turned by a gentle fire, and roasted <i>rare</i>.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p>&fist; This word is in common use in the United States, but in England its synonym <i>underdone</i> is preferred.</p> <p><hw>Rare</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<pos><i>Compar.</i></pos> <u>Rarer</u> (r&acirc;r"&etilde;r); <pos><i>superl.</i></pos> <u>Rarest</u>.] [F., fr. L. <i>rarus</i> thin, rare.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Not frequent; seldom met with or occurring; unusual; as, a <i>rare</i> event.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Of an uncommon nature; unusually excellent; valuable to a degree seldom found.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Rare</i> work, all filled with terror and delight.</blockquote> <i>Cowley.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Above the rest I judge one beauty <i>rare</i>.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Thinly scattered; dispersed.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Those <i>rare</i> and solitary, these in flocks.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Characterized by wide separation of parts; of loose texture; not thick or dense; thin; as, a <i>rare</i> atmosphere at high elevations.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Water is nineteen times lighter, and by consequence

nineteen times <i>rarer</i>, than gold.</blockquote> <i>Sir I. Newton.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Scarce; infrequent; unusual; uncommon; singular; extraordinary; incomparable. -- <u>Rare</u>, <u>Scarce</u>. We call a thing <i>rare</i> when but few examples, specimens, or instances of it are ever to be met with; as, a <i>rare</i> plant. We speak of a thing as <i>scarce</i>, which, though usually abundant, is for the time being to be had only in diminished quantities; as, a bad harvest makes corn <i>scarce</i>.</p> <p><blockquote>A perfect union of wit and judgment is one of the <i>rarest</i> things in the world.</blockquote> <i>Burke.</i></p> <p><blockquote>When any particular piece of money grew very <i>scarce</i>, it was often recoined by a succeeding emperor.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><hw>Rare"bit</hw> (r&acirc;r"b&ibreve;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A dainty morsel; a Welsh rabbit. See <i>Welsh rabbit</i>, under <u>Rabbit</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rar"ee-show`</hw> (r&acirc;r"&esl;-sh&omacr;`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Contr. fr. <i>rarity-show</i>.] <def>A show carried about in a box; a peep show.</def> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><hw>Rar`e*fac"tion</hw> (r&abreve;r`&esl;*f&abreve;k"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rar&eacute;faction</i>. See <u>Rarefy</u>.] <def>The act or process of rarefying; the state of being rarefied; -- opposed to <i>condensation</i>; as, the <i>rarefaction</i> of air.</def></p> <p><hw>Rar"e*fi`a*ble</hw> (r&abreve;r"&esl;*f&imacr;`&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rar&eacute;fiable</i>.] <def>Capable of being rarefied.</def> <i>Boyle.</i></p> <p><hw>Rar"e*fy</hw> (r&abreve;r"&esl;*f&imacr;; 277), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rarefied</u> (f&imacr;d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rarefying</u> (f&imacr;`&ibreve;ng).] [F. <i>rar&eacute;fier</i>; L. <i>rarus</i> rare + <i>-ficare</i> (in comp.) to make; cf. L. <i>rarefacere</i>. See <u>-fy</u>.] <def>To make rare, thin, porous, or less dense; to expand or enlarge without adding any new portion of matter to; -opposed to <i>condense</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rar"e*fy</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To become less dense; to become thin and porous.</def> "Earth <i>rarefies</i> to dew." <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Rare"ly</hw> (r&acirc;r"l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>In a rare manner or degree; seldom; not often; as, things <i>rarely</i> seen.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Finely; excellently; with rare skill. See 3d <u>Rare</u>, 2.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The person who played so <i>rarely</i> on the flageolet.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p>

<p><blockquote>The rest of the apartments are <i>rarely</i> gilded.</blockquote> <i>Evelyn.</i></p> <p><hw>Rare"ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The state or quality of being rare.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And let the <i>rareness</i> the small gift commend.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Rare"ripe`</hw> (-r&imacr;p`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<i>Rare</i> early + <i>ripe</i>. Cf. <u>Rathripe</u>.] <def>Early ripe; ripe before others, or before the usual season.</def></p> <p><hw>Rare"ripe`</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>An early ripening fruit, especially a kind of freestone peach.</def></p> <p><hw>Rar`i*fi*ca"tion</hw> (r&abreve;r`&ibreve;*f&ibreve;*k&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Rarefaction</u>.</def> [R.] Chem. Journal.</i></p>


<p><hw>Rar"i*ty</hw> (r&abreve;r"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;; 277), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Rarities</b></plw> (t&ibreve;z). [L. <i>raritas</i>: cf. F. <i>raret&eacute;</i>. See <u>Rare</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The quality or state of being rare; rareness; thinness; as, the <i>rarity</i> (contrasted with the <i>density</i>) of gases.</def></p> <p><! p. 1190 pr=vmg !></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which is rare; an uncommon thing; a thing valued for its scarcity.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I saw three <i>rarities</i> of different kinds, which pleased me more than any other shows in the place.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><hw>Ras</hw> (r&auml;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See 2d <u>Reis</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra`sante"</hw> (r&adot;`z&auml;Nt"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F., p. pr. of <i>raser</i> to graze.] <i>(Fort.)</i> <def>Sweeping; grazing; -- applied to a style of fortification in which the command of the works over each other, and over the country, is kept very low, in order that the shot may more effectually sweep or graze the ground before them.</def> <i>H. L. Scott.</i></p> <p><hw>Ras"cal</hw> (r&abreve;s"k<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>rascaille</i> rabble, probably from an OF. <i>racaille</i>, F. <i>racaille</i> the rabble, rubbish, probably akin to F. <i>racler</i> to scrape, (assumed) LL. <i>rasiculare</i>, <i>rasicare</i>, fr. L. <i>radere</i>, <i>rasum</i>. See <u>Rase</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One of the rabble; a low, common sort of person or creature; collectively, the rabble; the common herd; also, a lean, ill-conditioned beast, esp. a deer.</def> [Obs.]</p>

<p><blockquote>He smote of the people seventy men, and fifty thousand of the <i>rascal</i>.</blockquote> <i>Wyclif (1 Kings [1 Samuel] vi. 19).</i></p> <p><blockquote>Poor men alone? No, no; the noblest deer hath them [horns] as huge as the <i>rascal</i>.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A mean, trickish fellow; a base, dishonest person; a rogue; a scoundrel; a trickster.</def></p> <p><blockquote>For I have sense to serve my turn in store,<BR> And he's a <i>rascal</i> who pretends to more.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Ras"cal</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of or pertaining to the common herd or common people; low; mean; base.</def> "The <i>rascal</i> many." <i>Spenser.</i> "The <i>rascal</i> people." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>While she called me <i>rascal</i> fiddler.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Ras"cal*dom</hw> (-d&ubreve;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>State of being a rascal; rascality; domain of rascals; rascals, collectively.</def> <i>Emerson.</i></p> <p><hw>Ras"cal*ess</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A female rascal.</def> [Humorous]</p> <p><hw>Ras*cal"i*ty</hw> (r&abreve;s*k&abreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Rascalities</b></plw> (t&ibreve;z).</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The quality or state of being rascally, or a rascal; mean trickishness or dishonesty; base fraud.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The poorer and lower classes of people.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>The chief heads of their clans with their several <i>rascalities</i>.</blockquote> <i>T. Jackson.</i></p> <p><hw>Ras*cal"lion</hw> (r&abreve;s*k&abreve;l"y&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From <u>Rascal</u>.] <def>A low, mean wretch.</def> [Written also <i>rascalion</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Ras"cal*ly</hw> (r&abreve;s"k<i>a</i>l*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Like a rascal; trickish or dishonest; base; worthless; -- often in humorous disparagement, without implication of dishonesty.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Our <i>rascally</i> porter is fallen fast asleep.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><hw>Rase</hw> (r&amacr;z), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rased</u> (r&amacr;zd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rasing</u>.] [F. <i>raser</i>, LL. <i>rasare</i> to

scrape often, v. freq. fr. L. <i>radere</i>, <i>rasum</i>, to scrape, shave; cf. Skr. <i>rad</i> to scratch, gnaw, L. <i>rodere</i> to gnaw. Cf. <u>Raze</u>, <u>Razee</u>, <u>Razor</u>, <u>Rodent</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To rub along the surface of; to graze.</def> [Obsoles.]</p> <p><blockquote>Was he not in the . . . neighborhood to death? and might not the bullet which <i>rased</i> his cheek have gone into his head?</blockquote> <i>South.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Sometimes his feet <i>rased</i> the surface of the water, and at others the skylight almost flattened his nose.</blockquote> <i>Beckford.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To rub or scratch out; to erase.</def> [Obsoles.]</p> <p><blockquote>Except we <i>rase</i> the faculty of memory, root and branch, out of our mind.</blockquote> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To level with the ground; to overthrow; to destroy; to raze.</def> [In this sense <i>raze</i> is generally used.]</p> <p><blockquote>Till Troy were by their brave hands <i>rased</i>,<BR> They would not turn home.</blockquote> <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p>&fist; This word, <i>rase</i>, may be considered as nearly obsolete; <i>graze</i>, <i>erase</i>, and <i>raze</i>, having superseded it.</p> <p><col><b>Rasing iron</b></col>, <cd>a tool for removing old oakum and pitch from the seams of a vessel.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To erase; efface; obliterate; expunge; cancel; level; prostrate; overthrow; subvert; destroy; demolish; ruin.</p> <p><hw>Rase</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To be leveled with the ground; to fall; to suffer overthrow.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rase</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A scratching out, or erasure.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A slight wound; a scratch.</def> [Obs.] <i>Hooker.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(O. Eng. Law)</i> <def>A way of measuring in which the commodity measured was made even with the top of the measuring vessel by rasing, or striking off, all that was above it.</def> <i>Burrill.</i></p> <p><hw>Rash</hw> (r&abreve;sh), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [For <i>arace</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To pull off or pluck violently.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To slash; to hack; to cut; to slice.</def> [Obs.]</p>

<p><blockquote><i>Rashing</i> off helms and riving plates asunder.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Rash</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OF. <i>rasche</i> an eruption, scurf, F. <i>rache</i>; fr. (assumed) LL. <i>rasicare</i> to scratch, fr. L. <i>radere</i>, <i>rasum</i>, to scrape, scratch, shave. See <u>Rase</u>, and cf. <u>Rascal</u>.] <i>(Med.)</i> <def>A fine eruption or efflorescence on the body, with little or no elevation.</def></p> <p><col><b>Canker rash</b></col>. <cd>See in the Vocabulary.</cd> -<col><b>Nettle rash</b></col>. <cd>See <u>Urticaria</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Rose rash</b></col>. <cd>See <u>Roseola</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Tooth rash</b></col>. <cd>See <u>Red-gum</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rash</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>ras</i> short-nap cloth, It. & Sp. <i>raso</i> satin (cf. <u>Rase</u>); or cf. It. <i>rascia</i> serge, G. <i>rasch</i>, probably fr. <i>Arras</i> in France (cf. <u>Arras</u>).] <def>An inferior kind of silk, or mixture of silk and worsted.</def> [Obs.] <i>Donne.</i></p> <p><hw>Rash</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<pos><i>Compar.</i></pos> <u>Rasher</u> (-&etilde;r); <pos><i>superl.</i></pos> <u>Rashest</u>.] [Probably of Scand. origin; cf. Dan. & Sw. <i>rask</i> quick, brisk, rash, Icel. <i>r&ouml;skr</i> vigorous, brave, akin to D. & G. <i>rasch</i> quick, of uncertain origin.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Sudden in action; quick; hasty.</def> [Obs.] "Strong as aconitum or <i>rash</i> gunpowder." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Requiring sudden action; pressing; urgent.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>I scarce have leisure to salute you,<BR> My matter is so <i>rash</i>.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Esp., overhasty in counsel or action; precipitate; resolving or entering on a project or measure without due deliberation and caution; opposed to <i>prudent</i>; said of persons; as, a <i>rash</i> statesman or commander.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Uttered or undertaken with too much haste or too little reflection; as, <i>rash</i> words; <i>rash</i> measures.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>So dry as to fall out of the ear with handling, as corn.</def> [Prov. Eng.] <i>Grose.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Precipitate; headlong; headstrong; foolhardy; hasty; indiscreet; heedless; thoughtless; incautious; careless; inconsiderate; unwary. -- <u>Rash</u>, <u>Adventurous</u>, <u>Foolhardy</u>. A man is <i>adventurous</i> who incurs risk or hazard from a love of the arduous and the bold. A man is <i>rash</i> who does it from the mere impulse of his feelings, without counting the cost. A man is <i>foolhardy</i> who throws himself into danger in disregard or defiance of the consequences.</p> <p><blockquote>Was never known a more <i>adventurous</i> knight.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p>

<p><blockquote>Her <i>rash</i> hand in evil hour<BR> Forth reaching to the fruit, she plucked, she eat.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>If any yet be so <i>foolhardy</i><BR> To expose themselves to vain jeopardy;<BR> If they come wounded off, and lame,<BR> No honor 's got by such a maim.</blockquote> <i>Hudibras.</i></p> <p><hw>Rash</hw> (r&abreve;sh), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To prepare with haste.</def> [Obs.] <i>Foxe.</i></p> <p><hw>Rash"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [In sense 1, probably fr. <i>rash</i>, a., as being hastily cooked.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A thin slice of bacon.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A California rockfish (<i>Sebastichthys miniatus</i>).</def></p> <p><hw>Rash"ful</hw> (-f&usd;l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Rash; hasty; precipitate.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rash"ling</hw> (-l&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rash person.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rash"ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rash manner; with precipitation.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He that doth anything <i>rashly</i>, must do it willingly; for he was free to deliberate or not.</blockquote> <i>L'Estrange.</i></p> <p><hw>Rash"ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being rash.</def></p> <p><blockquote>We offend . . . by <i>rashness</i>, which is an affirming or denying, before we have sufficiently informed ourselves.</blockquote> <i>South.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Temerity; foolhardiness; precipitancy; precipitation; hastiness; indiscretion; heedlessness; inconsideration; carelessness. See <u>Temerity</u>.</p> <p><hw>||Ras*kol"nik</hw> (r&abreve;s*k&obreve;l"n&ibreve;k), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Russ. <i>raskolenik'</i> schismatic, heretic.] <i>(Eccl.)</i> <def>One of the separatists or dissenters from the established or Greek church in Russia.</def> [Written also <i>rascolnik</i>.]</p> <p><hw>||Ra*so"res</hw> (r&adot;*z&omacr;"r&emacr;z), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [NL., fr. L. <i>radere</i>, <i>rasum</i>, to scratch. See <u>Rase</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>An order of birds; the Gallin&aelig;.</def></p> <p>&fist; Formerly, the word <i>Rasores</i> was used in a wider sense, so as to include other birds now widely separated in classification.</p>

<p><hw>Ra*so"ri*al</hw> (-r&ibreve;*<i>a</i>l; 277), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to the Rasores, or gallinaceous birds, as the peacock, domestic fowl, partridge, quail, and the like.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"sour</hw> (r&auml;"s&oomac;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Razor.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Rasp</hw> (r&adot;sp), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rasped</u> (r&adot;spt); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rasping</u>.] [OF. <i>rasper</i>, F. <i>r&acirc;per</i>, to scrape, grate, rasp, fr. OHG. <i>rasp&omacr;n</i> to scrape together, to collect, probably akin to E. <i>rap</i>. Cf. <u>Rap</u> to snatch.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To rub or file with a rasp; to rub or grate with a rough file; as, to <i>rasp</i> wood to make it smooth; to <i>rasp</i> bones to powder.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence, figuratively: To grate harshly upon; to offend by coarse or rough treatment or language; as, some sounds <i>rasp</i> the ear; his insults <i>rasped</i> my temper.</def></p> <p><hw>Rasp</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>raspe</i>, OF. <i>raspe</i>, F. <i>r&acirc;pe</i>. See <u>Rasp</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A coarse file, on which the cutting prominences are distinct points raised by the oblique stroke of a sharp punch, instead of lines raised by a chisel, as on the true file.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The raspberry.</def> [Obs.] "Set sorrel amongst <i>rasps</i>, and the <i>rasps</i> will be the smaller." <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><col><b>Rasp palm</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a Brazilian palm tree (<i>Iriartea exorhiza</i>) which has strong a&euml;rial roots like a screw pine. The roots have a hard, rough surface, and are used by the natives for graters and rasps, whence the common name.</cd></p> <p><hw>||Ras`pa*to"ri*um</hw> (r&abreve;s`p&adot;*t&omacr;"r&ibreve;*&ubreve;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL.] <def>See <u>Raspatory</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rasp"a*to*ry</hw> (r&adot;sp"&adot;*t&osl;*r&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL. <i>raspatorium</i>: cf. F. <i>raspatoir</i>. See <u>Rasp</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <def>A surgeon's rasp.</def> <i>Wiseman.</i></p> <p><hw>Rasp"ber*ry</hw> (r&abreve;z"b&ebreve;r*r&ybreve;; 277), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From E. <i>rasp</i>, in allusion to the apparent roughness of the fruit.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The thimble-shaped fruit of the <i>Rubus Id&aelig;us</i> and other similar brambles; as, the black, the red, and the white <i>raspberry</i>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The shrub bearing this fruit.</def></p>

<p>&fist; Technically, raspberries are those brambles in which the fruit separates readily from the core or receptacle, in this differing from the blackberries, in which the fruit is firmly attached to the receptacle.</p> <p><hw>Rasp"er</hw> (r&adot;sp"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, rasps; a scraper.</def></p> <p><hw>Ras"pis</hw> (r&abreve;s"p&ibreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The raspberry.</def> [Obs.] <i>Langham.</i></p> <p><hw>Rasp"y</hw> (r&adot;sp"&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Like a rasp, or the sound made by a rasp; grating.</def> D. Blackmore.</i></p> <i>R.

<p><hw>Rasse</hw> (r&abreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. Malay <i>r&amacr;sa</i> taste, sensation.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A carnivore (<i>Viverricula Mallaccensis</i>) allied to the civet but smaller, native of China and the East Indies. It furnishes a perfume resembling that of the civet, which is highly prized by the Javanese. Called also <i>Malacca weasel</i>, and <i>lesser civet</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"sure</hw> (r&amacr;"zh&usl;r; 135), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>rasura</i>, fr. <i>radere</i>, <i>rasum</i>, to scrape, to shave. See <u>Rase</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of rasing, scraping, or erasing; erasure; obliteration.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A mark by which a letter, word, or any part of a writing or print, is erased, effaced, or obliterated; an erasure.</def> <i>Ayliffe.</i></p> <p><hw>Rat</hw> (r&abreve;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>r&aelig;t</i>; akin to D. <i>rat</i>, OHG. <i>rato</i>, <i>ratta</i>, G. <i>ratte</i>, <i>ratze</i>, OLG. <i>ratta</i>, LG. & Dan. <i>rotte</i>, Sw. <i>r&aring;tta</i>, F. <i>rat</i>, Ir. & Gael. <i>radan</i>, Armor. <i>raz</i>, of unknown origin. Cf. <u>Raccoon</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>One of several species of small rodents of the genus <i>Mus</i> and allied genera, larger than mice, that infest houses, stores, and ships, especially the Norway, or brown, rat (<i>M. decumanus</i>), the black rat (<i>M. rattus</i>), and the roof rat (<i>M. Alexandrinus</i>). These were introduced into America from the Old World.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A round and tapering mass of hair, or similar material, used by women to support the puffs and rolls of their natural hair.</def> [Local, U.S.]</p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>One who deserts his party or associates; hence, in the trades, one who works for lower wages than those prescribed by a trades union.</def> [Cant]</p> <p>&fist; "It so chanced that, not long after the accession of the house of Hanover, some of the brown, that is, the German or Norway, rats, were first brought over to this country (in some timber as is said); and being much stronger than the black, or, till then, the common, rats, they in many places quite extirpated the latter. The word (both the noun and the verb to <i>rat</i>) was first, as we have

seen, leveled at the converts to the government of George the First, but has by degrees obtained a wider meaning, and come to be applied to any sudden and mercenary change in politics." <i>Lord Mahon.</i></p> <p><col><b>Bamboo rat</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>any Indian rodent of the genus <i>Rhizomys</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Beaver rat</b></col>, <col><b>Coast rat</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>See under <u>Beaver</u>, and <u>Coast</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Blind rat</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the mole rat.</cd> -<col><b>Cotton rat</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a long-haired rat (<i>Sigmodon hispidus</i>), native of the Southern United States and Mexico. It makes its nest of cotton and is often injurious to the crop.</cd> -- <col><b>Ground rat</b></col>. <cd>See <i>Ground Pig</i>, under <u>Ground</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Hedgehog rat</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Hedgehog</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Kangaroo rat</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the potoroo.</cd> -- <col><b>Norway rat</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the common brown rat. See <u>Rat</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Pouched rat</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>See <i>Pocket Gopher</i>, under <u>Pocket</u>.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>Any African rodent of the genus <i>Cricetomys</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rat Indians</b></col> <i>(Ethnol.)</i>, <cd>a tribe of Indians dwelling near Fort Ukon, Alaska. They belong to the Athabascan stock.</cd> -- <col><b>Rat mole</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>See <i>Mole rat</i>, under <u>Mole</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rat pit</b></col>, <cd>an inclosed space into which rats are put to be killed by a dog for sport.</cd> -<col><b>Rat snake</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a large colubrine snake (<i>Ptyas mucosus</i>) very common in India and Ceylon. It enters dwellings, and destroys rats, chickens, etc.</cd> -<col><b>Spiny rat</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>any South American rodent of the genus <i>Echinomys</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>To smell a rat</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Smell</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Wood rat</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>any American rat of the genus <i>Neotoma</i>, especially <i>N. Floridana</i>, common in the Southern United States. Its feet and belly are white.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rat</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ratted</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ratting</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>In English politics, to desert one's party from interested motives; to forsake one's associates for one's own advantage; in the trades, to work for less wages, or on other conditions, than those established by a trades union.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Coleridge . . . incurred the reproach of having <i>ratted</i>, solely by his inability to follow the friends of his early days.</blockquote> <i>De Quincey.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To catch or kill rats.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"ta</hw> (r&auml;"t&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Maori.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A New Zealand forest tree (<i>Metrosideros robusta</i>), also, its hard dark red wood, used by the Maoris for paddles and war clubs.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat`a*bil"i*ty</hw> (r&amacr;t`&adot;*b&ibreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being ratable.</def></p>

<p><hw>Rat"a*ble</hw> (r&amacr;t"&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Capable of being rated, or set at a certain value.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Twenty or&aelig; were <i>ratable</i> to [at] two marks of silver.</blockquote> <i>Camden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Liable to, or subjected by law to, taxation; as, <i>ratable</i> estate.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Made at a proportionate rate; as, <i>ratable</i> payments.</def> -- <wf>Rat"a*ble*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> -- <wf>Rat"a*bly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Rat`a*fi"a</hw> (r&abreve;t`&adot;*f&emacr;"&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. Malay <i>arak</i> arrack + <i>t&amacr;f&imacr;a</i> a spirit distilled from molasses.] <def>A spirituous liquor flavored with the kernels of cherries, apricots, peaches, or other fruit, spiced, and sweetened with sugar; -- a term applied to the liqueurs called <i>noyau</i>, <i>cura&ccedil;ao</i>, etc.</def> [Written also <i>ratifia</i> and <i>ratafee</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Ra*tan"</hw> (r&adot;*t&abreve;n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Rattan</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"a*ny</hw> (r&abreve;t"&adot;*n&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Rhatany</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra`ta`plan"</hw> (r&adot;`t&adot;`pl&auml;N"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.] <def>The iterative sound of beating a drum, or of a galloping horse.</def></p> <p><hw>Ratch</hw> (r&abreve;ch), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Rotche</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ratch</hw> (r&abreve;ch), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Rack</u> the instrument, <u>Ratchet</u>.] <def>A ratchet wheel, or notched bar, with which a pawl or click works.</def></p> <p><hw>Ratch"el</hw> (-&ebreve;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Gravelly stone.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Ratch"et</hw> (-&ebreve;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Properly a diminutive from the same word as <i>rack</i>: cf. F. <i>rochet</i>. See 2d <u>Ratch</u>, <u>Rack</u> the instrument.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A pawl, click, or detent, for holding or propelling a ratchet wheel, or ratch, etc.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A mechanism composed of a ratchet wheel, or ratch, and pawl. See <i>Ratchet wheel</i>, below, and 2d <u>Ratch</u>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Ratchet brace</b></col> <i>(Mech.)</i>, <cd>a boring brace, having a ratchet wheel and pawl for rotating the tool by back and forth movements of the brace handle.</cd> -- <col><b>Ratchet drill</b></col>, <cd>a portable machine for working a drill by hand,

consisting of a hand lever carrying at one end a drill holder which is revolved by means of a ratchet wheel and pawl, by swinging the lever back and forth.</cd> -- <col><b>Ratchet wheel</b></col> <i>(Mach.)</i>, <cd>a circular wheel having teeth, usually angular, with which a reciprocating pawl engages to turn the wheel forward, or a stationary pawl to hold it from turning backward.</cd></p> <p>&fist; In the cut, the moving pawl <i>c</i> slides over the teeth in one direction, but in returning, draws the wheel with it, while the pawl <i>d</i> prevents it from turning in the contrary direction.</p> <p><! p. 1191 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Rate</hw> (r&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> [Perh. fr. E. <i>rate</i>, v. t., to value at a certain rate, to estimate, but more prob. fr. Sw. <i>rata</i> to find fault, to blame, to despise, to hold cheap; cf. Icel. <i>hrat</i> refuse, <i>hrati</i> rubbish.] <def>To chide with vehemence; to scold; to censure violently.</def> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Go, <i>rate</i> thy minions, proud, insulting boy!</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Conscience is a check to beginners in sin, reclaiming them from it, and <i>rating</i> them for it.</blockquote> <i>Barrow.</i></p> <p><hw>Rate</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OF., fr. L. <i>rata</i> (sc. <i>pars</i>), fr. <i>ratus</i> reckoned, fixed by calculation, p. p. of <i>reri</i> to reckon, to calculate. Cf. <u>Reason</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Established portion or measure; fixed allowance.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The one right feeble through the evil <i>rate</i><BR> Of food which in her duress she had found.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which is established as a measure or criterion; degree; standard; rank; proportion; ratio; as, a slow <i>rate</i> of movement; <i>rate</i> of interest is the ratio of the interest to the principal, per annum.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Heretofore the <i>rate</i> and standard of wit was different from what it is nowadays.</blockquote> <i>South.</i></p> <p><blockquote>In this did his holiness and godliness appear above the <i>rate</i> and pitch of other men's, in that he was so . . . merciful.</blockquote> <i>Calamy.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Many of the horse could not march at that <i>rate</i>, nor come up soon enough.</blockquote> <i>Clarendon.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Valuation; price fixed with relation to a standard; cost; charge; as, high or low <i>rates</i> of transportation.</def></p> <p><blockquote>They come at dear <i>rates</i> from Japan.</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>A tax or sum assessed by authority on property for public use, according to its income or value; esp., in England, a local tax; as, parish <i>rates</i>; town <i>rates</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Order; arrangement.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Thus sat they all around in seemly <i>rate</i>.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>Ratification; approval.</def> [R.] <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <i>(Horol.)</i> <def>The gain or loss of a timepiece in a unit of time; as, daily <i>rate</i>; hourly <i>rate</i>; etc.</def></p> <p><sn><b>8.</b></sn> <i>(Naut.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The order or class to which a war vessel belongs, determined according to its size, armament, etc.; as, first <i>rate</i>, second <i>rate</i>, etc.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The class of a merchant vessel for marine insurance, determined by its relative safety as a risk, as A1, A2, etc.</def></p> <p><hw>Rate</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rated</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rating</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To set a certain estimate on; to value at a certain price or degree.</def></p> <p><blockquote>To <i>rate</i> a man by the nature of his companions is a rule frequent indeed, but not infallible.</blockquote> <i>South.</i></p> <p><blockquote>You seem not high enough your joys to <i>rate</i>.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To assess for the payment of a rate or tax.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To settle the relative scale, rank, position, amount, value, or quality of; as, to <i>rate</i> a ship; to <i>rate</i> a seaman; to <i>rate</i> a pension.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To ratify.</def> [Obs.] "To <i>rate</i> the truce." <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><col><b>To rate a chronometer</b></col>, <cd>to ascertain the exact rate of its gain or loss as compared with true time, so as to make an allowance or computation dependent thereon.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To value; appraise; estimate; reckon.</p> <p><hw>Rate</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To be set or considered in a class; to have rank; as, the ship <i>rates</i> as a ship of the line.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To make an estimate.</def></p>

<p><hw>Rate"a*ble</hw> (-&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Ratable</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"tel</hw> (r&amacr;"t&ebreve;l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Any carnivore of the genus <i>Mellivora</i>, allied to the weasels and the skunks; -- called also <i>honey badger</i>.</def></p> <p>&fist; Several species are known in Africa and India. The Cape ratel (<i>M. Capensis</i>) and the Indian ratel (<i>M. Indica</i>) are the best known. The back is gray; the lower parts, face, and tail are black. They are fond of honey, and rob the nests of wild bees.</p> <p><hw>Rate"pay`er</hw> (-p&amacr;`&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who pays rates or taxes.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"er</hw> (r&amacr;t"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who rates or estimates.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"er</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who rates or scolds.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"fish`</hw> (r&abreve;t"f&ibreve;sh`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Rat-tail</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rath</hw> (r&abreve;th), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Ir. <i>rath</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A hill or mound.</def> [Ireland] <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A kind of ancient fortification found in Ireland.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Rath</hw>, <hw>Rathe</hw> } (r&abreve;th), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [AS. <i>hr&aelig;&eth;</i>, <i>hr&aelig;d</i>, quick, akin to OHG. <i>hrad</i>, Icel. <i>hra&eth;r</i>.] <def>Coming before others, or before the usual time; early.</def> [Obs. or Poetic]</p> <p><blockquote>Bring the <i>rathe</i> primrose that forsaken dies.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p>{ <hw>Rath</hw>, <hw>Rathe</hw>, } <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>Early; soon; betimes.</def> [Obs. or Poetic]</p> <p><blockquote>Why rise ye up so <i>rathe</i>?</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Too <i>rathe</i> cut off by practice criminal.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Rath"er</hw> (r&abreve;&thlig;"&etilde;r), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Compar. of <u>Rath</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>] <def>Prior; earlier; former.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Now no man dwelleth at the <i>rather</i> town.</blockquote> <i>Sir J. Mandeville.</i></p>

<p><hw>Rath"er</hw> (r&abreve;&thlig;"&etilde;r; 277), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> [AS. <i>hra&eth;or</i>, compar. of <i>hra&eth;e</i>, <i>hr&aelig;&eth;e</i>, quickly, immediately. See <u>Rath</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Earlier; sooner; before.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Thou shalt, quod he, be <i>rather</i> false than I.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>A good mean to come the <i>rather</i> to grace.</blockquote> <i>Foxe.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>More readily or willingly; preferably.</def></p> <p><blockquote>My soul chooseth . . . death <i>rather</i> than my life.</blockquote> <i>Job vii. 15.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>On the other hand; to the contrary of what was said or suggested; instead.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Was nothing bettered, but <i>rather</i> grew worse.</blockquote> <i>Mark v. 26.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Of two alternatives conceived of, this by preference to, or as more likely than, the other; somewhat.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He sought throughout the world, but sought in vain,<BR> And nowhere finding, <i>rather</i> feared her slain.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>More properly; more correctly speaking.</def></p> <p><blockquote>This is an art<BR> Which does mend nature, change it <i>rather</i>, but<BR> The art itself is nature.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>In some degree; somewhat; as, the day is <i>rather</i> warm; the house is <i>rather</i> damp.</def></p> <p><col><b>The rather</b></col>, <cd>the more so; especially; for better reason; for particular cause.</cd></p> <p><blockquote>You are come to me in happy time,<BR> <i>The rather</i> for I have some sport in hand.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p>-- <col><b>Had rather</b></col>, or <col><b>Would rather</b></col>, <cd>prefer to; prefers to; as, he <i>had</i>, or <i>would, rather</i> go than stay.</cd> "I <i>had rather</i> speak five words with my understanding than ten thousand words in an unknown tongue." <i>1 Cor. xiv. 19.</i> See <i>Had rather</i>, under <u>Had</u>.</p> <p><hw>Rath"ripe`</hw> (r&abreve;th"r&imacr;p`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Rareripe, or early ripe.</def> -- <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rareripe.</def> [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]</p>

<p><blockquote>Such who delight in <i>rathripe</i> fruits.</blockquote> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><hw>Rat`i*fi*ca"tion</hw> (r&abreve;t`&ibreve;*f&ibreve;*k&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>ratification</i>.] <def>The act of ratifying; the state of being ratified; confirmation; sanction; as, the <i>ratification</i> of a treaty.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"i*fi`er</hw> (r&abreve;t"&ibreve;*f&imacr;`&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, ratifies; a confirmer.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rat"i*fy</hw> (-f&imacr;), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ratified</u> (-f&imacr;d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ratifying</u> (f&imacr;`&ibreve;ng).] [F. <i>ratifier</i>, fr. L. <i>ratus</i> fixed by calculation, firm, valid + <i>-ficare</i> (in comp.) to make. See <u>Rate</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>, and <u>-fy</u>.] <def>To approve and sanction; to make valid; to confirm; to establish; to settle; especially, to give sanction to, as something done by an agent or servant; as, to <i>ratify</i> an agreement, treaty, or contract; to <i>ratify</i> a nomination.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It is impossible for the divine power to set a seal to a lie by <i>ratifying</i> an imposture with such a miracle.</blockquote> <i>South.</i></p> <p><hw>Rat`i*ha*bi"tion</hw> (-h&adot;*b&ibreve;sh"&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>ratihabitio</i>; <i>ratus</i> fixed, valid + <i>habere</i> to hold.] <def>Confirmation or approbation, as of an act or contract.</def> [Obs.] <i>Jer. Taylor.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"ti*o</hw> (r&amacr;"sh&ibreve;*&osl; or r&amacr;"sh&osl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L., fr. <i>reri</i>, <i>ratus</i>, to reckon, believe, think, judge. See <u>Reason</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Math.)</i> <def>The relation which one quantity or magnitude has to another of the same kind. It is expressed by the quotient of the division of the first by the second; thus, the ratio of 3 to 6 is expressed by &frac36; or &frac12;; of <i>a</i> to <i>b</i> by <fract>a/b</fract>; or (less commonly) the second term is made the dividend; as, <i>a:b = <fract>b/a</fract></i>.</def></p> <p>&fist; Some writers consider <i>ratio</i> as the quotient itself, making ratio equivalent to a number.</p> <p>The term <i>ratio</i> is also sometimes applied to the <i>difference</i> of two quantities as well as to their <i>quotient</i>, in which case the former is called <i>arithmetical ratio</i>, the latter, <i>geometrical ratio</i>. The name <i>ratio</i> is sometimes given to the <i>rule of three</i> in arithmetic. See under <u>Rule</u>.</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence, fixed relation of number, quantity, or degree; rate; proportion; as, the <i>ratio</i> of representation in Congress.</def></p>

<p><col><b>Compound ratio</b></col>, <col><b>Duplicate ratio</b></col>, <col><b>Inverse ratio</b></col>, etc. <cd>See under <u>Compound</u>, <u>Duplicate</u>, etc.</cd> -- <col><b>Ratio of a geometrical progression</b></col>, <cd>the constant quantity by which each term is multiplied to produce the succeeding one.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ra`ti*oc"i*nate</hw> (r&abreve;sh`&ibreve;*&obreve;s"&ibreve;*n&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [L. <i>ratiocinatus</i>, p. p. of <i>ratiocinari</i>, fr. <i>ratio</i> reason. See <u>Ratio</u>.] <def>To reason, esp. deductively; to offer reason or argument.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra`ti*oc`i*na"tion</hw> (-n&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>ratiocinatio</i>: cf. F. <i>ratiocination</i>.] <def>The process of reasoning, or deducing conclusions from premises; deductive reasoning.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra`ti*oc"i*na*tive</hw> (&obreve;s"&ibreve;*n&asl;*t&ibreve;v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>ratiocinativus</i>.] <def>Characterized by, or addicted to, ratiocination; consisting in the comparison of propositions or facts, and the deduction of inferences from the comparison; argumentative; as, a <i>ratiocinative</i> process.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>ratiocinative</i> meditativeness of his character.</blockquote> <i>Coleridge.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra`ti*oc"i*na*to*ry</hw> (-n&adot;*t&osl;*r&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Ratiocinative.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Ra"tion</hw> (r&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n or r&abreve;sh"&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. L. <i>ratio</i> a reckoning, calculation, relation, reference, LL. <i>ratio</i> ration. See <u>Ratio</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A fixed daily allowance of provisions assigned to a soldier in the army, or a sailor in the navy, for his subsistence.</def></p> <p>&fist; Officers have several rations, the number varying according to their rank or the number of their attendants.</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence, a certain portion or fixed amount dealt out; an allowance; an allotment.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"tion</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To supply with rations, as a regiment.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"tion*al</hw> (r&abreve;sh"&ubreve;n*<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>rationalis</i>: cf. F. <i>rationnel</i>. See <u>Ratio</u>, <u>Reason</u>, and cf. <u>Rationale</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Relating to the reason; not physical; mental.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Moral philosophy was his chiefest end; for the <i>rational</i>, the natural, and mathematics . . . were but simple pastimes in comparison of the other.</blockquote> <i>Sir T. North.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Having reason, or the faculty of reasoning;

endowed with reason or understanding; reasoning.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It is our glory and happiness to have a <i>rational</i> nature.</blockquote> <i>Law.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Agreeable to reason; not absurd, preposterous, extravagant, foolish, fanciful, or the like; wise; judicious; as, <i>rational</i> conduct; a <i>rational</i> man.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>Expressing the type, structure, relations, and reactions of a compound; graphic; -- said of formul&aelig;. See under <u>Formula</u>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rational horizon</b></col>. <i>(Astron.)</i> <cd>See <u>Horizon</u>, 2 <sd><i>(b)</i></sd>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rational quantity</b></col> <i>(Alg.)</i>, <cd>one that can be expressed without the use of a radical sign, or in exact parts of unity; -opposed to <i>irrational</i> or <i>radical quantity</i>.</cd> -<col><b>Rational symptom</b></col> <i>(Med.)</i>, <cd>one elicited by the statements of the patient himself and not as the result of a physical examination.</cd> </p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Sane; sound; intelligent; reasonable; sensible; wise; discreet; judicious. -- <u>Rational</u>, <u>Reasonable</u>. <i>Rational</i> has reference to reason as a faculty of the mind, and is opposed to <i>ir</i>rational; as, a <i>rational</i> being, a <i>rational</i> state of mind, <i>rational</i> views, etc. In these cases the speculative reason is more particularly referred to. <i>Reasonable</i> has reference to the exercise of this faculty for practical purposes, and means, governed or directed by reason; as, <i>reasonable</i> desires or plans; a <i>reasonable</i> charge; a <i>reasonable</i> prospect of success.</p> <p><blockquote>What higher in her society thou find'st<BR> Attractive, human, <i>rational</i>, love still.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>A law may be <i>reasonable</i> in itself, although a man does not allow it, or does not know the reason of the lawgivers.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"tion*al</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rational being.</def> <i>Young.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra`tion*a"le</hw> (r&abreve;sh`&ubreve;n*&amacr;"l&esl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>rationalis</i>, neut. <i>rationale</i>. See <u>Rational</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>] <def>An explanation or exposition of the principles of some opinion, action, hypothesis, phenomenon, or the like; also, the principles themselves.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"tion*al*ism</hw> (r&abreve;sh"&ubreve;n*<i>a</i>l*&ibreve;z'm), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rationalisme</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Theol.)</i> <def>The doctrine or system of those who deduce their religious opinions from reason or the understanding, as distinct from, or opposed to, revelation.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Philos.)</i> <def>The system that makes rational power the ultimate test of truth; -- opposed to <i>sensualism</i>, or <i>sensationalism</i>, and <i>empiricism</i>.</def> <i>Fleming.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"tion*al*ist</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rationaliste</i>.] <def>One who accepts rationalism as a theory or system; also, disparagingly, a false reasoner. See Citation under <u>Reasonist</u>.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Ra`tion*al*is"tic</hw> (-&ibreve;s"t&ibreve;k), <hw>Ra`tion*al*is"tic*al</hw> (-t&ibreve;*k<i>a</i>l), } <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Belonging to, or in accordance with, the principles of rationalism.</def> -- <wf>Ra`tion*al*is"tic*al*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Ra`tion*al"i*ty</hw> (-&abreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;; 277), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>-ties</b></plw> (t&ibreve;z). [F. <i>rationalit&eacute;</i>, or L. <i>rationalitas</i>.] <def>The quality or state of being rational; agreement with reason; possession of reason; due exercise of reason; reasonableness.</def></p> <p><blockquote>When God has made <i>rationality</i> the common portion of mankind, how came it to be thy inclosure?</blockquote> <i>Gov. of Tongue.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Well-directed intentions, whose <i>rationalities</i> will never bear a rigid examination.</blockquote> <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra`tion*al*i*za"tion</hw> (r&abreve;sh`&ubreve;n*<i>a</i>l*&ibreve;*z&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act or process of rationalizing.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"tion*al*ize</hw> (r&abreve;sh"&ubreve;n*<i>a</i>l*&imacr;z), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To make rational; also, to convert to rationalism.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To interpret in the manner of a rationalist.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To form a rational conception of.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Alg.)</i> <def>To render rational; to free from radical signs or quantities.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"tion*al*ize</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To use, and rely on, reason in forming a theory, belief, etc., especially in matters of religion: to accord with the principles of rationalism.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Theodore . . . is justly considered the chief <i>rationalizing</i> doctor of antiquity.</blockquote> <i>J. H. Newman.</i></p>

<p><hw>Ra"tion*al*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a rational manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"tion*al*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being rational; rationality.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ra*ti"t&aelig;</hw> (r&adot;*t&imacr;"t&esl;), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [NL., fr. L. <i>ratis</i> a raft; cf. L. <i>ratitus</i> marked with the figure of a raft.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>An order of birds in which the wings are small, rudimentary, or absent, and the breastbone is destitute of a keel. The ostrich, emu, moa, and apteryx are examples.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"i*tate</hw> (r&abreve;t"&ibreve;*t&asl;t), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to the Ratit&aelig;.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"ite</hw> (r&abreve;t"&imacr;t), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to the Ratit&aelig;.</def> - <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One of the Ratit&aelig;.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Rat"lines</hw>, <hw>Rat"lins</hw> } (r&abreve;t"l&ibreve;nz), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> [Of uncertain origin.] <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>The small transverse ropes attached to the shrouds and forming the steps of a rope ladder.</def> [Written also <i>ratlings</i>, and <i>rattlings</i>.] <i>Totten.</i></p> <p><hw>Rat"on</hw> (r&abreve;t"&obreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. <u>Raccoon</u>.] <def>A small rat.</def> [Obs.] <i>Piers Plowman.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra*toon"</hw> (r&adot;*t&oomac;n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Same as <u>Rattoon</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A rattan cane.</def> [Obs.] <i>Pepys.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra*toon"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>Same as <u>Rattoon</u>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos></def></p> <p><hw>Rats"bane`</hw> (r&abreve;ts"b&amacr;n`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [<i>Rat</i> + <i>bane</i>.] <def>Rat poison; white arsenic.</def></p> <p><hw>Rats"baned`</hw> (-b&amacr;nd`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Poisoned by ratsbane.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"-tail`</hw> (r&abreve;t"t&amacr;l`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Like a rat's tail in form; as, a <i>rat-tail</i> file, which is round, slender, and tapering. See <i>Illust.</i> of <u>File</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"-tail`</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Far.)</i> <i>pl.</i> <def>An excrescence growing from the pastern to the middle of the shank of a horse.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The California chim&aelig;ra. See <u>Chim&aelig;ra</u>.</def>

<sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Any fish of the genus <i>Macrurus</i>. See <u>Grenadier</u>, 2.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"-tailed`</hw> (-t&amacr;ld`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Having a long, tapering tail like that of a rat.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rat-tailed larva</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the larva of a fly of the genus Eristalis. See <u>Eristalis</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Rat-tailed serpent</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the ferde-lance.</cd> -- <col><b>Rat-tailed shrew</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the musk shrew.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rat*tan"</hw> (r&abreve;t*t&abreve;n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Malay <i>r&omacr;tan</i>.] [Written also <i>ratan</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>One of the long slender flexible stems of several species of palms of the genus <i>Calamus</i>, mostly East Indian, though some are African and Australian. They are exceedingly tough, and are used for walking sticks, wickerwork, chairs and seats of chairs, cords and cordage, and many other purposes.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat*teen"</hw> (-t&emacr;n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>ratine</i>.] <def>A thick woolen stuff quilled or twilled.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"ten</hw> (r&abreve;t"t'n), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> E. <i>ratten</i> a rat, hence the verb literally means, to do like a rat.] <def>To deprive feloniously of the tools used in employment (as by breaking or stealing them), for the purpose annoying; as, to <i>ratten</i> a mechanic who works during a strike.</def> [Trades-union Cant] <i>J. McCarthy.</i></p> [Prov. mischief one's of

<p><hw>Rat"ter</hw> (-t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who, or that which, rats, as one who deserts his party.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Anything which catches rats; esp., a dog trained to catch rats; a rat terrier. See <u>Terrier</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat`ti*net"</hw> (-t&ibreve;*n&ebreve;t"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A woolen stuff thinner than ratteen.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"ting</hw> (r&abreve;t"t&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The conduct or practices of one who rats. See <u>Rat</u>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos>, 1.</def> <i>Sydney Smith.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The low sport of setting a dog upon rats confined in a pit to see how many he will kill in a given time.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle</hw> (-t'l), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rattled</u> (-t'ld); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rattling</u> (-tl&ibreve;ng).] [Akin to D. <i>ratelen</i>, G. <i>rasseln</i>, AS. <i>hr&aelig;tele</i> a rattle, in <i>hr&aelig;tel</i>wyrt rattlewort; cf. Gr. <grk>kradai`nein</grk> to swing, wave. Cf. <u>Rail</u> a bird.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To make a quick succession of sharp, inharmonious noises, as by the collision

of hard and not very sonorous bodies shaken together; to clatter.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And the rude hail in <i>rattling</i> tempest forms.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><blockquote>'T was but the wind,<BR> Or the car <i>rattling</i> o'er the stony street.</blockquote> <i>Byron.</i></p> <p><! p. 1192 pr=vmg !></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To drive or ride briskly, so as to make a clattering; as, we <i>rattled</i> along for a couple of miles.</def> [Colloq.]</p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To make a clatter with the voice; to talk rapidly and idly; to clatter; -- with <i>on</i> or <i>away</i>; as, she <i>rattled</i> on for an hour.</def> [Colloq.]</p> <p><hw>Rat"tle</hw> (r&abreve;t"t'l), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To cause to make a rattling or clattering sound; as, to <i>rattle</i> a chain.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To assail, annoy, or stun with a rattling noise.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Sound but another [drum], and another shall<BR> As loud as thine <i>rattle</i> the welkin's ear.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Hence, to disconcert; to confuse; as, to <i>rattle</i> one's judgment; to <i>rattle</i> a player in a game.</def> [Colloq.]</p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To scold; to rail at.</def> <i>L'Estrange.</i></p> <p><col><b>To rattle off</b></col>. <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>To tell glibly or noisily; as, <i>to rattle off</i> a story.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>To rail at; to scold.</cd> "She would sometimes <i>rattle off</i> her servants sharply." <i>Arbuthnot.</i></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A rapid succession of sharp, clattering sounds; as, the <i>rattle</i> of a drum.</def> <i>Prior.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Noisy, rapid talk.</def></p> <p><blockquote>All this ado about the golden age is but an empty <i>rattle</i> and frivolous conceit.</blockquote> <i>Hakewill.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>An instrument with which a rattling sound is made; especially, a child's toy that rattles when shaken.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>rattles</i> of Isis and the cymbals of Brasilea nearly enough resemble each other.</blockquote> <i>Sir W.

Raleigh.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Pleased with a <i>rattle</i>, tickled with a straw.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>A noisy, senseless talker; a jabberer.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It may seem strange that a man who wrote with so much perspicuity, vivacity, and grace, should have been, whenever he took a part in conversation, an empty, noisy, blundering <i>rattle</i>.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>A scolding; a sharp rebuke.</def> [Obs.] <i>Heylin.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Any organ of an animal having a structure adapted to produce a rattling sound.</def></p> <p>&fist; The <i>rattle</i> of a rattlesnake is composed of the hardened terminal scales, loosened in succession, but not cast off, and so modified in form as to make a series of loose, hollow joints.</p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <def>The noise in the throat produced by the air in passing through mucus which the lungs are unable to expel; -chiefly observable at the approach of death, when it is called the <i>death rattle</i>. See <u>R&acirc;le</u>.</def></p> <p><col><b>To spring a rattle</b></col>, <cd>to cause it to sound.</cd> -- <col><b>Yellow rattle</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a yellow-flowered herb (<i>Rhinanthus Crista-galli</i>), the ripe seeds of which rattle in the inflated calyx.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle*box`</hw> (-b&obreve;ks`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A toy that makes a rattling sound; a rattle.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>An American herb (<i>Crotalaria sagittalis</i>), the seeds of which, when ripe, rattle in the inflated pod.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Any species of <i>Crotalaria</i>, a genus of yellow-flowered herbs, with inflated, many-seeded pods.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle-brained`</hw> (-br&amacr;nd`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Giddy; rattle-headed.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle*head`</hw> (-h&ebreve;d`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>An empty, noisy talker.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle-head`ed</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Noisy; giddy; unsteady.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle*mouse`</hw> (-mous`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A bat.</def> [Obs.] <i>Puttenham.</i></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle*pate`</hw> (-p&amacr;t`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rattlehead.</def> <i>C. Kingsley.</i></p>

<p><hw>Rat"tle-pat`ed</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Rattleheaded.</def> "A noisy, <i>rattle-pated</i> fellow." <i>W. Irving.</i></p> <p><hw>Rat"tler</hw> (-tl&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, rattles.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle*snake`</hw> (r&abreve;t"t'l*sn&amacr;k`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Any one of several species of venomous American snakes belonging to the genera <i>Crotalus</i> and <i>Caudisona</i>, or <i>Sistrurus</i>. They have a series of horny interlocking joints at the end of the tail which make a sharp rattling sound when shaken. The common rattlesnake of the Northern United States (<i>Crotalus horridus</i>), and the diamond rattlesnake of the South (<i>C. adamanteus</i>), are the best known. See <i>Illust.</i> of <u>Fang</u>.</def> </p> <p><col><b>Ground rattlesnake</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a small rattlesnake (<i>Caudisona, or Sistrurus, miliaria</i>) of the Southern United States, having a small rattle. It has nine large scales on its head.</cd> -- <col><b>Rattlesnake fern</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a common American fern (<i>Botrychium Virginianum</i>) having a triangular decompound frond and a longstalked panicle of spore cases rising from the middle of the frond.</cd> -- <col><b>Rattlesnake grass</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a handsome American grass (<i>Glyceria Canadensis</i>) with an ample panicle of rather large ovate spikelets, each one composed of imbricated parts and slightly resembling the rattle of the rattlesnake. Sometimes called <i>quaking grass</i>.</cd> -<col><b>Rattlesnake plantain</b></col>. <i>(Bot.)</i> <cd>See under <u>Plantain</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rattlesnake root</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a name given to certain American species of the composite genus <i>Prenanthes</i> (<i>P. alba</i> and <i>P. serpentaria</i>), formerly asserted to cure the bite of the rattlesnake. Called also <i>lion's foot</i>, <i>gall of the earth</i>, and <i>white lettuce</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rattlesnake's master</b></col>. <i>(Bot.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>A species of Agave (<i>Agave Virginica</i>) growing in the Southern United States</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>An umbelliferous plant (<i>Eryngium yucc&aelig;folium</i>) with large bristly-fringed linear leaves</cd>. <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <cd>A composite plant, the blazing star (<i>Liatris squarrosa</i>).</cd> -- <col><b>Rattlesnake weed</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a plant of the composite genus <i>Hieracium</i> (<i>H. venosum</i>); -- probably so named from its spotted leaves. See also <u>Snakeroot</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle*trap`</hw> (-tr&abreve;p`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Any machine or vehicle that does not run smoothly.</def> [Colloq.] <i>A. Trollope.</i></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle*weed`</hw> (-w&emacr;d`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Any plant of the genus <i>Astragalus</i>. See <u>Milk vetch</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"tle*wings`</hw> (-w&ibreve;ngz`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The golden-eye.</def></p>

<p><hw>Rat"tle*wort`</hw> (-w&ucirc;rt`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>hr&aelig;telwyrt</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Rattlebox</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat"tlings</hw> (r&abreve;t"tl&ibreve;ngz), <pos><i>n. pl.</i></pos> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>Ratlines.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat*toon"</hw> (r&abreve;t*t&oomac;n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Sp. <i>reto&ntilde;o</i>.] <def>One of the stems or shoots of sugar cane of the second year's growth from the root, or later. See <u>Plant-cane</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rat*toon"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rattooned</u> (-t&oomac;nd"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rattooning</u>.] [Cf. Sp. <i>reto&ntilde;ar</i>.] <def>To sprout or spring up from the root, as sugar cane from the root of the previous year's planting.</def></p> <p><hw>Rau"cid</hw> (r&add;"s&ibreve;d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>raucus</i> hoarse; cf. LL. <i>raucidus</i>.] <def>Hoarse; raucous.</def> [R.] <i>Lamb.</i></p> <p><hw>Rau"ci*ty</hw> (r&add;"s&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>raucitas</i>, from <i>raucus</i> hoarse: cf. F. <i>raucit&eacute;</i>.] <def>Harshness of sound; rough utterance; hoarseness; as, the <i>raucity</i> of a trumpet, or of the human voice.</def></p> <p><hw>Rau"cous</hw> (r&add;"k&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>raucus</i>.] <def>Hoarse; harsh; rough; as, a <i>raucous</i>, thick tone.</def> "His voice slightly <i>raucous</i>." <i>Aytoun.</i> -<wf>Rau"cous*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Raught</hw> (r&add;t), obs. <def><pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> of <u>Reach</u>.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Raught</hw>, obs. <def><pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> of <u>Reck</u>.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Raunch</hw> (r&add;nch), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Ranch</u>.</def> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Raun*soun"</hw> (r&add;n*s&oomac;n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Ransom.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Rav"age</hw> (r&abreve;v"&asl;j; 48), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. (assumed) L. <i>rapagium</i>, <i>rapaticum</i>, fr. <i>rapere</i> to carry off by force, to ravish. See <u>Rapacious</u>, <u>Ravish</u>.] <def>Desolation by violence; violent ruin or destruction; devastation; havoc; waste; as, the <i>ravage</i> of a lion; the <i>ravages</i> of fire or tempest; the <i>ravages</i> of an army, or of time.</def> </p> <p><blockquote>Would one think 't were possible for love<BR> To make such <i>ravage</i> in a noble soul?</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p>

<p><b>Syn.</b> -- Despoilment; devastation; desolation; pillage; plunder; spoil; waste; ruin.</p> <p><hw>Rav"age</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ravaged</u> (-&asl;jd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ravaging</u> (-&asl;*j&ibreve;ng).] [F. <i>ravager</i>. See <u>Ravage</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <def>To lay waste by force; to desolate by violence; to commit havoc or devastation upon; to spoil; to plunder; to consume.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Already C&aelig;sar<BR> Has <i>ravaged</i> more than half the globe.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><blockquote>His lands were daily <i>ravaged</i>, his cattle driven away.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To despoil; pillage; plunder; sack; spoil; devastate; desolate; destroy; waste; ruin.</p> <p><hw>Rav"a*ger</hw> (-&asl;*j&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, ravages or lays waste; spoiler.</def></p> <p><hw>Rave</hw> (r&amacr;v), obs. <def><pos><i>imp.</i></pos> of <u>Rive</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rave</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Prov. E. <i>raves</i>, or <i>rathes</i>, a frame laid on a wagon, for carrying hay, etc.] <def>One of the upper side pieces of the frame of a wagon body or a sleigh.</def></p> <p><hw>Rave</hw> (r&amacr;v), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Raved</u> (r&amacr;vd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Raving</u>.] [F. <i>r&ecirc;ver</i> to rave, to be delirious, to dream; perhaps fr. L. <i>rabere</i> to rave, rage, be mad or furious. Cf. <u>Rage</u>, <u>Reverie</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To wander in mind or intellect; to be delirious; to talk or act irrationally; to be wild, furious, or raging, as a madman.</def></p> <p><blockquote>In our madness evermore we <i>rave</i>.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Have I not cause to <i>rave</i> and beat my breast?</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The mingled torrent of redcoats and tartans went <i>raving</i> down the valley to the gorge of Killiecrankie.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To rush wildly or furiously.</def> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To talk with unreasonable enthusiasm or excessive passion or excitement; -- followed by <i>about</i>, <i>of</i>, or <i>on</i>; as, he <i>raved</i> about her beauty.</def></p>

<p><blockquote>The hallowed scene<BR> Which others <i>rave</i> of, though they know it not.</blockquote> <i>Byron.</i></p> <p><hw>Rave</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To utter in madness or frenzy; to say wildly; as, to <i>rave</i> nonsense.</def> <i>Young.</i></p> <p><hw>Rave"hook</hw> (r&amacr;v"h&oocr;k), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Shipbuilding)</i> <def>A tool, hooked at the end, for enlarging or clearing seams for the reception of oakum.</def></p> <p><hw>Rav"el</hw> (r&abreve;v"'l), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Raveled</u> (-'ld) or <u>Ravelled</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Raveling</u> or <u>Ravelling</u>.] [OD. <i>ravelen</i>, D. <i>rafelen</i>, akin to LG. <i>rebeln</i>, <i>rebbeln</i>, <i>reffeln</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To separate or undo the texture of; to take apart; to untwist; to unweave or unknit; -- often followed by <i>out</i>; as, to <i>ravel</i> a twist; to <i>ravel</i> out a stocking.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Sleep, that knits up the <i>raveled</i> sleave of care.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To undo the intricacies of; to disentangle.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To pull apart, as the threads of a texture, and let them fall into a tangled mass; hence, to entangle; to make intricate; to involve.</def></p> <p><blockquote>What glory 's due to him that could divide<BR> Such <i>raveled</i> interests? has the knot untied?</blockquote> <i>Waller.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The faith of very many men seems a duty so weak and indifferent, is so often untwisted by violence, or <i>raveled</i> and entangled in weak discourses!</blockquote> <i>Jer. Taylor.</i></p> <p><hw>Rav"el</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To become untwisted or unwoven; to be disentangled; to be relieved of intricacy.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To fall into perplexity and confusion.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Till, by their own perplexities involved,<BR> They <i>ravel</i> more, still less resolved.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To make investigation or search, as by picking out the threads of a woven pattern.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>The humor of <i>raveling</i> into all these mystical or entangled matters.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Temple.</i></p> <p><hw>Rav"el*er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Also <i>raveller</i>.] <def>One who ravels.</def></p>

<p><hw>Rave"lin</hw> (r&abreve;v"l&ibreve;n; 277), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.; cf. Sp. <i>rebellin</i>, It. <i>revellino</i>, <i>rivellino</i>; perhaps fr. L. <i>re-</i> again + <i>vallum</i> wall.] <i>(Fort.)</i> <def>A detached work with two embankments which make a salient angle. It is raised before the curtain on the counterscarp of the place. Formerly called <i>demilune</i>, and <i>half-moon</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rav"el*ing</hw> (r&abreve;v"'l*&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Also <i>ravelling</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of untwisting or of disentangling.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which is raveled out; esp., a thread detached from a texture.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"ven</hw> (r&amacr;"v'n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>hr&aelig;fn</i>; akin to D. <i>raaf</i>, G. <i>rabe</i>, OHG. <i>hraban</i>, Icel. <i>hrafn</i>, Dan. <i>ravn</i>, and perhaps to L. <i>corvus</i>, Gr. <grk>ko`rax</grk>. &radic;19.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A large black passerine bird (<i>Corvus corax</i>), similar to the crow, but larger. It is native of the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America, and is noted for its sagacity.</def></p> <p><col><b>Sea raven</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the cormorant.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ra"ven</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of the color of the raven; jet black; as, <i>raven</i> curls; <i>raven</i> darkness.</def></p> <p><hw>Rav"en</hw> (r&abreve;v"'n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OF. <i>ravin&eacute;</i> impetuosity, violence, F. <i>ravine</i> ravine. See <u>Ravine</u>, <u>Rapine</u>.] [Written also <i>ravin</i>, and <i>ravine</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Rapine; rapacity.</def> <i>Ray.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Prey; plunder; food obtained by violence.</def></p> <p><hw>Rav"en</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ravened</u> (-'nd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ravening</u>.] [Written also <i>ravin</i>, and <i>ravine</i>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To obtain or seize by violence.</def> <i>Hakewill.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To devour with great eagerness.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Like rats that <i>ravin</i> down their proper bane.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rav"en</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To prey with rapacity; to be greedy; to show rapacity.</def> [Written also <i>ravin</i>, and <i>ravine</i>.]</p> <p><blockquote>Benjamin shall <i>raven</i> as a wolf.</blockquote> <i>Gen. xlix. 27.</i></p>

<p><hw>||Rav`e*na"la</hw> (r&abreve;v`&esl;*n&auml;"l&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Malagasy.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A genus of plants related to the banana.</def></p> <p>&fist; <i>Ravenala Madagascariensis</i>, the principal species, is an unbranched tree with immense oarlike leaves growing alternately from two sides of the stem. The sheathing bases of the leafstalks collect and retain rain water, which flows freely when they are pierced with a knife, whence the plant is called <i>traveler's tree</i>.</p> <p><hw>Rav"en*er</hw> (r&abreve;v"'n*&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who, or that which, ravens or plunders.</def> <i>Gower.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A bird of prey, as the owl or vulture.</def> [Obs.] <i>Holland.</i></p> <p><hw>Rav"en*ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Eagerness for plunder; rapacity; extortion.</def> <i>Luke xi. 39.</i></p> <p><hw>Rav"en*ing</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Greedily devouring; rapacious; as, <i>ravening</i> wolves.</def> -<wf>Rav"en*ing*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Rav"en*ous</hw> (r&abreve;v"'n*&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [From 2d <u>Raven</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Devouring with rapacious eagerness; furiously voracious; hungry even to rage; as, a <i>ravenous</i> wolf or vulture.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Eager for prey or gratification; as, a <i>ravenous</i> appetite or desire.</def></p> <p>-- <wf>Rav"en*ous*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -<wf>Rav"en*ous*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Ra"ven's-duck`</hw> (r&amacr;"v'nz-d&ubreve;k`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. G. <i>ravenstuch</i>.] <def>A fine quality of sailcloth.</def> <i>Ham. Nav. Encyc.</i></p> <p><hw>Rav"er</hw> (r&amacr;v"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who raves.</def></p> <p><hw>Rav"in</hw> (r&abreve;v"'n), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Ravenous.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p>{ <hw>Rav"in</hw>, <hw>Rav"ine</hw> } (r&abreve;v"'n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See 2d <u>Raven</u>.] <def>Food obtained by violence; plunder; prey; raven.</def> "Fowls of <i>ravyne</i>." <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Though Nature, red in tooth and claw<BR> With <i>ravine</i>, shrieked against his creed.</blockquote> <i>Tennyson.</i> </p> <p>{ <hw>Rav"in</hw>, <hw>Rav"ine</hw>, } <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos>

<def>See <u>Raven</u>, <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos></def></p> <p><hw>Ra*vine"</hw> (r&adot;*v&emacr;n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., a place excavated by a torrent, a ravine, fr. <i>ravir</i> to snatch or tear away, L. <i>rapere</i>; cf. L. <i>rapina</i> rapine. See <u>Ravish</u>, and cf. <u>Rapine</u>, <u>Raven</u> prey.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A torrent of water.</def> [Obs.] <i>Cotgrave.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A deep and narrow hollow, usually worn by a stream or torrent of water; a gorge; a mountain cleft.</def></p> <p><hw>Rav"ing</hw> (r&amacr;v"&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Talking irrationally and wildly; as, a <i>raving</i> lunatic.</def> -- <wf>Rav"ing*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Rav"ish</hw> (r&abreve;v"&ibreve;sh), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Ravished</u> (-&ibreve;sht); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Ravishing</u>.] [OE. <i>ravissen</i>, F. <i>ravir</i>, fr. L. <i>rapere</i> to snatch or tear away, to ravish. See <u>Rapacious</u>, <u>Rapid</u>, and <u>ish</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To seize and carry away by violence; to snatch by force.</def></p> <p><blockquote>These hairs which thou dost <i>ravish</i> from my chin<BR> Will quicken, and accuse thee.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>This hand shall <i>ravish</i> thy pretended right.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To transport with joy or delight; to delight to ecstasy.</def> "<i>Ravished</i> . . . for the joy." <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Thou hast <i>ravished</i> my heart.</blockquote> <i>Cant. iv. 9.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To have carnal knowledge of (a woman) by force, and against her consent; to rape.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To transport; entrance; enrapture; delight; violate; deflour; force. </p> <p><hw>Rav"ish*er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who ravishes (in any sense).</def></p> <p><hw>Rav"ish*ing</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Rapturous; transporting.</def></p> <p><hw>Rav"ish*ing*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a ravishing manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Rav"ish*ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>ravissement</i>. See <u>Ravish</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of carrying away by force or against consent; abduction; as, the <i>ravishment</i> of children from their parents, of a ward from his

guardian, or of a wife from her husband.</def>


<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The state of being ravished; rapture; transport of delight; ecstasy.</def> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>In whose sight all things joy, with <i>ravishment</i><BR> Attracted by thy beauty still to gaze.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>The act of ravishing a woman; rape.</def></p> <p><hw>Rav"is*sant</hw> (r&abreve;v"&ibreve;s*s&abreve;nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F.] <i>(Her.)</i> <def>In a half-raised position, as if about to spring on prey.</def></p> <p><! p. 1193 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Raw</hw> (r&add;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<pos><i>Compar.</i></pos> <u>Rawer</u> (-&etilde;r); <pos><i>superl.</i></pos> <u>Rawest</u>.] [AS. <i>hre&aacute;w</i>; akin to D. <i>raauw</i>, LG. <i>rau</i>, G. <i>roh</i>, OHG. <i>r&omacr;</i>, Icel. <i>hr&amacr;r</i>, Dan. <i>raa</i>, Sw. <i>r&aring;</i>, L. <i>crudus</i>, Gr. <grk>kre`as</grk> flesh, Skr. <i>kravis</i> raw flesh. &radic;18. Cf. <u>Crude</u>, <u>Cruel</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Not altered from its natural state; not prepared by the action of heat; as, <i>raw</i> sienna; specifically, not cooked; not changed by heat to a state suitable for eating; not done; as, <i>raw</i> meat.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence: Unprepared for use or enjoyment; immature; unripe; unseasoned; inexperienced; unpracticed; untried; as, <i>raw</i> soldiers; a <i>raw</i> recruit.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Approved himself to the <i>raw</i> judgment of the multitude.</blockquote> <i>De Quincey.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Not worked in due form; in the natural state; untouched by art; unwrought.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Not distilled; as, <i>raw</i> water</def>. [Obs.] <i>Bacon.</i> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Not spun or twisted; as, <i>raw</i> silk or cotton</def>. <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>Not mixed or diluted; as, <i>raw</i> spirits</def>. <sd><i>(d)</i></sd> <def>Not tried; not melted and strained; as, <i>raw</i> tallow</def>. <sd><i>(e)</i></sd> <def>Not tanned; as, <i>raw</i> hides</def>. <sd><i>(f)</i></sd> <def>Not trimmed, covered, or folded under; as, the <i>raw</i> edge of a piece of metal or of cloth.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Not covered; bare.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Bald.</def> [Obs.] "With skull all <i>raw</i>." <i>Spenser</i> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Deprived of skin; galled; as, a <i>raw</i> sore.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>Sore, as if by being galled.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And all his sinews waxen weak and <i>raw</i><BR> Through long imprisonment.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Disagreeably damp or cold; chilly; bleak;

as, a <i>raw</i> wind.</def> "A <i>raw</i> and gusty day." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><col><b>Raw material</b></col>, <cd>material that has not been subjected to a (specified) process of manufacture; as, ore is the <i>raw material</i> used in smelting; leather is the <i>raw material</i> of the shoe industry.</cd> -- <col><b>Raw pig</b></col>, <cd>cast iron as it comes from the smelting furnace.</cd></p> <p><hw>Raw</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A raw, sore, or galled place; a sensitive spot; as, to touch one on the <i>raw</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Like savage hackney coachmen, they know where there is a <i>raw</i>.</blockquote> <i>De Quincey.</i></p> <p><hw>Raw"bone`</hw> (r&add;"b&omacr;n`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Rawboned.</def> [Obs.] <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Raw"boned`</hw> (-b&omacr;nd`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Having little flesh on the bones; gaunt.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Raw"head`</hw> (r&add;"h&ebreve;d`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A specter mentioned to frighten children; as, <i>rawhead</i> and bloodybones.</def></p> <p><hw>Raw"hide`</hw> (r&add;"h&imacr;d`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A cowhide, or coarse riding whip, made of untanned (or raw) hide twisted.</def></p> <p><hw>Raw"ish</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Somewhat raw.</def> [R.] <i>Marston.</i></p> <p><hw>Raw"ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>In a raw manner; unskillfully; without experience.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Without proper preparation or provision.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Raw"ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being raw.</def></p> <p><hw>Ray</hw> (r&amacr;), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [An aphetic form of <i>array</i>; cf. <u>Beray</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To array.</def> [Obs.] <i>Sir T. More.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To mark, stain, or soil; to streak; to defile.</def> [Obs.] "The filth that did it <i>ray</i>." <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Ray</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Array; order; arrangement; dress.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>And spoiling all her gears and goodly <i>ray</i>.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Ray</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OF. <i>rai</i>, F. <i>rais</i>, fr. L. <i>radius</i> a beam or ray, staff, rod, spoke of a wheel. Cf. <u>Radius</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One of a number of lines or

parts diverging from a common point or center, like the radii of a circle; as, a star of six <i>rays</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A radiating part of a flower or plant; the marginal florets of a compound flower, as an aster or a sunflower; one of the pedicels of an umbel or other circular flower cluster; radius. See <u>Radius</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>One of the radiating spines, or cartilages, supporting the fins of fishes.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>One of the spheromeres of a radiate, especially one of the arms of a starfish or an ophiuran.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Physics)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A line of light or heat proceeding from a radiant or reflecting point; a single element of light or heat propagated continuously; as, a solar <i>ray</i>; a polarized <i>ray</i>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>One of the component elements of the total radiation from a body; any definite or limited portion of the spectrum; as, the red <i>ray</i>; the violet <i>ray</i>. See <i>Illust</i>. under <u>Light</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Sight; perception; vision; -- from an old theory of vision, that sight was something which proceeded from the eye to the object seen.</def></p> <p><blockquote>All eyes direct their <i>rays</i><BR> On him, and crowds turn coxcombs as they gaze.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <i>(Geom.)</i> <def>One of a system of diverging lines passing through a point, and regarded as extending indefinitely in both directions. See <u>Half-ray</u>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Bundle of rays</b></col>. <i>(Geom.)</i> <cd>See <i>Pencil of rays</i>, below.</cd> -- <col><b>Extraordinary ray</b></col> <i>(Opt.)</i>, <cd>that one of two parts of a ray divided by double refraction which does not follow the ordinary law of refraction.</cd> -- <col><b>Ordinary ray</b></col> <i>(Opt.)</i>, <cd>that one of the two parts of a ray divided by double refraction which follows the usual or ordinary law of refraction.</cd> -- <col><b>Pencil of rays</b></col> <i>(Geom.)</i>, <cd>a definite system of rays.</cd> -<col><b>Ray flower</b></col>, or <col><b>Ray floret</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>one of the marginal flowers of the capitulum in such composite plants as the aster, goldenrod, daisy, and sunflower. They have an elongated, strap-shaped corolla, while the corollas of the disk flowers are tubular and five-lobed.</cd> -- <col><b>Ray point</b></col> <i>(Geom.)</i>, <cd>the common point of a pencil of rays.</cd> -- <col><b>R&ouml;ntgen ray</b></col> (r&etilde;nt"g&ebreve;n) <i>(Phys.)</i>, <cd>a kind of ray generated in a very highly exhausted vacuum tube by the electrical discharge. It is capable of passing through many bodies opaque to light, and producing photographic and fluorescent effects by which means pictures showing the internal structure of opaque objects are made, called <i>radiographs</i>, or <i>sciagraphs</i>.. So called from the discoverer, W. C. <i>R&ouml;ntgen</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>X ray</b></col>, <cd>the R&ouml;ntgen ray; -- so called by its

discoverer because of its enigmatical character, <i>x</i> being an algebraic symbol for an unknown quantity.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ray</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rayed</u> (r&amacr;d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Raying</u>.] [Cf. OF. <i>raier</i>, <i>raiier</i>, <i>rayer</i>, L. <i>radiare</i> to irradiate. See <u>Ray</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>, and cf. <u>Radiate</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To mark with long lines; to streak.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> [From <u>Ray</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <def>To send forth or shoot out; to cause to shine out; as, to <i>ray</i> smiles.</def> [R.] <i>Thomson.</i></p> <p><hw>Ray</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To shine, as with rays.</def> <i>Mrs. Browning.</i></p> <p><hw>Ray</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>raie</i>, L. <i>raia</i>. Cf. <u>Roach</u>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Any one of numerous elasmobranch fishes of the order Rai&aelig;, including the skates, torpedoes, sawfishes, etc.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>In a restricted sense, any of the broad, flat, narrow-tailed species, as the skates and sting rays. See <u>Skate</u>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Bishop ray</b></col>, <cd>a yellow-spotted, long-tailed eagle ray (<i>Stoasodon n&agrave;rinari</i>) of the Southern United States and the West Indies.</cd> -- <col><b>Butterfly ray</b></col>, <cd>a short-tailed American sting ray (<i>Pteroplatea Maclura</i>), having very broad pectoral fins.</cd> -- <col><b>Devil ray</b></col>. <cd>See <u>Sea devil</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Eagle ray</b></col>, <cd>any large ray of the family <i>Myliobatid&aelig;</i>, or <i>&AElig;tobatid&aelig;</i>. The common European species (<i>Myliobatis aquila</i>) is called also <i>whip ray</i>, and <i>miller</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Electric ray</b></col>, or <col><b>Cramp ray</b></col>, <cd>a torpedo.</cd> -- <col><b>Starry ray</b></col>, <cd>a common European skate (<i>Raia radiata</i>).</cd> -- <col><b>Sting ray</b></col>, <cd>any one of numerous species of rays of the family <i>Trygonid&aelig;</i> having one or more large, sharp, barbed dorsal spines on the whiplike tail. Called also <i>stingaree</i>.</cd></p> <p><hw>||Ra"yah</hw> (r&amacr;"y&adot; or r&auml;"y&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Ar. <i>ra'iyah</i> a herd, a subject, fr. <i>ra'a</i> to pasture, guard.] <def>A person not a Mohammedan, who pays the capitation tax.</def> [Turkey]</p> <p><hw>Ray" grass`</hw> (r&amacr;" gr&adot;s`). [Etymol. of <i>ray</i> is uncertain.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A perennial European grass (<i>Lolium perenne</i>); -- called also <i>rye grass</i>, and <i>red darnel</i>. See <u>Darnel</u>, and <u>Grass</u>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Italian</b></col> <col><b>ray</b>, or <b>rye</b></col>, <col><b>grass</b></col>. <cd>See <u>Darnel</u>, and <u>Grass</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ray"less</hw> (r&amacr;"l&ebreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Destitute of rays; hence, dark; not illuminated; blind; as, a

<i>rayless</i> sky; <i>rayless</i> eyes.</def></p> <p><hw>Ray"on</hw> (r&amacr;"&obreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.] <def>Ray; beam.</def> [Obs.] <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Ray"on*nant</hw> (r&amacr;"&obreve;n*n&abreve;nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F.] <i>(Her.)</i> <def>Darting forth rays, as the sun when it shines out.</def></p> <p><hw>Raze</hw> (r&amacr;z), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Race</u>.] <def>A Shakespearean word (used once) supposed to mean the same as <i>race</i>, a root.</def></p> <p><hw>Raze</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Razed</u> (r&amacr;zd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Razing</u>.] [F. <i>raser</i>. See <u>Rase</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] [Written also <i>rase</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To erase; to efface; to obliterate.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Razing</i> the characters of your renown.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To subvert from the foundation; to lay level with the ground; to overthrow; to destroy; to demolish.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The royal hand that <i>razed</i> unhappy Troy.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To demolish; level; prostrate; overthrow; subvert; destroy; ruin. See <u>Demolish</u>.</p> <p><hw>Razed</hw> (r&amacr;zd), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Slashed or striped in patterns.</def> [Obs.] "Two Provincial roses on my <i>razed</i> shoes." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra*zee"</hw> (r&adot;*z&emacr;"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. vaisseau <i>ras&eacute;</i>, fr. <i>raser</i> to raze, to cut down ships. See <u>Raze</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>, <u>Rase</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>An armed ship having her upper deck cut away, and thus reduced to the next inferior rate, as a seventy-four cut down to a frigate.</def> <i>Totten.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra*zee"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Razeed</u> (r&adot;*z&emacr;d"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Razeeing</u>.] <def>To cut down to a less number of decks, and thus to an inferior rate or class, as a ship; hence, to prune or abridge by cutting off or retrenching parts; as, to <i>razee</i> a book, or an article.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"zor</hw> (r&amacr;"z&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>rasour</i>, OF. <i>rasur</i>, LL. <i>rasor</i>: cf. F. <i>rasoir</i>, LL. <i>rasorium</i>. See <u>Raze</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>, <u>Rase</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A keen-edged knife of peculiar shape, used in shaving the hair from the face or the head.</def> "Take thee a barber's <i>razor</i>." <i>Ezek. v. 1.</i></p>

<p> --></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A tusk of a wild boar.</def></p> <p><col><b>Razor fish</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>A small Mediterranean fish (<i>Coryph&aelig;na novacula</i>), prized for the table</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>The razor shell.</cd> -- <col><b>Razor grass</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a West Indian plant (<i>Scleria scindens</i>), the triangular stem and the leaves of which are edged with minute sharp teeth.</cd> -<col><b>Razor grinder</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the European goat-sucker.</cd> -- <col><b>Razor shell</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>any marine bivalve shell belonging to Solen and allied genera, especially <i>Solen, or Ensatella, ensis, &and; Americana</i>, which have a long, narrow, somewhat curved shell, resembling a razor handle in shape. Called also <i>razor clam</i>, <i>razor fish</i>, <i>knife handle</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Razor stone</b></col>. <cd>Same as <u>Novaculite</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Razor strap</b></col>, or <col><b>Razor strop</b></col>, <cd>a strap or strop used in sharpening razors.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ra"zor*a*ble</hw> (-&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Ready for the razor; fit to be shaved.</def> [R.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Ra"zor*back`</hw> (-b&abreve;k`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The rorqual.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"zor-backed`</hw> (-b&abreve;kt`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Having a sharp, lean, or thin back; as, a <i>razor-backed</i> hog, perch, etc.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"zor*bill`</hw> (-b&ibreve;l`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A species of auk (<i>Alca torda</i>) common in the Arctic seas. See <u>Auk</u>, and <i>Illust.</i> in Appendix.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>See <u>Cutwater</u>, 3.</def></p> <p><hw>Ra"zure</hw> (r&amacr;"zh&usl;r; 135), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Rasure</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of erasing or effacing, or the state of being effaced; obliteration. See <u>Rasure</u>.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>An erasure; a change made by erasing.</def></p> <p><hw>||Raz"zi*a</hw> (r&auml;"z&esl;*&auml;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. Ar. <i>gh&amacr;z&imacr;a</i> (pron. <i>razia</i> in Algeria).] <def>A plundering and destructive incursion; a foray; a raid.</def></p> <p><hw>Re-</hw> (r&emacr;-). [L. <i>re-</i>, older form (retained before vowels) <i>red-</i>: cf. F. <i>re-</i>, <i>r&eacute;-</i>.] <def>A prefix signifying <i>back</i>, <i>against</i>, <i>again</i>, <i>anew</i>; as, <i>re</i>cline, to lean back; <i>re</i>call, to call back; <i>re</i>cede; <i>re</i>move; <i>re</i>claim, to call out against; <i>re</i>pugn, to fight against; <i>re</i>cognition, a

knowing again; <i>re</i>join, to join again; <i>re</i>iterate; <i>re</i>assure. Combinations containing the prefix <i>re-</i> are readily formed, and are for the most part of obvious signification.</def></p> <p><hw>Re</hw> (r&amacr;). [It.] <i>(Mus.)</i> <def>A syllable applied in solmization to the second tone of the diatonic scale of C; in the American system, to the second tone of any diatonic scale.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ab*sorb"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;b*s&ocirc;rb"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To absorb again; to draw in, or imbibe, again what has been effused, extravasated, or thrown off; to swallow up again; as, to <i>reabsorb</i> chyle, lymph, etc.; -- used esp. of fluids.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ab*sorp"tion</hw> (-s&ocirc;rp"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act or process of reabsorbing.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ac*cess"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;k*s&ebreve;s" or r&esl;*&abreve;k"s&ebreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second access or approach; a return.</def> <i>Hakewill.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`ac*cuse"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;k*k&umacr;z"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To accuse again.</def></p> <p><hw>Reach</hw> (r&emacr;ch), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To retch.</def> <i>Cheyne.</i></p> <p><hw>Reach</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>An effort to vomit.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Reach</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reached</u> (r&emacr;cht) (<u>Raught</u>, the old preterit, is obsolete); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reaching</u>.] [OE. <i>rechen</i>, AS. <i>r&aemacr;can</i>, <i>r&aemacr;cean</i>, to extend, stretch out; akin to D. <i>reiken</i>, G. <i>reichen</i>, and possibly to AS. <i>r&imacr;ce</i> powerful, rich, E. <i>rich</i>. &radic;115.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To extend; to stretch; to thrust out; to put forth, as a limb, a member, something held, or the like.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Her tresses yellow, and long straughten,<BR> Unto her heeles down they <i>raughten</i>.</blockquote> <i>Rom. of R.</i></p> <p><blockquote><i>Reach</i> hither thy hand and thrust it into my side.</blockquote> <i>John xx. 27.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Fruit trees, over woody, <i>reached</i> too far<BR> Their pampered boughs.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence, to deliver by stretching out a member, especially the hand; to give with the hand; to pass to another; to hand over; as, to <i>reach</i> one a book.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He <i>reached</i> me a full cup.</blockquote> <i>2 Esd. xiv. 39.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To attain or obtain by stretching forth the hand; to extend some part of the body, or something held by one, so as to touch, strike, grasp, or the like; as, to <i>reach</i> an object with the hand, or with a spear.</def></p> <p><blockquote>O patron power, . . . thy present aid afford,<BR> Than I may <i>reach</i> the beast.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To strike, hit, or touch with a missile; as, to <i>reach</i> an object with an arrow, a bullet, or a shell.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Hence, to extend an action, effort, or influence to; to penetrate to; to pierce, or cut, as far as.</def></p> <p><blockquote>If these examples of grown men <i>reach</i> not the case of children, let them examine.</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>To extend to; to stretch out as far as; to touch by virtue of extent; as, his land <i>reaches</i> the river.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Thy desire . . . leads to no excess<BR> That <i>reaches</i> blame.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <def>To arrive at; to come to; to get as far as.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Before this letter <i>reaches</i> your hands.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>8.</b></sn> <def>To arrive at by effort of any kind; to attain to; to gain; to be advanced to.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The best account of the appearances of nature which human penetration can <i>reach</i>, comes short of its reality.</blockquote> <i>Cheyne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>9.</b></sn> <def>To understand; to comprehend.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Do what, sir? I <i>reach</i> you not.</blockquote> <i>Beau. & Fl.</i></p> <p><sn><b>10.</b></sn> <def>To overreach; to deceive.</def> [Obs.] <i>South.</i></p> <p><hw>Reach</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To stretch out the hand.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Goddess humane, <i>reach</i>, then, and freely taste!</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To strain after something; to make efforts.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Reaching</i> above our nature does no good.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To extend in dimension, time, amount, action, influence, etc., so as to touch, attain to, or be equal to, something.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And behold, a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it <i>reached</i> to heaven.</blockquote> <i>Gen. xxviii. 12.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The new world <i>reaches</i> quite across the torrid zone.</blockquote> <i>Boyle.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>To sail on the wind, as from one point of tacking to another, or with the wind nearly abeam.</def></p> <p><col><b>To reach after</b></col> or <col><b>at</b></col>, <cd>to make efforts to attain to or obtain.</cd></p> <p><blockquote>He would be in the posture of the mind <i>reaching after</i> a positive idea of infinity.</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i></p> <p><hw>Reach</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of stretching or extending; extension; power of reaching or touching with the person, or a limb, or something held or thrown; as, the fruit is beyond my <i>reach</i>; to be within <i>reach</i> of cannon shot.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The power of stretching out or extending action, influence, or the like; power of attainment or management; extent of force or capacity.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Drawn by others who had deeper <i>reaches</i> than themselves to matters which they least intended.</blockquote> <i>Hayward.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Be sure yourself and your own <i>reach</i> to know.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Extent; stretch; expanse; hence, application; influence; result; scope.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And on the left hand, hell,<BR> With long <i>reach</i>, interposed.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>I am to pray you not to strain my speech<BR> To grosser issues, nor to larger <i>reach</i><BR> Than to suspicion.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>An extended portion of land or water; a stretch; a straight portion of a stream or river, as from one turn to another; a level stretch, as between locks in a canal; an arm of the sea extending up into the land.</def> "The river's wooded <i>reach</i>." <i>Tennyson.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The coast . . . is very full of creeks and <i>reaches</i>.</blockquote> <i>Holland.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>An artifice to obtain an

advantage.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The Duke of Parma had particular <i>reaches</i> and ends of his own underhand to cross the design.</blockquote> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>The pole or rod which connects the hind axle with the forward bolster of a wagon.</def></p> <p><hw>Reach"a*ble</hw> (-&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Being within reach.</def></p> <p><hw>Reach"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who reaches.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>An exaggeration.</def> [Obs.] <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><hw>Reach"less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Being beyond reach; lofty.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Unto a <i>reachless</i> pitch of praises hight.</blockquote> <i>Bp. Hall.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*act"</hw> (r&emacr;*&abreve;kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To act or perform a second time; to do over again; as, to <i>react</i> a play; the same scenes were <i>reacted</i> at Rome.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*act"</hw> (r&esl;*&abreve;kt"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To return an impulse or impression; to resist the action of another body by an opposite force; as, every body <i>reacts</i> on the body that impels it from its natural state.</def></p> <p><! p. 1194 pr=vmg !></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To act upon each other; to exercise a reciprocal or a reverse effect, as two or more chemical agents; to act in opposition.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ac"tion</hw> (r&esl;*&abreve;k"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;action</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Any action in resisting other action or force; counter tendency; movement in a contrary direction; reverse action.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>The mutual or reciprocal action of chemical agents upon each other, or the action upon such chemical agents of some form of energy, as heat, light, or electricity, resulting in a chemical change in one or more of these agents, with the production of new compounds or the manifestation of distinctive characters. See <i>Blowpipe reaction</i>, <i>Flame reaction</i>, under <u>Blowpipe</u>, and <u>Flame</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Med.)</i> <def>An action induced by vital resistance to some other action; depression or exhaustion of vital force consequent on overexertion or overstimulation; heightened

activity and overaction succeeding depression or shock.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Mech.)</i> <def>The force which a body subjected to the action of a force from another body exerts upon the latter body in the opposite direction.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Reaction</i> is always equal and opposite to action, that is to say, the actions of two bodies upon each other are always equal and in opposite directions.</blockquote> <i>Sir I. Newton (3d Law of Motion).</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Politics)</i> <def>Backward tendency or movement after revolution, reform, or great progress in any direction.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The new king had, at the very moment at which his fame and fortune reached the highest point, predicted the coming <i>reaction</i>.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><col><b>Reaction time</b></col> <i>(Physiol.)</i>, <cd>in nerve physiology, the interval between the application of a stimulus to an end organ of sense and the reaction or resulting movement; -- called also <i>physiological time</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Reaction wheel</b></col> <i>(Mech.)</i>, <cd>a water wheel driven by the reaction of water, usually one in which the water, entering it centrally, escapes at its periphery in a direction opposed to that of its motion by orifices at right angles, or inclined, to its radii.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*ac"tion*a*ry</hw> (-&asl;*r&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Being, causing, or favoring reaction; as, <i>reactionary</i> movements.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ac"tion*a*ry</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Reactionaries</b></plw> (-r&ibreve;z). <def>One who favors reaction, or seeks to undo political progress or revolution.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ac"tion*ist</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A reactionary.</def> <i>C. Kingsley.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*act"ive</hw> (r&esl;*&abreve;kt"&ibreve;v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;actif</i>.] <def>Having power to react; tending to reaction; of the nature of reaction.</def> -<wf>Re*act"ive*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -<wf>Re*act"ive*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Read</hw> (r&emacr;d), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Rennet. See 3d <u>Reed</u>.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Read</hw> (r&emacr;d), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Read</u> (r&ebreve;d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reading</u>.] [OE. <i>reden</i>, <i>r&aelig;den</i>, AS. <i>r&aemacr;dan</i> to read, advise, counsel, fr. <i>r&aemacr;d</i> advice, counsel, <i>r&aemacr;dan</i> (imperf. <i>reord</i>) to advise, counsel, guess; akin to D. <i>raden</i> to advise, G. <i>raten</i>, <i>rathen</i>, Icel. <i>r&amacr;&eth;a</i>, Goth. <i>r&emacr;dan</i> (in comp.), and perh. also to Skr. <i>r&amacr;dh</i> to succeed. &radic;116. Cf. <u>Riddle</u>.]

<sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To advise; to counsel.</def> [Obs.] See <u>Rede</u>.</p> <p><blockquote>Therefore, I <i>read</i> thee, get thee to God's word, and thereby try all doctrine.</blockquote> <i>Tyndale.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To interpret; to explain; as, to <i>read</i> a riddle.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To tell; to declare; to recite.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>But <i>read</i> how art thou named, and of what kin.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To go over, as characters or words, and utter aloud, or recite to one's self inaudibly; to take in the sense of, as of language, by interpreting the characters with which it is expressed; to peruse; as, to <i>read</i> a discourse; to <i>read</i> the letters of an alphabet; to <i>read</i> figures; to <i>read</i> the notes of music, or to <i>read</i> music; to <i>read</i> a book.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Redeth</i> [read ye] the great poet of Itaille.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Well could he <i>rede</i> a lesson or a story.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Hence, to know fully; to comprehend.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Who is't can <i>read</i> a woman?</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>To discover or understand by characters, marks, features, etc.; to learn by observation.</def></p> <p><blockquote>An armed corse did lie,<BR> In whose dead face he <i>read</i> great magnanimity.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Those about her<BR> From her shall <i>read</i> the perfect ways of honor.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <def>To make a special study of, as by perusing textbooks; as, to <i>read</i> theology or law.</def></p> <p><col><b>To read one's self in</b></col>, <cd>to read aloud the Thirty-nine Articles and the Declaration of Assent, -- required of a clergyman of the Church of England when he first officiates in a new benefice.</cd></p> <p><hw>Read</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To give advice or counsel.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To tell; to declare.</def> [Obs.]

<i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To perform the act of reading; to peruse, or to go over and utter aloud, the words of a book or other like document.</def></p> <p><blockquote>So they <i>read</i> in the book of the law of God distinctly, and gave the sense.</blockquote> <i>Neh. viii. 8.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To study by reading; as, he <i>read</i> for the bar.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To learn by reading.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I have <i>read</i> of an Eastern king who put a judge to death for an iniquitous sentence.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>To appear in writing or print; to be expressed by, or consist of, certain words or characters; as, the passage <i>reads</i> thus in the early manuscripts.</def></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <def>To produce a certain effect when read; as, that sentence <i>reads</i> queerly.</def></p> <p><col><b>To read between the lines</b></col>, <cd>to infer something different from what is plainly indicated; to detect the real meaning as distinguished from the apparent meaning.</cd></p> <p><hw>Read</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>r&aemacr;d</i> counsel, fr. <i>r&aemacr;dan</i> to counsel. See <u>Read</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Saying; sentence; maxim; hence, word; advice; counsel. See <u>Rede</u>.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> [<u>Read</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <def>Reading.</def> [Colloq.] <i>Hume.</i></p> <p><blockquote>One newswoman here lets magazines for a penny a <i>read</i>.</blockquote> <i>Furnivall.</i></p> <p><hw>Read</hw> (r&ebreve;d), <def><pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> of <u>Read</u>, <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos></def></p> <p><hw>Read</hw> (r&ebreve;d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Instructed or knowing by reading; versed in books; learned.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A poet . . . well <i>read</i> in Longinus.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><hw>Read`a*bil"i*ty</hw> (r&emacr;d`&adot;*b&ibreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The state of being readable; readableness.</def></p> <p><hw>Read"a*ble</hw> (r&emacr;d"&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Such as can be read; legible; fit or suitable to be read; worth reading; interesting.</def> -- <wf>Read"a*ble*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> -- <wf>Read"a*bly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p>

<p><hw>Re`ad*dress"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;d*dr&ebreve;s"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To address a second time; -- often used reflexively.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He <i>readdressed</i> himself to her.</blockquote> <i>Boyle.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`a*dept"</hw> (-&adot;*d&ebreve;pt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + L. <i>adeptus</i>, p. p. of <i>adipisci</i> to obtain.] <def>To regain; to recover.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re`a*dep"tion</hw> (-d&ebreve;p"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A regaining; recovery of something lost.</def> [Obs.] <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><hw>Read"er</hw> (r&emacr;d"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>r&aemacr;dere</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who reads.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>One whose distinctive office is to read prayers in a church.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <i>(University of Oxford, Eng.)</i> <def>One who reads lectures on scientific subjects.</def> <i>Lyell.</i> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>A proof reader.</def> <sd><i>(d)</i></sd> <def>One who reads manuscripts offered for publication and advises regarding their merit.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>One who reads much; one who is studious.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A book containing a selection of extracts for exercises in reading; an elementary book for practice in a language; a reading book.</def></p> <p><hw>Read"er*ship</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The office of reader.</def> <i>Lyell.</i></p> <p><hw>Read"i*ly</hw> (r&ebreve;d"&ibreve;*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>In a ready manner; quickly; promptly.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Without delay or objection; without reluctance; willingly; cheerfully.</def></p> <p><blockquote>How <i>readily</i> we wish time spent revoked!</blockquote> <i>Cowper.</i></p> <p><hw>Read"i*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The state or quality of being ready; preparation; promptness; aptitude; willingness.</def></p> <p><blockquote>They received the word with all <i>readiness</i> of mind.</blockquote> <i>Acts xvii. 11.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Facility; quickness; expedition; promptitude; promptness; aptitude; aptness; knack; skill; expertness; dexterity; ease; cheerfulness. See <u>Facility</u>.</p> <p><hw>Read"ing</hw> (r&emacr;d"&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of one who reads; perusal; also, printed or written matter to be read.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Study of books; literary scholarship; as, a man of extensive <i>reading</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>A lecture or prelection; public recital.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The Jews had their weekly <i>readings</i> of the law.</blockquote> <i>Hooker.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>The way in which anything reads; force of a word or passage presented by a documentary authority; lection; version.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Manner of reciting, or acting a part, on the stage; way of rendering.</def> [Cant]</p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>An observation read from the scale of a graduated instrument; as, the <i>reading</i> of a barometer.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reading of a bill</b></col> <i>(Legislation)</i>, <cd>its formal recital, by the proper officer, before the House which is to consider it.</cd></p> <p><hw>Read"ing</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Of or pertaining to the act of reading; used in reading.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Addicted to reading; as, a <i>reading</i> community.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reading book</b></col>, <cd>a book for teaching reading; a reader.</cd> -- <col><b>Reading desk</b></col>, <cd>a desk to support a book while reading; esp., a desk used while reading the service in a church.</cd> -- <col><b>Reading glass</b></col>, <cd>a large lens with more or less magnifying power, attached to a handle, and used in reading, etc.</cd> -- <col><b>Reading man</b></col>, <cd>one who reads much; hence, in the English universities, a close, industrious student.</cd> -- <col><b>Reading room</b></col>, <cd>a room appropriated to reading; a room provided with papers, periodicals, and the like, to which persons resort.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re`ad*journ"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;d*j&ucirc;rn"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To adjourn a second time; to adjourn again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ad*journ"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of readjourning; a second or repeated adjournment.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ad*just"</hw> (-j&ubreve;st"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To adjust or settle again; to put in a different order or relation; to rearrange.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ad*just"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, readjusts; in some of the States of the United States, one who advocates a refunding, and sometimes a partial repudiation, of the State debt without the consent of the State's creditors.</def></p>

<p><hw>Re`ad*just"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second adjustment; a new or different adjustment.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ad*mis"sion</hw> (-m&ibreve;sh"&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of admitting again, or the state of being readmitted; as, the <i>readmission</i> of fresh air into an exhausted receiver; the <i>readmission</i> of a student into a seminary.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ad*mit"</hw> (-m&ibreve;t"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To admit again; to give entrance or access to again.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Whose ear is ever open, and his eye<BR> Gracious to <i>readmit</i> the suppliant.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`ad*mit"tance</hw> (-t<i>a</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Allowance to enter again; a second admission.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`a*dopt"</hw> (r&emacr;`&adot;*d&obreve;pt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To adopt again.</def> <i>Young.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`a*dorn"</hw> (-d&ocirc;rn"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To adorn again or anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ad*vance"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;d*v&adot;ns"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To advance again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ad*vert"en*cy</hw> (-v&etilde;rt"<i>e</i>n*s&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of adverting to again, or of reviewing.</def> [R.] <i>Norris.</i></p> <p><hw>Read"y</hw> (r&ebreve;d"&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<pos><i>Compar.</i></pos> <u>Readier</u> (-&ibreve;*&etilde;r); <pos><i>superl.</i></pos> <u>Readiest</u>.] [AS. <i>r&aemacr;de</i>; akin to D. ge<i>reed</i>, be<i>reid</i>, G. be<i>reit</i>, Goth. ga<i>r&aacute;ids</i> fixed, arranged, and possibly to E. <i>ride</i>, as meaning originally, prepared for riding. Cf. <u>Array</u>, 1st <u>Curry</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Prepared for what one is about to do or experience; equipped or supplied with what is needed for some act or event; prepared for immediate movement or action; as, the troops are <i>ready</i> to march; <i>ready</i> for the journey.</def> "When she <i>redy</i> was." <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Fitted or arranged for immediate use; causing no delay for lack of being prepared or furnished.</def> "Dinner was <i>ready</i>." <i>Fielding.</i></p> <p><blockquote>My oxen and my fatlings are killed, and all things are <i>ready</i>: come unto the marriage.</blockquote> <i>Matt. xxii. 4.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Prepared in mind or disposition; not reluctant; willing; free; inclined; disposed.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I am <i>ready</i> not to be bound only, but also to die at Jerusalem, for the name of the Lord Jesus.</blockquote> <i>Acts

xxi. 13.</i></p> <p><blockquote>If need be, I am <i>ready</i> to forego<BR> And quit.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Not slow or hesitating; quick in action or perception of any kind; dexterous; prompt; easy; expert; as, a <i>ready</i> apprehension; <i>ready</i> wit; a <i>ready</i> writer or workman.</def> "<i>Ready</i> in devising expedients." <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Gurth, whose temper was <i>ready</i>, though surly.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Offering itself at once; at hand; opportune; convenient; near; easy.</def> "The <i>readiest</i> way." <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>A sapling pine he wrenched from out the ground,<BR> The <i>readiest</i> weapon that his fury found.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>On the point; about; on the brink; near; -with a following infinitive.</def></p> <p><blockquote>My heart is <i>ready</i> to crack.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <i>(Mil.)</i> <def>A word of command, or a position, in the manual of arms, at which the piece is cocked and held in position to execute promptly the next command, which is, <i>aim</i>.</def></p> <p><col><b>All ready</b></col>, <cd>ready in every particular; wholly equipped or prepared.</cd> "[I] am <i>all redy</i> at your hest." <i>Chaucer.</i> -- <col><b>Ready money</b></col>, <cd>means of immediate payment; cash.</cd> "'T is all the <i>ready money</i> fate can give." <i>Cowley.</i> -- <col><b>Ready reckoner</b></col>, <cd>a book of tables for facilitating computations, as of interest, prices, etc.</cd> -- <col><b>To make ready</b></col>, <cd>to make preparation; to get in readiness.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Prompt; expeditious; speedy; unhesitating; dexterous; apt; skillful; handy; expert; facile; easy; opportune; fitted; prepared; disposed; willing; free; cheerful. See <u>Prompt</u>.</p> <p><hw>Read"y</hw> (r&ebreve;d"&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a state of preparation for immediate action; so as to need no delay.</def></p> <p><blockquote>We ourselves will go <i>ready</i> armed.</blockquote> <i>Num. xxxii. 17.</i></p> <p><hw>Read"y</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Ready money; cash; -commonly with <i>the</i>; as, he was well supplied with the <i>ready</i>.</def> [Slang]</p>

<p><blockquote>Lord Strut was not flush in <i>ready</i>, either to go to law, or to clear old debts.</blockquote> <i>Arbuthnot.</i></p> <p><hw>Read"y</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To dispose in order.</def> [Obs.] <i>Heywood.</i></p> <p><hw>Read"y-made`</hw> (-m&amacr;d`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Made already, or beforehand, in anticipation of need; not made to order; as, <i>ready-made</i> clothing; <i>ready-made</i> jokes.</def></p> <p><hw>Read"y-wit`ted</hw> (-w&ibreve;t`t&ebreve;d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Having ready wit.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`af*firm"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;f*f&etilde;rm"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To affirm again.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Re`af*firm"ance</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;f*f&etilde;rm"<i>a</i>ns), <hw>Re*af`fir*ma"tion</hw> (r&emacr;*&abreve;f`f&etilde;r*m&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second affirmation.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`af*for"est</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;f*f&obreve;r"&ebreve;st), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To convert again into a forest, as a region of country.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`af*for`es*ta"tion</hw> (-&ebreve;s*t&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act or process of converting again into a forest.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*a"gent</hw> (r&esl;*&amacr;"j<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>A substance capable of producing with another a reaction, especially when employed to detect the presence of other bodies; a test.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ag`gra*va"tion</hw> (&abreve;g`gr&adot;*v&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(R. C. Ch.)</i> <def>The last monitory, published after three admonitions and before the last excommunication.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`a*gree"</hw> (r&emacr;`&adot;*gr&emacr;"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To agree again.</def></p> <p><hw>Reak</hw> (r&emacr;k), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [&radic;115. Cf. <u>Wrack</u> seaweed.] <def>A rush.</def> [Obs.] "Feeds on <i>reaks</i> and reeds." <i>Drant.</i></p> <p><hw>Reak</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. Icel. <i>hrekkr</i>, or E. <i>wreak</i> vengeance.] <def>A prank.</def> [Obs.] "They play such <i>reaks</i>." <i>Beau. & Fl.</i></p> <p><hw>Re"al</hw> (r&emacr;"<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Sp., fr. <i>real</i> royal, L. <i>regalis</i>. See <u>Regal</u>, and cf. <u>Ree</u> a coin.] <def>A small Spanish silver coin; also, a denomination of money of account, formerly the unit of the Spanish monetary system.</def></p> <p>&fist; A <i>real of plate</i> (coin) varied in value according to

the time of its coinage, from 12&frac12; down to 10 cents, or from 6&frac12; to 5 pence sterling. The <i>real vellon</i>, or money of account, was nearly equal to five cents, or 2&frac12; pence sterling. In 1871 the coinage of Spain was assimilated to that of the Latin Union, of which the franc is the unit.</p> <p><hw>Re*al"</hw> (r&asl;*&auml;l"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Royal; regal; kingly.</def> [Obs.] "The blood <i>real</i> of Thebes." <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Re"al</hw> (r&emacr;"<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [LL. <i>realis</i>, fr. L. <i>res</i>, <i>rei</i>, a thing: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;el</i>. Cf. <u>Rebus</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Actually being or existing; not fictitious or imaginary; as, a description of <i>real</i> life.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Whereat I waked, and found<BR> Before mine eyes all <i>real</i>, as the dream<BR> Had lively shadowed.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>True; genuine; not artificial, counterfeit, or factitious; often opposed to <i>ostensible</i>; as, the <i>real</i> reason; <i>real</i> Madeira wine; <i>real</i> ginger.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Whose perfection far excelled<BR> Hers in all <i>real</i> dignity.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Relating to things, not to persons.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Many are perfect in men's humors that are not greatly capable of the <i>real</i> part of business.</blockquote> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Alg.)</i> <def>Having an assignable arithmetical or numerical value or meaning; not imaginary.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>Pertaining to things fixed, permanent, or immovable, as to lands and tenements; as, <i>real</i> property, in distinction from <i>personal</i> or <i>movable</i> property.</def></p> <p><col><b>Chattels real</b></col> <i>(Law)</i>, <cd>such chattels as are annexed to, or savor of, the realty, as terms for years of land. See <u>Chattel</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Real action</b></col> <i>(Law)</i>, <cd>an action for the recovery of real property.</cd> -<col><b>Real assets</b></col> <i>(Law)</i>, <cd>lands or real estate in the hands of the heir, chargeable with the debts of the ancestor.</cd> -- <col><b>Real composition</b></col> <i>(Eccl. Law)</i>, <cd>an agreement made between the owner of lands and the parson or vicar, with consent of the ordinary, that such lands shall be discharged from payment of tithes, in consequence of other land or recompense given to the parson in lieu and satisfaction thereof.</cd> <i>Blackstone.</i> -- <col><b>Real estate</b></col> or <col><b>property</b></col>, <cd>lands, tenements, and hereditaments; freehold interests in landed property; property in houses and land.</cd> <i>Kent.</i> <i>Burrill.</i> -- <col><b>Real presence</b></col> <i>(R. C. Ch.)</i>, <cd>the actual presence of the

body and blood of Christ in the eucharist, or the conversion of the substance of the bread and wine into the real body and blood of Christ; transubstantiation. In other churches there is a belief in a form of real presence, not however in the sense of <i>transubstantiation</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Real servitude</b></col>, <i>called also</i> <col><b>Predial servitude</b></col> <i>(Civil Law)</i>, <cd>a burden imposed upon one estate in favor of another estate of another proprietor.</cd> <i>Erskine.</i> <i>Bouvier.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Actual; true; genuine; authentic. -- <u>Real</u>, <u>Actual</u>. <i>Real</i> represents a thing to be a substantive existence; as, a <i>real</i>, not imaginary, occurrence. <i>Actual</i> refers to it as acted or performed; and, hence, when we wish to prove a thing <i>real</i>, we often say, "It <i>actually</i> exists," "It has <i>actually</i> been done." Thus its <i>reality</i> is shown by its <i>actuality</i>. <i>Actual</i>, from this reference to being <i>acted</i>, has recently received a new signification, namely, <i>present</i>; as, the <i>actual</i> posture of affairs; since what is now in <i>action</i>, or going on, has, of course, a <i>present</i> existence. An <i>actual</i> fact; a <i>real</i> sentiment.</p> <p><blockquote>For he that but conceives a crime in thought,<BR> Contracts the danger of an <i>actual</i> fault.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Our simple ideas are all <i>real</i>; all agree to the <i>reality</i> of things.</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i><BR> </p> <p><! p. 1195 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Re"al</hw> (r&emacr;"<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A realist.</def> [Obs.] <i>Burton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*al"gar</hw> (r&esl;*&abreve;l"g&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;algar</i>, Sp. <i>rejalgar</i>, Ar. <i>rahj al gh&amacr;r</i> powder of the mine.] <i>(Min.)</i> <def>Arsenic sulphide, a mineral of a brilliant red color; red orpiment. It is also an artificial product.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"al*ism</hw> (r&emacr;"<i>a</i>l*&ibreve;z'm), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;alisme</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Philos.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>As opposed to <i>nominalism</i>, the doctrine that genera and species are real things or entities, existing independently of our conceptions. According to realism the Universal exists <i>ante rem</i> (<i>Plato</i>), or <i>in re</i> (<i>Aristotle</i>).</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>As opposed to <i>idealism</i>, the doctrine that in sense perception there is an immediate cognition of the external object, and our knowledge of it is not mediate and representative.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Art & Lit.)</i> <def>Fidelity to nature or to real life; representation without idealization, and making no appeal to the imagination; adherence to the actual fact.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"al*ist</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;aliste</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Philos.)</i> <def>One

who believes in realism; esp., one who maintains that <i>generals</i>, or the terms used to denote the genera and species of things, represent real existences, and are not mere names, as maintained by the <i>nominalists</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Art. & Lit.)</i> <def>An artist or writer who aims at realism in his work. See <u>Realism</u>, 2.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`al*is"tic</hw> (-&ibreve;s"t&ibreve;k), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of or pertaining to the realists; in the manner of the realists; characterized by realism rather than by imagination.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`al*is"tic*al*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a realistic manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*al"i*ty</hw> (r&esl;*&abreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Realities</b></plw> (t&ibreve;z). [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;alit&eacute;</i>, LL. <i>realitas</i>. See 3d <u>Real</u>, and cf. 2d <u>Realty</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The state or quality of being real; actual being or existence of anything, in distinction from mere appearance; fact.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A man fancies that he understands a critic, when in <i>reality</i> he does not comprehend his meaning.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which is real; an actual existence; that which is not imagination, fiction, or pretense; that which has objective existence, and is not merely an idea.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And to <i>realities</i> yield all her shows.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>My neck may be an idea to you, but it is a <i>reality</i> to me.</blockquote> <i>Beattie.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> [See 1st <u>Realty</u>, 2.] <def>Loyalty; devotion.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>To express our <i>reality</i> to the emperor.</blockquote> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>See 2d <u>Realty</u>, 2.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"al*i`za*ble</hw> (r&emacr;"<i>a</i>l*&imacr;`z&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of being realized.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`al*i*za"tion</hw> (-&ibreve;*z&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;alisation</i>.] <def>The act of realizing, or the state of being realized.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"al*ize</hw> (r&emacr;"<i>a</i>l*&imacr;z), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Realized</u> (&imacr;zd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Realizing</u> (&imacr;`z&ibreve;ng).] [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;aliser</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To make real; to convert from the imaginary or

fictitious into the actual; to bring into concrete existence; to effectuate; to accomplish; as, to <i>realize</i> a scheme or project.</def></p> <p><blockquote>We <i>realize</i> what Archimedes had only in hypothesis, weighing a single grain against the globe of earth.</blockquote> <i>Glanvill.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To cause to seem real; to impress upon the mind as actual; to feel vividly or strongly; to make one's own in apprehension or experience.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Many coincidences . . . soon begin to appear in them [Greek inscriptions] which <i>realize</i> ancient history to us.</blockquote> <i>Jowett.</i></p> <p><blockquote>We can not <i>realize</i> it in thought, that the object . . . had really no being at any past moment.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Hamilton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To convert into real property; to make real estate of; as, to <i>realize</i> his fortune.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To acquire as an actual possession; to obtain as the result of plans and efforts; to gain; to get; as, to <i>realize</i> large profits from a speculation.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Knighthood was not beyond the reach of any man who could by diligent thrift <i>realize</i> a good estate.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To convert into actual money; as, to <i>realize</i> assets.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"al*ize</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To convert any kind of property into money, especially property representing investments, as shares in stock companies, bonds, etc.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Wary men took the alarm, and began to <i>realize</i>, a word now first brought into use to express the conversion of ideal property into something real.</blockquote> <i>W. Irving.</i></p> <p><hw>Re"al*i`zer</hw> (-&imacr;`z&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who realizes.</def> <i>Coleridge.</i></p> <p><hw>Re"al*i`zing</hw> (-z&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Serving to make real, or to impress on the mind as a reality; as, a <i>realizing</i> view of the danger incurred.</def> -<wf>Re"al*i`zing*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re`al*lege"</hw> (-&abreve;l*l&ebreve;j"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To allege again.</def> <i>Cotgrave.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`al*li"ance</hw> (-l&imacr;"<i>a</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A renewed alliance.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"-al*ly"</hw> (-l&imacr;"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>ally</i>, v. t.] <def>To bring together again; to

compose or form anew.</def>


<p><hw>Re"al*ly`</hw> (r&amacr;"&auml;l*l&emacr;`), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>Royally.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Re"al*ly</hw> (r&emacr;"<i>a</i>l*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a real manner; with or in reality; actually; in truth.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Whose anger is <i>really</i> but a short fit of madness.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p>&fist; <i>Really</i> is often used familiarly as a slight corroboration of an opinion or a declaration.</p> <p><blockquote>Why, <i>really</i>, sixty-five is somewhat old.</blockquote> <i>Young.</i></p> <p><hw>Realm</hw> (r&ebreve;lm), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>realme</i>, <i>ream</i>, <i>reaume</i>, OF. <i>reialme</i>, <i>roialme</i>, F. <i>royaume</i>, fr. (assumed) LL. <i>regalimen</i>, from L. <i>regalis</i> royal. See <u>Regal</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A royal jurisdiction or domain; a region which is under the dominion of a king; a kingdom.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The absolute master of <i>realms</i> on which the sun perpetually shone.</blockquote> <i>Motley.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence, in general, province; region; country; domain; department; division; as, the <i>realm</i> of fancy.</def></p> <p><hw>Realm"less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Destitute of a realm.</def> <i>Keats.</i></p> <p><hw>Re"al*ness</hw> (r&emacr;"<i>a</i>l*n&ebreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or condition of being real; reality.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"al*ty</hw> (-t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OF. <i>r&eacute;alt&eacute;</i>, LL. <i>regalitas</i>, fr. L. <i>regalis</i>. See <u>Regal</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Royalty.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Loyalty; faithfulness.</def> [R.] <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re"al*ty</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Contr. from 1st <u>Reality</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Reality.</def> [Obs.] H. More.</i></p> <i>Dr.

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Immobility, or the fixed, permanent nature of real property; as, chattels which savor of the <i>realty</i>; -- so written in legal language for <i>reality</i>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Real estate; a piece of real property.</def> <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><hw>Ream</hw> (r&emacr;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS.

<i>re&aacute;m</i>, akin to G. <i>rahm</i>.] <def>Cream; also, the cream or froth on ale.</def> [Scot.]</p> <p><hw>Ream</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To cream; to mantle.</def> [Scot.]</p> <p><blockquote>A huge pewter measuring pot which, in the language of the hostess, <i>reamed</i> with excellent claret.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p> <p><hw>Ream</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Cf. <u>Reim</u>.] <def>To stretch out; to draw out into thongs, threads, or filaments.</def></p> <p><hw>Ream</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>reme</i>, OF. <i>rayme</i>, F. <i>rame</i> (cf. Sp. <i>resma</i>), fr. Ar. <i>rizma</i> a bundle, especially of paper.] <def>A bundle, package, or quantity of paper, usually consisting of twenty quires or 480 sheets.</def></p> <p><col><b>Printer's ream</b></col>, <cd>twenty-one and a half quires. [Eng.] A common practice is now to count five hundred sheets to the <i>ream</i>.</cd> <i>Knight.</i></p> <p><hw>Ream</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reamed</u> (r&emacr;md); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reaming</u>.] [Cf. G. <i>r&auml;umen</i> to remove, to clear away, fr. <i>raum</i> room. See <u>Room</u>.] <def>To bevel out, as the mouth of a hole in wood or metal; in modern usage, to enlarge or dress out, as a hole, with a reamer.</def></p> <p><hw>Reame</hw> (r&emacr;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Realm.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Ream"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, reams; specifically, an instrument with cutting or scraping edges, used, with a twisting motion, for enlarging a round hole, as the bore of a cannon, etc.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*am`pu*ta"tion</hw> (r&emacr;*&abreve;m`p&usl;*t&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Surg.)</i> <def>The second of two amputations performed upon the same member.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*an"i*mate</hw> (r&esl;*&abreve;n"&ibreve;*m&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To animate anew; to restore to animation or life; to infuse new life, vigor, spirit, or courage into; to revive; to reinvigorate; as, to <i>reanimate</i> a drowned person; to <i>reanimate</i> disheartened troops; to <i>reanimate</i> languid spirits.</def> <i>Glanvill.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*an`i*ma"tion</hw> (-m&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act or operation of reanimating, or the state of being reanimated; reinvigoration; revival.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`an*nex"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;n*n&ebreve;ks"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To annex again or anew; to reunite.</def> "To <i>reannex</i> that duchy." <i>Bacon.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re*an`nex*a"tion</hw> (-&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Act of reannexing.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*an"swer</hw> (r&esl;*&abreve;n"s&etilde;r), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To answer in return; to repay; to compensate; to make amends for.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Which in weight to <i>reanswer</i>, his pettiness would bow under.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Reap</hw> (r&emacr;p), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reaped</u> (r&emacr;pt); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reaping</u>.] [OE. <i>repen</i>, AS. <i>r&imacr;pan</i> to seize, reap; cf. D. <i>rapen</i> to glean, reap, G. <i>raufen</i> to pluck, Goth. <i>raupjan</i>, or E. <i>ripe</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To cut with a sickle, scythe, or reaping machine, as grain; to gather, as a harvest, by cutting.</def></p> <p><blockquote>When ye <i>reap</i> the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corners of thy field.</blockquote> <i>Lev. xix. 9.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To gather; to obtain; to receive as a reward or harvest, or as the fruit of labor or of works; -- in a good or a bad sense; as, to <i>reap</i> a benefit from exertions.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Why do I humble thus myself, and, suing<BR> For peace, <i>reap</i> nothing but repulse and hate?</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To clear of a crop by reaping; as, to <i>reap</i> a field.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To deprive of the beard; to shave.</def> [R.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><col><b>Reaping hook</b></col>, <cd>an implement having a hookshaped blade, used in reaping; a sickle; -- in a specific sense, distinguished from a sickle by a blade keen instead of serrated.</cd></p> <p><hw>Reap</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To perform the act or operation of reaping; to gather a harvest.</def></p> <p><blockquote>They that sow in tears shall <i>reap</i> in joy.</blockquote> <i>Ps. cxxvi. 5.</i></p> <p><hw>Reap</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. AS. <i>r&imacr;p</i> harvest. See <u>Reap</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <def>A bundle of grain; a handful of grain laid down by the reaper as it is cut.</def> [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] <i>Wright.</i></p> <p><hw>Reap"er</hw> (r&emacr;p"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who reaps.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The sun-burned <i>reapers</i> wiping their foreheads.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A reaping machine.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ap*par"el</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;p*p&abreve;r"&ebreve;l), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To clothe again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ap*pear"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;p*p&emacr;r"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To appear again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ap*pear"ance</hw> (-<i>a</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second or new appearance; the act or state of appearing again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ap`pli*ca"tion</hw> (r&emacr;*&abreve;p`pl&ibreve;*k&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of reapplying, or the state of being reapplied.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ap*ply"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;p*pl&imacr;"), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To apply again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ap*point"</hw> (-point"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To appoint again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ap*point"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of reappointing, or the state of being reappointed.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ap*por"tion</hw> (-p&omacr;r"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To apportion again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ap*por"tion*ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second or a new apportionment.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ap*proach"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;p*pr&omacr;ch"), <pos><i>v. i. & t.</i></pos> <def>To approach again or anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Rear</hw> (r&emacr;r), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>Early; soon.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><blockquote>Then why does Cuddy leave his cot so <i>rear</i>?</blockquote> <i>Gay.</i></p> <p><hw>Rear</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OF. <i>riere</i> behind, backward, fr. L. <i>retro</i>. Cf. <u>Arrear</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The back or hindmost part; that which is behind, or last in order; -- opposed to <i>front</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Nipped with the lagging <i>rear</i> of winter's frost.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Specifically, the part of an army or fleet which comes last, or is stationed behind the rest.</def></p> <p><blockquote>When the fierce foe hung on our broken <i>rear</i>.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Rear</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Being behind, or in the hindmost part; hindmost; as, the <i>rear</i> rank of a

company.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rear admiral</b></col>, <cd>an officer in the navy, next in rank below a vice admiral and above a commodore. See <u>Admiral</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Rear front</b></col> <i>(Mil.)</i>, <cd>the rear rank of a body of troops when faced about and standing in that position.</cd> -- <col><b>Rear guard</b></col> <i>(Mil.)</i>, <cd>the division of an army that marches in the rear of the main body to protect it; -- used also figuratively.</cd> -- <col><b>Rear line</b></col> <i>(Mil.)</i>, <cd>the line in the rear of an army.</cd> -- <col><b>Rear rank</b></col> <i>(Mil.)</i>, <cd>the rank or line of a body of troops which is in the rear, or last in order.</cd> -- <col><b>Rear sight</b></col> <i>(Firearms)</i>, <cd>the sight nearest the breech.</cd> -- <col><b>To bring up the rear</b></col>, <cd>to come last or behind.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rear</hw> (r&emacr;r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To place in the rear; to secure the rear of.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Rear</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reared</u> (r&emacr;rd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rearing</u>.] [AS. <i>r&aemacr;ran</i> to raise, rear, elevate, for <i>r&aemacr;san</i>, causative of <i>r&imacr;san</i> to rise. See <u>Rise</u>, and cf. <u>Raise</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To raise; to lift up; to cause to rise, become erect, etc.; to elevate; as, to <i>rear</i> a monolith.</def></p> <p><blockquote>In adoration at his feet I fell<BR> Submiss; he <i>reared</i> me.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>It <i>reareth</i> our hearts from vain thoughts.</blockquote> <i>Barrow.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Mine [shall be] the first hand to <i>rear</i> her banner.</blockquote> <i>Ld. Lytton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To erect by building; to set up; to construct; as, to <i>rear</i> defenses or houses; to <i>rear</i> one government on the ruins of another.</def></p> <p><blockquote>One <i>reared</i> a font of stone.</blockquote> <i>Tennyson.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To lift and take up.</def> [Obs. or R.]</p> <p><blockquote>And having her from Trompart lightly <i>reared</i>,<BR> Upon his courser set the lovely load.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To bring up to maturity, as young; to educate; to instruct; to foster; as, to <i>rear</i> offspring.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He wants a father to protect his youth,<BR> And <i>rear</i> him up to virtue.</blockquote> <i>Southern.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To breed and raise; as, to <i>rear</i> cattle.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>To rouse; to stir up.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>And seeks the tusky boar to <i>rear</i>.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To lift; elevate; erect; raise; build; establish. See the Note under <u>Raise</u>, 3 <sd><i>(c)</i></sd>.</p> <p><hw>Rear</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To rise up on the hind legs, as a horse; to become erect.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rearing bit</b></col>, <cd>a bit designed to prevent a horse from lifting his head when rearing.</cd> <i>Knight.</i></p> <p>{ <hw>Rear"dorse</hw> (-d&ocirc;rs), <hw>Rear"doss</hw> (d&obreve;s) }, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A reredos.</def></p> <p><hw>Rear"er</hw> (r&emacr;r"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, rears.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ar"gue</hw> (r&emacr;*&auml;r"g&umacr;), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To argue anew or again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ar"gu*ment</hw> (-g&usl;*m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>An arguing over again, as of a motion made in court.</def></p> <p><hw>Rear"-horse`</hw> (r&emacr;r"h&ocirc;rs`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [So called because it <i>rears</i> up when disturbed.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A mantis.</def></p> <p><hw>Rear"ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>Early.</def> [Obs.] <i>Beau. & Fl.</i></p> <p><hw>Rear"most`</hw> (-m&omacr;st`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Farthest in the rear; last.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Rear"mouse`</hw>, <hw>Rere"mouse`</hw> (-mous`) }, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>hr&emacr;rem&umacr;s</i>; probably fr. <i>hr&emacr;ran</i> to agitate, stir (akin to G. <i>r&uuml;hren</i>, Icel. <i>hr&aelig;ra</i>) + <i>m&umacr;s</i> mouse.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The leather-winged bat (<i>Vespertilio murinus</i>).</def> [Written also <i>reermouse</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Re`ar*range"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;r*r&amacr;nj"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To arrange again; to arrange in a different way.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ar*range"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of rearranging, or the state of being rearranged.</def></p> <p><hw>Rear"ward`</hw> (r&emacr;r"w&add;rd`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [<i>Rear</i> + <i>ward</i>.] <def>The last troop; the rear of an army; a rear guard. Also used figuratively.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rear"ward</hw> (-w&etilde;rd), <pos><i>a. & adv.</i></pos> <def>At or toward the rear.</def></p>

<p><hw>Re`as*cend"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;s*s&ebreve;nd"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To rise, mount, or climb again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`as*cend"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To ascend or mount again; to reach by ascending again.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He mounts aloft, and <i>reascends</i> the skies.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`as*cen"sion</hw> (-s&ebreve;n"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of reascending; a remounting.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`as*cent"</hw> (-s&ebreve;nt"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A returning ascent or ascension; acclivity.</def> <i>Cowper.</i></p> <p><hw>Rea"son</hw> (r&emacr;"z'n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>resoun</i>, F. <i>raison</i>, fr. L. <i>ratio</i> (akin to Goth. <i>ra&thorn;j&omacr;</i> number, account, ga<i>ra&thorn;jan</i> to count, G. <i>rede</i> speech, <i>reden</i> to speak), fr. <i>reri</i>, <i>ratus</i>, to reckon, believe, think. Cf. <u>Arraign</u>, <u>Rate</u>, <u>Ratio</u>, <u>Ration</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A thought or a consideration offered in support of a determination or an opinion; a just ground for a conclusion or an action; that which is offered or accepted as an explanation; the efficient cause of an occurrence or a phenomenon; a motive for an action or a determination; proof, more or less decisive, for an opinion or a conclusion; principle; efficient cause; final cause; ground of argument.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I 'll give him <i>reasons</i> for it.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>reason</i> of the motion of the balance in a wheel watch is by the motion of the next wheel.</blockquote> <i>Sir M. Hale.</i></p> <p><blockquote>This <i>reason</i> did the ancient fathers render, why the church was called "catholic."</blockquote> <i>Bp. Pearson.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Virtue and vice are not arbitrary things; but there is a natural and eternal <i>reason</i> for that goodness and virtue, and against vice and wickedness.</blockquote> <i>Tillotson.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The faculty or capacity of the human mind by which it is distinguished from the intelligence of the inferior animals; the higher as distinguished from the lower cognitive faculties, sense, imagination, and memory, and in contrast to the feelings and desires. <i>Reason</i> comprises conception, judgment, reasoning, and the intuitional faculty. Specifically, it is the intuitional faculty, or the faculty of first truths, as distinguished from the understanding, which is called the <i>discursive</i> or <i>ratiocinative</i> faculty.</def></p> <p><blockquote>We have no other faculties of perceiving or knowing anything divine or human, but by our five senses and our <i>reason</i>.</blockquote> <i>P. Browne.</i></p> <p><blockquote>In common and popular discourse, <i>reason</i> denotes

that power by which we distinguish truth from falsehood, and right from wrong, and by which we are enabled to combine means for the attainment of particular ends.</blockquote> <i>Stewart.</i></p> <p><blockquote><i>Reason</i> is used sometimes to express the whole of those powers which elevate man above the brutes, and constitute his rational nature, more especially, perhaps, his intellectual powers; sometimes to express the power of deduction or argumentation.</blockquote> <i>Stewart.</i></p> <p><blockquote>By the pure <i>reason</i> I mean the power by which we become possessed of principles.</blockquote> <i>Coleridge.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The sense perceives; the understanding, in its own peculiar operation, conceives; the <i>reason</i>, or rationalized understanding, comprehends.</blockquote> <i>Coleridge.</i></p> <p><! p. 1196 pr=vmg !></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Due exercise of the reasoning faculty; accordance with, or that which is accordant with and ratified by, the mind rightly exercised; right intellectual judgment; clear and fair deductions from true principles; that which is dictated or supported by the common sense of mankind; right conduct; right; propriety; justice.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I was promised, on a time,<BR> To have <i>reason</i> for my rhyme.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>But law in a free nation hath been ever public <i>reason</i>; the enacted <i>reason</i> of a parliament, which he denying to enact, denies to govern us by that which ought to be our law; interposing his own private <i>reason</i>, which to us is no law.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The most probable way of bringing France to <i>reason</i> would be by the making an attempt on the Spanish West Indies.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Math.)</i> <def>Ratio; proportion.</def> [Obs.] <i>Barrow.</i></p> <p><col><b>By reason of</b></col>, <cd>by means of; on account of; because of.</cd> "Spain is thin sown of people, partly <i>by reason of</i> the sterility of the soil." <i>Bacon.</i> -- <col><b>In reason</b></col>, <col><b>In all reason</b></col>, <cd>in justice; with rational ground; in a right view.</cd></p> <p><blockquote>When anything is proved by as good arguments as a thing of that kind is capable of, we ought not, <i>in reason</i>, to doubt of its existence.</blockquote> <i>Tillotson.</i></p> <p>-- <col><b>It is reason</b></col>, <cd>it is reasonable; it is right.</cd> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Yet <i>it were</i> great <i>reason</i>, that those that have children should have greatest care of future times.</blockquote> <i>Bacon.</i>

</p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Motive; argument; ground; consideration; principle; sake; account; object; purpose; design. See <u>Motive</u>, <u>Sense</u>.</p> <p><hw>Rea"son</hw> (r&emacr;"z'n), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reasoned</u> (-z'nd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reasoning</u>.] [Cf. F. <i>raisonner</i>. See <u>Reason</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To exercise the rational faculty; to deduce inferences from premises; to perform the process of deduction or of induction; to ratiocinate; to reach conclusions by a systematic comparison of facts.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence: To carry on a process of deduction or of induction, in order to convince or to confute; to formulate and set forth propositions and the inferences from them; to argue.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Stand still, that I may <i>reason</i> with you, before the Lord, of all the righteous acts of the Lord.</blockquote> <i>1 Sam. xii. 7.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To converse; to compare opinions.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rea"son</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To arrange and present the reasons for or against; to examine or discuss by arguments; to debate or discuss; as, I <i>reasoned</i> the matter with my friend.</def></p> <p><blockquote>When they are clearly discovered, well digested, and well <i>reasoned</i> in every part, there is beauty in such a theory.</blockquote> <i>T. Burnet.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To support with reasons, as a request.</def> [R.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To persuade by reasoning or argument; as, to <i>reason</i> one into a belief; to <i>reason</i> one out of his plan.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Men that will not be <i>reasoned</i> into their senses.</blockquote> <i>L'Estrange.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To overcome or conquer by adducing reasons; -- with <i>down</i>; as, to <i>reason</i> down a passion.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To find by logical processes; to explain or justify by reason or argument; -- usually with <i>out</i>; as, to <i>reason</i> out the causes of the librations of the moon.</def></p> <p><hw>Rea"son*a*ble</hw> (-&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [OE. <i>resonable</i>, F. <i>raisonnable</i>, fr. L. <i>rationabilis</i>. See <u>Reason</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Having the faculty of reason; endued with reason; rational; as, a <i>reasonable</i> being.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Governed by reason; being under the influence of reason; thinking, speaking, or acting rationally, or according to the dictates of reason; agreeable to reason; just; rational; as, the measure must satisfy all <i>reasonable</i> men.</def></p> <p><blockquote>By indubitable certainty, I mean that which doth not admit of any <i>reasonable</i> cause of doubting.</blockquote> <i>Bp. Wilkins.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Men have no right to what is not <i>reasonable</i>.</blockquote> <i>Burke.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Not excessive or immoderate; within due limits; proper; as, a <i>reasonable</i> demand, amount, price.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Let . . . all things be thought upon<BR> That may, with <i>reasonable</i> swiftness, add<BR> More feathers to our wings.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Rational; just; honest; equitable; fair; suitable; moderate; tolerable. See <u>Rational</u>.</p> <p><hw>Rea"son*a*ble</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>Reasonably; tolerably.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>I have a <i>reasonable</i> good ear in music.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Rea"son*a*ble*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Quality of being reasonable.</def></p> <p><hw>Rea"son*a*bly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>In a reasonable manner.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Moderately; tolerably.</def> "<i>Reasonably</i> perfect in the language." <i>Holder.</i></p> <p><hw>Rea"son*er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who reasons or argues; as, a fair <i>reasoner</i>; a close <i>reasoner</i>; a logical <i>reasoner</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rea"son*ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act or process of adducing a reason or reasons; manner of presenting one's reasons.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which is offered in argument; proofs or reasons when arranged and developed; course of argument.</def></p> <p><blockquote>His <i>reasoning</i> was sufficiently profound.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Argumentation; argument. -- <u>Reasoning</u>, <u>Argumentation</u>. Few words are more interchanged than these; and yet, technically, there is a difference between them. <i>Reasoning</i> is the broader term, including both deduction and induction. <i>Argumentation</i> denotes simply the former, and descends from the

whole to some included part; while <i>reasoning</i> embraces also the latter, and ascends from the parts to a whole. See <u>Induction</u>. <i>Reasoning</i> is occupied with ideas and their relations; <i>argumentation</i> has to do with the forms of logic. A thesis is set down: you attack, I defend it; you insist, I reply; you deny, I prove; you distinguish, I destroy your distinctions; my replies balance or overturn your objections. Such is <i>argumentation</i>. It supposes that there are two sides, and that both agree to the same rules. <i>Reasoning</i>, on the other hand, is often a natural process, by which we form, from the general analogy of nature, or special presumptions in the case, conclusions which have greater or less degrees of force, and which may be strengthened or weakened by subsequent experience.</p> <p><hw>Rea"son*ist</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rationalist.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Such persons are now commonly called "<i>reasonists</i>" and "rationalists," to distinguish them from true reasoners and rational inquirers.</blockquote> <i>Waterland.</i></p> <p><hw>Rea"son*less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Destitute of reason; as, a <i>reasonless</i> man or mind.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Void of reason; not warranted or supported by reason; unreasonable.</def></p> <p><blockquote>This proffer is absurd and <i>reasonless</i>.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`as*sem"blage</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;s*s&ebreve;m"bl&asl;j), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Assemblage a second time or again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`as*sem"ble</hw> (-b'l), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To assemble again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`as*sert"</hw> (-s&etilde;rt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To assert again or anew; to maintain after an omission to do so.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Let us hope . . . we may have a body of authors who will <i>reassert</i> our claim to respectability in literature.</blockquote> <i>Walsh.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`as*ser"tion</hw> (-s&etilde;r"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second or renewed assertion of the same thing.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`as*sess"ment</hw> (-s&ebreve;s"m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A renewed or second assessment.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`as*sign"</hw> (-s&imacr;n"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To assign back or again; to transfer back what has been assigned.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`as*sign"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of reassigning.</def></p>

<p><hw>Re`as*sim"i*late</hw> (-s&ibreve;m"&ibreve;*l&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To assimilate again.</def> -<wf>Re`as*sim`i*la"tion</wf> (-l&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re`as*so"ci*ate</hw> (-s&omacr;"sh&ibreve;*&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To associate again; to bring again into close relations.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`as*sume"</hw> (-s&umacr;m"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To assume again or anew; to resume.</def> -- <wf>Re`as*sump"tion</wf> (s&ubreve;mp"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re`as*sur"ance</hw> (r&emacr;`&adot;*sh&udd;r"<i>a</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Assurance or confirmation renewed or repeated.</def> <i>Prynne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>Same as <u>Reinsurance</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`as*sure"</hw> (r&emacr;`&adot;*sh&udd;r"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To assure anew; to restore confidence to; to free from fear or terror.</def></p> <p><blockquote>They rose with fear, . . . <BR> Till dauntless Pallas <i>reassured</i> the rest.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To reinsure.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`as*sur"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who reassures.</def></p> <p><hw>Reas"ty</hw> (r&emacr;s"t&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Etymol. uncertain.] <def>Rusty and rancid; -- applied to salt meat.</def> [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] <i>Tusser.</i> -<wf>Reas"ti*ness</wf> (-t&ibreve;*n&ebreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Obs. or Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><hw>||Re*a"ta</hw> (r&asl;*&auml;"t&adot;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Sp.] <def>A lariat.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`at*tach"</hw> (r&emacr;`&abreve;t*t&abreve;ch"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To attach again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`at*tach"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of reattaching; a second attachment.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`at*tain"</hw> (-t&amacr;n"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To attain again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`at*tain"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of reattaining.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`at*tempt"</hw> (-t&ebreve;mt"; 215), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To attempt again.</def></p>

<p><hw>Re"aume</hw> (r&emacr;"&add;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Realm.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>R&eacute;`au`mur"</hw> (r&asl;`&omacr;`m&usd;r"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of or pertaining to Ren&eacute; Antoine Ferchault de <i>R&eacute;aumur</i>; conformed to the scale adopted by R&eacute;aumur in graduating the thermometer he invented.</def> -<pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A R&eacute;aumur thermometer or scale.</def></p> <p>&fist; The <i>R&eacute;aumur thermometer</i> is so graduated that 0&deg; marks the freezing point and 80&deg; the boiling point of water. Frequently indicated by R. Cf. <u>Centigrade</u>, and <u>Fahrenheit</u>. See <i>Illust.</i> of <u>Thermometer</u>.</p> <p><hw>Reave</hw> (r&emacr;v), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reaved</u> (r&emacr;vd), <u>Reft</u> (r&ebreve;ft), or <u>Raft</u> (r&adot;ft) (obs.); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reaving</u>.] [AS. <i>re&aacute;fian</i>, from <i>re&aacute;f</i> spoil, plunder, clothing, <i>re&oacute;fan</i> to break (cf. <i>bire&oacute;fan</i> to deprive of); akin to G. <i>rauben</i> to rob, Icel. <i>raufa</i> to rob, <i>rj&umacr;fa</i> to break, violate, Goth. <i>bir&aacute;ub&omacr;n</i> to despoil, L. <i>rumpere</i> to break; cf. Skr. <i>lup</i> to break. &radic;114. Cf. <u>Bereave</u>, <u>Rob</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>, <u>Robe</u>, <u>Rove</u>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos>, <u>Rupture</u>.] <def>To take away by violence or by stealth; to snatch away; to rob; to despoil; to bereave. [Archaic]</def> "To <i>reave</i> his life." <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>He golden apples <i>raft</i> of the dragon.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>If the wooers <i>reave</i><BR> By privy stratagem my life at home.</blockquote> <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><blockquote>To <i>reave</i> the orphan of his patrimony.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The heathen caught and <i>reft</i> him of his tongue.</blockquote> <i>Tennyson.</i></p> <p><hw>Reav"er</hw> (r&emacr;v"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who reaves.</def> [Archaic]</p> <p><hw>Re`a*wake"</hw> (r&emacr;`&adot;*w&amacr;k"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To awake again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ban"ish</hw> (r&emacr;*b&abreve;n"&ibreve;sh), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To banish again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*bap"tism</hw> (r&emacr;*b&abreve;p"t&ibreve;z'm), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second baptism.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*bap`ti*za"tion</hw> (-t&ibreve;*z&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rebaptisation</i>.] <def>A second baptism.</def> [Obs.] <i>Hooker.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re`bap*tize"</hw> (r&emacr;`b&abreve;p*t&imacr;z"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>baptize</i>: cf. F. <i>rebaptiser</i>, L. <i>rebaptizare</i>.] <def>To baptize again or a second time.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`bap*tiz"er</hw> (-t&imacr;z"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who rebaptizes.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*bar"ba*rize</hw> (r&emacr;*b&auml;r"b&adot;*r&imacr;z), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To reduce again to barbarism.</def> -<wf>Re*bar`ba*ri*za"tion</wf> (-r&ibreve;*z&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><blockquote>Germany . . . <i>rebarbarized</i> by polemical theology and religious wars.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Hamilton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*bate"</hw> (r&esl;*b&amacr;t"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>rebattre</i> to beat again; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>battre</i> to beat, L. <i>batuere</i> to beat, strike. See <u>Abate</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To beat to obtuseness; to deprive of keenness; to blunt; to turn back the point of, as a lance used for exercise.</def></p> <p><blockquote>But doth <i>rebate</i> and blunt his natural edge.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To deduct from; to make a discount from, as interest due, or customs duties.</def> <i>Blount.</i></p> <p><col><b>Rebated cross</b></col>, <cd>a cross which has the extremities of the arms bent back at right angles, as in the fylfot.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*bate"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To abate; to withdraw.</def> [Obs.] <i>Foxe.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*bate"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Diminution.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Com.)</i> <def>Deduction; abatement; as, a <i>rebate</i> of interest for immediate payment; a <i>rebate</i> of importation duties.</def> <i>Bouvier.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*bate"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Rabbet</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Arch.)</i> <def>A rectangular longitudinal recess or groove, cut in the corner or edge of any body; a rabbet. See <u>Rabbet</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A piece of wood hafted into a long stick, and serving to beat out mortar.</def> <i>Elmes.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>An iron tool sharpened something like a chisel, and used for dressing and polishing wood.</def> <i>Elmes.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> [Perhaps a different word.] <def>A kind of hard freestone used in making pavements.</def> [R.] <i>Elmes.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re*bate"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To cut a rebate in. See <u>Rabbet</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos></def></p> <p><hw>Re*bate"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. OF. <i>rabatement</i>, fr. <i>rabatre</i> to diminish, F. <i>rabattre</i>.] <def>Same as 3d <u>Rebate</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ba"to</hw> (r&esl;*b&amacr;"t&osl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Same as <u>Rabato</u>.</def> <i>Burton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re"bec</hw> (r&emacr;"b&ebreve;k), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. It. <i>ribeca</i>, <i>ribeba</i>, fr. Ar. <i>rab&amacr;b</i> a musical instrument of a round form.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Mus.)</i> <def>An instrument formerly used which somewhat resembled the violin, having three strings, and being played with a bow.</def> [Written also <i>rebeck</i>.] <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>He turn'd his <i>rebec</i> to a mournful note.</blockquote> <i>Drayton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A contemptuous term applied to an old woman.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Reb"el</hw> (r&ebreve;b"&ebreve;l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F. <i>rebelle</i>, fr. L. <i>rebellis</i>. See <u>Rebel</u>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos>] <def>Pertaining to rebels or rebellion; acting in revolt; rebellious; as, <i>rebel</i> troops.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Whoso be <i>rebel</i> to my judgment.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Convict by flight, and <i>rebel</i> to all law.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Reb"el</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>rebelle</i>.] <def>One who rebels.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Revolter; insurgent. -- <u>Rebel</u>, <u>Insurgent</u>. <i>Insurgent</i> marks an early, and <i>rebel</i> a more advanced, stage of opposition to government. The former rises up against his rulers, the latter makes war upon them.</p> <p><hw>Re*bel"</hw> (r&esl;*b&ebreve;l"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rebelled</u> (-b&ebreve;ld); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rebelling</u>.] [F. <i>rebeller</i>, fr. L. <i>rebellare</i> to make war again; pref. <i>re-</i> again + <i>bellare</i> to make war, fr. <i>bellum</i> war. See <u>Bellicose</u>, and cf. <u>Revel</u> to carouse.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To renounce, and resist by force, the authority of the ruler or government to which one owes obedience. See <u>Rebellion</u>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The murmur and the churls' <i>rebelling</i>.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Ye have builded you an altar, that ye might <i>rebel</i> this day against the Lord.</blockquote> <i>Josh. xxii. 16.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To be disobedient to authority; to assume a hostile or insubordinate attitude; to revolt.</def></p> <p><blockquote>How could my hand <i>rebel</i> against my heart?<BR> How could your heart <i>rebel</i> against your reason?</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Reb"el*dom</hw> (r&ebreve;b"&ebreve;l*d&ubreve;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A region infested by rebels; rebels, considered collectively; also, conduct or quality characteristic of rebels.</def> <i>Thackeray.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*bel"ler</hw> (r&esl;*b&ebreve;l"l&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who rebels; a rebel.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*bel"lion</hw> (r&esl;*b&ebreve;l"y&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;bellion</i>, L. <i>rebellio</i>. See <u>Rebel</u>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> Among the Romans rebellion was originally a revolt or open resistance to their government by nations that had been subdued in war. It was a renewed war.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of rebelling; open and avowed renunciation of the authority of the government to which one owes obedience, and resistance to its officers and laws, either by levying war, or by aiding others to do so; an organized uprising of subjects for the purpose of coercing or overthrowing their lawful ruler or government by force; revolt; insurrection.</def></p> <p><blockquote>No sooner is the standard of <i>rebellion</i> displayed than men of desperate principles resort to it.</blockquote> <i>Ames.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Open resistance to, or defiance of, lawful authority.</def></p> <p><col><b>Commission of rebellion</b></col> <i>(Eng. Law)</i>, <cd>a process of contempt issued on the nonappearance of a defendant, -- now abolished.</cd> <i>Wharton.</i> <i>Burrill.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Insurrection; sedition; revolt; mutiny; resistance; contumacy. See <u>Insurrection</u>.</p> <p><hw>Re*bel"lious</hw> (r&esl;*b&ebreve;l"y&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Engaged in rebellion; disposed to rebel; of the nature of rebels or of rebellion; resisting government or lawful authority by force.</def> "Thy <i>rebellious</i> crew." "Proud <i>rebellious</i> arms." <i>Milton.</i> -- <wf>Re*bel"lious*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -- <wf>Re*bel"lious*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re*bel"low</hw> (r&emacr;*b&ebreve;l"l&osl;), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To bellow again; to repeat or echo a bellow.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The cave <i>rebellowed</i>, and the temple shook.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*bit"ing</hw> (r&emacr;*b&imacr;t"&ibreve;ng),

<pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Etching)</i> <def>The act or process of deepening worn lines in an etched plate by submitting it again to the action of acid.</def> <i>Fairholt.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*bloom"</hw> (r&emacr;*bl&oomac;m"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To bloom again.</def> <i>Crabbe.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*blos"som</hw> (r&emacr;*bl&obreve;s"s&ubreve;m), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To blossom again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*bo"ant</hw> (r&esl;*b&omacr;"<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>reboans</i>, p. pr. of <i>reboare</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>boare</i> to cry aloud.] <def>Rebellowing; resounding loudly.</def> [R.] <i>Mrs. Browning.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`bo*a"tion</hw> (r&emacr;`b&osl;*&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Repetition of a bellow.</def> [R.] <i>Bp. Patrick.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*boil"</hw> (r&emacr;*boil"), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>boil</i>: cf. F. <i>rebouillir</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To boil, or to cause to boil, again.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Fig.: To make or to become hot.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Some of his companions thereat <i>reboyleth</i>.</blockquote> <i>Sir T. Elyot.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*born"</hw> (r&emacr;*b&ocirc;rn"), <pos><i>p. p.</i></pos> <def>Born again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*bound"</hw> (r&esl;*bound"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>bound</i>: cf. F. <i>rebondir</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To spring back; to start back; to be sent back or reverberated by elastic force on collision with another body; as, a <i>rebounding</i> echo.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Bodies which are absolutely hard, or so soft as to be void of elasticity, will not <i>rebound</i> from one another.</blockquote> <i>Sir I. Newton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To give back an echo.</def> [R.] Warton.</i></p> <i>T.

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To bound again or repeatedly, as a horse.</def> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><col><b>Rebounding lock</b></col> <i>(Firearms)</i>, <cd>one in which the hammer rebounds to half cock after striking the cap or primer.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*bound"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To send back; to reverberate.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Silenus sung; the vales his voice <i>rebound</i>.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re*bound"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of rebounding; resilience.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Flew . . . back, as from a rock, with swift <i>rebound</i>.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*brace"</hw> (r&emacr;*br&amacr;s"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To brace again.</def> <i>Gray.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*breathe"</hw> (r&emacr;*br&emacr;th"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To breathe again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*bu"cous</hw> (r&esl;*b&umacr;"k&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Rebuking.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>She gave unto him many <i>rebucous</i> words.</blockquote> <i>Fabyan.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*buff"</hw> (r&esl;*b&ubreve;f"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [It. <i>ribuffo</i>, akin to <i>ribuffare</i> to repulse; pref. <i>ri-</i> (L. <i>re-</i>) + <i>buffo</i> puff. Cf. <u>Buff</u> to strike, <u>Buffet</u> a blow.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Repercussion, or beating back; a quick and sudden resistance.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The strong <i>rebuff</i> of some tumultuous cloud.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Sudden check; unexpected repulse; defeat; refusal; repellence; rejection of solicitation.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*buff"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rebuffed</u> (r&esl;*b&ubreve;ft"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rebuffing</u>.] <def>To beat back; to offer sudden resistance to; to check; to repel or repulse violently, harshly, or uncourteously.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*build"</hw> (r&emacr;*b&ibreve;ld"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To build again, as something which has been demolished; to construct anew; as, to <i>rebuild</i> a house, a wall, a wharf, or a city.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*build"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who rebuilds.</def> <i>Bp. Bull.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*buk"a*ble</hw> (r&esl;*b&umacr;k"&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Worthy of rebuke or reprehension; reprehensible.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*buke"</hw> (r&esl;*b&umacr;k"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rebuked</u> (-b&umacr;kt"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rebuking</u>.] [OF. <i>rebouquier</i> to dull, blunt, F. <i>reboucher</i>; perhaps fr. pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>bouche</i> mouth, OF. also <i>bouque</i>, L. <i>bucca</i> cheek; if so, the original sense was, to stop the mouth of; hence, to stop, obstruct.] <def>To check, silence, or put down, with reproof; to restrain by expression of disapprobation; to reprehend sharply and summarily; to chide; to reprove; to admonish.</def></p>

<p><blockquote>The proud he tamed, the penitent he cheered,<BR> Nor to <i>rebuke</i> the rich offender feared.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To reprove; chide; check; chasten; restrain; silence. See <u>Reprove</u>.</p> <p><! p. 1197 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Re*buke"</hw> (r&esl;*b&umacr;k"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A direct and pointed reproof; a reprimand; also, chastisement; punishment.</def></p> <p><blockquote>For thy sake I have suffered <i>rebuke</i>.</blockquote> <i>Jer. xv. 15.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Why bear you these <i>rebukes</i> and answer not?</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Check; rebuff.</def> [Obs.] <i>L'Estrange.</i></p> <p><col><b>To be without rebuke</b></col>, <cd>to live without giving cause of reproof or censure; to be blameless.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*buke"ful</hw> (-f&usd;l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Containing rebuke; of the nature of rebuke.</def> [Obs.] -<wf>Re*buke"ful*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re*buk"er</hw> (-b&umacr;k"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who rebukes.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*buk"ing*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>By way of rebuke.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`bul*li"tion</hw> (r&emacr;`b&ubreve;l*l&ibreve;sh"&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of boiling up or effervescing.</def> [R.] <i>Sir H. Wotton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*bur"y</hw> (r&emacr;*b&ebreve;r"r&ybreve;), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To bury again.</def> <i>Ashmole.</i></p> <p><hw>Re"bus</hw> (r&emacr;"b&ubreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Rebuses</b></plw> (-&ebreve;z). [L. <i>rebus</i> by things, abl. pl. of <i>res</i> a thing: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;bus</i>. Cf. 3d <u>Real</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A mode of expressing words and phrases by pictures of objects whose names resemble those words, or the syllables of which they are composed; enigmatical representation of words by figures; hence, a peculiar form of riddle made up of such representations.</def></p> <p>&fist; A gallant, in love with a woman named <i>Rose Hill</i>, had, embroidered on his gown, a rose, a hill, an eye, a loaf, and a well, signifying, <i>Rose Hill I love well</i>.</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Her.)</i> <def>A pictorial suggestion on a

coat of arms of the name of the person to whom it belongs. See <i>Canting arms</i>, under <u>Canting</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"bus</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To mark or indicate by a rebus.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He [John Morton] had a fair library <i>rebused</i> with More in text and Tun under it.</blockquote> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*but"</hw> (r&esl;*b&ubreve;t"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rebutted</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rebutting</u>.] [OF. <i>rebouter</i> to repulse, drive back; pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>bouter</i> to push, thrust. See 1st <u>Butt</u>, <u>Boutade</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To drive or beat back; to repulse.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Who him, rencount'ring fierce, as hawk in flight,<BR> Perforce <i>rebutted</i> back.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>To contradict, meet, or oppose by argument, plea, or countervailing proof.</def> <i>Abbott.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*but"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To retire; to recoil.</def> [Obs.] <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>To make, or put in, an answer, as to a plaintiff's surrejoinder.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The plaintiff may answer the rejoinder by a surrejoinder; on which the defendant may <i>rebut</i>.</blockquote> <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*but"ta*ble</hw> (-t&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of being rebutted.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*but"tal</hw> (-b&ubreve;t"t<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>The giving of evidence on the part of a plaintiff to destroy the effect of evidence introduced by the defendant in the same suit.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*but"ter</hw> (-t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>The answer of a defendant in matter of fact to a plaintiff's surrejoinder.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ca"den*cy</hw> (r&emacr;*k&amacr;"d<i>e</i>n*s&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A falling back or descending a second time; a relapse.</def> <i>W. Montagu.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cal"ci*trant</hw> (r&esl;*k&abreve;l"s&ibreve;*tr<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>recalcitrans</i>, p. pr. of <i>recalcitrare</i> to kick back; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>calcitrare</i> to kick, fr. <i>calx</i> heel. Cf. <u>Inculcate</u>.] <def>Kicking back; recalcitrating; hence, showing repugnance or opposition; refractory.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cal"ci*trate</hw> (-tr&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To kick against; to show repugnance to; to rebuff.</def></p>

<p><blockquote>The more heartily did one disdain his disdain, and <i>recalcitrate</i> his tricks.</blockquote> <i>De Quincey.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cal"ci*trate</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To kick back; to kick against anything; hence, to express repugnance or opposition.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cal`ci*tra"tion</hw> (-tr&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A kicking back again; opposition; repugnance; refractoriness.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*call"</hw> (r&esl;*k&add;l"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To call back; to summon to return; as, to <i>recall</i> troops; to <i>recall</i> an ambassador.</def></p> <p><blockquote>If Henry were <i>recalled</i> to life again.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To revoke; to annul by a subsequent act; to take back; to withdraw; as, to <i>recall</i> words, or a decree.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Passed sentence may not be <i>recall'd</i>.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To call back to mind; to revive in memory; to recollect; to remember; as, to <i>recall</i> bygone days.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*call"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A calling back; a revocation.</def></p> <p><blockquote>'T is done, and since 't is done, 't is past <i>recall</i>.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Mil.)</i> <def>A call on the trumpet, bugle, or drum, by which soldiers are recalled from duty, labor, etc.</def> <i>Wilhelm.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*call"a*ble</hw> (-&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of being recalled.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*call"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Recall.</def> [R.] <i>R. Browning.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cant"</hw> (r&esl;*k&abreve;nt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recanted</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recanting</u>.] [L. <i>recantare</i>, <i>recantatum</i>, to recall, recant; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>cantare</i> to sing, to sound. See 3d <u>Cant</u>, <u>Chant</u>.] <def>To withdraw or repudiate formally and publicly (opinions formerly expressed); to contradict, as a former declaration; to take back openly; to retract; to recall.</def></p> <p><blockquote>How soon . . . ease would <i>recant</i><BR> Vows made in pain, as violent and void!</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To retract; recall; revoke; abjure; disown; disavow.

See <u>Renounce</u>.</p> <p><hw>Re*cant"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To revoke a declaration or proposition; to unsay what has been said; to retract; as, convince me that I am wrong, and I will <i>recant</i>.</def> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`can*ta"tion</hw> (r&emacr;`k&abreve;n*t&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of recanting; a declaration that contradicts a former one; that which is thus asserted in contradiction; retraction.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The poor man was imprisoned for this discovery, and forced to make a public <i>recantation</i>.</blockquote> <i>Bp. Stillingfleet.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cant"er</hw> (r&esl;*k&abreve;nt"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recants.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ca*pac"i*tate</hw> (r&emacr;`k&adot;*p&abreve;s"&ibreve;*t&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To qualify again; to confer capacity on again.</def> <i>Atterbury.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*ca*pit"u*late</hw> (-p&ibreve;t"&usl;*l&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [L. <i>recapitulare</i>, <i>recapitulatum</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>capitulum</i> a small head, chapter, section. See <u>Capitulate</u>.] <def>To repeat, as the principal points in a discourse, argument, or essay; to give a summary of the principal facts, points, or arguments of; to relate in brief; to summarize.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ca*pit"u*late</hw> (r&emacr;`k&adot;*p&ibreve;t"&usl;*l&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To sum up, or enumerate by heads or topics, what has been previously said; to repeat briefly the substance.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ca*pit`u*la"tion</hw> (-l&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL. <i>recapitulatio</i>: cf. F. <i>recapitulation</i>.] <def>The act of recapitulating; a summary, or concise statement or enumeration, of the principal points, facts, or statements, in a preceding discourse, argument, or essay.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ca*pit"u*la`tor</hw> (p&ibreve;t"&usl;*l&amacr;`t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recapitulates.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`ca*pit"u*la*to*ry</hw> (-l&adot;*t&osl;*r&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of the nature of a recapitulation; containing recapitulation.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cap"per</hw> (r&esl;*k&abreve;p"p&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Firearms)</i> <def>A tool used for applying a fresh percussion cap or primer to a cartridge shell in reloading it.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cap"tion</hw> (r&esl;*k&abreve;p"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>The act of retaking, as of one

who has escaped after arrest; reprisal; the retaking of one's own goods, chattels, wife, or children, without force or violence, from one who has taken them and who wrongfully detains them.</def> <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><col><b>Writ of recaption</b></col> <i>(Law)</i>, <cd>a writ to recover damages for him whose goods, being distrained for rent or service, are distrained again for the same cause.</cd> <i>Wharton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cap"tor</hw> (-t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recaptures; one who takes a prize which had been previously taken.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cap"ture</hw> (-t&usl;r; 135), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of retaking or recovering by capture; especially, the retaking of a prize or goods from a captor.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which is captured back; a prize retaken.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cap"ture</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To capture again; to retake.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*car"bon*ize</hw> (r&esl;*k&auml;r"b&obreve;n*&imacr;z), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <i>(Metal.)</i> <def>To restore carbon to; as, to <i>recarbonize</i> iron in converting it into steel.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*car"ni*fy</hw> (-n&ibreve;*f&imacr;), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To convert again into flesh.</def> [Obs.] <i>Howell.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*car"riage</hw> (r&esl;*k&abreve;r"r&ibreve;j), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Act of carrying back.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*car"ry</hw> (-r&ybreve;), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To carry back.</def> <i>Walton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cast"</hw> (r&emacr;*k&adot;st"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To throw again.</def> <i>Florio.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To mold anew; to cast anew; to throw into a new form or shape; to reconstruct; as, to <i>recast</i> cannon; to <i>recast</i> an argument or a play.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To compute, or cast up, a second time.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"che</hw> (r&ebreve;k"k<i>e</i>), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To reck.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"che*les</hw> (-l&ebreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Reckless.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cede"</hw> (r&esl;*s&emacr;d"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Receded</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Receding</u>.] [L. <i>recedere</i>, <i>recessum</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>cedere</i> to go, to go along: cf. F.

<i>rec&eacute;der</i>. See <u>Cede</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To move back; to retreat; to withdraw.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Like the hollow roar<BR> Of tides <i>receding</i> from the insulted shore.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><blockquote>All bodies moved circularly endeavor to <i>recede</i> from the center.</blockquote> <i>Bentley.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To withdraw a claim or pretension; to desist; to relinquish what had been proposed or asserted; as, to <i>recede</i> from a demand or proposition.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To retire; retreat; return; retrograde; withdraw; desist.</p> <p><hw>Re*cede"</hw> (r&emacr;*s&emacr;d"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>cede</i>. Cf. <u>Recede</u>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos>] <def>To cede back; to grant or yield again to a former possessor; as, to <i>recede</i> conquered territory.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ceipt"</hw> (r&esl;*s&emacr;t"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>receite</i>, OF. <i>recete</i>, <i>recepte</i>, F. <i>recette</i>, fr. L. <i>recipere</i>, <i>receptum</i>, to receive. See <u>Receive</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of receiving; reception.</def> "At the <i>receipt</i> of your letter." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Reception, as an act of hospitality.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Thy kind <i>receipt</i> of me.</blockquote> <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Capability of receiving; capacity.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>It has become a place of great <i>receipt</i>.</blockquote> <i>Evelyn.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Place of receiving.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>He saw a man, named Matthew, sitting at the <i>receipt</i> of custom.</blockquote> <i>Matt. ix. 9.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>Hence, a recess; a retired place.</def> [Obs.] "In a retired <i>receipt</i> together lay." <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>A formulary according to the directions of which things are to be taken or combined; a recipe; as, a <i>receipt</i> for making sponge cake.</def></p> <p><blockquote>She had a <i>receipt</i> to make white hair black.</blockquote> <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <def>A writing acknowledging the taking or

receiving of goods delivered; an acknowledgment of money paid.</def></p> <p><sn><b>8.</b></sn> <def>That which is received; that which comes in, in distinction from what is expended, paid out, sent away, and the like; -- usually in the plural; as, the <i>receipts</i> amounted to a thousand dollars.</def></p> <p><col><b>Gross receipts</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Gross</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos></cd></p> <p><hw>Re*ceipt"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Receipted</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Receipting</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To give a receipt for; as, to <i>receipt</i> goods delivered by a sheriff.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To put a receipt on, as by writing or stamping; as, to <i>receipt</i> a bill.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ceipt"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To give a receipt, as for money paid.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ceipt"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(O. Eng. Law)</i> <def>The receiving or harboring a felon knowingly, after the commission of a felony.</def> <i>Burrill.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*ceipt"or</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who receipts; specifically <i>(Law)</i>, one who receipts for property which has been taken by the sheriff.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ceit"</hw> (r&esl;*s&emacr;t"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Receipt.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*ceiv`a*bil"i*ty</hw> (r&esl;*s&emacr;v`&adot;*b&ibreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality of being receivable; receivableness.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ceiv"a*ble</hw> (r&esl;*s&emacr;v"&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>recevable</i>.] <def>Capable of being received.</def> -- <wf>Re*ceiv"a*ble*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><col><b>Bills receivable</b></col>. <cd>See under 6th <u>Bill</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*ceive"</hw> (r&esl;*s&emacr;v"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Received</u> (-s&emacr;vd"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Receiving</u>.] [OF. <i>receveir</i>, <i>recevoir</i>, F. <i>recevoir</i>, fr. L. <i>recipere</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>capere</i> to take, seize. See <u>Capable</u>, <u>Heave</u>, and cf. <u>Receipt</u>, <u>Reception</u>, <u>Recipe</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To take, as something that is offered, given, committed, sent, paid, or the like; to accept; as, to <i>receive</i> money offered in payment of a debt; to <i>receive</i> a gift, a message, or a letter.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Receyven</i> all in gree that God us

sent.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence: To gain the knowledge of; to take into the mind by assent to; to give admission to; to accept, as an opinion, notion, etc.; to embrace.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Our hearts <i>receive</i> your warnings.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The idea of solidity we <i>receive</i> by our touch.</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To allow, as a custom, tradition, or the like; to give credence or acceptance to.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Many other things there be which they have <i>received</i> to hold, as the washing of cups, and pots.</blockquote> <i>Mark vii. 4.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To give admittance to; to permit to enter, as into one's house, presence, company, and the like; as, to <i>receive</i> a lodger, visitor, ambassador, messenger, etc.</def></p> <p><blockquote>They kindled a fire, and <i>received</i> us every one.</blockquote> <i>Acts xxviii. 2.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To admit; to take in; to hold; to contain; to have capacity for; to be able to take in.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The brazen altar that was before the Lord was too little to <i>receive</i> the burnt offerings.</blockquote> <i>1 Kings viii. 64.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>To be affected by something; to suffer; to be subjected to; as, to <i>receive</i> pleasure or pain; to <i>receive</i> a wound or a blow; to <i>receive</i> damage.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Against his will he can <i>receive</i> no harm.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <def>To take from a thief, as goods known to be stolen.</def></p> <p><sn><b>8.</b></sn> <i>(Lawn Tennis)</i> <def>To bat back (the ball) when served.</def></p> <p><col><b>Receiving ship</b></col>, <cd>one on board of which newly recruited sailors are received, and kept till drafted for service.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To accept; take; allow; hold; retain; admit. -<u>Receive</u>, <u>Accept</u>. To <i>receive</i> describes simply the act of taking. To <i>accept</i> denotes the taking with approval, or for the purposes for which a thing is offered. Thus, we <i>receive</i> a letter when it comes to hand; we <i>receive</i> news when it reaches us; we <i>accept</i> a present when it is offered; we <i>accept</i> an invitation to dine with a friend.</p>

<p><blockquote>Who, if we knew<BR> What we <i>receive</i>, would either not <i>accept</i><BR> Life offered, or soon beg to lay it down.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*ceive"</hw> (r&esl;*s&emacr;v"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To receive visitors; to be at home to receive calls; as, she <i>receives</i> on Tuesdays.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Lawn Tennis)</i> <def>To return, or bat back, the ball when served; as, it is your turn to <i>receive</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ceiv"ed*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The state or quality of being received, accepted, or current; as, the <i>receivedness</i> of an opinion.</def> <i>Boyle.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*ceiv"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>receveur</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who takes or receives in any manner.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>A person appointed, ordinarily by a court, to receive, and hold in trust, money or other property which is the subject of litigation, pending the suit; a person appointed to take charge of the estate and effects of a corporation, and to do other acts necessary to winding up its affairs, in certain cases.</def> <i>Bouvier.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>One who takes or buys stolen goods from a thief, knowing them to be stolen.</def> <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Chem.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A vessel connected with an alembic, a retort, or the like, for receiving and condensing the product of distillation.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A vessel for receiving and containing gases.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Pneumatics)</i> <def>The glass vessel in which the vacuum is produced, and the objects of experiment are put, in experiments with an air pump. Cf. <u>Bell jar</u>, and see <i>Illust.</i> of <u>Air pump</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <i>(Steam Engine)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A vessel for receiving the exhaust steam from the high-pressure cylinder before it enters the low-pressure cylinder, in a compound engine.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A capacious vessel for receiving steam from a distant boiler, and supplying it dry to an engine.</def></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <def>That portion of a telephonic apparatus, or similar system, at which the message is received and made audible; -opposed to <i>transmitter</i>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Exhausted receiver</b></col> <i>(Physics)</i>, <cd>a receiver, as that used with the air pump, from which the air has been withdrawn; a vessel the interior of which is a more or less complete vacuum.</cd></p>

<p><hw>Re*ceiv"er*ship</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The state or office of a receiver.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cel"e*brate</hw> (r&emacr;*s&ebreve;l"&esl;*br&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To celebrate again, or anew.</def> -<wf>Re*cel`e*bra"tion</wf> (-br&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re"cen*cy</hw> (r&emacr;"s<i>e</i>n*s&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL. <i>recentia</i>, fr. L. <i>recens</i>. See <u>Recent</u>.] <def>The state or quality of being recent; newness; new state; late origin; lateness in time; freshness; as, the <i>recency</i> of a transaction, of a wound, etc.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cense"</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;ns"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [L. <i>recensere</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> again + <i>censere</i> to value, estimate: cf. F. <i>recenser</i>.] <def>To review; to revise.</def> [R.] <i>Bentley.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cen"sion</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;n"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recensio</i>: cf. F. <i>recension</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of reviewing or revising; review; examination; enumeration.</def> <i>Barrow.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Specifically, the review of a text (as of an ancient author) by an editor; critical revisal and establishment.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>The result of such a work; a text established by critical revision; an edited version.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cen"sion*ist</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who makes recensions; specifically, a critical editor.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"cent</hw> (r&emacr;"s<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>recens</i>, <i>-entis</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;cent</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Of late origin, existence, or occurrence; lately come; not of remote date, antiquated style, or the like; not already known, familiar, worn out, trite, etc.; fresh; novel; new; modern; as, <i>recent</i> news.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The ancients were of opinion, that a considerable portion of that country [Egypt] was <i>recent</i>, and formed out of the mud discharged into the neighboring sea by the Nile.</blockquote> <i>Woodward.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Geol.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to the present or existing epoch; as, <i>recent</i> shells.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cen"ter</hw> (r&emacr;*s&ebreve;n"t&etilde;r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>center</i>.] <def>To center again; to restore to the center.</def> <i>Coleridge.</i></p> <p><hw>Re"cent*ly</hw> (r&emacr;"s<i>e</i>nt*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>Newly; lately; freshly; not long since; as, advices <i>recently</i> received.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"cent*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Quality or state

of being recent.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cep"ta*cle</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;p"t&adot;*k'l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;ceptacle</i>, L. <i>receptaculum</i>, fr. <i>receptare</i>, v. intens. fr. <i>recipere</i> to receive. See <u>Receive</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>That which serves, or is used, for receiving and containing something, as a basket, a vase, a bag, a reservoir; a repository.</def></p> <p><blockquote>O sacred <i>receptacle</i> of my joys!</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The apex of the flower stalk, from which the organs of the flower grow, or into which they are inserted. See <i>Illust.</i> of <u>Flower</u>, and <u>Ovary</u>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The dilated apex of a pedicel which serves as a common support to a head of flowers.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>An intercellular cavity containing oil or resin or other matters.</def> <sd><i>(d)</i></sd> <def>A special branch which bears the fructification in many cryptogamous plants.</def></p> <p><! p. 1198 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Rec`ep*tac"u*lar</hw> (r&ebreve;s`&ebreve;p*t&abreve;k"&usl;*l&etilde;r), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;ceptaculaire</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Pertaining to the receptacle, or growing on it; as, the <i>receptacular</i> chaff or scales in the sunflower.</def></p> <p><hw>||Rec`ep*tac"u*lum</hw> (-l&ubreve;m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Receptacula</b></plw> (-l&adot;). [L.] <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>A receptacle; as, the <i>receptaculum</i> of the chyle.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"ep*ta*ry</hw> (r&ebreve;s"&ebreve;p*t&asl;*r&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Generally or popularly admitted or received.</def> [Obs.] <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"ep*ta*ry</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>That which is received.</def> [Obs.] "<i>Receptaries</i> of philosophy." <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cep`ti*bil"i*ty</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;p`t&ibreve;*b&ibreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The quality or state of being receptible; receivableness.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A receptible thing.</def> [R.] <i>Glanvill.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cep"ti*ble</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;p"t&ibreve;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>receptibilis</i>.] <def>Such as may be received; receivable.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cep"tion</hw> (-sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;ception</i>, L. <i>receptio</i>, fr. <i>recipere</i>,

<i>receptum</i>. See <u>Receive</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of receiving; receipt; admission; as, the <i>reception</i> of food into the stomach; the <i>reception</i> of a letter; the <i>reception</i> of sensation or ideas; <i>reception</i> of evidence.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The state of being received.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>The act or manner of receiving, esp. of receiving visitors; entertainment; hence, an occasion or ceremony of receiving guests; as, a hearty <i>reception</i>; an elaborate <i>reception</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>What <i>reception</i> a poem may find.</blockquote> <i>Goldsmith.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Acceptance, as of an opinion or doctrine.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Philosophers who have quitted the popular doctrines of their countries have fallen into as extravagant opinions as even common <i>reception</i> countenanced.</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>A retaking; a recovery.</def> [Obs.] <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cep"tive</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;p"t&ibreve;v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;ceptif</i>. See <u>Receive</u>.] <def>Having the quality of receiving; able or inclined to take in, absorb, hold, or contain; receiving or containing; as, a <i>receptive</i> mind.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Imaginary space is <i>receptive</i> of all bodies.</blockquote> <i>Glanvill.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cep"tive*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality of being receptive.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`ep*tiv"i*ty</hw> (r&ebreve;s`&ebreve;p*t&ibreve;v"&ibreve;*t&ybreve; or r&emacr;`s&ebreve;p- ), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;ceptivit&eacute;</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The state or quality of being receptive.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Kantian Philos.)</i> <def>The power or capacity of receiving impressions, as those of the external senses.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cep"to*ry</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;p"t&osl;*r&ybreve;; 277), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. L. <i>receptorium</i> a place of shelter.] <def>Receptacle.</def> [Obs.] <i>Holland.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cess"</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;s"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recessus</i>, fr. <i>recedere</i>, <i>recessum</i>. See <u>Recede</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A withdrawing or retiring; a moving back; retreat; as, the <i>recess</i> of the tides.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Every degree of ignorance being so far a <i>recess</i>

and degradation from rationality.</blockquote> <i>South.</i></p> <p><blockquote>My <i>recess</i> hath given them confidence that I may be conquered.</blockquote> <i>Eikon Basilike.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The state of being withdrawn; seclusion; privacy.</def></p> <p><blockquote>In the <i>recess</i> of the jury they are to consider the evidence.</blockquote> <i>Sir M. Hale.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Good verse <i>recess</i> and solitude requires.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Remission or suspension of business or procedure; intermission, as of a legislative body, court, or school.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>recess</i> of . . . Parliament lasted six weeks.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Part of a room formed by the receding of the wall, as an alcove, niche, etc.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A bed which stood in a deep <i>recess</i>.</blockquote> <i>W. Irving.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>A place of retirement, retreat, secrecy, or seclusion.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Departure from this happy place, our sweet<BR> <i>Recess</i>, and only consolation left.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>Secret or abstruse part; as, the difficulties and <i>recesses</i> of science.</def> <i>I. Watts.</i></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <i>(Bot. & Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A sinus.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cess"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recessed</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recessing</u>.] <def>To make a recess in; as, to <i>recess</i> a wall.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cess"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [G.] <def>A decree of the imperial diet of the old German empire.</def> <i>Brande & C.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cessed"</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;st"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Having a recess or recesses; as, a <i>recessed</i> arch or wall.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Withdrawn; secluded.</def> [R.] "Comfortably <i>recessed</i> from curious impertinents." <i>Miss Edgeworth.</i></p> <p><col><b>Recessed arch</b></col> <i>(Arch.)</i>, <cd>one of a series

of arches constructed one within another so as to correspond with splayed jambs of a doorway, or the like.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*ces"sion</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;sh"&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recessio</i>, fr. <i>recedere</i>, <i>recessum</i>. See <u>Recede</u>.] <def>The act of receding or withdrawing, as from a place, a claim, or a demand.</def> <i>South.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Mercy may rejoice upon the <i>recessions</i> of justice.</blockquote> <i>Jer. Taylor.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*ces"sion</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>cession</i>.] <def>The act of ceding back; restoration; repeated cession; as, the <i>recession</i> of conquered territory to its former sovereign.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*ces"sion*al</hw> (-<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of or pertaining to recession or withdrawal.</def></p> <p><col><b>Recessional hymn</b></col>, <cd>a hymn sung in a procession returning from the choir to the robing room.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*ces"sive</hw> (r&esl;*s&ebreve;s"s&ibreve;v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Going back; receding.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"chab*ite</hw> (r&emacr;"k&abreve;b*&imacr;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Jewish Hist.)</i> <def>One of the descendants of Jonadab, the son of Rechab, all of whom by his injunction abstained from the use of intoxicating drinks and even from planting the vine. <i>Jer</i>. <i>xxxv</i>. 2-19. Also, in modern times, a member of a certain society of abstainers from alcoholic liquors.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*change"</hw> (r&emacr;*ch&amacr;nj"), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To change again, or change back.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*charge"</hw> (r&emacr;*ch&auml;rj"), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>charge</i>: cf. F. <i>recharger</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To charge or accuse in return.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To attack again; to attack anew.</def> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*char"ter</hw> (r&emacr;*ch&auml;r"t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second charter; a renewal of a charter.</def> <i>D. Webster.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*char"ter</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To charter again or anew; to grant a second or another charter to.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*chase"</hw> (r&emacr;*ch&amacr;s"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>chase</i>: cf. F. <i>rechasser</i>.] <def>To chase again; to chase or drive back.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cheat"</hw> (r&esl;*ch&emacr;t"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>requ&ecirc;t&eacute;</i>, fr. <i>requ&ecirc;ter</i> to hunt anew. See <u>Request</u>.] <i>(Sporting)</i> <def>A strain given on the horn

to call back the hounds when they have lost track of the game.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cheat"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To blow the recheat.</def> <i>Drayton.</i></p> <p><hw>||Re*cher`ch&eacute;"</hw> (r<i>e</i>*sh&acirc;r`sh&asl;"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F.] <def>Sought out with care; choice. Hence: of rare quality, elegance, or attractiveness; peculiar and refined in kind.</def></p> <p><hw>Rech"less</hw> (r&ebreve;k"l&ebreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Reckless.</def> [Obs.] <i>P. Plowman.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*choose"</hw> (r&emacr;*ch&oomac;z"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To choose again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cid"i*vate</hw> (r&esl;*s&ibreve;d"&ibreve;*v&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [LL. <i>recidivare</i>. See <u>Recidivous</u>.] <def>To backslide; to fall again.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re*cid`i*va"tion</hw> (-v&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL. <i>recidivatio</i>.] <def>A falling back; a backsliding.</def> <i>Hammond.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cid"i*vous</hw> (r&esl;*s&ibreve;d"&ibreve;*v&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>recidivus</i>, fr. <i>recidere</i> to fall back.] <def>Tending or liable to backslide or relapse to a former condition or habit.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"i*pe</hw> (r&ebreve;s"&ibreve;*p&esl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Recipes</b></plw> (p&emacr;z). [L., imperative of <i>recipere</i> to take back, take in, receive. See <u>Receive</u>.] <def>A formulary or prescription for making some combination, mixture, or preparation of materials; a receipt; especially, a prescription for medicine.</def> </p> <p><hw>Re*cip"i*an`gle</hw> (r&esl;*s&ibreve;p"&ibreve;*&abreve;&nsm;`g'l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recipere</i> to take + <i>angulus</i> angle.] <def>An instrument with two arms that are pivoted together at one end, and a graduated arc, -- used by military engineers for measuring and laying off angles of fortifications.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Re*cip"i*ence</hw> (r&esl;*s&ibreve;p"&ibreve;*<i>e</i>ns), <hw>Re*cip"i*en*cy</hw> (-<i>e</i>n*s&ybreve;), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being recipient; a receiving; reception; receptiveness.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cip"i*ent</hw> (-<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recipiens</i>, <i>-entis</i>, receiving, p. pr. of <i>recipere</i> to receive: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;cipient</i>. See <u>Receive</u>.] <def>A receiver; the person or thing that receives; one to whom, or that to which, anything is given or communicated; specifically, the receiver of a still.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cip"i*ent</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Receiving;

receptive.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cip"ro*cal</hw> (-r&osl;*k<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>reciprocus</i>; of unknown origin.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Recurring in vicissitude; alternate.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Done by each to the other; interchanging or interchanged; given and received; due from each to each; mutual; as, <i>reciprocal</i> love; <i>reciprocal</i> duties.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Let our <i>reciprocal</i> vows be remembered.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Mutually interchangeable.</def></p> <p><blockquote>These two rules will render a definition <i>reciprocal</i> with the thing defined.</blockquote> <i>I. Watts.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Gram.)</i> <def>Reflexive; -- applied to pronouns and verbs, but sometimes limited to such pronouns as express mutual action.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Math.)</i> <def>Used to denote different kinds of mutual relation; often with reference to the substitution of reciprocals for given quantities. See the Phrases below.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reciprocal equation</b></col> <i>(Math.)</i>, <cd>one which remains unchanged in form when the reciprocal of the unknown quantity is substituted for that quantity.</cd> -- <col><b>Reciprocal figures</b></col> <i>(Geom.)</i>, <cd>two figures of the same kind (as triangles, parallelograms, prisms, etc.), so related that two sides of the one form the extremes of a proportion of which the means are the two corresponding sides of the other; in general, two figures so related that the first corresponds in some special way to the second, and the second corresponds in the same way to the first.</cd> -<col><b>Reciprocal proportion</b></col> <i>(Math.)</i>, <cd>a proportion such that, of four terms taken in order, the first has to the second the same ratio which the fourth has to the third, or the first has to the second the same ratio which the reciprocal of the third has to the reciprocal of the fourth. Thus, 2:5: :20:8 form a <i>reciprocal proportion</i>, because 2:5: :<fract>1/20</fract>:<fract>1/8</fract>.</cd> -- <col><b>Reciprocal quantities</b></col> <i>(Math.)</i>, <cd>any two quantities which produce unity when multiplied together.</cd> -- <col><b>Reciprocal ratio</b></col> <i>(Math.)</i>, <cd>the ratio between the reciprocals of two quantities; as, the <i>reciprocal ratio</i> of 4 to 9 is that of &frac14; to &frac19;.</cd> -- <col><b>Reciprocal terms</b></col> <i>(Logic)</i>, <cd>those terms which have the same signification, and, consequently, are convertible, and may be used for each other.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Mutual; alternate. -- <u>Reciprocal</u>, <u>Mutual</u>. The distinctive idea of <i>mutual</i> is, that the parties unite by interchange in the same act; as, a <i>mutual</i> covenant; <i>mutual</i> affection, etc. The distinctive idea of <i>reciprocal</i> is, that one party acts by way of return or response to something previously done by the other party; as, a

<i>reciprocal</i> kindness; <i>reciprocal</i> reproaches, etc. Love is <i>reciprocal</i> when the previous affection of one party has drawn forth the attachment of the other. To make it <i>mutual</i> in the strictest sense, the two parties should have fallen in love at the same time; but as the result is the same, the two words are here used interchangeably. The ebbing and flowing of the tide is a case where the action is <i>reciprocal</i>, but not <i>mutual</i>.</p> <p><hw>Re*cip"ro*cal</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>That which is reciprocal to another thing.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Corruption is a <i>reciprocal</i> to generation.</blockquote> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Arith. & Alg.)</i> <def>The quotient arising from dividing unity by any quantity; thus, &frac14; is the <i>reciprocal</i> of 4; <fract>1/(a +b)</fract> is the <i>reciprocal</i> of <i>a + b</i>. The <i>reciprocal</i> of a fraction is the fraction inverted, or the denominator divided by the numerator.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cip`ro*cal"i*ty</hw> (-k&abreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or condition of being reciprocal; reciprocalness.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Re*cip"ro*cal*ly</hw> (r&esl;*s&ibreve;p"r&osl;*k<i>a</i>l*l&ybreve;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>In a reciprocal manner; so that each affects the other, and is equally affected by it; interchangeably; mutually.</def></p> <p><blockquote>These two particles do <i>reciprocally</i> affect each other with the same force.</blockquote> <i>Bentley.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Math.)</i> <def>In the manner of reciprocals.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reciprocally proportional</b></col> <i>(Arith. & Alg.)</i>, <cd>proportional, as two variable quantities, so that the one shall have a constant ratio to the reciprocal of the other.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*cip"ro*cal*ness</hw> (r&esl;*s&ibreve;p"r&osl;*k<i>a</i>l*n&ebreve;s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or condition of being reciprocal; mutual return; alternateness.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cip"ro*cate</hw> (-k&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reciprocated</u> (k&amacr;`t&ebreve;d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reciprocating</u>.] [L. <i>reciprocatus</i>, p. p. of <i>reciprocare</i>. See <u>Reciprocal</u>.] <def>To move forward and backward alternately; to recur in vicissitude; to act interchangeably; to alternate.</def></p> <p><blockquote>One brawny smith the puffing bellows plies,<BR> And draws and blows <i>reciprocating</i> air.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p>

<p><col><b>Reciprocating engine</b></col>, <cd>a steam, air, or gas engine, etc., in which the piston moves back and forth; -- in distinction from a <i>rotary engine</i>, in which the piston travels continuously in one direction in a circular path.</cd> -<col><b>Reciprocating motion</b></col> <i>(Mech.)</i>, <cd>motion alternately backward and forward, or up and down, as of a piston rod.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*cip"ro*cate</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To give and return mutually; to make return for; to give in return; to interchange; to alternate; as, to <i>reciprocate</i> favors.</def> <i>Cowper.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cip`ro*ca"tion</hw> (-k&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>reciprocatio</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;ciprocation</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of reciprocating; interchange of acts; a mutual giving and returning; as, the <i>reciprocation</i> of kindnesses.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Alternate recurrence or action; as, the <i>reciprocation</i> of the sea in the flow and ebb of tides.</def> <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec`i*proc"i*ty</hw> (r&ebreve;s`&ibreve;*pr&obreve;s"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;ciprocit&eacute;</i>. See <u>Reciprocal</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Mutual action and reaction.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Reciprocal advantages, obligations, or rights; reciprocation.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reciprocity treaty</b></col>, or <col><b>Treaty of reciprocity</b></col>, <cd>a treaty concluded between two countries, conferring equal privileges as regards customs or charges on imports, or in other respects.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Reciprocation; interchange; mutuality.</p> <p><hw>Re*cip`ro*cor"nous</hw> (r&esl;*s&ibreve;p`r&osl;*k&ocirc;r"n&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>reciprocus</i> returning, reciprocal + <i>cornu</i> horn.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Having horns turning backward and then forward, like those of a ram.</def> [R.] <i>Ash.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cip"ro*cous</hw> (r&esl;*s&ibreve;p"r&osl;*k&ubreve;s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Reciprocal.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rec"i*prok</hw> (r&ebreve;s"&ibreve;*pr&obreve;k), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;ciproque</i>, L. <i>reciprocus</i>.] <def>Reciprocal.</def> [Obs.] <i>B. Jonson.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"i*proque</hw> (r&ebreve;s"&ibreve;*pr&omacr;k), <pos><i>a. & n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;ciproque</i>.] <def>Reciprocal.</def> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*ci"sion</hw> (r&esl;*s&ibreve;zh"&ubreve;n),

<pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recisio</i>, fr. <i>recidere</i>, <i>recisum</i>, to cut off; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>caedere</i> to cut.] <def>The act of cutting off.</def> <i>Sherwood.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cit"al</hw> (r&esl;*s&imacr;t"<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From <u>Recite</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of reciting; the repetition of the words of another, or of a document; rehearsal; as, the <i>recital</i> of testimony.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A telling in detail and due order of the particulars of anything, as of a law, an adventure, or a series of events; narration.</def> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>That which is recited; a story; a narration.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Mus.)</i> <def>A vocal or instrumental performance by one person; -- distinguished from <i>concert</i>; as, a song <i>recital</i>; an organ, piano, or violin <i>recital</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>The formal statement, or setting forth, of some matter of fact in any deed or writing in order to explain the reasons on which the transaction is founded; the statement of matter in pleading introductory to some positive allegation.</def> <i>Burn.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Account; rehearsal; recitation; narration; description; explanation; enumeration; detail; narrative. See <u>Account</u>.</p> <p><hw>Rec`i*ta"tion</hw> (r&ebreve;s`&ibreve;*t&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recitatio</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;citation</i>. See <u>Recite</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of reciting; rehearsal; repetition of words or sentences.</def> <i>Hammond.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The delivery before an audience of something committed to memory, especially as an elocutionary exhibition; also, that which is so delivered.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Colleges and Schools)</i> <def>The rehearsal of a lesson by pupils before their instructor.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`i*ta*tive"</hw> (r&ebreve;s`&ibreve;*t&adot;*t&emacr;v"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [It. <i>recitativo</i>, or F. <i>r&eacute;citatif</i>. See <u>Recite</u>.] <i>(Mus.)</i> <def>A species of musical recitation in which the words are delivered in a manner resembling that of ordinary declamation; also, a piece of music intended for such recitation; -- opposed to <i>melisma</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`i*ta*tive"</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of or pertaining to recitation; intended for musical recitation or declamation; in the style or manner of recitative.</def> -- <wf>Rec`i*ta*tive"ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>||Rec`i*ta*ti"vo</hw> (-t&emacr;"v&osl;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [It.] <i>(Mus.)</i> <def>Recitative.</def></p>

<p><hw>Re*cite"</hw> (r&esl;*s&imacr;t"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recited</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reciting</u>.] [F. <i>r&eacute;citer</i>, fr. L. <i>recitare</i>, <i>recitatum</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>citare</i> to call or name, to cite. See <u>Cite</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To repeat, as something already prepared, written down, committed to memory, or the like; to deliver from a written or printed document, or from recollection; to rehearse; as, to <i>recite</i> the words of an author, or of a deed or covenant.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To tell over; to go over in particulars; to relate; to narrate; as, to <i>recite</i> past events; to <i>recite</i> the particulars of a voyage.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To rehearse, as a lesson to an instructor.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>To state in or as a recital. See <u>Recital</u>, 5.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To rehearse; narrate; relate; recount; describe; recapitulate; detail; number; count.</p> <p><hw>Re*cite"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To repeat, pronounce, or rehearse, as before an audience, something prepared or committed to memory; to rehearse a lesson learned.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cite"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A recital.</def> [Obs.] <i>Sir W. Temple.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cit"er</hw> (-s&imacr;t"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recites; also, a book of extracts for recitation.</def></p> <p><hw>Reck</hw> (r&ebreve;k), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recked</u> (r&ebreve;kt) (<i>obs. imp.</i> <u>Roughte</u>); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recking</u>.] [AS. <i>reccan</i>, <i>r&emacr;can</i>, to care for; akin to OS. <i>r&omacr;kian</i>, OHG. <i>ruochan</i>, G. <i>geruhen</i>, Icel. <i>r&aelig;kja</i>, also to E. <i>reckon</i>, <i>rake</i> an implement. See <u>Rake</u>, and cf. <u>Reckon</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To make account of; to care for; to heed; to regard.</def> [Archaic]</p> <p><blockquote>This son of mine not <i>recking</i> danger.</blockquote> <i>Sir P. Sidney.</i></p> <p><blockquote>And may you better <i>reck</i> the rede<BR> Than ever did the adviser.</blockquote> <i>Burns.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To concern; -- used impersonally.</def> [Poetic]</p> <p><blockquote>What <i>recks</i> it them?</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p>

<p><! p. 1199 pr=vmg !></p> <p><hw>Reck</hw> (r&ebreve;k), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To make account; to take heed; to care; to mind; -- often followed by <i>of</i>.</def> [Archaic]</p> <p><blockquote>Then <i>reck</i> I not, when I have lost my life.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>I <i>reck</i> not though I end my life today.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Of me she <i>recks</i> not, nor my vain desire.</blockquote> <i>M. Arnold.</i></p> <p><hw>Reck"less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [AS. <i>reccele&aacute;s</i>, <i>r&emacr;cele&aacute;s</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Inattentive to duty; careless; neglectful; indifferent.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Rashly negligent; utterly careless or heedless.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It made the king as <i>reckless</i> as them diligent.</blockquote> <i>Sir P. Sidney.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Heedless; careless; mindless; thoughtless; negligent; indifferent; regardless; unconcerned; inattentive; remiss; rash.</p> <p>-- <wf>Reck"less*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -<wf>Reck"less*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Reck"ling</hw> (-l&ibreve;ng), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Needing care; weak; feeble; as, a <i>reckling</i> child.</def> <i>H. Taylor.</i> -- <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A weak child or animal.</def> <i>Tennyson.</i></p> <p><hw>Reck"on</hw> (r&ebreve;k"'n), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reckoned</u> (-'nd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reckoning</u>.] [OE. <i>rekenen</i>, AS. <i>gerecenian</i> to explain; akin to D. <i>rekenen</i> to reckon, G. <i>rechnen</i>, OHG. <i>rehhan&omacr;n</i> (cf. Goth. <i>rahnjan</i>), and to E. <i>reck</i>, <i>rake</i> an implement; the original sense probably being, to bring together, count together. See <u>Reck</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To count; to enumerate; to number; also, to compute; to calculate.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The priest shall <i>reckon</i> to him the money according to the years that remain.</blockquote> <i>Lev. xxvii. 18.</i></p> <p><blockquote>I <i>reckoned</i> above two hundred and fifty on the outside of the church.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To count as in a number, rank, or series;

to estimate by rank or quality; to place by estimation; to account; to esteem; to repute.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He was <i>reckoned</i> among the transgressors.</blockquote> <i>Luke xxii. 37.</i></p> <p><blockquote>For him I <i>reckon</i> not in high estate.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To charge, attribute, or adjudge to one, as having a certain quality or value.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Faith was <i>reckoned</i> to Abraham for righteousness.</blockquote> <i>Rom. iv. 9.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Without her eccentricities being <i>reckoned</i> to her for a crime.</blockquote> <i>Hawthorne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> balancing of chances; objective clause; as, [Prov. Eng. & Colloq. <def>To conclude, as by an enumeration and hence, to think; to suppose; -- followed by an I <i>reckon</i> he won't try that again.</def> U. S.]</p>

<p><b>Syn.</b> -- To number; enumerate; compute; calculate; estimate; value; esteem; account; repute. See <u>Calculate</u>, <u>Guess</u>.</p> <p><hw>Reck"on</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To make an enumeration or computation; to engage in numbering or computing.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To come to an accounting; to make up accounts; to settle; to examine and strike the balance of debt and credit; to adjust relations of desert or penalty.</def></p> <p><blockquote>"Parfay," sayst thou, "sometime he <i>reckon</i> shall."</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><col><b>To reckon for</b></col>, <cd>to answer for; to pay the account for.</cd> "If they fail in their bounden duty, they shall <i>reckon for</i> it one day." <i>Bp. Sanderson.</i> -- <col><b>To reckon on</b></col> or <col><b>upon</b></col>, <cd>to count or depend on.</cd> -- <col><b>To reckon with</b></col>, <cd>to settle accounts or claims with; -- used literally or figuratively.</cd></p> <p><blockquote>After a long time the lord of those servants cometh, and <i>reckoneth with</i> them.</blockquote> <i>Matt. xxv. 19.</i></p> <p>-- <col><b>To reckon without one's host</b></col>, <cd>to ignore in a calculation or arrangement the person whose assent is essential; hence, to reckon erroneously.</cd></p> <p><hw>Reck"on*er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who reckons or computes; also, a book of calculations, tables, etc., to assist in reckoning.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Reckoners</i> without their host must reckon twice.</blockquote> <i>Camden.</i></p>

<p><hw>Reck"on*ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of one who reckons, counts, or computes; the result of reckoning or counting; calculation.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>An account of time</def>. <i>Sandys.</i> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Adjustment of claims and accounts; settlement of obligations, liabilities, etc.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Even <i>reckoning</i> makes lasting friends, and the way to make <i>reckonings</i> even is to make them often.</blockquote> <i>South.</i></p> <p><blockquote>He quitted London, never to return till the day of a terrible and memorable <i>reckoning</i> had arrived.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The charge or account made by a host at an inn.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A coin would have a nobler use than to pay a <i>reckoning</i>.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Esteem; account; estimation.</def></p> <p><blockquote>You make no further <i>reckoning</i> of it [beauty] than of an outward fading benefit nature bestowed.</blockquote> <i>Sir P. Sidney.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Navigation)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The calculation of a ship's position, either from astronomical observations, or from the record of the courses steered and distances sailed as shown by compass and log, -- in the latter case called <i>dead reckoning</i> (see under <u>Dead</u>); -- also used for <i>dead reckoning</i> in contradistinction to <i>observation</i>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The position of a ship as determined by calculation.</def></p> <p><col><b>To be out of her reckoning</b></col>, <cd>to be at a distance from the place indicated by the reckoning; -- said of a ship.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*claim"</hw> (r&emacr;*kl&amacr;m"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To claim back; to demand the return of as a right; to attempt to recover possession of.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A tract of land [Holland] snatched from an element perpetually <i>reclaiming</i> its prior occupancy.</blockquote> <i>W. Coxe.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*claim"</hw> (r&esl;*kl&amacr;m"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reclaimed</u> (-kl&amacr;md"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reclaiming</u>.] [F. <i>r&eacute;clamer</i>, L. <i>reclamare</i>, <i>reclamatum</i>, to cry out against; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>clamare</i> to call or cry aloud. See <u>Claim</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To call back, as a hawk to the wrist in falconry, by a certain customary call.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To call back from flight or disorderly action; to call to, for the purpose of subduing or quieting.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The headstrong horses hurried Octavius . . . along, and were deaf to his <i>reclaiming</i> them.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To reduce from a wild to a tamed state; to bring under discipline; -- said especially of birds trained for the chase, but also of other animals.</def> "An eagle well <i>reclaimed</i>." <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Hence: To reduce to a desired state by discipline, labor, cultivation, or the like; to rescue from being wild, desert, waste, submerged, or the like; as, to <i>reclaim</i> wild land, overflowed land, etc.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To call back to rectitude from moral wandering or transgression; to draw back to correct deportment or course of life; to reform.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It is the intention of Providence, in all the various expressions of his goodness, to <i>reclaim</i> mankind.</blockquote> <i>Rogers.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>To correct; to reform; -- said of things.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Your error, in time <i>reclaimed</i>, will be venial.</blockquote> <i>Sir E. Hoby.</i></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <def>To exclaim against; to gainsay.</def> [Obs.] <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To reform; recover; restore; amend; correct.</p> <p><hw>Re*claim"</hw> (r&esl;*kl&amacr;m"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To cry out in opposition or contradiction; to exclaim against anything; to contradict; to take exceptions.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Scripture <i>reclaims</i>, and the whole Catholic church <i>reclaims</i>, and Christian ears would not hear it.</blockquote> <i>Waterland.</i></p> <p><blockquote>At a later period Grote <i>reclaimed</i> strongly against Mill's setting Whately above Hamilton.</blockquote> <i>Bain.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To bring anyone back from evil courses; to reform.</def></p> <p><blockquote>They, hardened more by what might most <i>reclaim</i>,<BR> Grieving to see his glory, . . . took envy.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To draw back; to give way.</def> [R. & Obs.] <i>Spenser.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re*claim"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of reclaiming, or the state of being reclaimed; reclamation; recovery.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re*claim"a*ble</hw> (-&adot;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>That may be reclaimed.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*claim"ant</hw> (-<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;clamant</i>, p. pr.] <def>One who reclaims; one who cries out against or contradicts.</def> <i>Waterland.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*claim"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who reclaims.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*claim"less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>That can not be reclaimed.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`la*ma"tion</hw> (r&ebreve;k`l&adot;*m&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;clamation</i>, L. <i>reclamatio</i>. See <u>Reclaim</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act or process of reclaiming.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Representation made in opposition; remonstrance.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I would now, on the <i>reclamation</i> both of generosity and of justice, try clemency.</blockquote> <i>Landor.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*clasp"</hw> (r&emacr;*kl&adot;sp"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To clasp or unite again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*clin"ant</hw> (r&esl;*kl&imacr;n"<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>reclinans</i>, p. pr. See <u>Recline</u>.] <def>Bending or leaning backward.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"li*nate</hw> (r&ebreve;k"l&ibreve;*n&asl;t), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>reclinatus</i>, p. p.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Reclined, as a leaf; bent downward, so that the point, as of a stem or leaf, is lower than the base.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`li*na"tion</hw> (r&ebreve;k`l&ibreve;*n&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;clinaison</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of leaning or reclining, or the state of being reclined.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Dialing)</i> <def>The angle which the plane of the dial makes with a vertical plane which it intersects in a horizontal line.</def> <i>Brande & C.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Surg.)</i> <def>The act or process of removing a cataract, by applying the needle to its anterior surface, and depressing it into the vitreous humor in such a way that the front surface of the cataract becomes the upper one and its back surface the lower one.</def> <i>Dunglison.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cline"</hw> (r&esl;*kl&imacr;n"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>

[<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reclined</u> (-kl&imacr;nd"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reclining</u>.] [L. <i>reclinare</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>clinare</i> to lean, incline. See <u>Incline</u>, <u>Lean</u> to incline.] <def>To cause or permit to lean, incline, rest, etc.; to place in a recumbent position; as, to <i>recline</i> the head on the hand.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The mother<BR> <i>Reclined</i> her dying head upon his breast.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cline"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To lean or incline; as, to <i>recline</i> against a wall.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To assume, or to be in, a recumbent position; as, to <i>recline</i> on a couch.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cline"</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>reclinis</i>. See <u>Recline</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <def>Having a reclining posture; leaning; reclining.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote>They sat, <i>recline</i><BR> On the soft downy bank, damasked with flowers.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*clined"</hw> (r&esl;*kl&imacr;nd"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Falling or turned downward; reclinate.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*clin"er</hw> (r&esl;*kl&imacr;n"&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, reclines.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*clin"ing</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Bending or curving gradually back from the perpendicular.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Recumbent.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reclining dial</b></col>, <cd>a dial whose plane is inclined to the vertical line through its center. <i>Davies & Peck</i> <i>(Math. Dict.)</i>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*close"</hw> (r&emacr;*kl&omacr;z"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To close again.</def> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*clothe"</hw> (r&emacr;*kl&omacr;th"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To clothe again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*clude"</hw> (r&esl;*kl&umacr;d"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [L. <i>recludere</i> to unclose, open; pref. <i>re-</i> again, back, un- + <i>claudere</i> to shut.] <def>To open; to unclose.</def> [R.] <i>Harvey.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cluse"</hw> (r&esl;*kl&umacr;s"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F. <i>reclus</i>, L. <i>reclusus</i>, from <i>recludere</i>, <i>reclusum</i>, to unclose, open, in LL., to shut up. See <u>Close</u>.] <def>Shut up; sequestered; retired from the world or from public notice; solitary; living apart; as, a <i>recluse</i> monk or hermit; a <i>recluse</i> life.</def></p>

<p><blockquote>In meditation deep, <i>recluse</i><BR> From human converse.</blockquote> <i>J. Philips.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cluse"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>reclus</i>, LL. <i>reclusus</i>. See <u>Recluse</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A person who lives in seclusion from intercourse with the world, as a hermit or monk; specifically, one of a class of secluded devotees who live in single cells, usually attached to monasteries.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The place where a recluse dwells.</def> [Obs.] <i>Foxe.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cluse"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To shut up; to seclude.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re*cluse"ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a recluse or solitary manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cluse"ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Quality or state of being recluse.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*clu"sion</hw> (-kl&umacr;"zh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL. <i>reclusio</i>: cf. F. <i>reclusion</i>.] <def>A state of retirement from the world; seclusion.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*clu"sive</hw> (-s&ibreve;v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Affording retirement from society.</def> "Some <i>reclusive</i> and religious life." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*clu"so*ry</hw> (-s&osl;*r&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL. <i>reclusorium</i>.] <def>The habitation of a recluse; a hermitage.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*coct"</hw> (r&esl;*k&obreve;kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [L. <i>recoctus</i>, p. p. of <i>recoquere</i> to cook or boil over again. See <u>Re-</u>, and 4th <u>Cook</u>.] <def>To boil or cook again; hence, to make over; to vamp up; to reconstruct.</def> [Obs.] <i>Jer. Taylor.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*coc"tion</hw> (r&esl;*k&obreve;k"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second coction or preparation; a vamping up.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`og*ni"tion</hw> (r&ebreve;k`&obreve;g*n&ibreve;sh"&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recognitio</i>: cf. F. <i>recognition</i>. See <u>Recognizance</u>.] <def>The act of recognizing, or the state of being recognized; acknowledgment; formal avowal; knowledge confessed or avowed; notice.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The lives of such saints had, at the time of their yearly memorials, solemn <i>recognition</i> in the church of God.</blockquote> <i>Hooker.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cog"ni*tor</hw> (r&esl;*k&obreve;g"n&ibreve;*t&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL.] <i>(Law)</i> <def>One of a jury impaneled on an assize.</def> <i>Blackstone.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re*cog"ni*to*ry</hw> (-t&osl;*r&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Pertaining to, or connected with, recognition.</def> <i>Lamb.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec`og*ni`za*bil"i*ty</hw> (r&ebreve;k`&obreve;g*n&imacr;`z&adot;*b&ibreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or condition of being recognizable.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"og*ni`za*ble</hw> (r&ebreve;k"&obreve;g*n&imacr;`z&adot;*b'l or r&esl;*k&obreve;g"n&ibreve;-; 277), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of being recognized.</def> [Written also <i>recognisable</i>.] -<wf>Rec"og*ni`za*bly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re*cog"ni*zance</hw> (r&esl;*k&obreve;g"n&ibreve;*z<i>a</i>ns or r&esl;*k&obreve;n"&ibreve;-), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>reconnaissance</i>, OF. <i>recognoissance</i>, fr. <i>recognoissant</i>, p. pr. of <i>recognoistre</i> to recognize, F. <i>reconna&icirc;tre</i>, fr. L. <i>recognoscere</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>cognoscere</i> to know. See <u>Cognizance</u>, <u>Know</u>, and cf. <u>Recognize</u>, <u>Reconnoissance</u>.] [Written also <i>recognisance</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>An obligation of record entered into before some court of record or magistrate duly authorized, with condition to do some particular act, as to appear at the same or some other court, to keep the peace, or pay a debt. A <i>recognizance</i> differs from a <i>bond</i>, being witnessed by the record only, and not by the party's seal.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The verdict of a jury impaneled upon assize.</def> <i>Cowell.</i></p> <p>&fist; Among lawyers the <i>g</i> in this and the related words (except <i>recognize</i>) is usually silent.</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A token; a symbol; a pledge; a badge.</def></p> <p><blockquote>That <i>recognizance</i> and pledge of love<BR> Which I first gave her.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Acknowledgment of a person or thing; avowal; profession; recognition.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cog`ni*za"tion</hw> (-z&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Recognition.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Rec"og*nize</hw> (r&ebreve;k"&obreve;g*n&imacr;z), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recognized</u> (n&imacr;zd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recognizing</u> (n&imacr;`z&ibreve;ng).] [From <u>Recognizance</u>; see <u>Cognition</u>, and cf. <u>Reconnoiter</u>.] [Written also <i>recognise</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To know again; to perceive the identity of, with a person or thing previously known; to recover or recall knowledge of.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Speak, vassal; <i>recognize</i> thy sovereign queen.</blockquote> <i>Harte.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To avow knowledge of; to allow that one knows; to consent to admit, hold, or the like; to admit with a formal acknowledgment; as, to <i>recognize</i> an obligation; to <i>recognize</i> a consul.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To acknowledge acquaintance with, as by salutation, bowing, or the like.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To show appreciation of; as, to <i>recognize</i> services by a testimonial.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To review; to re&euml;xamine.</def> [Obs.] <i>South.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>To reconnoiter.</def> [Obs.] Monro.</i></p> <i>R.

<p><b>Syn.</b> -- To acknowledge; avow; confess; own; allow; concede. See <u>Acknowledge</u>.</p> <p><hw>Rec"og*nize</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>To enter an obligation of record before a proper tribunal; as, A B <i>recognized</i> in the sum of twenty dollars.</def> [Written also <i>recognise</i>.]</p> <p>&fist; In legal usage in the United States the second syllable is often accented.</p> <p><hw>Re*cog`ni*zee"</hw> (r&esl;*k&obreve;g`n&ibreve;*z&emacr;" or r&esl;*k&obreve;n`&ibreve;*z&emacr;"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>The person in whose favor a recognizance is made.</def> [Written also <i>recognisee</i>.] <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"og*ni`zer</hw> (r&ebreve;k"&obreve;g*n&imacr;`z&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recognizes; a recognizor.</def> [Written also <i>recogniser</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Re*cog`ni*zor"</hw> (r&esl;*k&obreve;g`n&ibreve;*z&ocirc;r" or r&esl;*k&obreve;n`&ibreve;*z&ocirc;r"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>One who enters into a recognizance.</def> [Written also <i>recognisor</i>.] <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"og*nosce</hw> (r&ebreve;k"&obreve;g*n&obreve;s), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [L. <i>recognoscere</i>. See <u>Recognizance</u>.] <def>To recognize.</def> [R. & Obs.] <i>Boyle.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*coil"</hw> (r&esl;*koil"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recoiled</u> (-koild"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recoiling</u>.] [OE. <i>recoilen</i>, F. <i>reculer</i>, fr. L. pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>culus</i> the fundament. The English word was perhaps influenced in form by <i>accoil</i>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To start, roll, bound, spring, or fall back; to take a reverse motion; to be driven or forced backward; to return.</def></p>

<p><blockquote>Evil on itself shall back <i>recoil</i>.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The solemnity of her demeanor made it impossible . . . that we should <i>recoil</i> into our ordinary spirits.</blockquote> <i>De Quincey.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To draw back, as from anything repugnant, distressing, alarming, or the like; to shrink.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To turn or go back; to withdraw one's self; to retire.</def> [Obs.] "To your bowers <i>recoil</i>." <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*coil"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To draw or go back.</def> [Obs.] <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*coil"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A starting or falling back; a rebound; a shrinking; as, the <i>recoil</i> of nature, or of the blood.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The state or condition of having recoiled.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>recoil</i> from formalism is skepticism.</blockquote> <i>F. W. Robertson.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Specifically, the reaction or rebounding of a firearm when discharged.</def></p> <p><col><b>Recoil dynamometer</b></col> <i>(Gunnery)</i>, <cd>an instrument for measuring the force of the recoil of a firearm.</cd> -<col><b>Recoil escapement</b></col>. <cd>See the Note under <u>Escapement</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*coil"er</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, recoils.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*coil"ing*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In the manner of a recoil.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*coil"ment</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>reculement</i>.] <def>Recoil.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Re*coin"</hw> (r&emacr;*koin"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To coin anew or again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*coin"age</hw> (-&asl;j), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of coining anew.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which is coined anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`-col*lect"</hw> (r&emacr;`k&obreve;l*l&ebreve;kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>collect</i>.] <def>To collect again; to gather what has been scattered; as, to <i>recollect</i> routed troops.</def></p> <p><blockquote>God will one day raise the dead, <i>re-collecting</i>

our scattered dust.</blockquote> <i>Barrow.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec`ol*lect"</hw> (r&ebreve;k`&obreve;l*l&ebreve;kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recollected</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recollecting</u>.] [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>collect</i>: cf. L. <i>recolligere</i>, <i>recollectum</i>, to collect. Cf. <u>Recollet</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To recover or recall the knowledge of; to bring back to the mind or memory; to remember.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Reflexively, to compose one's self; to recover self-command; as, to <i>recollect</i> one's self after a burst of anger; -- sometimes, formerly, in the perfect participle.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The Tyrian queen . . . <BR> Admired his fortunes, more admired the man;<BR> Then <i>recollected</i> stood.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"ol*lect</hw> (r&ebreve;k"&obreve;l*l&ebreve;kt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Recollet</u>.] <i>(Eccl.)</i> <def>A friar of the Strict Observance, -- an order of Franciscans.</def> [Written also <i>Recollet</i>.] <i>Addis & Arnold.</i></p> <! p. 1200 !> <p><hw>Rec`ol*lec"tion</hw> (r?k`?l*l?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;collection</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of recollecting, or recalling to the memory; the operation by which objects are recalled to the memory, or ideas revived in the mind; reminiscence; remembrance.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The power of recalling ideas to the mind, or the period within which things can be recollected; remembrance; memory; as, an event within my <i>recollection</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>That which is recollected; something called to mind; reminiscence.</def> "One of his earliest <i>recollections</i>." <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>The act or practice of collecting or concentrating the mind; concentration; self-control.</def> [Archaic]</p> <p><blockquote>From such an education Charles contracted habits of gravity and <i>recollection</i>.</blockquote> <i>Robertson.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Reminiscence; remembrance. See <u>Memory</u>.</p> <p><hw>Rec`ol*lect"ive</hw> (-l?k"t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Having the power of recollecting.</def> <i>J. Foster.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"ol*let</hw> (r?k"?l*l?t; F. r?`k?`l?"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;collet</i>, fr. L. <i>recollectus</i>, p. p. of <i>recolligere</i> to gather again, to gather up; NL., to collect one's self, esp. for religious contemplation.] <i>(Eccl.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Recollect</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></def></p>

<p><hw>Re*col`o*ni*za"tion</hw> (r?*k?l`?*n?*z?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second or renewed colonization.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*col"o*nize</hw> (r?*k?l"?*n?z), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To colonize again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*com`bi*na"tion</hw> (r?*k?m`b?*n?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Combination a second or additional time.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`com*bine"</hw> (r?`k?m*b?n"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To combine again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*com"fort</hw> (r?*k?m"f?rt), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>comfort</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;conforter</i>.] <def>To comfort again; to console anew; to give new strength to.</def> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Gan her <i>recomfort</i> from so sad affright.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*com"fort*less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Without comfort.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re*com"for*ture</hw> (-f?r*t?r;135), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of recomforting; restoration of comfort.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`com*mence"</hw> (r?`k?m*m?ns"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To commence or begin again.</def> <i>Howell.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To begin anew to be; to act again as.</def> [Archaic.]</p> <p><blockquote>He seems desirous enough of <i>recommencing</i> courtier.</blockquote> <i>Johnson.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`com*mence"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>commence</i>: cf. F. <i>recommencer</i>.] <def>To commence again or anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`com*mence"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A commencement made anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`om*mend"</hw> (r?k`?m*m?nd"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recommended</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recommending</u>.] [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>commend</i>: cf. F. <i>recommander</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To commend to the favorable notice of another; to commit to another's care, confidence, or acceptance, with favoring representations; to put in a favorable light before any one; to bestow commendation on; as, he <i>recommended</i> resting the mind and exercising the body.</def></p> <p><blockquote>M&aelig;cenas <i>recommended</i> Virgil and Horace to Augustus, whose praises . . . have made him precious to posterity.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To make acceptable; to attract favor to.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A decent boldness ever meets with friends,<BR> Succeeds, and e'en a stranger <i>recommends</i>.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To commit; to give in charge; to commend.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Paul chose Silas and departed, being <i>recommended</i> by the brethren unto the grace of God.</blockquote> <i>Acts xv. 40.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec`om*mend"a*ble</hw> (-?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>recommandable</i>.] <def>Suitable to be recommended; worthy of praise; commendable.</def> <i>Glanvill.</i> -<wf>Rec`om*mend"a*ble*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> -<wf>Rec`om*mend"a*bly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Rec`om*men*da"tion</hw> (r?k`?m*m?n*d?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>recommandation</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of recommending.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which recommends, or commends to favor; anything procuring, or tending to procure, a favorable reception, or to secure acceptance and adoption; as, he brought excellent <i>recommendations</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>The state of being recommended; esteem.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote>The burying of the dead . . . hath always been had in an extraordinary <i>recommendation</i> amongst the ancient.</blockquote> <i>Sir T. North.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec`om*mend"a*tive</hw> (-m?nd"?*t?v), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>That which recommends; a recommendation.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rec`om*mend"a*to*ry</hw> (-?*t?*r?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Serving to recommend; recommending; commendatory.</def> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec`om*mend"er</hw> (-?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recommends.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`com*mis"sion</hw> (r?`k?m*m?sh?n), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To commission again; to give a new commission to.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Officers whose time of service had expired were to be <i>recommissioned</i>.</blockquote> <i>Marshall.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`com*mit"</hw> (-m?t"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To commit again; to give back into keeping; specifically, to refer again to a committee; as, to <i>recommit</i> a bill to the same committee.</def></p>

<p>{ <hw>Re`com*mit"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <hw>Re`com*mit"tal</hw> (-?l), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second or renewed commitment; a renewed reference to a committee.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`com*pact"</hw> (-p?kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To compact or join anew.</def> "<i>Recompact</i> my scattered body." <i>Donne.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*com`pen*sa"tion</hw> (r?*k?m`p?n*s?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. LL. <i>recompensatio</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Recompense.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Scots Law)</i> <def>Used to denote a case where a set-off pleaded by the defendant is met by a set-off pleaded by the plaintiff.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"om*pense</hw> (r&ebreve;k"&obreve;m*p&ebreve;ns), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recompensed</u> (-p?nst); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recompensing</u> (-p?n`s?ng).] [F. <i>r&eacute;compenser</i>, LL. <i>recompensare</i>, fr.L. pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>compensare</i> to compensate. See <u>Compensate</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To render an equivalent to, for service, loss, etc.; to requite; to remunerate; to compensate.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He can not <i>recompense</i> me better.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To return an equivalent for; to give compensation for; to atone for; to pay for.</def></p> <p><blockquote>God <i>recompenseth</i> the gift.</blockquote> <i>Robynson (More's Utopia).</i></p> <p><blockquote>To <i>recompense</i><BR> My rash, but more unfortunate, misdeed.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To give in return; to pay back; to pay, as something earned or deserved.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote><i>Recompense</i> to no man evil for evil.</blockquote> <i>Rom. xii. 17.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To repay; requite; compensate; reward; remunerate.</p> <p><hw>Rec"om*pense</hw> (r?k"?m*p?ns), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To give recompense; to make amends or requital.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rec"om*pense</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;compense</i>.] <def>An equivalent returned for anything done, suffered, or given; compensation; requital; suitable return.</def></p> <p><blockquote>To me belongeth vengeance, and <i>recompense</i>.</blockquote> <i>Deut. xxii. 35.</i></p>

<p><blockquote>And every transgression and disobedience received a just <i>recompense</i> of reward.</blockquote> <i>Heb. ii. 2.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Repayment; compensation; remuneration; amends; satisfaction; reward; requital.</p> <p><hw>Rec"om*pense`ment</hw> (-p?ns`m?nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Recompense; requital.</def> [Obs.] <i>Fabyan.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"om*pen`ser</hw> (-p?n`s?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recompenses.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A thankful <i>recompenser</i> of the benefits received.</blockquote> <i>Foxe.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"om*pen`sive</hw> (-s?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of the nature of recompense; serving to recompense.</def> <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*com`pi*la"tion</hw> (r?*k?m`p?*l?"tion), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A new compilation.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`com*pile"</hw> (r&emacr;`k&obreve;m*p&imacr;l"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To compile anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`com*pile"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of recompiling; new compilation or digest; as, a <i>recompilement</i> of the laws.</def> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`com*pose"</hw> (-p?z"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recomposed</u> (-p?zd"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recomposing</u>.] [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>compose</i>: cf. F. <i>recomposer</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To compose again; to form anew; to put together again or repeatedly.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The far greater number of the objects presented to our observation can only be decomposed, but not actually <i>recomposed</i>.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Hamilton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To restore to composure; to quiet anew; to tranquilize; as, to <i>recompose</i> the mind.</def> <i>Jer. Taylor.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`com*pos"er</hw> (-p?z"?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recomposes.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*com`po*si"tion</hw> (r?*k?m`p?z?sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>recomposition</i>.] <def>The act of recomposing.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"on*ci`la*ble</hw> (r?k"?n*s?`l?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;conciliable</i>.] <def>Capable of being reconciled; as, <i>reconcilable</i> adversaries; an act <i>reconciable</i> with previous acts.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The different accounts of the numbers of ships are <i>reconcilable</i>.</blockquote> <i>Arbuthnot.</i></p>

<p>-- <wf>Rec"on*ci`la*ble*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> -<wf>Rec"on*ci`la*bly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Rec"on*cile`</hw> (-s?l`), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reconciled</u> (-s?ld`); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reconciling</u>.] [F. <i>r&eacute;concilier</i>, L. <i>reconciliare</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>conciliare</i> to bring together, to unite. See <u>Conciliate</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To cause to be friendly again; to conciliate anew; to restore to friendship; to bring back to harmony; to cause to be no longer at variance; as, to <i>reconcile</i> persons who have quarreled.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Propitious now and <i>reconciled</i> by prayer.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The church [if defiled] is interdicted till it be <i>reconciled</i> [i.e., restored to sanctity] by the bishop.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>We pray you . . . be ye <i>reconciled</i> to God.</blockquote> <i>2 Cor. v. 20.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To bring to acquiescence, content, or quiet submission; as, to <i>reconcile</i> one's self to affictions.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To make consistent or congruous; to bring to agreement or suitableness; -- followed by <i>with</i> or <i>to</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The great men among the ancients understood how to <i>reconcile</i> manual labor with affairs of state.</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Some figures monstrous and misshaped appear,<BR> Considered singly, or beheld too near;<BR> Which, but proportioned to their light or place,<BR> Due distance <i>reconciles</i> to form and grace.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To adjust; to settle; as, to <i>reconcile</i> differences.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To reunite; conciliate; placate; propitiate; pacify; appease.</p> <p><hw>Rec"on*cile`</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To become reconciled.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rec"on*cile`ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Reconciliation.</def> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"on*ci`ler</hw> (-s?`l?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who reconciles.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`on*cil`i*a"tion</hw> (-s?l`?*?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;conciliation</i>, L. <i>reconciliatio</i>.]

<sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of reconciling, or the state of being reconciled; reconcilenment; restoration to harmony; renewal of friendship.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Reconciliation</i> and friendship with God really form the basis of all rational and true enjoyment.</blockquote> <i>S. Miller.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Reduction to congruence or consistency; removal of inconsistency; harmony.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A clear and easy <i>reconciliation</i> of those seeming inconsistencies of Scripture.</blockquote> <i>D. Rogers.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Reconcilement; reunion; pacification; appeasement; propitiation; atonement; expiation.</p> <p><hw>Rec`on*cil"i*a*to*ry</hw> (-s?l"?*?*t?*r?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Serving or tending to reconcile.</def> <i>Bp. Hall.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*con`den*sa"tion</hw> (r?*k?n`d?n*s?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act or process of recondensing.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*dense"</hw> (r&emacr;`k&obreve;n*d&ebreve;ns"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To condense again.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"on*dite</hw> (r?k"?n*d?t or r?*k?n"d?t; 277), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>reconditus</i>, p. p. of <i>recondere</i> to put up again, to lay up, to conceal; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>condere</i> to bring or lay together. See <u>Abscond</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Hidden from the mental or intellectual view; secret; abstruse; as, <i>recondite</i> causes of things.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Dealing in things abstruse; profound; searching; as, <i>recondite</i> studies.</def> "<i>Recondite</i> learning." <i>Bp. Horsley.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*con"di*to*ry</hw> (r?k?n"d?*t?*r?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL. <i>reconditorium</i>.] <def>A repository; a storehouse.</def> [Obs.] <i>Ash.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`con*duct"</hw> (r&emacr;`k&obreve;n*d&ubreve;kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To conduct back or again.</def> "A guide to <i>reconduct</i> thy steps." <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`con*firm"</hw> (-f?rm"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>confirm</i>: cf. F. <i>reconfirmer</i>.] <def>To confirm anew.</def> <i>Clarendon.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`con*fort"</hw> (-f?rt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;conforter</i>.] <def>To recomfort; to comfort.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`con*join"</hw> (r?`k?n*join"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To join or conjoin anew.</def> <i>Boyle.</i></p>

<p>{ <hw>Re*con"nois*sance</hw>, <hw>Re*con"nais*sance</hw> } (r?k?n"n?s-s?ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. See <u>Recognizance</u>.] <def>The act of reconnoitering; preliminary examination or survey.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <i>(Geol.)</i> <def>An examination or survey of a region in reference to its general geological character.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <i>(Engin.)</i> <def>An examination of a region as to its general natural features, preparatory to a more particular survey for the purposes of triangulation, or of determining the location of a public work.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <i>(Mil.)</i> <def>An examination of a territory, or of an enemy's position, for the purpose of obtaining information necessary for directing military operations; a preparatory expedition.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reconnoissance in force</b></col> <i>(Mil.)</i>, <cd>a demonstration or attack by a large force of troops for the purpose of discovering the position and strength of an enemy.</cd></p> <p>{ <hw>Rec`on*noi"ter</hw>, <hw>Rec`on*noi"tre</hw> } (r?k`?n*noi"t?r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>reconnoitre</i>, a former spelling of <i>reconna&icirc;tre</i>. See <u>Recognize</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To examine with the eye to make a preliminary examination or survey of; esp., to survey with a view to military or engineering operations.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To recognize.</def> [Obs.] Walpole.</i></p> <i>Sir H.

<p><hw>Re*con"quer</hw> (r?*k?n"k?r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>conquer</i>: cf. F. <i>reconqu&eacute;rir</i>.] <def>To conquer again; to recover by conquest; as, to <i>reconquer</i> a revolted province.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*con"quest</hw> (-kw?st), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second conquest.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*con"se*crate</hw> (-k?n"s?*kr?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To consecrate anew or again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*con`se*cra"tion</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Renewed consecration.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*sid"er</hw> (r?`k?n*s?d"?r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To consider again; as, to <i>reconsider</i> a subject.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Parliamentary Practice)</i> <def>To take up for renewed consideration, as a motion or a vote which has been previously acted upon.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*sid`er*a"tion</hw> (-?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of reconsidering, or the state of being reconsidered; as, the <i>reconsideration</i> of a vote in a legislative body.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*con"so*late</hw> (r?*k?n"s?*l?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To console or comfort again.</def> [Obs.] <i>Sir H. Wotton.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re`con*sol"i*date</hw> (r?`k?n*s?l"?*d?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To consolidate anew or again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*sol`i*da"tion</hw> (-d?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act or process of reconsolidating; the state of being reconsolidated.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*struct"</hw> (-str?kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To construct again; to rebuild; to remodel; to form again or anew.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Regiments had been dissolved and <i>reconstructed</i>.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`con*struc"tion</hw> (-str?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of constructing again; the state of being reconstructed.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(U.S. Politics)</i> <def>The act or process of reorganizing the governments of the States which had passed ordinances of secession, and of re&euml;stablishing their constitutional relations to the national government, after the close of the Civil War.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*struct"ive</hw> (-str?k"t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Reconstructing; tending to reconstruct; as, a <i>reconstructive</i> policy.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*tin"u*ance</hw> (-t?n"?*?ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act or state of recontinuing.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*tin"ue</hw> (-?), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To continue anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*vene"</hw> (r?`k?n*v?n"), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To convene or assemble again; to call or come together again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*ven"tion</hw> (-v?n"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Civil Law)</i> <def>A cross demand; an action brought by the defendant against the plaintiff before the same judge.</def> <i>Burrill. Bouvier.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`con*ver"sion</hw> (-v?r"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second conversion.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*vert"</hw> (-v?rt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To convert again.</def> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*con"vert</hw> (r?*k?n"v?rt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A person who has been reconverted.</def> <i>Gladstone.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`con*vert"i*ble</hw> (r?`k?n*v?rt"?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>Capable of being reconverted; convertible again to the original form or condition.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*vey"</hw> (-v?"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To convey back or to the former place; as, to

<i>reconvey</i> goods.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To transfer back to a former owner; as, to <i>reconvey</i> an estate.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`con*vey"ance</hw> (-v?"?ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Act of reconveying.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cop"y</hw> (r?*k?p"?), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To copy again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cord"</hw> (r?*k?rd"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recorded</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recording</u>.] [OE. <i>recorden</i> to repeat, remind, F. <i>recorder</i>, fr. L. <i>recordari</i> to remember; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>cor</i>, <i>cordis</i>, the heart or mind. See <u>Cordial</u>, <u>Heart</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To recall to mind; to recollect; to remember; to meditate.</def> [Obs.] "I it you <i>record</i>." <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To repeat; to recite; to sing or play.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>They longed to see the day, to hear the lark<BR> <i>Record</i> her hymns, and chant her carols blest.</blockquote> <i>Fairfax.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To preserve the memory of, by committing to writing, to printing, to inscription, or the like; to make note of; to write or enter in a book or on parchment, for the purpose of preserving authentic evidence of; to register; to enroll; as, to <i>record</i> the proceedings of a court; to <i>record</i> historical events.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Those things that are <i>recorded</i> of him . . . are written in the chronicles of the kings.</blockquote> <i>1 Esd. i. 42.</i></p> <p><col><b>To record a deed</b></col>, <col><b>mortgage</b></col>, <col><b>lease</b></col>, <cd>etc., to have a copy of the same entered in the records of the office designated by law, for the information of the public.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*cord"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To reflect; to ponder.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Praying all the way, and <i>recording</i> upon the words which he before had read.</blockquote> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To sing or repeat a tune.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Whether the birds or she <i>recorded</i> best.</blockquote> <i>W. Browne.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"ord</hw> (r&ebreve;k"&etilde;rd), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OF. <i>recort</i>, <i>record</i>, remembrance, attestation, record. See <u>Record</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A

writing by which some act or event, or a number of acts or events, is recorded; a register; as, a <i>record</i> of the acts of the Hebrew kings; a <i>record</i> of the variations of temperature during a certain time; a family <i>record</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> Especially: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>An official contemporaneous writing by which the acts of some public body, or public officer, are recorded; as, a <i>record</i> of city ordinances; the <i>records</i> of the receiver of taxes.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>An authentic official copy of a document which has been entered in a book, or deposited in the keeping of some officer designated by law.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>An official contemporaneous memorandum stating the proceedings of a court of justice; a judicial record.</def> <sd><i>(d)</i></sd> <def>The various legal papers used in a case, together with memoranda of the proceedings of the court; as, it is not permissible to allege facts not in the <i>record</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Testimony; witness; attestation.</def></p> <p><blockquote>John bare <i>record</i>, saying.</blockquote> <i>John i. 32.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>That which serves to perpetuate a knowledge of acts or events; a monument; a memorial.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>That which has been, or might be, recorded; the known facts in the course, progress, or duration of anything, as in the life of a public man; as, a politician with a good or a bad <i>record</i>.</def></p> <p><! p. 1201 !></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>That which has been publicly achieved in any kind of competitive sport as recorded in some authoritative manner, as the time made by a winning horse in a race.</def></p> <p><col><b>Court of record</b></col> (<i>pron.</i> r&?;*k&?;rd" <i>in Eng.</i>), <cd>a court whose acts and judicial proceedings are written on parchment or in books for a perpetual memorial.</cd> -<col><b>Debt of record</b></col>, <cd>a debt which appears to be due by the evidence of a court of record, as upon a judgment or a cognizance.</cd> -- <col><b>Trial by record</b></col>, <cd>a trial which is had when a matter of record is pleaded, and the opposite party pleads that there is no such record. In this case the trial is by inspection of the record itself, no other evidence being admissible.</cd> <i>Blackstone.</i> -- <col><b>To beat</b></col>, or <col><b>break</b></col>, <col><b>the record</b></col> <i>(Sporting)</i>, <cd>to surpass any performance of like kind as authoritatively recorded; as, <i>to break the record</i> in a walking match.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*cord"ance</hw> (r?*k?rd"?ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Remembrance.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Rec`or*da"tion</hw> (r?k`?r*d?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recordatio</i>: cf. F. <i>recordation</i>. See <u>Record</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <def>Remembrance; recollection; also, a

record.</def> [Obs.]


<p><hw>Re*cord"er</hw> (r?*k?rd"?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who records; specifically, a person whose official duty it is to make a record of writings or transactions.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The title of the chief judical officer of some cities and boroughs; also, of the chief justice of an East Indian settlement. The Recorder of London is judge of the Lord Mayor's Court, and one of the commissioners of the Central Criminal Court.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Mus.)</i> <def>A kind of wind instrument resembling the flageolet.</def> [Obs.] "Flutes and soft <i>recorders</i>." <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cord"er*ship</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The office of a recorder.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cord"ing</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Keeping a record or a register; as, a <i>recording</i> secretary; -- applied to numerous instruments with an automatic appliance which makes a record of their action; as, a <i>recording</i> gauge or telegraph.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`cor*por`i*fi*ca"tion</hw> (r?`k?r*p?r`?*f?*k?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of investing again with a body; the state of being furnished anew with a body.</def> [R.] <i>Boyle.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*couch"</hw> (r?*kouch"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>couch</i>: cf. F. <i>recoucher</i>.] <def>To retire again to a couch; to lie down again.</def> [Obs.] <i>Sir H. Wotton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*count"</hw> (r&emacr;*kount"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>count</i>.] <def>To count or reckon again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*count"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A counting again, as of votes.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*count"</hw> (r&esl;*kount"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>raconter</i> to relate, to recount; pref. <i>re-</i> again + &?; (L. <i>ad</i>.) + <i>conter</i> to relate. See <u>Count</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <def>To tell over; to relate in detail; to recite; to tell or narrate the particulars of; to rehearse; to enumerate; as, to <i>recount</i> one's blessings.</def> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><blockquote>To all his angels, who, with true applause,<BR> <i>Recount</i> his praises.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*count`ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Recital.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p>{ <hw>Re*coup"</hw>, <hw>Re*coupe"</hw> } (-k??p"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>recouper</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>couper</i> to cut.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>To keep

back rightfully (a part), as if by cutting off, so as to diminish a sum due; to take off (a part) from damages; to deduct; as, where a landlord <i>recouped</i> the rent of premises from damages awarded to the plaintiff for eviction.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To get an equivalent or compensation for; as, to <i>recoup</i> money lost at the gaming table; to <i>recoup</i> one's losses in the share market.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To reimburse; to indemnify; -- often used reflexively and in the passive.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Elizabeth had lost her venture; but if she was bold, she might <i>recoup</i> herself at Philip's cost.</blockquote> <i>Froude.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Industry is sometimes <i>recouped</i> for a small price by extensive custom.</blockquote> <i>Duke of Argyll.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*coup"er</hw> (r?*k??p"?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recoups.</def> <i>Story.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*coup"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of recouping.</def></p> <p>&fist; <i>Recoupment</i> applies to equities growing out of the very affair from which thw principal demand arises, <i>set-off</i> to cross-demands which may be independent in origin. <i>Abbott.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*course"</hw> (r?*k?rs"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>recours</i>, L. <i>recursus</i> a running back, return, fr. <i>recurrere</i>, <i>recursum</i>, to run back. See <u>Recur</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A coursing back, or coursing again, along the line of a previous coursing; renewed course; return; retreat; recurence.</def> [Obs.] "Swift <i>recourse</i> of flushing blood." <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Unto my first I will have my <i>recourse</i>.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Preventive physic . . . preventeth sickness in the healthy, or the <i>recourse thereof in the valetudinary</i>.</blockquote> <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Recurrence in difficulty, perplexity, need, or the like; access or application for aid; resort.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Thus died this great peer, in a time of great <i>recourse</i> unto him and dependence upon him.</blockquote> <i>Sir H. Wotton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Our last <i>recourse</i> is therefore to our art.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Access; admittance.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Give me <i>recourse</i> to him.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p>

<p><col><b>Without recourse</b></col> <i>(Commerce)</i>, <cd>words sometimes added to the indorsement of a negotiable instrument to protect the indorser from liability to the indorsee and subsequent holders. It is a restricted indorsement.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*course"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To return; to recur.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>The flame departing and <i>recoursing</i>.</blockquote> <i>Foxe.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To have recourse; to resort.</def> [Obs.] <i>Bp. Hacket.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*course"ful</hw> (-f?l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Having recurring flow and ebb; moving alternately.</def> [Obs.] <i>Drayton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cov"er</hw> (r?*k?v"?r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>cover</i>: cf. F. <i>recouvrir</i>.] <def>To cover again.</def> <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cov"er</hw> (r?*k?v"?r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recovered</u> (-?rd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recovering</u>. ] [OE. <i>recoveren</i>, OF. <i>recovrer</i>, F. <i>recouvrer</i>, from L. <i>recuperare</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re + a word of unknown origin. Cf.<u>Recuperate</u>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To get or obtain again; to get renewed possession of; to win back; to regain.</def></p> <p><blockquote>David <i>recovered</i> all that the Amalekites had carried away.</blockquote> <i>1. Sam. xxx. 18.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To make good by reparation; to make up for; to retrieve; to repair the loss or injury of; as, to <i>recover</i> lost time.</def> "Loss of catel may <i>recovered</i> be." <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Even good men have many failings and lapses to lament and <i>recover</i>.</blockquote> <i>Rogers.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To restore from sickness, faintness, or the like; to bring back to life or health; to cure; to heal.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The wine in my bottle will <i>recover</i> him.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To overcome; to get the better of, -- as a state of mind or body.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I do hope to <i>recover</i> my late hurt.</blockquote> <i>Cowley.</i></p> <p><blockquote>When I had <i>recovered</i> a little my first surprise.</blockquote> <i>De Foe.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To rescue; to deliver.</def></p> <p><blockquote>That they may <i>recover</i> themselves out of the snare of the devil, who are taken captive by him.</blockquote> <i>2. Tim. ii. 26.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>To gain by motion or effort; to obtain; to reach; to come to.</def> [Archaic]</p> <p><blockquote>The forest is not three leagues off;<BR> If we <i>recover</i> that, we're sure enough.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Except he could <i>recover</i> one of the Cities of Refuge he was to die.</blockquote> <i>Hales.</i></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>To gain as a compensation; to obtain in return for injury or debt; as, to <i>recover</i> damages in trespass; to <i>recover</i> debt and costs in a suit at law; to obtain title to by judgement in a court of law; as, to <i>recover</i> lands in ejectment or common recovery; to gain by legal process; as, to <i>recover</i> judgement against a defendant.</def></p> <p><col><b>Recover arms</b></col> <i>(Mil. Drill)</i>, <cd>a command whereby the piece is brought from the position of "aim" to that of "ready."</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To regain; repossess; resume; retrieve; recruit; heal; cure.</p> <p><hw>Re*cov"er</hw> (r?*k?v"?r), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To regain health after sickness; to grow well; to be restored or cured; hence, to regain a former state or condition after misfortune, alarm, etc.; -- often followed by <i>of</i> or <i>from</i>; as, to <i>recover</i> from a state of poverty; to <i>recover</i> from fright.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Go, inquire of Baal-zebub, the god of Ekron, whether I shall <i>recover</i> of this disease.</blockquote> <i>2 Kings i. 2.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To make one's way; to come; to arrive.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>With much ado the Christians <i>recovered</i> to Antioch.</blockquote> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>To obtain a judgement; to succeed in a lawsuit; as, the plaintiff has <i>recovered</i> in his suit.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cov"er</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Recovery.</def> <i>Sir T. Malory.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cov"er*a*ble</hw> (-?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>recouvrable</i>.] <def>Capable of being recovered or regained; capable of being brought back to a former condition, as from sickness, misfortune, etc.; obtainable from a debtor or possessor; as, the debt

is <i>recoverable</i>; goods lost or sunk in the ocean are not <i>recoverable</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>A prodigal course<BR> Is like the sun's; but not, like his, <i>recoverable</i>.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>If I am <i>recoverable</i>, why am I thus?</blockquote> <i>Cowper.</i></p> <p>-- <wf>Re*cov"er*a*ble*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re cov"er*ance</hw> (-<i>a</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Recovery.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re*cov`er*ee"</hw> (-&emacr;"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>The person against whom a judgment is obtained in common recovery.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cov"er*er</hw> (r?*k?v"?r*?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recovers.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cov`er*or"</hw> (-?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>The demandant in a common recovery after judgment.</def> <i>Wharton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cov"er*y</hw> (r?*k?v"?r*?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of recovering, regaining, or retaking possession.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Restoration from sickness, weakness, faintness, or the like; restoration from a condition of mistortune, of fright, etc.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>The obtaining in a suit at law of a right to something by a verdict and judgment of court.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>The getting, or gaining, of something not previously had.</def> [Obs.] "Help be past <i>recovery</i>." <i>Tusser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>In rowing, the act of regaining the proper position for making a new stroke.</def></p> <p><col><b>Common recovery</b></col> <i>(Law)</i>, <cd>a species of common assurance or mode of conveying lands by matter of record, through the forms of an action at law, formerly in frequent use, but now abolished or obsolete, both in England and America.</cd> <i>Burrill. Warren.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"re*ance</hw> (r?k"r?*?ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Recreancy.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"re*an*cy</hw> (-<i>a</i>n*s?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being recreant.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"re*ant</hw> (-<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [OF., cowardly, fr. <i>recroire</i>, <i>recreire</i>, to forsake, leave,

tire, discourage, regard as conquered, LL. <i>recredere se</i> to declare one's self conquered in combat; hence, those are called <i>recrediti</i> or <i>recreanti</i> who are considered infamous; L. pref. <i>re-</i> again, back + <i>credere</i> to believe, to be of opinion; hence, originally, to disavow one's opinion. See <u>Creed</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Crying for mercy, as a combatant in the trial by battle; yielding; cowardly; mean-spirited; craven.</def> "This <i>recreant</i> knight." <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Apostate; false; unfaithful.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Who, for so many benefits received,<BR> Turned <i>recreant</i> to God, ingrate and false.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"re*ant</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who yields in combat, and begs for mercy; a mean-spirited, cowardly wretch.</def> <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><blockquote>You are all <i>recreants</i> and dastards!</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`-cre*ate"</hw> (r?`kr?*?t"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>create</i>.] <def>To create or form anew.</def></p> <p><blockquote>On opening the campaign of 1776, instead of re&euml;nforcing, it was necessary to <i>re-create</i>, the army.</blockquote> <i>Marshall.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"re*ate</hw> (rk"r*t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recreated</u> (-`td); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recreating</u>.] [L. <i>recreatus</i>, p. p. of <i>recreate</i> to create anew, to refresh; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>creare</i> to create. See <u>Create</u>.] <def>To give fresh life to; to reanimate; to revive; especially, to refresh after wearying toil or anxiety; to relieve; to cheer; to divert; to amuse; to gratify.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Painters, when they work on white grounds, place before them colors mixed with blue and green, to <i>recreate</i> their eyes, white wearying . . . the sight more than any.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><blockquote>St. John, who <i>recreated</i> himself with sporting with a tame partridge.</blockquote> <i>Jer. Taylor.</i></p> <p><blockquote>These ripe fruits <i>recreate</i> the nostrils with their aromatic scent.</blockquote> <i>Dr. H. More.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"re*ate</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To take recreation.</def> <i>L. Addison.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"re*a"tion</hw> (-?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;cr&eacute;ation</i>, L. <i>recreatio</i>.] <def>The act of recreating, or the state of being recreated; refreshment of the strength and spirits after toil; amusement; diversion; sport; pastime.</def></p>

<p><hw>Re`-cre*a"tion</hw> (r?`kr?*?sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Re-create</u>.] <def>A forming anew; a new creation or formation.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`-cre*a"tive</hw> (-?`t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Creating anew; as, <i>re-creative</i> power.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"re*a`tive</hw> (r?k"r?*?`t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;cr&eacute;atif</i>. See <u>Recreate</u>.] <def>Tending to recreate or refresh; recreating; giving new vigor or animation; reinvigorating; giving relief after labor or pain; amusing; diverting.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Let the music of them be <i>recreative</i>.</blockquote> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p>--- <wf>Rec"re*a`tive*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -<wf>Rec"re*a`tive*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Rec"re*ment</hw> (r?k"r?*m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recrementum</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>cernere</i>, <i>cretum</i>, to separate, sift: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;cr&eacute;ment</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Superfluous matter separated from that which is useful; dross; scoria; as, the <i>recrement</i> of ore.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Med.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Excrement.</def> [Obs.] <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A substance secreted from the blood and again absorbed by it.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`re*men"tal</hw> (-m?n"t<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Recrementitious.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`re*men*ti"tial</hw> (-m?n*t?sh"<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;cr&eacute;mentitiel</i>.] <i>(Med.)</i> <def>Of the nature of a recrement. See <u>Recrement</u>, 2 <sd><i>(b)</i></sd>.</def> "<i>Recrementitial</i> fluids." <i>Dunglison.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec`re*men*ti"tious</hw> (-t?sh"?s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of or pertaining to recrement; consisting of recrement or dross.</def> <i>Boyle.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*crim"i*nate</hw> (r?*kr?m"?*n?t), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>criminate</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;criminer</i>, LL. <i>recriminare</i>.] <def>To return one charge or accusation with another; to charge back fault or crime upon an accuser.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It is not my business to <i>recriminate</i>, hoping sufficiently to clear myself in this matter.</blockquote> <i>Bp. Stillingfleet.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*crim"i*nate</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To accuse in return.</def> <i>South.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*crim`i*na"tion</hw> (-n?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;crimination</i>, LL. <i>recriminatio</i>.] <def>The act of

recriminating; an accusation brought by the accused against the accuser; a counter accusation.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Accusations and <i>recriminations</i> passed backward and forward between the contending parties.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*crim"i*na*tive</hw> (-n?*t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Recriminatory.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*crim"i*na`tor</hw> (-n?`t?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who recriminates.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*crim"i*na*to*ry</hw> (-n?*t?*r?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;criminatoire</i>.] <def>Having the quality of recrimination; retorting accusation; recriminating.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cross"</hw> (r?*kr?s";115), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To cross a second time.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cru"den*cy</hw> (r&esl;*kr&udd;"d<i>e</i>n*s&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Recrudescence.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Re`cru*des"cence</hw> (r?`kr?*d?s"s<i>e</i>ns), <hw>Re`cru*des`cen*cy</hw> (-d?s"s<i>e</i>n*s?), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>recrudescence</i>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The state or condition of being recrudescent.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>A recrudescence</i> of barbarism may condemn it [land] to chronic poverty and waste.</blockquote> <i>Duke of Argyll.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Med.)</i> <def>Increased severity of a disease after temporary remission.</def> <i>Dunglison.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`cru*des"cent</hw> (-s<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>recrudescens</i>, <i>-entis</i>, p. pr. of <i>recrudescere</i> to become raw again; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>crudescere</i> to become hard or raw: cf. F. <i>recrudescent</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Growing raw, sore, or painful again.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Breaking out again after temporary abatement or supression; as, a <i>recrudescent</i> epidemic.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cruit"</hw> (r?*kr?t"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recruited</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recruiting</u>.] [F. <i>recruter</i>, corrupted (under influence of <i>recrue</i> recruiting, recruit, from <i>recro&icirc;/tre</i>, p. p. <i>recr&ucirc;</i>, to grow again) from an older <i>recluter</i>, properly, to patch, to mend (a garment); pref. <i>re-</i> + OF. <i>clut</i> piece, piece of cloth; cf. Icel. <i>kl&umacr;tr</i> kerchief, E. <i>clout</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To repair by fresh supplies, as anything wasted; to remedy lack or deficiency in; as, food <i>recruits</i> the flesh; fresh air and exercise <i>recruit</i> the spirits.</def></p>

<p><blockquote>Her cheeks glow the brighter, <i>recruiting</i> their color.</blockquote> <i>Glanvill.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence, to restore the wasted vigor of; to renew in strength or health; to reinvigorate.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To supply with new men, as an army; to fill up or make up by enlistment; as, he <i>recruited</i> two regiments; the army was <i>recruited</i> for a campaign; also, to muster; to enlist; as, he <i>recruited</i> fifty men.</def> <i>M. Arnold.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cruit"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To gain new supplies of anything wasted; to gain health, flesh, spirits, or the like; to recuperate; as, lean cattle <i>recruit</i> in fresh pastures.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To gain new supplies of men for military or other service; to raise or enlist new soldiers; to enlist troops.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cruit"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A supply of anything wasted or exhausted; a re&euml;nforcement.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The state is to have <i>recruits</i> to its strength, and remedies to its distempers.</blockquote> <i>Burke.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Specifically, a man enlisted for service in the army; a newly enlisted soldier.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cruit"er</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, recruits.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cruit"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act or process of recruiting; especially, the enlistment of men for an army.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*crys`tal*li*za"tion</hw> (r&emacr;*kr&ibreve;s`t<i>a</i>l*l&ibreve;*z&amacr;"sh&ubreve;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Chem. & Min.)</i> <def>The process or recrystallizing.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*crys"tal*lize</hw> (r&emacr;*kr&ibreve;s"t<i>a</i>l*l&imacr;z), <pos><i>v. i. & t.</i></pos> <i>(Chem. & Min.)</i> <def>To crystallize again.</def> <i>Henry.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"tal</hw> (r?k"t<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to the rectum; in the region of the rectum.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"tan`gle</hw> (r?k"t??`g'l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. L. <i>rectus</i> right + <i>angulus</i> angle. See <u>Right</u>, and <u>Angle</u>.] <i>(Geom.)</i> <def>A four-sided figure having only right angles; a right-angled parallelogram.</def></p> <p>&fist; As the area of a <i>rectangle</i> is expressed by the

product of its two dimensions, the term <i>rectangle</i> is sometimes used for <i>product</i>; as, the <i>rectangle</i> of <i>a</i> and <i>b</i>, that is, <i>ab</i>.</p> <p><hw>Rec"tan`gle</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Rectangular.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Rec"tan`gled</hw> (-g'ld), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Rectangular.</def> <i>Hutton.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec*tan"gu*lar</hw> (r?k*t?n"g?*l?r), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [CF. F. <i>rectangulaire</i>.] <def>Right-angled; having one or more angles of ninety degrees.</def> -- <wf>Rec*tan"gu*lar*ly</wf> (r&?;k*t&?;n"g&?;*l&?;r*l&?;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -<wf>Rec*tan"gu*lar*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Rec*tan`gu*lar"i*ty</hw> (-l?r"?*t?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or condition of being rectangular, or rightangled.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"ti-</hw> (r?k"t?*). [L. <i>rectus</i> straight.] <def>A combining form signifying <i>straight</i>; as, <i>recti</i>lineal, having straight lines; <i>recti</i>nerved.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"ti*fi`a*ble</hw> (r?k"t?*f?`?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Capable of being rectified; as, a <i>rectifiable</i> mistake.</def></p> <p><! p. 1202 !></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Math.)</i> <def>Admitting, as a curve, of the construction of a straight l&?;&?;e equal in length to any definite portion of the curve.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`ti*fi*ca"tion</hw> (r?k`t?*f?*k?1sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>rectification</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act or operation of rectifying; as, the <i>rectification</i> of an error; the <i>rectification</i> of spirits.</def></p> <p><blockquote>After the <i>rectification</i> of his views, he was incapable of compromise with profounder shapes of error.</blockquote> <i>De Quincey.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Geom.)</i> <def>The determination of a straight line whose length is equal a portion of a curve.</def></p> <p><col><b>Rectification of a globe</b></col> <i>(Astron.)</i>, <cd>its adjustment preparatory to the solution of a proposed problem.</cd></p> <p><hw>Rec"ti*fi*ca`tor</hw> (r?k"t?*f?*k?`t?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>That which rectifies or refines; esp., a part of a distilling apparatus in which the more volatile portions are separated from the less volatile by the process of evaporation and condensation; a rectifier.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"ti*fi`er</hw> (r?k"t?*f?`?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who, or that which, rectifies.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <i>(Naut.)</i> An instrument used for determining and rectifying the variations of the compass on board ship. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <i>(Chem.)</i> A rectificator.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"ti*fy</hw> (-f?), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rectified</u> (-f?d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Rectifying</u> (-f?`?ng).] [F. <i>rectifier</i>, LL. <i>rectificare</i>; L. <i>rectus</i> right + <i>-ficare</i> (in comp.) to make. See <u>Right</u>, and <u>-fy</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To make or set right; to correct from a wrong, erroneous, or false state; to amend; as, to <i>rectify</i> errors, mistakes, or abuses; to <i>rectify</i> the will, the judgment, opinions; to <i>rectify</i> disorders.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I meant to <i>rectify</i> my conscience.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>This was an error of opinion which a conflicting opinion would have <i>rectified</i>.</blockquote> <i>Burke.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>To refine or purify by repeated distillation or sublimation, by which the fine parts of a substance are separated from the grosser; as, to <i>rectify</i> spirit of wine.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Com.)</i> <def>To produce ( as factitious gin or brandy) by redistilling low wines or ardent spirits (whisky, rum, etc.), flavoring substances, etc., being added.</def></p> <p><col><b>To rectify a globe</b></col>, <cd>to adjust it in order to prepare for the solution of a proposed problem.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To amend; emend; correct; better; mend; reform; redress; adjust; regulate; improve. See <u>Amend</u>.</p> <p>{ <hw>Rec`ti*lin"e*al</hw> (-l?n"?*<i>a</i>l), <hw>Rec`ti*lin"e*ar</hw> (-l?n"?*?r), } <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<i>Recti-</i> + <i>lineal</i>, <i>linear</i>.] <def>Straight; consisting of a straight line or lines; bounded by straight lines; as, a <i>rectineal</i> angle; a <i>rectilinear</i> figure or course.</def> -- <wf>Rec`ti*lin"e*al*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -<wf>Rec`ti*lin"e*ar*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Rec`ti*lin`e*ar"i*ty</hw> (-?r"?*t?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being rectilinear.</def> <i>Coleridge.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec`ti*lin"e*ous</hw> (-?s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Rectilinear.</def> [Obs.] <i>Ray.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"ti*nerved`</hw> (r?k"t?*n?rrvd`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<i>Recti-</i> + <i>nerve</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Having the veins or nerves straight; -- said of leaves.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"tion</hw> (r?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>rectio</i>, fr. <i>regere</i> to rule or govern.] <i>(Gram.)</i>

<def>See <u>Government</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>, 7.</def> <i>Gibbs.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec`ti*ros"tral</hw> (r?k`t?*r?s"tr<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<i>Recti-</i> + <i>rostral</i>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Having a straight beak.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`ti*se"ri*al</hw> (-s?"r?*<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<i>Recti-</i> + <i>serial</i>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Arranged in exactly vertical ranks, as the leaves on stems of many kinds; -opposed to <i>curviserial</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>||Rec*ti"tis</hw> (r?k*t?"t?s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [NL. See <u>Rectum</u>, and <u>-itis</u>.] <i>(Med.)</i> <def>Proctitis.</def> <i>Dunglison.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"ti*tude</hw> (r?k"t?*t?d), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>rectitudo</i>, fr. <i>rectus</i> right, straight: cf. F. <i>rectitude</i>. See <u>Right</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Straightness.</def> [R.] <i>Johnson.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Rightness of principle or practice; exact conformity to truth, or to the rules prescribed for moral conduct, either by divine or human laws; uprightness of mind; uprightness; integrity; honesty; justice.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Right judgment.</def> [R.] Lewis.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- See <u>Justice</u>.</p> <p><hw>Rec"to-</hw> (r?k"t?*). <def>A combining form indicating <i>connection with</i>, or <i>relation to</i>, <i>the rectum</i>; as, <i>recto</i>-vesical.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"to</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Abbrev. fr. LL. breve de <i>recto</i>. See <u>Right</u>.] <i>(Law)</i> <def>A writ of right.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"to</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>recto</i>.] <i>(Print.)</i> <def>The right-hand page; -- opposed to <i>verso</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"tor</hw> (r?k"t?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L., fr. <i>regere</i>, <i>rectum</i>, to lead straight, to rule: cf. F. <i>recteur</i>. See <u>Regiment</u>, <u>Right</u>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A ruler or governor.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote>God is the supreme <i>rector</i> of the world.</blockquote> <i>Sir M. Hale.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <i>(Ch. of Eng.)</i> <def>A clergyman who has the charge and cure of a parish, and has the tithes, etc.; the clergyman of a parish where the tithes are not impropriate. See the Note under Vicar.</def> <i>Blackstone.</i> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <i>(Prot. Epis. Ch.)</i> <def>A clergyman in charge of a parish.</def></p> <i>Sir G. C.

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>The head master of a public school.</def> [Scot.]</p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>The chief elective officer of some universities, as in France and Scotland; sometimes, the head of a college; as, the <i>Rector</i> of Exeter College, or of Lincoln College, at Oxford.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(R.C.CH.)</i> <def>The superior officer or chief of a convent or religious house; and among the Jesuits the superior of a house that is a seminary or college.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"tor*al</hw> (-<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [CF. F. <i>rectoral</i>.] <def>Pertaining to a rector or governor.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"tor*ate</hw> (-?t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL. <i>rectoratus</i>: cf. F. <i>rectorat</i>.] <def>The office, rank, or station of a rector; rectorship.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"tor*ess</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A governess; a rectrix.</def> <i>Drayton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The wife of a rector.</def> <i>Thackeray.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec*to"ri*al</hw> (r?k*t?"r?*<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Pertaining to a rector or a rectory; rectoral.</def> <i>Shipley.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec"tor*ship</hw> (r?k"t?r*sh?p), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Government; guidance.</def> [Obs.] "The <i>rectorship</i> of judgment." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The office or rank of a rector; rectorate.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"to*ry</hw> (-t?*r?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Rectories</b></plw> (-r&?;z). [Cf. OF. <i>rectorie</i> or <i>rectorerie</i>, LL. <i>rectoria</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The province of a rector; a parish church, parsonage, or spiritual living, with all its rights, tithes, and glebes.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A rector's mansion; a parsonage house.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`to-u"ter*ine</hw> (-?"t?r*?n or *?n), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to both the rectum and the uterus.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`to*vag"i*nal</hw> (r?k`t?*v?j"?*n<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to both the rectum and the vagina.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`to-ves"i*cal</hw> (-v?s"?*k<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to both the rectum and the bladder.</def></p>

<p><hw>Rec"tress</hw> (r?k"tr?s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rectoress.</def> <i>B. Jonson.</i></p> <p><hw>||Rec"trix</hw> (-tr?ks), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Rectrices</b></plw> (-tr&?;"s&?;z). [L., fem. of <i>rector</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A governess; a rectoress.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>One of the quill feathers of the tail of a bird.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec"tum</hw> (-t?m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [NL. (sc. <i>intestinum</i>), fr. L. <i>rectus</i> straight. See <u>Right</u>.] <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>The terminal part of the large intestine; -- so named because supposed by the old anatomists to be straight. See <i>Illust.</i> under <u>Digestive</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>||Rec"tus</hw> (-t?s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Recti</b></plw> (-t&?;). [NL., fr. L. <i>regere</i> to keep straight.] <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>A straight muscle; as, the <i>recti</i> of the eye.</def></p> <p><hw>Rec`u*ba"tion</hw> (r?k`?*b?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recubare</i> to lie upon the back.] <def>Recumbence.</def> [Obs.] <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cule"</hw> (r?*k?l"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To recoil.</def> [Obs.] <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p>{ <hw>Re*cule"</hw> (r?*k?l"), <hw>Re*cule"ment</hw> (m<i>e</i>nt), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>reculement</i>.] <def>Recoil.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re*cumb"</hw> (-k?m"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [L. <i>recumbere</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> back + <i>cumbere</i> (in comp.), akin to <i>cubare</i> to lie down.] <def>To lean; to recline; to repose.</def> [Obs.] <i>J. Allen (1761).</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cum"bence</hw> (r?*k?m"b<i>e</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of leaning, resting, or reclining; the state of being recumbent.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cum"ben*cy</hw> (-b<i>e</i>n*s?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Recumbence.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cum"bent</hw> (-b<i>e</i>t), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>recumbens</i>, <i>-entis</i>, p. pr. of <i>recumbere</i>. See <u>Recumb</u>, <u>Incumbent</u>.] <def>Leaning; reclining; lying; as, the <i>recumbent</i> posture of the Romans at their meals. Hence, figuratively; Resting; inactive; idle.</def> -<wf>Re*cum"bent*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re*cu"per*a*ble</hw> (r?*k?"p?r*?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf.F. <i>r&eacute;cup&?;rable</i>. See <u>Recover</u>.] <def>Recoverable.</def> <i>Sir T. Elyot.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cu"per*ate</hw> (-?t), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. &. p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recuperated</u> (-?`t?d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb.

n.</i></pos> <u>Recuperating</u>.] [L. <i>recuperatus</i>, p. p. of <i>recuperare</i>. See <u>Recover</u> to get again.] <def>To recover health; to regain strength; to convalesce.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cu"per*ate</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To recover; to regain; as, to <i>recuperate</i> the health or strength.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cu`per*a"tion</hw> (-?`sh?n), <pos><i>n..</i></pos> [L. <i>recuperatio</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;cup&?;ration</i>.] <def>Recovery, as of anything lost, especially of the health or strength.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Re*cu"per*a*tive</hw> (-?*t?v), <hw>Re*cu"per*a*to*ry</hw> (?*t?*r?), } <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>recuperativus</i>, <i>recuperatorius</i>.] <def>Of or pertaining to recuperation; tending to recovery.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cu"per*a`tor</hw> (r?*k?"pp?r*?`t?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. L. <i>recuperator</i> a recoverer.] <i>(Steel Manuf.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Regenerator</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cur"</hw> (r?*k?r"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Recurred</u> (-k?rd"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Recurring</u>.] [L. <i>recurrere</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>currere</i> to run. See <u>Current</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To come back; to return again or repeatedly; to come again to mind.</def></p> <p><blockquote>When any word has been used to signify an idea, the old idea will <i>recur</i> in the mind when the word is heard.</blockquote> <i>I. Watts.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To occur at a stated interval, or according to some regular rule; as, the fever will <i>recur</i> tonight.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To resort; to have recourse; to go for help.</def></p> <p><blockquote>If, to avoid succession in eternal existence, they <i>recur</i> to the "punctum stans" of the schools, they will thereby very little help us to a more positive idea of infinite duration.</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i></p> <p><col><b>Recurring decimal</b></col> <i>(Math.)</i>, <cd>a circulating decimal. See under <u>Decimal</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Recurring series</b></col> <i>(Math.)</i>, <cd>an algebraic series in which the coefficients of the several terms can be expressed by means of certain preceding coefficients and constants in one uniform manner.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*cure"</hw> (r?*k?r"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Cf. <u>Recover</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To arrive at; to reach; to attain.</def> [Obs.] <i>Lydgate.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To recover; to regain; to repossess.</def> [Obs.]</p>

<p><blockquote>When their powers, impaired through labor long,<BR> With due repast, they had <i>recured</i> well.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To restore, as from weariness, sickness; or the like; to repair.</def></p> <p><blockquote>In western waves his weary wagon did <i>recure</i>.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To be a cure for; to remedy.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>No medicine<BR> Might avail his sickness to <i>recure</i>.</blockquote> <i>Lydgate.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cure"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Cure; remedy; recovery.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>But whom he hite, without <i>recure</i> he dies.</blockquote> <i>Fairfax.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cure"less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Incapable of cure.</def> [Obs.] <i>Bp. Hall.</i></p> <p>{ <hw>Re*cur"rence</hw> (r?*k?r"r<i>e</i>ns), <hw>Re*cur"ren*cy</hw> (-r<i>e</i>n*s?), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;currence</i>.] <def>The act of recurring, or state of being recurrent; return; resort; recourse.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I shall insensibly go on from a rare to a frequent <i>recurrence</i> to the dangerous preparations.</blockquote> <i>I. Taylor.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cur"rent</hw> (-r<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>recurrens</i>, <i>-entis</i>, p. pr. of <i>recurrere</i>: cf.F. <i>r&eacute;current</i>. See <u>Recur</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Returning from time to time; recurring; as, <i>recurrent</i> pains.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Anat.)</i> <def>Running back toward its origin; as, a <i>recurrent</i> nerve or artery.</def></p> <p><col><b>Recurrent fever</b></col>. <i>(Med.)</i> <cd>See <i>Relapsing fever</i>, under <u>Relapsing</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Recurrent pulse</b></col> <i>(Physiol.)</i>, <cd>the pulse beat which appears (when the radial artery is compressed at the wrist) on the distal side of the point of pressure through the arteries of the palm of the hand.</cd> -- <col><b>Recurrent sensibility</b></col> <i>(Physiol.)</i>, <cd>the sensibility manifested by the anterior, or motor, roots of the spinal cord (their stimulation causing pain) owing to the presence of sensory fibers from the corresponding sensory or posterior roots.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*cur"sant</hw> (r?*k?r"s<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>recursans</i>, <i>-antis</i>, p. pr. of <i>recursare</i> to run back, v. freq. of <i>recurrere</i>. See <u>Recure</u>.] <i>(Her.)</i>

<def>Displayed with the back toward the spectator; -- said especially of an eagle.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cur"sion</hw> (-sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recursio</i>. See <u>Recur</u>.] <def>The act of recurring; return.</def> [Obs.] <i>Boyle.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cur"vate</hw> (r?*k?r"v?t), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>recurvatus</i>, p. p. of <i>recurvare</i>. See <u>Re-</u>, and <u>Curvate</u>.] <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Recurved.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cur"vate</hw> (-v?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To bend or curve back; to recurve.</def> <i>Pennant.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`cur*va"tion</hw> (r?`k?r*v?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of recurving, or the state of being recurved; a bending or flexure backward.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*curve"</hw> (r?*k?rv"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To curve in an opposite or unusual direction; to bend back or down.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*curved"</hw> (r?*k?rvd"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Curved in an opposite or uncommon direction; bent back; as, a bird with a <i>recurved</i> bill; flowers with <i>recurved</i> petals.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cur`vi*ros"ter</hw> (r?*k?r`v?*r?s"t?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recurvus</i> bent back + <i>rostrum</i> beack; cf. F. <i>r&eacute;curvirostre</i>.] <i>(Zool.)</i> <def>A bird whose beak bends upward, as the avocet.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cur`vi*ros"tral</hw> (-tr<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [See <u>Recurviroster</u>.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Having the beak bent upwards.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cur"vi*ty</hw> (r?*k?r"v?*t?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Recurvation.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*cur"vous</hw> (-v?s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>recurvus</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re + <i>curvus</i> curved.] <def>Recurved.</def> <i>Derham.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cu"san*cy</hw> (r?*k?"z<i>a</i>n*s? or r?k"?-), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The state of being recusant; nonconformity.</def> <i>Coke.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cu"sant</hw> (-z<i>a</i>t; 277), <pos><i>a.</i></pos>[L. <i>recusans</i>, <i>-antis</i>, p. pr. of <i>recure</i> to refuse, to oject to; pref. <i>re-</i> re + <i>causa</i> a cause, pretext: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;cusant</i>. See <u>Cause</u>, and cf. <u>Ruse</u>.] <def>Obstinate in refusal; specifically, in English history, refusing to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in the churc, or to conform to the established rites of the church; as, a <i>recusant</i> lord.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It stated him to have placed his son in the household of the Countess of Derby, a <i>recusant</i> papist.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re*cu"sant</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who is obstinate in refusal; one standing out stubbornly against general practice or opinion.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The last rebellious <i>recusants</i> among the European family of nations.</blockquote> <i>De Quincey.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Eng. Hist.)</i> <def>A person who refuses to acknowledge the supremacy of the king in matters of religion; as, a Roman Catholic <i>recusant</i>, who acknowledges the supremacy of the pope.</def> <i>Brande & C.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>One who refuses communion with the Church of England; a nonconformist.</def></p> <p><blockquote>All that are <i>recusants</i> of holy rites.</blockquote> <i>Holyday.</i></p> <p><hw>Rec`u*sa"tion</hw> (r?k`?*z?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recusatio</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;cusation</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Refusal.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Old Law)</i> <def>The act of refusing a judge or challenging that he shall not try the cause, on account of his supposed partiality.</def> <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cu"sa*tive</hw> (r?*k?"z?*t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Refusing; denying; negative.</def> [R.] <i>Jer. Taylor.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cuse"</hw> (r?*k?z"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;cuser</i>, or L. <i>recusare</i>. See <u>Recusant</u>.] <i>(Law)</i> <def>To refuse or reject, as a judge; to challenge that the judge shall not try the cause.</def> [Obs.] <i>Sir K. Digby.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*cus"sion</hw> (r?*k?sh"?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>recutire</i>, <i>recussum</i>, to beat back; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>quatere</i> to shake.] <def>The act of beating or striking back.</def></p> <p><hw>Red</hw> (r&ebreve;d), obs. <def><pos><i>. imp. & p. p.</i></pos> of <u>Read</u>.</def> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Red</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To put on order; to make tidy; also, to free from entanglement or embarrassement; -- generally with <i>up</i>; as, to <i>red</i> up a house.</def> [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]</p> <p><hw>Red</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [<pos><i>Compar.</i></pos> <u>Redder</u> (-d?r); <pos><i>superl.</i></pos> <u>Reddest</u>.] [OE. <i>red</i>, <i>reed</i>, AS. <i>re&aacute;d</i>, <i>re&oacute;d</i>; akin to OS. <i>r&omacr;d</i>, OFries. <i>r&amacr;d</i>, D. <i>rood</i>, G. <i>roht</i>, <i>rot</i>, OHG. <i>r&omacr;t</i>, Dan. & Sw. <i>r&ouml;d</i>, Icel. <i>rau&eth;r</i>, <i>rj&omacr;&eth;r</i>, Goth. <i>r&aacute;uds</i>, W. <i>rhudd</i>, Armor. <i>ruz</i>, Ir. & Gael. <i>ruadh</i>, L. <i>ruber</i>, <i>rufus</i>, Gr. <grk>'eryqro`s</grk>, Skr. <i>rudhira</i>, <i>rohita</i>; cf. L.

<i>rutilus</i>. &radic;113. Cf. <u>Erysipelas</u>, <u>Rouge</u>, <u>Rubric</u>, <u>Ruby</u>, <u>Ruddy</u>, <u>Russet</u>, <u>Rust</u>.] <def>Of the color of blood, or of a tint resembling that color; of the hue of that part of the rainbow, or of the solar spectrum, which is furthest from the violet part.</def> "Fresh flowers, white and <i>reede</i>." <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Your color, I warrant you, is as <i>red</i> as any rose.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p>&fist; <i>Red</i> is a general term, including many different shades or hues, as scarlet, crimson, vermilion, orange red, and the like.</p> <p>&fist; <i>Red</i> is often used in the formation of self-explaining compounds; as, <i>red</i>-breasted, <i>red</i>-cheeked, <i>red</i>faced, <i>red</i>-haired, <i>red</i>-headed, <i>red-</i>skinned, <i>red</i>-tailed, <i>red-</i>topped, <i>red-</i>whiskered, <i>red</i>-coasted.</p> <p><col><b>Red admiral</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a beautiful butterfly (<i>Vanessa Atalanta</i>) common in both Europe and America. The front wings are crossed by a broad orange red band. The larva feeds on nettles. Called also <i>Atalanta butterfly</i>, and <i>nettle butterfly</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red ant</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>A very small ant (<i>Myrmica molesta</i>) which often infests houses</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>A larger reddish ant (<i>Formica sanguinea</i>), native of Europe and America. It is one of the slave-making species.</cd> -- <col><b>Red antimony</b></col> <i>(Min.)</i>, <cd>kermesite. See <i>Kermes mineral</i> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd>, under <u>Kermes</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Red ash</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>an American tree (<i>Fraxinus pubescens</i>), smaller than the white ash, and less valuable for timber.</cd> <i>Cray.</i> -- <col><b>Red bass</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>See <u>Redfish</u> <sd><i>(d)</i></sd>.</cd> - <col><b>Red bay</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a tree (<i>Persea Caroliniensis</i>) having the heartwood red, found in swamps in the Southern United States.</cd> -- <col><b>Red beard</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a bright red sponge (<i>Microciona prolifera</i>), common on oyster shells and stones.</cd> [Local, U.S.] -- <col><b>Red birch</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a species of birch (<i>Betula nigra</i>) having reddish brown bark, and compact, lightcolored wood.</cd> <i>Gray.</i> -- <col><b>Red blindness</b></col>. <i>(Med.)</i> <cd>See <u>Daltonism</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red book</b></col>, <cd>a book containing the names of all the persons in the service of the state.</cd> [Eng.] -- <col><b>Red book of the Exchequer</b></col>, <cd>an ancient record in which are registered the names of all that held lands <i>per baroniam</i> in the time of Henry II.</cd> <i>Brande & C.</i> -- <col><b>Red brass</b></col>, <cd>an alloy containing eight parts of copper and three of zinc.</cd> -<col><b>Red bug</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>A very small mite which in Florida attacks man, and produces great irritation by its bites</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>A red hemipterous insect of the genus <i>Pyrrhocoris</i>, especially the European species (<i>P. apterus</i>), which is bright scarlet and lives in clusters on tree trunks.</cd> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <cd>See <i>Cotton stainder</i>, under <u>Cotton</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red cedar</b></col>. <i>(Bot.)</i> <cd>An evergreen North American tree

(<i>Juniperus Virginiana</i>) having a fragrant red-colored heartwood.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>A tree of India and Australia (<i>Cedrela Toona</i>) having fragrant reddish wood; -- called also <i>toon tree</i> in India.</cd> <! p. 1203 !> -- <col><b>Red chalk</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Chalk</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red copper</b></col> <i>(Min.)</i>, <cd>red oxide of copper; cuprite.</cd> -- <col><b>Red coral</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the precious coral (<i>Corallium rubrum</i>). See <i>Illusts.</i> of <u>Coral</u> and <u>Gorgonlacea</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red cross</b></col>. <cd>The cross of St. George, the national emblem of the English.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>The Geneva cross. See <i>Geneva convention</i>, and <i>Geneva cross</i>, under <u>Geneva</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Red currant</b></col>. <i>(Bot.)</i> <cd>See <u>Currant</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red deer</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>The common stag (<i>Cervus elaphus</i>), native of the forests of the temperate parts of Europe and Asia. It is very similar to the American elk, or wapiti.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>The Virginia deer. See <u>Deer</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Red duck</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a European reddish brown duck (<i>Fuligula nyroca</i>); -- called also <i>ferruginous duck</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red ebony</b></col>. <i>(Bot.)</i> <cd>See <u>Grenadillo</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red empress</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a butterfly. See <u>Tortoise shell</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red fir</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a coniferous tree (<i>Pseudotsuga Douglasii</i>) found from British Columbia to Texas, and highly valued for its durable timber. The name is sometimes given to other coniferous trees, as the Norway spruce and the American <i>Abies magnifica</i> and <i>A. nobilis</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red fire</b></col>. <i>(Pyrotech.)</i> <cd>See <i>Blue fire</i>, under <u>Fire</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red flag</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Flag</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red fox</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the common American fox (<i>Vulpes fulvus</i>), which is usually reddish in color.</cd> -- <col><b>Red grouse</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the Scotch grouse, or ptarmigan. See under <u>Ptarmigan</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red gum</b></col>, or <col><b>Red gum-tree</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a name given to eight Australian species of <i>Eucalyptus</i> (<i>Eucalyptus amygdalina</i>, <i>resinifera</i>, etc.) which yield a reddish gum resin. See <u>Eucalyptus</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red hand</b></col> <i>(Her.)</i>, <cd>a left hand appaum&eacute;, fingers erect, borne on an escutcheon, being the mark of a baronet of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; -- called also <i>Badge of Ulster</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red herring</b></col>, <cd>the common herring dried and smoked.</cd> -<col><b>Red horse</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>Any large American red fresh-water sucker, especially <i>Moxostoma macrolepidotum</i> and allied species</cd>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>See the Note under <u>Drumfish</u>. -- <col><b>Red lead</b></col>. <sd><i>(Chem)</i></sd> See under <u>Lead</u>, and <u>Minium</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red-lead ore</b></col>. <i>(Min.)</i> <cd>Same as <u>Crocoite</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red liquor</b></col> <i>(Dyeing)</i>, <cd>a solution consisting essentially of aluminium acetate, used as a mordant in the fixation of dyestuffs on vegetable fiber; -- so called because used originally for red dyestuffs. Called also <i>red mordant</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red maggot</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the larva of the wheat midge.</cd> -- <col><b>Red manganese</b></col>. <i>(Min.)</i> <cd>Same as <u>Rhodochrosite</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red man</b></col>, <cd>one of the American Indians; -- so called from his color.</cd> -- <col><b>Red

maple</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a species of maple (<i>Acer rubrum</i>). See <u>Maple</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red mite</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>See <i>Red spider</i>, below.</cd> -<col><b>Red mulberry</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>an American mulberry of a dark purple color (<i>Morus rubra</i>).</cd> -- <col><b>Red mullet</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the surmullet. See <u>Mullet</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red ocher</b></col> <i>(Min.)</i>, <cd>a soft earthy variety of hematite, of a reddish color.</cd> -<col><b>Red perch</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the rosefish.</cd> -- <col><b>Red phosphorus</b></col>. <i>(Chem.)</i> <cd>See under <u>Phosphorus</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red pine</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>an American species of pine (<i>Pinus resinosa</i>); -- so named from its reddish bark.</cd> -- <col><b>Red precipitate</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Precipitate</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Red Republican</b></col> <i>(European Politics)</i>, <cd>originally, one who maintained extreme republican doctrines in France, -- because a red liberty cap was the badge of the party; an extreme radical in social reform.</cd> [Cant] -- <col><b>Red ribbon</b></col>, <cd>the ribbon of the Order of the Bath in England.</cd> -- <col><b>Red sanders</b></col>. <i>(Bot.)</i> <cd>See <u>Sanders</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red sandstone</b></col>. <i>(Geol.)</i> <cd>See under <u>Sandstone</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red scale</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a scale insect (<i>Aspidiotus aurantii</i>) very injurious to the orange tree in California and Australia.</cd> -- <col><b>Red silver</b></col> <i>(Min.)</i>, <cd>an ore of silver, of a ruby-red or reddish black color. It includes <i>proustite</i>, or light red silver, and <i>pyrargyrite</i>, or dark red silver.</cd> -- <col><b>Red snapper</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a large fish (<i>Lutlanus aya or Blackfordii</i>) abundant in the Gulf of Mexico and about the Florida reefs.</cd> -- <col><b>Red snow</b></col>, <cd>snow colored by a mocroscopic unicellular alga (<i>Protococcus nivalis</i>) which produces large patches of scarlet on the snows of arctic or mountainous regions.</cd> -- <col><b>Red softening</b></col> <i>(Med.)</i> <cd>a form of cerebral softening in which the affected parts are red, -- a condition due either to infarction or inflammation.</cd> -- <col><b>Red spider</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a very small web-spinning mite (<i>Tetranychus telarius</i>) which infests, and often destroys, plants of various kinds, especially those cultivated in houses and conservatories. It feeds mostly on the under side of the leaves, and causes them to turn yellow and die. The adult insects are usually pale red. Called also <i>red mite</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Red squirrel</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>the chickaree.</cd> -<col><b>Red tape</b></col>, <cd>the tape used in public offices for tying up documents, etc.; hence, official formality and delay.</cd> -<col><b>Red underwing</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>any species of noctuid moths belonging to <i>Catacola</i> and allied genera. The numerous species are mostly large and handsomely colored. The under wings are commonly banded with bright red or orange.</cd> -<col><b>Red water</b></col>, <cd>a disease in cattle, so called from an appearance like blood in the urine.</cd></p> <p><hw>Red</hw> (r?d), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The color of blood, or of that part of the spectrum farthest from violet, or a tint resembling these.</def> "Celestial rosy <i>red</i>, love's proper hue." <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A red pigment.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(European Politics)</i> <def>An abbreviation for <i>Red Republican</i>. See under Red, <pos><i>a.</i></pos></def> [Cant]</p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>pl.</i> <i>(Med.)</i> <def>The menses.</def> <i>Dunglison.</i></p> <p><col><b>English red</b></col>, <cd>a pigment prepared by the Dutch, similar to Indian red.</cd> -- <col><b>Hypericum red</b></col>, <cd>a red resinous dyestuff extracted from Hypericum.</cd> -- <col><b>Indian red</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Indian</u>, and <u>Almagra</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*dact"</hw> (r?*d?kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [L. <i>redactus</i>, p. p. of <i>redigere</i>; pref. <i>red-</i>, <i>re</i>, again, back + <i>agere</i> to put in motion, to drive.] <def>To reduce to form, as literary matter; to digest and put in shape (matter for publication); to edit.</def></p> <p><hw>||R&eacute;`dac`teur"</hw> (r&asl;`d&adot;k`t&etilde;r"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F.] <def>See <u>Redactor</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*dac"tion</hw> (r?*d?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;daction</i>.] <def>The act of redacting; work produced by redacting; a digest.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*dac"tor</hw> (-t?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who redacts; one who prepares matter for publication; an editor.</def> <i>Carlyle.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*dan"</hw> (r?*d?n"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., for OF. <i>redent</i> a double notching or jagging, as in the teeth of a saw, fr. L. pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>dens</i>, <i>dentis</i>, a tooth. Cf. <u>Redented</u>.] [Written sometimes <i>redent</i> and <i>redens</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Fort.)</i> <def>A work having two parapets whose faces unite so as to form a salient angle toward the enemy.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A step or vertical offset in a wall on uneven ground, to keep the parts level.</def></p> <p><hw>Red*ar"gue</hw> (r?d*?r"g?), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Redargued</u> (-g?d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Redarguing</u>.] [L. <i>redarguere</i>; pref. <i>red-</i>, <i>re-</i> re- + <i>arguere</i> to accuse, charge with: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;darguer</i>.] <def>To disprove; to refute; toconfute; to reprove; to convict.</def> [Archaic]</p> <p><blockquote>How shall I . . . suffer that God should <i>redargue</i> me at doomsday, and the angels reproach my lukewarmness?</blockquote> <i>Jer. Taylor.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Now this objection to the immediate cognition of external objects has, as far as I know, been <i>redargued</i> in three different ways.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Hamilton.</i></p> <p><hw>Red`ar*gu"tion</hw> (r?d`?r*g?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L.

<i>redargutio</i>.] <def>The act of redarguing; refutation.</def> [Obs. or R.] <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><hw>Red`ar*gu"to*ry</hw> (-t?*r?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Pertaining to, or containing, redargution; refutatory.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Red"back`</hw> (r?d"b?k`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The dunlin.</def> [U. S.]</p> <p><hw>Red"bel`ly</hw> (-b?l`l?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The char.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"bird`</hw> (-b?rd`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The cardinal bird.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The summer redbird (<i>Piranga rubra</i>).</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>The scarlet tanager. See <u>Tanager</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"breast`</hw> (-br?st`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The European robin.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The American robin. See <u>Robin</u>.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>The knot, or red-breasted snipe; -- called also <i>robin breast</i>, and <i>robin snipe</i>. See <u>Knot</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The long-eared pondfish. See <u>Pondfish</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"bud`</hw> (-b?d`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A small ornamental leguminous tree of the American species of the genus <i>Cercis</i>. See <i>Judas tree</i>, under <u>Judas</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"cap`</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l)</i> <def>The European goldfinch.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A specter having long teeth, popularly supposed to haunt old castles in Scotland.</def> [Scot.] <i>Jamieson.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"coat`</hw> (-k&omacr;t`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who wears a red coat; specifically, a red-coated British soldier.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"de</hw> (-de), <def><pos><i>obs. imp.</i></pos> of <u>Read</u>, or <u>Rede</u>.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"den</hw> (r?d"d'n), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reddened</u> (-d'nd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reddening</u>.] [From <u>Red</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>] <def>To make red or somewhat red; to give a red color to.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"den</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To grow or become red; to blush.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Appius <i>reddens</i> at each word you

speak.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><blockquote>He no sooner saw that her eye glistened and her cheek <i>reddened</i> than his obstinacy was at once subbued.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. SCott.</i></p> <p><hw>||Red*den"dum</hw> (r?d*d?n"d?m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Neut. of L. <i>reddendus</i> that must be given back or yielded, gerundive of <i>reddere</i>. See <u>Reddition</u>.] <i>(Law)</i> <def>A clause in a deed by which some new thing is reserved out of what had been granted before; the clause by which rent is reserved in a lease.</def> <i>Cruise.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"dish</hw> (r?d"d?sh), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Somewhat red; moderately <u>red</u>.</def> -- <wf>Red"dish*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Red*di"tion</hw> (r?d*d?sh"?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>[L. <i>redditio</i>, fr. <i>reddere</i> to give back, to return: cf. F. <i>reddition</i>. See <u>Render</u>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Restoration: restitution: surrender.</def> <i>Howell.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Explanation; representation.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote>The <i>reddition</i> or application of the comparison.</blockquote> <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"di**tive</hw> (r?d"d?*t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>redditivus</i>.] <i>(Gram.)</i> <def>Answering to an interrogative or inquiry; conveying a reply; as, <i>redditive</i> words.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"dle</hw> (r?d"d'l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From <u>Red</u>; cf. G. <i>r&?;thel</i>. Cf. <u>Ruddle</u>.] <i>(Min.)</i> <def>Red chalk. See under <u>Chalk</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"dour</hw> (r?d"d?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>raideur</i>, fr. <i>raide</i> stiff.] <def>Rigor; violence.</def> [Obs.] <i>Gower.</i></p> <p><hw>Rede</hw> (r?d), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [See <u>Read</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To advise or counsel.</def> [Obs. or Scot.]</p> <p><blockquote>I <i>rede</i> that our host here shall begin.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To interpret; to explain.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>My sweven [dream] <i>rede</i> aright.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Rede</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Read</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Advice; counsel; suggestion.</def> [Obs. or Scot.] <i>Burns.</i></p> <p><blockquote>There was none other remedy ne

<i>reed</i>.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A word or phrase; a motto; a proverb; a wise saw.</def> [Obs.] "This <i>rede</i> is rife." <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*deem"</hw> (r?*d?m"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Redeemed</u>. (-d&?;md"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Redeeming</u>.] [F. <i>r&eacute;dimer</i>, L. <i>redimere</i>; pref. <i>red-</i>, <i>re-</i> re- + <i>emere</i>, <i>emptum</i>, to buy, originally, to take, cf. OIr. <i>em</i> (in comp.), Lith. <i>imti</i>. Cf. <u>Assume</u>, <u>Consume</u>, <u>Exempt</u>, <u>Premium</u>, <u>Prompt</u>, <u>Ransom</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To purchase back; to regain possession of by payment of a stipulated price; to repurchase.</def></p> <p><blockquote>If a man sell a dwelling house in a walled city, then he may <i>redeem</i> it within a whole year after it is sold.</blockquote> <i>Lev. xxv. 29.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> Hence, specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <i>(Law)</i> <def>To recall, as an estate, or to regain, as mortgaged property, by paying what may be due by force of the mortgage.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <i>(Com.)</i> <def>To regain by performing the obligation or condition stated; to discharge the obligation mentioned in, as a promissory note, bond, or other evidence of debt; as, to <i>redeem</i> bank notes with coin.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To ransom, liberate, or rescue from captivity or bondage, or from any obligation or liability to suffer or to be forfeited, by paying a price or ransom; to ransom; to rescue; to recover; as, to <i>redeem</i> a captive, a pledge, and the like.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Redeem</i> Israel, O God, out of all his troubles.</blockquote> <i>Ps. xxv. 22.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The Almighty from the grave<BR> Hath me <i>redeemed</i>.</blockquote> <i>Sandys.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Theol.)</i> <def>Hence, to rescue and deliver from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God's violated law.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Christ hath <i>redeemed</i> us from the curse of the law, being made a curse for us.</blockquote> <i>Gal. iii. 13.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To make good by performing fully; to fulfill; as, to <i>redeem</i> one's promises.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I will <i>redeem</i> all this on Percy's head.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>To pay the penalty of; to make amends for; to serve as an equivalent or offset for; to atone for; to compensate; as, to <i>redeem</i> an error.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Which of ye will be mortal, to <i>redeem</i><BR>

Man's mortal crime?</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>It is a chance which does <i>redeem</i> all sorrows.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><col><b>To redeem the time</b></col>, <cd>to make the best use of it.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*deem`a*bil"i*ty</hw> (-?*b?l"?*t?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Redeemableness.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*deem"a*ble</hw> (-?*b;l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Capable of being redeemed; subject to repurchase; held under conditions permitting redemption; as, a pledge securing the payment of money is <i>redeemable</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Subject to an obligation of redemtion; conditioned upon a promise of redemtion; payable; due; as, bonds, promissory notes, etc. , <i>redeemabble</i> in gold, or in current money, or four months after date.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*deem"a*ble*ness</hw> (r?*d?m"?*b'l*n?s), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or state of being redeemable; redeemability.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*deem"er</hw> (r?*d?m"?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who redeems.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Specifically, the Savior of the world, Jesus Christ.</def></p> <p><hw>Rede"less</hw> (r?d"l?s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Without rede or counsel.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re`de*lib"er*ate</hw> (r?`d?*l?b"?r*?t), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To deliberate again; to reconsider.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`de*liv"er</hw> (r?`d?*l?v"?r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To deliver or give back; to return.</def> <i>Ay&?;iffe.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To deliver or liberate a second time or again.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To report; to deliver the answer of.</def> [R.] "Shall I <i>redeliver</i> you e'en so?" <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`de*liv"er*ance</hw> (-<i>a</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second deliverance.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`de*liv"er*y</hw> (-?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Act of delivering back.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A second or new delivery or liberation.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`de*mand"</hw> (r?`d&fist;-m?nd"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> back, again + <i>demand</i>: cf. F.

<i>redemander</i>.] <def>To demand back; to demand again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`de*mand"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A demanding back; a second or renewed demand.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`de*mise"</hw> (-m?z"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To demise back; to convey or transfer back, as an estate.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`de*mise"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>The transfer of an estate back to the person who demised it; reconveyance; as, the demise and <i>redemise</i> of an estate. See under <u>Demise</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*dem"on*strate</hw> (r?*d?m"?n*str?t or r?`d?*m?n"-str?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To demonstrate again, or anew.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Every truth of morals must be <i>redemonstrated</i> in the experience of the individual man before he is capable of utilizing it as a constituent of character or a guide in action.</blockquote> <i>Lowell.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*demp"ti*ble</hw> (r?*d?mp"t?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Redeemable.</def></p> <p><hw>Re-demp"tion</hw> (-sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;demption</i>, L. <i>redemptio</i>. See <u>Redeem</u>, and cf. <u>Ransom</u>.] <def>The act of redeeming, or the state of being redeemed; repurchase; ransom; release; rescue; deliverance; as, the <i>redemption</i> of prisoners taken in war; the <i>redemption</i> of a ship and cargo.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <i>(Law)</i> <def>The liberation of an estate from a mortgage, or the taking back of property mortgaged, upon performance of the terms or conditions on which it was conveyed; also, the right of redeeming and re&euml;ntering upon an estate mortgaged. See <i>Equity of redemption</i>, under <u>Equity</u>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <i>(Com.)</i> <def>Performance of the obligation stated in a note, bill, bond, or other evidence of debt, by making payment to the holder.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <i>(Theol.)</i> <def>The procuring of God's favor by the sufferings and death of Christ; the ransom or deliverance of sinners from the bondage of sin and the penalties of God's violated law.</def></p> <p><blockquote>In whom we have <i>redemption</i> through his blood.</blockquote> <i>Eph. i. 7.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*demp"tion*a*ry</hw> (-?*r?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who is, or may be, redeemed.</def> [R.] <i>Hakluyt.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*demp"tion*er</hw> (-?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who redeems himself, as from debt or servitude.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Formerly, one who, wishing to emigrate from Europe to America, sold his services for a stipulated time to pay the expenses of his passage.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*demp"tion*ist</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(R.C.Ch.)</i> <def>A monk of an order founded in 1197; -- so called because the

order was especially devoted to the redemption of Christians held in captivity by the Mohammedans. Called also <i>Trinitarian</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*demp"tive</hw> (-t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Serving or tending to redeem; redeeming; as, the <i>redemptive</i> work of Christ.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*demp"tor*ist</hw> (-t?r*?st), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;demptoriste</i>, fr. L. <i>redemptor</i> redeemer, from <i>redinere</i>. See <u>Redeem</u>.] <i>(R.C.Ch.)</i> <def>One of the Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer, founded in Naples in 1732 by St. Alphonsus Maria de Liquori. It was introduced onto the United States in 1832 at Detroit. The Fathers of the Congregation devote themselves to preaching to the neglected, esp. in missions and retreats, and are forbidden by their rule to engage in the instruction of youth.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*demp"to*ry</hw> (-t?*r?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Paid for ransom; serving to redeem.</def> "Hector's <i>redemptory</i> price." <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*demp"ture</hw> (-t?r; 135), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Redemption.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re*dent"ed</hw> (r?*d?nt"?d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [From OF. <i>redent</i>. See <u>Redan</u>.] <def>Formed like the teeth of a saw; indented.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`de*pos"it</hw> (r?`d?*p?z"?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To deposit again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`de*scend"</hw> (-s?nd"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>descend</i>: cf. F. <i>redescendre</i>.] <def>To descend again.</def> <i>Howell.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"eye`</hw> (r?d"?`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The rudd.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>Same as <u>Redfish</u> <sd><i>(d)</i></sd>.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>The goggle-eye, or fresh-water rock bass.</def> [Local, U.S.] </p> <p><hw>Red"fin`</hw> (-f?n`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A small North American dace (<i>Minnilus cornutus</i>, or <i>Notropis megalops</i>). The male, in the breeding season, has bright red fins. Called also <i>red dace</i>, and <i>shiner</i>. Applied also to <i>Notropis ardens</i>, of the Mississippi valley.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"finch`</hw> (-f&ibreve;nch`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The European linnet.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"fish`</hw> (r&ebreve;d"f&ibreve;sh`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The blueback salmon of the North Pacific; -- called also <i>nerka</i>. See <u>Blueback</u> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The rosefish.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>A large California labroid

food fish (<i>Trochocopus pulcher</i>); -- called also <i>fathead</i>.</def> <sd><i>(d)</i></sd> <def>The red bass, red drum, or drumfish. See the Note under <u>Drumfish</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"-gum`</hw> (-g?m`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>reed gounde</i>; AS. <i>re&aacute;d</i> red + <i>gund</i> matter, pus.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Med.)</i> <def>An eruption of red pimples upon the face, neck, and arms, in early infancy; tooth rash; strophulus.</def> <i>Good.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A name of rust on grain. See <u>Rust</u>.</def></p> <p><! p. 1204 !></p> <p>{ <hw>Red"-hand`</hw> (r?d"h?nd`), <hw>Red"-hand`ed</hw> (h?nd`?d), } <pos><i>a. or adv.</i></pos> <def>Having hands red with blood; in the very act, as if with red or bloody hands; -- said of a person taken in the act of homicide; hence, fresh from the commission of crime; as, he was taken <i>red-hand</i> or <i>red-handed</i>.</def> </p> <p><hw>Red"head`</hw> (-h?d`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A person having red hair.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>An American duck (<i>Aythya Americana</i>) highly esteemed as a game bird. It is closely allied to the canvasback, but is smaller and its head brighter red. Called also <i>red-headed duck</i>. <i>American poachard</i>, <i>grayback</i>, and <i>fall duck</i>. See <i>Illust.</i> under <u>Poachard</u>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The red-headed woodpecker. See <u>Woodpecker</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A kind of milkweed (<i>Asclepias Curassavica</i>) with red flowers. It is used in medicine.</def></p> <p><hw>Red`hi*bi"tion</hw> (r?d`h?*b?sh"?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>redhibitio</i> a taking back.] <i>(Civil Law)</i> <def>The annulling of a sale, and the return by the buyer of the article sold, on account of some defect.</def></p> <p><hw>Red*hib"i*to*ry</hw> (r?d*h?b"?*t?*r?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>redhibitorius</i>.] <i>(Civil Law)</i> <def>Of or pertaining to redhibition; as, a <i>redhibitory</i> action or fault.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"hoop`</hw> (r?d"h??p`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The male of the European bullfinch.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Red"horn`</hw> (-h?rn`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Any species of a tribe of butterflies (<i>Fugacia</i>) including the common yellow species and the cabbage butterflies. The antenn&aelig; are usually red.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"-hot`</hw> (-h?t`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Red with heat; heated to redness; as, <i>red-hot</i> iron; <i>red-hot</i> balls. Hence, figuratively, excited; violent; as, a <i>red-hot</i>



<p><hw>||Re"di*a</hw> (r?"d?*?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> L. <plw><b>Redi&aelig;</b></plw> (-&emacr;), E. <plw><b>Redias</b></plw> (-&?;z). [NL.; of uncertain origin.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A kind of larva, or nurse, which is prroduced within the sporocyst of certain trematodes by asexual generation. It in turn produces, in the same way, either another generation of redi&aelig;, or else cercari&aelig; within its own body. Called also <i>proscolex</i>, and <i>nurse</i>. See <i>Illustration</i> in Appendix.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"di*ent</hw> (r?"d?-<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>rediens</i>, p. pr. of <i>redire</i> to return; pref. <i>red-</i> + <i>ire</i> to go.] <def>Returning.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Re`di*gest"</hw> (r?`d?*j?st"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To digest, or reduce to form, a second time.</def> <i>Kent.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`di*min"ish</hw> (-m?n"?sh), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To diminish again.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"in*gote</hw> (r&ebreve;d"&ibreve;n*g&omacr;t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., corrupted from E. <i>riding coat</i>.] <def>A long plain double-breasted outside coat for women.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*din"te*grate</hw> (r?*d?n"t?*gr?t), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>redintegratus</i>, p. p. of <i>redintegrare</i> to restore; pref. <i>red-</i>, <i>re-</i>, re- + <i>integrare</i> to make whole, to renew, fr. <i>integer</i> whole. See <u>Integer</u>.] <def>Restored to wholeness or a perfect state; renewed.</def> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*din"te*grate</hw> (-gr?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To make whole again; a renew; to restore to integrity or soundness.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The English nation seems obliterated. What could <i>redintegrate</i> us again?</blockquote> <i>Coleridge.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*din`te*gra"tion</hw> (-gr?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>redintegratio</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Restoration to a whole or sound state; renewal; renovation.</def> <i>Dr. H. More.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>Restoration of a mixed body or matter to its former nature and state.</def> [Achaic.] <i>Coxe.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Psychology)</i> <def>The law that objects which have been previously combined as part of a single mental state tend to recall or suggest one another; -- adopted by many philosophers to explain the phenomena of the association of ideas.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`di*rect"</hw> (r?`d?*r?kt"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>Applied to the examination of a witness, by the party calling him, after the cross-examination.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`dis*burse"</hw> (r?`d?s*b?rs"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To disburse anew; to give, or pay, back.</def> <i>Spenser.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re`dis*cov"er</hw> (-k?v"?r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To discover again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`dis*pose"</hw> (-p?z"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To dispose anew or again; to readjust; to rearrange.</def> <i>A. Baxter.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`dis*seize"</hw> (-s?z"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>To disseize anew, or a second time.</def> [Written also <i>redisseise</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Re`dis*sei"zin</hw> (-s?"z?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>A disseizin by one who once before was adjudged to have dassezed the same person of the same lands, etc.; also, a writ which lay in such a case.</def> <i>Blackstone.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`dis*sei"zor</hw> (-z?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Law)</i> <def>One who redisseizes.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`dis*solve"</hw> (r?`d?z*z?lv"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To dissolve again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`dis*till"</hw> (r?`d?s*t?l"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To distill again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`dis*train"er</hw> (-tr?n"?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who distrains again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`dis*trib"ute</hw> (-tr?b"?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To distribute again.</def></p> <p>-- <wf>Re*dis`tri*bu"tion</wf> (-tr&?;*b&?;"sh&?;n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re*dis"trict</hw> (-tr?kt), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To divide into new districts.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*di"tion</hw> (r?*d?sh"?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>reditio</i>, fr. <i>redire</i>. See <u>Redient</u>.] <def>Act of returning; return.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chapman.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`di*vide"</hw> (r?`d?*v?d"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To divide anew.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Red"leg`</hw> (r?d"l?g`), <hw>Red`legs`</hw> (-l?gz`), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The redshank.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The turnstone.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"-let`ter</hw> (-l?t`t?r), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Of or pertaining to a red letter; marked by red letters.</def></p> <p><col><b>Red-letter day</b></col>, <cd>a day that is fortunate or auspicious; -- so called in allusion to the custom of marking holy days, or saints' days, in the old calendars with red letters.</cd></p> <p><hw>Red"ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a red manner; with redness.</def></p>

<p><hw>Red"mouth`</hw> (-mouth`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Any one of several species of marine food fishes of the genus <i>Diabasis</i>, or <i>H&aelig;mulon</i>, of the Southern United States, having the inside of the mouth bright red. Called also <i>flannelmouth</i>, and <i>grunt</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>re&aacute;dness</i>. See <u>Red</u>.] <def>The quality or state of being red; red color.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Red"o*lence</hw> (r?d"?*l<i>e</i>ns), <hw>Red"o*len*cy</hw> (-l<i>e</i>n*s?), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality of being redolent; sweetness of scent; pleasant odor; fragrance.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"o*lent</hw> (-l<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>redolens</i>, <i>-entis</i>, p. pr. of <i>redolere</i> to emit a scent, diffuse an odor; pref. <i>red-</i>, <i>re-</i>, re- + <i>olere</i> to emit a smell. See <u>Odor</u>.] <def>Diffusing odor or fragrance; spreading sweet scent; scented; odorous; smelling; -usually followed by <i>of</i>.</def> "Honey <i>redolent</i> of spring." <i>Dryden.</i> -- <wf>Red"o*lent*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><blockquote>Gales . . . <i>redolent</i> of joy and youth.</blockquote> <i>Gray.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*dou"ble</hw> (r?*d?b"'l), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>double</i>: cf. F. <i>redoubler</i>. Cf. <u>Reduplicate</u>.] <def>To double again or repeatedly; to increase by continued or repeated additions; to augment greatly; to multiply.</def></p> <p><blockquote>So they<BR> Doubly <i>redoubled</i> strokes upon the foe.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*dou"ble</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To become greatly or repeatedly increased; to be multiplied; to be greatly augmented; as, the noise <i>redoubles</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*doubt"</hw> (r?*dout"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>redoute</i>, fem., It. <i>ridotto</i>, LL. <i>reductus</i>, literally, a retreat, from L. <i>reductus</i> drawn back, retired, p. p. of <i>reducere</i> to lead or draw back; cf. F. <i>r&eacute;duit</i>, also fr. LL. <i>reductus</i>. See <u>Reduce</u>, and cf. <u>Reduct</u>, <u>R&eacute;duit</u>, <u>Ridotto</u>.] <i>(Fort.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A small, and usually a roughly constructed, fort or outwork of varying shape, commonly erected for a temporary purpose, and without flanking defenses, -- used esp. in fortifying tops of hills and passes, and positions in hostile territory.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>In permanent works, an outwork placed within another outwork. See <i>F</i> and <i>i</i> in <i>Illust.</i> of <u>Ravelin</u>.</def> [Written also <i>redout</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Re*doubt"</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>redouter</i>, formerly also spelt <i>redoubter</i>; fr. L. pref. <i>re-</i> re- +

<i>dubitare</i> to doubt, in LL., to fear. See <u>Doubt</u>.] <def>To stand in dread of; to regard with fear; to dread.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Re*doubt"a*ble</hw> (-?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [F. <i>redoutable</i>, formerly also spelt <i>redoubtable</i>.] <def>Formidable; dread; terrible to foes; as, a <i>redoubtable</i> hero; hence, valiant; -- often in contempt or burlesque.</def> [Written also <i>redoutable</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Re*doubt"ed</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Formidable; dread.</def> "Some <i>redoubted</i> knight." <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Lord regent, and <i>redoubted</i> Burgandy.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*doubt"ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Reverence; honor.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>In <i>redoutyng</i> of Mars and of his glory.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*dound"</hw> (r?*dound"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Redounded</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Redounding</u>.] [F. <i>redonder</i>, L. <i>redundare</i>; pref. <i>red</i>-, <i>re-</i>, re- + <i>undare</i> to rise in waves or surges, fr. <i>unda</i> a wave. See <u>Undulate</u>, and cf. <u>Redundant</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To roll back, as a wave or flood; to be sent or driven back; to flow back, as a consequence or effect; to conduce; to contribute; to result.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The evil, soon<BR> Driven back, <i>redounded</i> as a flood on those<BR> From whom it sprung.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The honor done to our religion ultimately <i>redounds</i> to God, the author of it.</blockquote> <i>Rogers.</i></p> <p><blockquote> both . . . will devour great quantities of paper, there will no small use <i>redound</i> from them to that manufacture.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To be in excess; to remain over and above; to be redundant; to overflow.</def></p> <p><blockquote>For every dram of honey therein found,<BR> A pound of gall doth over it <i>redound</i>.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*dound"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The coming back, as of consequence or effect; result; return; requital.</def></p> <p><blockquote>We give you welcome; not without <i>redound</i><BR> Of use and glory to yourselves ye come.</blockquote> <i>Tennyson.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Rebound; reverberation.</def> [R.] <i>Codrington.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"ow*a</hw> (r?d"?*?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F., fr. Bohemian.] <def>A Bohemian dance of two kinds, one in triple time, like a waltz, the other in two-four time, like a polka. The former is most in use.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"pole`</hw> (r?d"p?l`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Redpoll</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"poll`</hw> (-p?l`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Any one of several species of small northern finches of the genus <i>Acanthis</i> (formerly <i>&AElig;giothus</i>), native of Europe and America. The adults have the crown red or rosy. The male of the most common species (<i>A. linarius</i>) has also the breast and rump rosy. Called also <i>redpoll linnet</i>. See <i>Illust.</i> under <u>Linnet</u>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The common European linnet.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>The American redpoll warbler (<i>Dendroica palmarum</i>).</def></p> <p><hw>Re*draft"</hw> (r&emacr;*dr&adot;ft"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To draft or draw anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*draft"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A second draft or copy.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Com.)</i> <def>A new bill of exchange which the holder of a protected bill draws on the drawer or indorsers, in order to recover the amount of the protested bill with costs and charges.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*draw"</hw> (r?*dr?"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp.</i></pos> <u>Redrew</u> (-dr?");<pos><i>p. p.</i></pos> <u>Redrawn</u> (-dr&fist;n"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Redrawing</u>.] <def>To draw again; to make a second draft or copy of; to redraft.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*draw"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <i>(Com.)</i> <def>To draw a new bill of exchange, as the holder of a protested bill, on the drawer or indorsers.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*dress"</hw> (r?*dr?s"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>dress</i>.] <def>To dress again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*dress"</hw> (r?*dr?s"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>redresser</i> to straighten; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>dresser</i> to raise, arrange. See <u>Dress.</u>]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To put in order again; to set right; to emend; to revise.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote>The common profit could she <i>redress</i>.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>In yonder spring of roses intermixed<BR> With myrtle, find what to <i>redress</i> till noon.</blockquote>

<i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Your wish that I should <i>redress</i> a certain paper which you had prepared.</blockquote> <i>A. Hamilton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To set right, as a wrong; to repair, as an injury; to make amends for; to remedy; to relieve from.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Those wrongs, those bitter injuries, . . . <BR> I doubt not but with honor to <i>redress</i>.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To make amends or compensation to; to relieve of anything unjust or oppressive; to bestow relief upon.</def> "'T is thine, O king! the afflicted to <i>redress</i>." <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Will Gaul or Muscovite <i>redress ye</i>?</blockquote> <i>Byron.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*dress"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of redressing; a making right; reformation; correction; amendment.</def> [R.]</p> <p><blockquote>Reformation of evil laws is commendable, but for us the more necessary is a speedy <i>redress</i> of ourselves.</blockquote> <i>Hooker.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A setting right, as of wrong, injury, or opression; as, the <i>redress</i> of grievances; hence, relief; remedy; reparation; indemnification.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>A few may complain without reason; but there is occasion for <i>redress</i> when the cry is universal.</blockquote> <i>Davenant.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>One who, or that which, gives relief; a redresser.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Fair majesty, the refuge and <i>redress</i><BR> Of those whom fate pursues and wants oppress.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*dress"al</hw> (r?*dr?s"<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Redress.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*dress"er</hw> (-?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who redresses.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*dress"i*ble</hw> (-?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Such as may be redressed.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*dress"ive</hw> (-?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Tending to redress.</def> <i>Thomson.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*dress"less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Not having redress; such as can not be redressed; irremediable.</def> <i>Sherwood.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re*dress"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>redressement</i>.] <def>The act of redressing; redress.</def> <i>Jefferson.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"-rib`and</hw> (r?d"r?b`<i>a</i>nd), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The European red band fish, or fireflame. See <u>Rend fish</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"root`</hw> (r?d"r?t`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A name of several plants having red roots, as the New Jersey tea (see under <u>Tea</u>), the gromwell, the bloodroot, and the <i>Lachnanthes tinctoria</i>, an endogenous plant found in sandy swamps from Rhode Island to Florida.</def></p> <p><hw>Red`sear"</hw> (r?d`s?r"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To be brittle when red-hot; to be red-short.</def> <i>Moxon.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"shank`</hw> (r?d"sh?nk`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A common Old World limicoline bird (<i>Totanus calidris</i>), having the legs and feet pale red. The spotted redshank (<i>T. fuscus</i>) is larger, and has orange-red legs. Called also <i>redshanks</i>, <i>redleg</i>, and <i>clee</i>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The fieldfare.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A bare-legged person; -- a contemptuous appellation formerly given to the Scotch Highlanders, in allusion to their bare legs.</def> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"-short`</hw> (-sh?rt`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <i>(Metal.)</i> <def>Hot-short; brittle when red-hot; -- said of certain kinds of iron.</def> -- <wf>Red"-short`ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Red"skin`</hw> (-sk?n`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A common appellation for a North American Indian; -- so called from the color of the skin.</def> <i>Cooper.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"start`</hw> (-st?rt`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [<i>Red</i> + <i>start</i> tail.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A small, handsome European singing bird (<i>Ruticilla ph&oelig;nicurus</i>), allied to the nightingale; -- called also <i>redtail</i>, <i>brantail</i>, <i>fireflirt</i>, <i>firetail</i>. The black redstart is <i>P.tithys</i>. The name is also applied to several other species of <i>Ruticilla</i> amnd allied genera, native of India.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>An American fly-catching warbler (<i>Setophaga ruticilla</i>). The male is black, with large patches of orange-red on the sides, wings, and tail. The female is olive, with yellow patches.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"streak`</hw> (-str?k`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A kind of apple having the skin streaked with red and yellow, -- a favorite English cider apple.</def> <i>Mortimer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Cider pressed from redstreak apples.</def></p>

<p><hw>Red"tail`</hw> (-t?l`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The red-tailed hawk.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The European redstart.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"-tailed`</hw> (-t?ld`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Having a red tail.</def></p> <p><col><b>Red-tailed hawk</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>a large North American hawk (<i>Buteo borealis</i>). When adult its tail is chestnut red. Called also <i>hen hawck</i>, and <i>red-tailed buzzard</i>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Red"-tape`</hw> (-t?p`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Pertaining to, or characterized by, official formality. See <i>Red tape</i>, under <u>Red</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos></def></p> <p><hw>Red`-tap"ism</hw> (r?d`t?p"?z'm), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Strict adherence to official formalities.</def> <i>J. C. Shairp.</i></p> <p><hw>Red`-tap"ist</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who is tenacious of a strict adherence to official formalities.</def> Lytton.</i></p> <i>Ld.

<p><hw>Red"throat`</hw> (r?d"thr?t`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A small Australian singing bird (<i>Phyrrhol&aelig;mus brunneus</i>). The upper parts are brown, the center of the throat red.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"top`</hw> (-t?p`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A kind of grass (<i>Agrostis vulgaris</i>) highly valued in the United States for pasturage and hay for cattle; -- called also <i>English grass</i>, and in some localities <i>herd's grass</i>. See <i>Illustration</i> in Appendix. The tall redtop is <i>Triodia seslerioides</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*dub"</hw> (r?*d?b"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>radouber</i> to refit or repair.] <def>To refit; to repair, or make reparation for; hence, to repay or requite.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>It shall be good that you <i>redub</i> that negligence.</blockquote> <i>Wyatt.</i></p> <p><blockquote>God shall give power to <i>redub it with some like requital to the French</i>.</blockquote> <i>Grafton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*duce"</hw> (r&esl;*d&umacr;s"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reduced</u> (-d&umacr;st"),; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reducing</u> (d&umacr;"s&ibreve;ng).] [L. <i>reducere</i>, <i>reductum</i>; pref. <i>red-</i>. <i>re-</i>, re- + <i>ducere</i> to lead. See <u>Duke</u>, and cf. <u>Redoubt</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To bring or lead back to any former place or condition.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>And to his brother's house <i>reduced</i> his wife.</blockquote> <i>Chapman.</i></p>

<p><blockquote>The sheep must of necessity be scattered, unless the great Shephered of souls oppose, or some of his delegates <i>reduce</i> and direct us.</blockquote> <i>Evelyn.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To bring to any inferior state, with respect to rank, size, quantity, quality, value, etc.; to diminish; to lower; to degrade; to impair; as, to <i>reduce</i> a sergeant to the ranks; to <i>reduce</i> a drawing; to <i>reduce</i> expenses; to <i>reduce</i> the intensity of heat.</def> "An ancient but <i>reduced</i> family." <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Nothing so excellent but a man may fasten upon something belonging to it, to <i>reduce</i> it.</blockquote> <i>Tillotson.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Having <i>reduced</i><BR> Their foe to misery beneath their fears.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Hester Prynne was shocked at the condition to which she found the clergyman <i>reduced</i>.</blockquote> <i>Hawthorne.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To bring to terms; to humble; to conquer; to subdue; to capture; as, to <i>reduce</i> a province or a fort.</def></p> <p><! p. 1205 !></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To bring to a certain state or condition by grinding, pounding, kneading, rubbing, etc.; as, to <i>reduce</i> a substance to powder, or to a pasty mass; to <i>reduce</i> fruit, wood, or paper rags, to pulp.</def></p> <p><blockquote>It were but right<BR> And equal to <i>reduce</i> me to my dust.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <def>To bring into a certain order, arrangement, classification, etc.; to bring under rules or within certain limits of descriptions and terms adapted to use in computation; as, to <i>reduce</i> animals or vegetables to a class or classes; to <i>reduce</i> a series of observations in astronomy; to <i>reduce</i> language to rules.</def></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <i>(Arith.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>To change, as numbers, from one denomination into another without altering their value, or from one denomination into others of the same value; as, to <i>reduce</i> pounds, shillings, and pence to pence, or to <i>reduce</i> pence to pounds; to <i>reduce</i> days and hours to minutes, or minutes to days and hours.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>To change the form of a quantity or expression without altering its value; as, to <i>reduce</i> fractions to their lowest terms, to a common denominator, etc.</def></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <i>(Chem.)</i> <def>To bring to the metallic state by separating from impurities; hence, in general, to remove oxygen from; to deoxidize; to combine with, or to subject to the

action of, hydrogen; as, ferric iron is <i>reduced</i> to ferrous iron; or metals are <i>reduced</i> from their ores; -- opposed to <i>oxidize</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>8.</b></sn> <i>(Med.)</i> <def>To restore to its proper place or condition, as a displaced organ or part; as, to <i>reduce</i> a dislocation, a fracture, or a hernia.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reduced iron</b></col> <i>(Chem.)</i>, <cd>metallic iron obtained through deoxidation of an oxide of iron by exposure to a current of hydrogen or other reducing agent. When hydrogen is used the product is called also <i>iron by hydrogen</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>To reduce an equation</b></col> <i>(Alg.)</i>, <cd>to bring the unknown quantity by itself on one side, and all the known quantities on the other side, without destroying the equation.</cd> -- <col><b>To reduce an expression</b></col> <i>(Alg.)</i>, <cd>to obtain an equivalent expression of simpler form.</cd> -- <col><b>To reduce a square</b></col> <i>(Mil.)</i>, <cd>to reform the line or column from the square.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To diminish; lessen; decrease; abate; shorten; curtail; impair; lower; subject; subdue; subjugate; conquer.</p> <p><hw>Re*duce"ment</hw> (r?*d?s"m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Reduction.</def> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*du"cent</hw> (r?*d?"s<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>reducens</i>, p. pr. of <i>reducere</i>.] <def>Tending to reduce.</def> -- <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A reducent agent.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*du"cer</hw> (-s?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, reduces.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*du"ci*ble</hw> (-s?*b'll), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of being reduced.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*du"ci*ble*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Quality of being reducible.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*du"cing</hw> (r?*d?"s?ng), <def><pos><i>a & n.</i></pos> from <u>Reduce</u>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reducing furnace</b></col> <i>(Metal.)</i>, <cd>a furnace for reducing ores.</cd> -- <col><b>Reducing pipe fitting</b></col>, <cd>a pipe fitting, as a coupling, an elbow, a tee, etc., for connecting a large pipe with a smaller one.</cd> -- <col><b>Reducing valve</b></col>, <cd>a device for automatically maintaining a diminished pressure of steam, air, gas, etc., in a pipe, or other receiver, which is fed from a boiler or pipe in which the pressure is higher than is desired in the receiver.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*duct"</hw> (r?*d?kt"), <pos><i>v. t..</i></pos> [L. <i>reductus</i>, p. p. of <i>reducere</i>. See <u>Reduce</u>.] <def>To reduce.</def> [Obs.] <i>W. Warde.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*duc`ti*bil"i*ty</hw> (r?*d?k`t?*b?l"?*t?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality of being reducible; reducibleness.</def></p>

<p><hw>Re*duc"tion</hw> (r?*d?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;duction</i>, L. <i>reductio</i>. See <u>Reduce</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of reducing, or state of being reduced; conversion to a given state or condition; diminution; conquest; as, the <i>reduction</i> of a body to powder; the <i>reduction</i> of things to order; the <i>reduction</i> of the expenses of government; the <i>reduction</i> of a rebellious province.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Arith. & Alq.)</i> <def>The act or process of reducing. See <u>Reduce</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>, 6. and <i>To reduce an equation</i>, <i>To reduce an expression</i>, under <u>Reduce</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos></def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Astron.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The correction of observations for known errors of instruments, etc.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The preparation of the facts and measurements of observations in order to deduce a general result.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>The process of making a copy of something, as a figure, design, or draught, on a smaller scale, preserving the proper proportions.</def> <i>Fairholt.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Logic)</i> <def>The bringing of a syllogism in one of the so-called imperfect modes into a mode in the first figure.</def></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <i>(Chem. & Metal.)</i> <def>The act, process, or result of reducing; as, the <i>reduction</i> of iron from its ores; the <i>reduction</i> of aldehyde from alcohol.</def></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <i>(Med.)</i> <def>The operation of restoring a dislocated or fractured part to its former place.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reduction ascending</b></col> <i>(Arith.)</i>, <cd>the operation of changing numbers of a lower into others of a higher denomination, as cents to dollars.</cd> -- <col><b>Reduction descending</b></col> <i>(Arith.)</i>, <cd>the operation of changing numbers of a higher into others of a lower denomination, as dollars to cents.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Diminution; decrease; abatement; curtailment; subjugation; conquest; subjection.</p> <p><hw>Re*duc"tive</hw> (-t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;ductif</i>.] <def>Tending to reduce; having the power or effect of reducing.</def> -- <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A reductive agent.</def> <i>Sir M. Hale.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*duc"tive*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>By reduction; by consequence.</def></p> <p><hw>||R&eacute;`duit"</hw> (r?`dw?"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. See <u>Redoubt</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> ] <i>(Fort.)</i> <def>A central or retired work within any other work.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Re*dun"dance</hw> (r?*d?n"d<i>a</i>ns),

<hw>Re*dun"dan*cy</hw> (-d<i>a</i>n*s?), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>redundantia</i>: cf. F. <i>redondance</i>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The quality or state of being redundant; superfluity; superabundance; excess.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which is redundant or in excess; anything superfluous or superabundant.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Labor . . . throws off <i>redundacies</i>.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>Surplusage inserted in a pleading which may be rejected by the court without impairing the validity of what remains.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*dun"dant</hw> (-d<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>redundans</i>, <i>-antis</i>, p. pr. of <i>redundare</i>: cf. F. <i>redondant</i>. See <u>Redound</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Exceeding what is natural or necessary; superabundant; exuberant; as, a <i>redundant</i> quantity of bile or food.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Notwithstanding the <i>redundant</i> oil in fishes, they do not increase fat so much as flesh.</blockquote> <i>Arbuthnot.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Using more worrds or images than are necessary or useful; pleonastic.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Where an suthor is <i>redundant</i>, mark those paragraphs to be retrenched.</blockquote> <i>I. Watts.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Superfluous; superabundant; excessive; exuberant; overflowing; plentiful; copious.</p> <p><hw>Re*dun"dant*ly</hw> (r?*d?n"d<i>a</i>nt*l?), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a refundant manner.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*du"pli*cate</hw> (r?*d?"pl?*k?t), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>duplicate</i>: cf. L. <i>reduplicatus</i>. <u>Redouble</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Double; doubled; reduplicative; repeated.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>Valvate with the margins curved outwardly; -- said of the &?;stivation of certain flowers.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*du"pli*cate</hw> (-k?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Cf. LL. <i>reduplicare</i>.]</p> <p><sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To redouble; to multiply; to repeat.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Gram.)</i> <def>To repeat the first letter or letters of (a word). See <u>Reduplication</u>, 3.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*du`pli*ca"tion</hw> (-k?sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;duplication</i>, L. <i>reduplicatio</i> repetition.] Cf.

<sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of doubling, or the state of being doubled.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Pros.)</i> <def>A figure in which the first word of a verse is the same as the last word of the preceding verse.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Philol.)</i> <def>The doubling of a stem or syllable (more or less modified), with the effect of changing the time expressed, intensifying the meaning, or making the word more imitative; also, the syllable thus added; as, L. <i>te</i>tuli; <i>po</i>posci.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*du"pli*ca*tive</hw> (-k?*t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;duplicatif</i>.] <def>Double; formed by reduplication; reduplicate.</def> <i>I. Watts.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"u*vid</hw> (r?d"?*v?d), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>reduvia</i> a hangnail.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Any hemipterous insect of the genus <i>Redivius</i>, or family <i>Reduvid&aelig;</i>. They live by sucking the blood of other insects, and some species also attack man.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"weed`</hw> (r&ebreve;d"w&emacr;d`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>The red poppy (<i>Papaver Rh&oelig;as</i>).</def> <i>Dr. Prior.</i></p> <p><hw>Red"wing`</hw> (-w?ng`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>A European thrush (<i>Turdus iliacus</i>). Its under wing coverts are orange red. Called also <i>redwinged thrush</i>. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> A North American passerine bird (<i>Agelarius ph&oelig;niceus</i>) of the family <i>Icterid&aelig;</i>. The male is black, with a conspicuous patch of bright red, bordered with orange, on each wing. Called also <i>redwinged blackbird</i>, <i>red-winged troupial</i>, <i>marsh blackbird</i>, and <i>swamp blackbird</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"withe`</hw> (r?d"w?th`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A west Indian climbing shrub (<i>Combretum Jacquini</i>) with slender reddish branchlets.</def></p> <p><hw>Red"wood`</hw> (-w&oocr;d`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A gigantic coniferous tree (<i>Sequoia sempervirens</i>) of California, and its light and durable reddish timber. See <u>Sequoia</u>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>An East Indian dyewood, obtained from <i>Pterocarpus santalinus</i>, <i>C&aelig;salpinia Sappan</i>, and several other trees.</def></p> <p>&fist; The redwood of Andaman is <i>Pterocarpus dalbergioides</i>; that of some parts of tropical America, several species of <i>Erythoxylum</i>; that of Brazil, the species of <i>Humirium</i>.</p> <p><hw>Ree</hw> (r&emacr;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Pg. <i>real</i>, pl. <i>reis</i>. See <u>Real</u> the money.] <def>See <u>Rei</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Ree</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Cf. Prov. G.

<i>r&auml;den</i>, <i>raden</i>, <i>raiten</i>. Cf. <u>Riddle</u> a sieve.] <def>To riddle; to sift; to separate or throw off.</def> [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] <i>Mortimer.</i></p> <p><hw>Ree"bok`</hw> (r?"b?k`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [D., literally, roebuck.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The peele.</def> [Written also <i>rehboc</i> and <i>rheeboc</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;ch"o</hw> (r&emacr;*&ebreve;k"&osl;), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To echo back; to reverberate again; as, the hills <i>re&euml;cho</i> the roar of cannon.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;ch"o</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To give echoes; to return back, or be reverberated, as an echo; to resound; to be resonant.</def></p> <p><blockquote>And a loud groan <i>re&euml;choes</i> from the main.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;ch"o</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The echo of an echo; a repeated or second echo.</def></p> <p><hw>Reech"y</hw> (r&emacr;ch"&ybreve;), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [See <u>Reeky</u>.] <def>Smoky; reeky; hence, begrimed with dirt.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Reed</hw> (r&emacr;d), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Red.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Reed</hw>, <pos><i>v. & n.</i></pos> <def>Same as <u>Rede</u>.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Reed</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The fourth stomach of a ruminant; rennet.</def> [Prov. Eng. or Scot.]</p> <p><hw>Reed</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>hre&oacute;d</i>; akin to D. <i>riet</i>, G. <i>riet</i>, <i>ried</i>, OHG. <i>kriot</i>, <i>riot</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A name given to many tall and coarse grasses or grasslike plants, and their slender, often jointed, stems, such as the various kinds of bamboo, and especially the common reed of Europe and North America (<i>Phragmites communis</i>).</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A musical instrument made of the hollow joint of some plant; a rustic or pastoral pipe.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Arcadian pipe, the pastoral <i>reed</i><BR> Of Hermes.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>An arrow, as made of a reed.</def> <i>Prior.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Straw prepared for thatching a roof.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Mus.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A small piece of cane or wood attached to the mouthpiece of certain instruments, and set in vibration by the breath. In the clarinet it is

a single fiat reed; in the oboe and bassoon it is double, forming a compressed tube.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>One of the thin pieces of metal, the vibration of which produce the tones of a melodeon, accordeon, harmonium, or seraphine; also attached to certain sets or registers of pipes in an organ.</def></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <i>(Weaving)</i> <def>A frame having parallel flat stripe of metal or reed, between which the warp threads pass, set in the swinging lathe or batten of a loom for beating up the weft; a sley. See <u>Batten</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>7.</b></sn> <i>(Mining)</i> <def>A tube containing the train of powder for igniting the charge in blasting.</def></p> <p><sn><b>8.</b></sn> <i>(Arch.)</i> <def>Same as <u>Reeding</u>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Egyptian reed</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>the papyrus.</cd> -- <col><b>Free reed</b></col> <i>(Mus.)</i>, <cd>a reed whose edges do not overlap the wind passage, -- used in the harmonium, concertina, etc. It is distinguished from the <i>beating</i> or <i>striking reed</i> of the organ and clarinet.</cd> -- <col><b>Meadow reed grass</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>the <i>Glyceria aquatica</i>, a tall grass found in wet places.</cd> -- <col><b>Reed babbler</b></col>. <cd>See <u>Reedbird</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Reed bunting</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>A European sparrow (<i>Emberiza sch&oelig;niclus</i>) which frequents marshy places; -called also <i>reed sparrow</i>, <i>ring bunting</i>.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>Reedling.</cd> -- <col><b>Reed canary grass</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a tall wild grass (<i>Phalaris arundinacea</i>).</cd> -- <col><b>Reed grass</b></col>. <i>(Bot.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>The common reed</cd>. See <u>Reed</u>, 1. <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>A plant of the genus <i>Sparganium</i>; bur reed. See under <u>Bur</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Reed organ</b></col> <i>(Mus.)</i>, <cd>an organ in which the wind acts on a set of free reeds, as the harmonium, melodeon, concertina, etc.</cd> -<col><b>Reed pipe</b></col> <i>(Mus.)</i>, <cd>a pipe of an organ furnished with a reed.</cd> -- <col><b>Reed sparrow</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <cd>See <i>Reed bunting</i>, above.</cd> -<col><b>Reed stop</b></col> <i>(Mus.)</i>, <cd>a set of pipes in an organ furnished with reeds.</cd> -- <col><b>Reed warbler</b></col>. <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <cd>A small European warbler (<i>Acrocephalus streperus</i>); -- called also <i>reed wren</i>.</cd> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <cd>Any one of several species of Indian and Australian warblers of the genera <i>Acrocephalus</i>, <i>Calamoherpe</i>, and <i>Arundinax</i>. They are excellent singers.</cd> -- <col><b>Sea-sand reed</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a kind of coarse grass (<i>Ammophila arundinacea</i>). See <i>Beach grass</i>, under <u>Beach</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Wood reed grass</b></col> <i>(Bot.)</i>, <cd>a tall, elegant grass (<i>Cinna arundinacea</i>), common in moist woods.</cd></p> <p><hw>Reed"bird`</hw> (r?d"b?rd`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The bobolink.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>One of several small Asiatic singing birds of the genera <i>Sch&oelig;nicola</i> and <i>Eurycercus</i>; -- called also <i>reed babbler</i>.</def> <hw>Reed"buck"</hw> (-b?k`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>

<def>See <u>Rietboc</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Reed"ed</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Civered with reeds; reedy.</def> <i>Tusser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Formed with channels and ridges like reeds.</def></p> <p><hw>Reed"en</hw> (r?d"'n), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Consisting of a reed or reeds.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Through <i>reeden</i> pipes convey the golden flood.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;d`i*fi*ca"tion</hw> (r?*?d`?*f?*k?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;&eacute;dification</i>. See <u>Re&euml;dify</u>.] <def>The act re&euml;difying; the state of being re&euml;dified.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;d"i*fy</hw> (r?*?d"?*ff?), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>edify</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;&eacute;difier</i>, L. <i>reaedificare</i>.] <def>To edify anew; to build again after destruction.</def> [R.] <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Reed"ing</hw> (r?d"?ng), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [From 4th <u>Reed</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Arch.)</i> <def>A small convex molding; a reed (see <i>Illust.</i> <sd><i>(i)</i></sd> of <u>Molding</u>); one of several set close together to decorate a surface; also, decoration by means of reedings; -- the reverse of <i>fluting</i>.</def></p> <p>&fist; Several <i>reedings</i> are often placed together, parallel to each other, either projecting from, or inserted into, the adjining surface. The decoration so produced is then called, in general, <i>reeding</i>.</p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The nurling on the edge of a coin; -commonly called <i>milling</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Reed"less</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Destitute of reeds; as, <i>reedless</i> banks.</def></p> <p><hw>Reed"ling</hw> (-l?ng), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The European bearded titmouse (<i>Panurus biarmicus</i>); -- called also <i>reed bunting</i>, <i>bearded pinnock</i>, and <i>lesser butcher bird</i>.</def></p> <p>&fist; It is orange brown, marked with black, white, and yellow on the wings. The male has a tuft of black feathers on each side of the face.</p> <p><hw>Reed"-mace`</hw> (-m?s`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>The cat-tail.</def></p> <p><hw>Reed"work`</hw> (-w?rk`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Mus.)</i> <def>A collective name for the reed stops of an organ.</def></p> <p><hw>Reed"y</hw> (-?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn>

<def>Abounding with reeds; covered with reeds.</def> "A <i>reedy</i> pool." <i>Thomson .</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Having the quality of reed in tone, that is, &?;&?;&?;&?;&?; and thin^ as some voices.</def></p> <p><hw>Reef</hw> (r?f), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Akin to D. <i>rif</i>, G. <i>riff</i>, Icel. <i>rif</i>, Dan. <i>rev</i>; cf. Icel. <i>rifa</i> rift, rent, fissure, <i>rifa</i> to rive, bear. Cf. <u>Rift</u>, <u>Rive</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A chain or range of rocks lying at or near the surface of the water. See <i>Coral reefs</i>, under <u>Coral</u>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Mining.)</i> <def>A large vein of auriferous quartz; -- so called in Australia. Hence, any body of rock yielding valuable ore.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reef builder</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>any stony coral which contributes material to the formation of coral reefs.</cd> -- <col><b>Reef heron</b></col> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i>, <cd>any heron of the genus <i>Demigretta</i>; as, the blue <i>reef heron</i> (<i>D. jugularis</i>) of Australia.</cd></p> <p><hw>Reef</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Akin to D. <i>reef</i>, G. <i>reff</i>, Sw. <i>ref</i>; cf. Icel. <i>rif</i> reef, <i>rifa</i> to basten together. Cf. <u>Reeve</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>, <u>River</u>.] <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>That part of a sail which is taken in or let out by means of the reef points, in order to adapt the size of the sail to the force of the wind.</def></p> <p>&fist; From the head to the first reef-band, in square sails, is termed the <i>first reef</i>; from this to the next is the <i>second reef</i>; and so on. In fore-and-aft sails, which reef on the foot, the first reef is the lowest part. <i>Totten.</i></p> <p><col><b>Close reef</b></col>, <cd>the last reef that can be put in.</cd> -- <col><b>Reef band</b></col>. <cd>See <u>Reef-band</u> in the Vocabulary.</cd> -- <col><b>Reef knot</b></col>, <cd>the knot which is used in tying reef pointss. See <i>Illust.</i> under <u>Knot</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Reef line</b></col>, <cd>a small rope formerly used to reef the courses by being passed spirally round the yard and through the holes of the reef.</cd> <i>Totten.</i> -<col><b>Reef points</b></col>, <cd>pieces of small rope passing through the eyelet holes of a reef-band, and used reefing the sail.</cd> -- <col><b>Reef tackle</b></col>, <cd>a tackle by which the reef cringles, or rings, of a sail are hauled up to the yard for reefing.</cd> <i>Totten.</i> -- <col><b>To take a reef in</b></col>, <cd>to reduce the size of (a sail) by folding or rolling up a reef, and lashing it to the spar.</cd></p> <p><hw>Reef</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reefed</u> (r&emacr;ft); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reefing</u>.] <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>To reduce the extent of (as a sail) by roiling or folding a certain portion of it and making it fast to the yard or spar.</def> <i>Totten.</i></p> <p><col><b>To reef the paddles</b></col>, <cd>to move the floats of a paddle wheel toward its center so that they will not dip so

deeply.</cd></p> <p><! p. 1206 !></p> <p><hw>Reef"-band`</hw> (r?f"b?nd`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>A piece of canvas sewed across a sail to strengthen it in the part where the eyelet holes for reefing are made.</def> <i>Totten.</i></p> <p><hw>Reef"er</hw> (-?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>One who reefs; -- a name often given to midshipmen.</def> <i>Marryat.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A close-fitting lacket or short coat of thick cloth.</def></p> <p><hw>Reef"ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>The process of taking in a reef.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reefing bowsprit</b></col>, <cd>a bowsprit so rigged that it can easily be run in or shortened by sliding inboard, as in cutters.</cd></p> <p><hw>Reef"y</hw> (-?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Full of reefs or rocks.</def></p> <p><hw>Reek</hw> (r&emacr;k), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A rick.</def> [Obs.] <i>B. Jonson.</i></p> <p><hw>Reek</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>r&emc;c</i>; akin to OFries. <i>r&emacr;k</i>, LG. & D. <i>rook</i>, G. <i>rauch</i>, OHG. <i>rouh</i>, Dan. r&ouml;g, Sw. <i>r&ouml;k</i>, Icel. <i>reykr</i>, and to AS. <i>re&oacute;can</i> to reek, smoke, Icel. <i>rj&umacr;ka</i>, G. <i>riechen</i> to smell.] <def>Vapor; steam; smoke; fume.</def></p> <p><blockquote>As hateful to me as the <i>reek</i> of a limekiln.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Reek</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reeked</u> (r&emacr;kt); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reeking</u>.] [As. <i>r&emacr;can</i>. See <u>Reek</u> vapor.] <def>To emit vapor, usually that which is warm and moist; to be full of fumes; to steam; to smoke; to exhale.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Few chimneys <i>reeking</i> you shall espy.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>I found me laid<BR> In balmy sweat, which with his beams the sun<BR> Soon dried, and on the <i>reeking</i> moisture fed.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The coffee rooms <i>reeked</i> with tobacco.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><hw>Reek"y</hw> (-?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [From 2d <u>Reek</u>; cf. <u>Reechy</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Soiled with smoke or

steam; smoky; foul.</def>


<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Emitting reek.</def> "<i>Reeky</i> fen." <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p> <p><hw>Reel</hw> (r?l), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Gael. <i>righil</i>.] <def>A lively dance of the Highlanders of Scotland; also, the music to the dance; -- often called <i>Scotch reel</i>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Virginia reel</b></col>, <cd>the common name throughout the United States for the old English "country dance," or contradance (<i>contredanse</i>).</cd> <i>Bartlett.</i></p> <p><hw>Reel</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [AS. <i>kre&?;l</i>: cf. Icel. <i>kr&?;ll</i> a weaver's reed or sley.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A frame with radial arms, or a kind of spool, turning on an axis, on which yarn, threads, lines, or the like, are wound; as, a log <i>reel</i>, used by seamen; an angler's <i>reel</i>; a garden <i>reel</i>.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A machine on which yarn is wound and measured into lays and hanks, -- for cotton or linen it is fifty-four inches in circuit; for worsted, thirty inches.</def> <i>McElrath.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Agric.)</i> <def>A device consisting of radial arms with horizontal stats, connected with a harvesting machine, for holding the stalks of grain in position to be cut by the knives.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reel oven</b></col>, <cd>a baker's oven in which bread pans hang suspended from the arms of a kind of reel revolving on a horizontal axis.</cd> <i>Knight.</i></p> <p><hw>Reel</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reeled</u> (r?ld); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reeling</u>. ] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To roll.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>And Sisyphus an huge round stone did <i>reel</i>.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To wind upon a reel, as yarn or thread.</def></p> <p><hw>Reel</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [Cf. Sw. <i>ragla</i>. See <u>2d Reel</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To incline, in walking, from one side to the other; to stagger.</def></p> <p><blockquote>They <i>reel</i> to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man.</blockquote> <i>Ps. cvii. 27.</i></p> <p><blockquote>He, with heavy fumes oppressed,<BR> <i>Reeled</i> from the palace, and retired to rest.</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The wagons <i>reeling</i> under the yellow sheaves.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To have a whirling sensation; to be giddy.</def></p> <p><blockquote>In these lengthened vigils his brain often <i>reeled</i>.</blockquote> <i>Hawthorne.</i></p> <p><hw>Reel</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act or motion of reeling or staggering; as, a drunken <i>reel</i>.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;*lect"</hw> (r?`?*l?kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To elect again; as, to <i>re&euml;lect</i> the former governor.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;*lec"tion</hw> (-l?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Election a second time, or anew; as, the <i>re&euml;lection</i> of a former chief.</def></p> <p><hw>Reel"er</hw> (r?l"?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who reels.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The grasshopper warbler; -- so called from its note.</def> [Prov. Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;l"i*gi*ble</hw> (r&emc;*&ebreve;l"&ibreve;*j&ibreve;*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Eligible again; capable of re&euml;lection; as, <i>re&euml;ligible</i> to the same office.</def> -<wf>Re*&euml;l`i*gi*bil"i*ty</wf> (r&emc;*&ebreve;l`&ibreve;*j&ibreve;*b&ibreve;l"&ibreve;*t&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Reem</hw> (r?m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Heb.] <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The Hebrew name of a horned wild animal, probably the Urus.</def></p> <p>&fist; In King James's Version it is called <i>unicorn</i>; in the Revised Version, <i>wild ox</i>. <i>Job xxxix. 9.</i></p> <p><hw>Reem</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Cf. <u>Ream</u> to make a hole in.] <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>To open (the seams of a vessel's planking) for the purpose of calking them.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reeming iron</b></col> <i>(Naut.)</i>, <cd>an iron chisel for reeming the seams of planks in calking ships.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;m*bark"</hw> (r?`?m*b?rk"), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To put, or go, on board a vessel again; to embark again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;m`bar*ka"tion</hw> (r?*?m`b?r*k?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A putting, or going, on board a vessel again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;m*bod"y</hw> (r?`?m*b?d"?), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To embody again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;m*brace"</hw> (-br?s"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos>

<def>To embrace again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;*merge"</hw> (r?`?*m?rj"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To emerge again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;*mer"gence</hw> (-m?r"j<i>e</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Act of re&euml;merging.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*act"</hw> (r?`?n*?kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To enact again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*ac"tion</hw> (-?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of re&euml;nacting; the state of being re&euml;nacted.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*act"ment</hw> (-?kt"m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The enacting or passing of a law a second time; the renewal of a law.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*cour"age</hw> (-k?r"?j;), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To encourage again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*dow"</hw> (-dou"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To endow again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*force"</hw> (-f?rs"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>enforce</i>: cf. F. <i>renforcer</i>.] <def>To strengthen with new force, assistance, material, or support; as, to <i>re&euml;nforce</i> an argument; to <i>re&euml;nforce</i> a garment; especially, to strengthen with additional troops, as an army or a fort, or with additional ships, as a fleet.</def> [Written also <i>reinforce</i>.]</p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*force"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Re&euml;nforce</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>, and cf. <u>Ranforce</u>, <u>Reinforce</u>.] <def>Something which re&euml;nforces or strengthens.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>That part of a cannon near the breech which is thicker than the rest of the piece, so as better to resist the force of the exploding powder. See <i>Illust.</i> of <u>Cannon</u>.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>An additional thickness of canvas, cloth, or the like, around an eyelet, buttonhole, etc.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*force"ment</hw> (r?`?n*f?rs"m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of re&euml;nforcing, or the state of being re&euml;nforced.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which re&euml;nforces; additional force; especially, additional troops or force to augment the strength of any army, or ships to strengthen a navy or fleet.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*gage"</hw> (-g?j), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To engage a second time or again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*gage"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A renewed or repeated engagement.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*grave"</hw> (-gr?v"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>

<def>To engrave anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*joy"</hw> (-joi"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To enjoy anew.</def> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*joy"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Renewed enjoyment.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*kin"dle</hw> (-k?n"d'l), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To enkindle again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*list"</hw> (-l?st"), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To enlist again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*list"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A renewed enlistment.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*slave"</hw> (-sl?v"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To enslave again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;n"ter</hw> (r?*?n"t?r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To enter again.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Engraving)</i> <def>To cut deeper, as engraved lines on a plate of metal, when the engraving has not been deep enough, or the plate has become worn in printing.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;n"ter</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To enter anew or again.</def></p> <p><col><b>Re&euml;ntering angle</b></col>, <cd>an angle of a polygon pointing inward, as <i>a</i>, in the cut.</cd> -<col><b>Re&euml;ntering polygon</b></col>, <cd>a polygon having one or more re&euml;ntering angles.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;n"ter*ing</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Calico Printing.)</i> <def>The process of applying additional colors, by applications of printing blocks, to patterns already partly colored.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*throne"</hw> (-thr?n"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To enthrone again; to replace on a throne.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;n*throne"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A second enthroning.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;n"trance</hw> (r?*?n"tr<i>a</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act entereing again; re&?;ntry.</def> <i>Hooker.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;n"trant</hw> (-tr<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Re&euml;ntering; pointing or directed inwardds; as, a <i>re&?;ntrant</i> angle.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;n"try</hw> (-tr?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A second or new entry; as, a <i>re&euml;ntry</i> into public life.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>A resuming or retaking possession of what one has lately foregone; -- applied especially to land; the entry by a lessor upon the premises leased, on failure of the tenant to pay rent or perform the covenants in the lease.</def> <i>Burrill.</i></p> <p><col><b>Card of re&euml;try</b></col>, <i>(Whist)</i>, <cd>a card that by winning a trick will bring one the lead at an advanced period of the hand.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;*rect"</hw> (r?`?*r?kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To erect again.</def></p> <p><hw>Reer"mouse`</hw> (r?r"mous`), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>See <u>Rearmouse</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;s*tab"lish</hw> (r?`?s*t?b"l?sh), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To establish anew; to fix or confirm again; to restore; as, to <i>re&euml;stablish</i> a covenant; to <i>re&euml;stablish</i> health.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;s*tab"lish*er</hw> (-?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who establishes again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;s*tab"lish*ment</hw> (-mnt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act re&euml;stablishing; the state of being re&euml;stablished.</def> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;s*tate"</hw> (-t?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To re&euml;stablish.</def> [Obs.] <i>Walis.</i></p> <p><hw>Reeve</hw> (r?v), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>The female of the ruff.</def></p> <p><hw>Reeve</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Rove</u> (r?v); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reeving</u>.] [Cf. D. <i>reven</i>. See <u>Reef</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> & <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <i>(Naut.)</i> <def>To pass, as the end of a pope, through any hole in a block, thimble, cleat, ringbolt, cringle, or the like.</def></p> <p><hw>Reeve</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OE. <i>reve</i>, AS. <i>ger&?;fa</i>. Cf. <u>Sheriff</u>.] <def>an officer, steward, bailiff, or governor; -- used chiefly in compounds; as, shire<i>reeve</i>, now written <i>sheriff</i>; port<i>reeve</i>, etc.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i> <i>Piers Plowman.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;x*am"i*na*ble</hw> (r?`?gz*?m"?*n?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Admitting of being re&euml;xamined or reconsidered.</def> <i>Story.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;x*am`i*na"tion</hw> (-?*n?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A repeated examination. See under <u>Examination</u>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;x*am"ine</hw> (--?n), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To examine anew.</def> <i>Hooker.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;x*change"</hw> (r?`?ks*ch?nj"), <pos><i>v.

t.</i></pos> <def>To exchange anew; to reverse (a previous exchange).</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;x*change"</hw> <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A renewed exchange; a reversal of an exchange.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Com.)</i> <def>The expense chargeable on a bill of exchange or draft which has been dishonored in a foreign country, and returned to the country in which it was made or indorsed, and then taken up.</def> <i>Bouvier.</i></p> <p><blockquote>The rate of <i>re&euml;xchange</i> is regulated with respect to the drawer, at the course of exchange between the place where the bill of exchange was payable, and the place where it was drawn. <i>Re&euml;xchange</i> can not be cumulated.</blockquote> <i>Walsh.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;x*hib"it</hw> (r?`?gz*?b"?t or -?ks*h?b"?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To exhibit again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;x*pel"</hw> (r?`?ks*p?l"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To expel again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;x*pe"ri*ence</hw> (-p?`r?-<i>e</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A renewed or repeated experience.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;x*port"</hw> (-p?rt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To export again, as what has been imported.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;x"port</hw> (r?*?ks"p?rt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Any commodity re&euml;xported; -- chiefly in the plural.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*&euml;x`por*ta"tion</hw> (-p?r*t?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of re&euml;xporting, or of exporting an import.</def> <i>A. Smith.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`&euml;x*pul"sion</hw> (r?`?ks*p?l"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Renewed or repeated expulsion.</def> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><hw>Reezed</hw> (r&emacr;zd), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Grown rank; rancid; rusty.</def> [Obs.] "<i>Reezed</i> bacon." <i>Marston.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fac"tion</hw> (r?*f?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Refection</u>.] <def>Recompense; atonement; retribution.</def> [Obs.] <i>Howell.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*far"</hw> (r?*f?r"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>refaire</i> to do over again.] <def>To go over again; to repeat.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>To him therefore this wonder done <i>refar</i>.</blockquote> <i>Fairfax.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fash"ion</hw> (r?*f?sh"?n), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To fashion anew; to form or mold into shape a second time.</def>

<i>MacKnight.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fash"ion*ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of refashioning, or the state of being refashioned.</def> [R.] <i>Leigh Hunt.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fas"ten</hw> (r?*f?s"'n), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To fasten again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fect"</hw> (r?*f?kt), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [L. <i>refectus</i>, p. p. of <i>reficere</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>facere</i> to make.] <def>To restore after hunger or fatigue; to refresh.</def> [Archaic] <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fec"tion</hw> (r?*f?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>refectio</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;fection</i>. See <u>Refect</u>, <u>Fact</u>.] <def>Refreshment after hunger or fatigue; a repast; a lunch.</def></p> <p><blockquote>[His] feeble spirit inly felt <i>refection</i>.</blockquote> <i>Spenser.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Those Attic nights, and those <i>refections</i> of the gods.</blockquote> <i>Curran.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fec"tive</hw> (r?*f?k"t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Refreshing; restoring.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fec"tive</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>That which refreshes.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fec"to*ry</hw> (-t&osl;*r&ybreve;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i>; <plw><b>Refectories</b></plw> (-r&?;z). [<u>LL</u>. <i>refectorium</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;fectoire</i>. See <u>Refection</u>.] <def>A room for refreshment; originally, a dining hall in monasteries or convents.</def></p> <p>&fist; Sometimes pronounced r&ebreve;f"&ebreve;k*t&osl;*r&ybreve;, especially when signifying the eating room in monasteries.</p> <p><hw>Re*fel"</hw> (r?*f?l"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [L. <i>refellere</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>fallere</i> to deceive.] <def>To refute; to disprove; as, to <i>refel</i> the tricks of a sophister.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>How he <i>refelled</i> me, and how I replied.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fer"</hw> (r&esl;*f&etilde;r"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Referred</u> (-f&etilde;rd); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Referring</u>.] [F. <i>r&eacute;f&eacute;rer</i>, L. <i>referre</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re+ <i>ferre</i> to bear. See <u>Bear</u> to carry.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To carry or send back.</def> [Obs.] <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence: To send or direct away; to send or direct elsewhere, as for treatment, aid, information, decision, etc.; to make over, or pass over, to another; as, to <i>refer</i> a student

to an author; to <i>refer</i> a beggar to an officer; to <i>refer</i> a bill to a committee; a court <i>refers</i> a matter of fact to a commissioner for investigation, or <i>refers</i> a question of law to a superior tribunal.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To place in or under by a mental or rational process; to assign to, as a class, a cause, source, a motive, reason, or ground of explanation; as, he <i>referred</i> the phenomena to electrical disturbances.</def></p> <p><col><b>To refer one's self</b></col>, <cd>to have recourse; to betake one's self; to make application; to appeal.</cd> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>I'll <i>refer</i> me to all things sense.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fer"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To have recourse; to apply; to appeal; to betake one's self; as, to <i>refer</i> to a dictionary.</def></p> <p><blockquote>In suits . . . it is to <i>refer</i> to some friend of trust.</blockquote> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To have relation or reference; to relate; to point; as, the figure <i>refers</i> to a footnote.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Of those places that <i>refer</i> to the shutting and opening the abyss, I take notice of that in Job.</blockquote> <i>Bp. Burnet.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To carry the mind or thought; to direct attention; as, the preacher <i>referred</i> to the late election.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To direct inquiry for information or a guarantee of any kind, as in respect to one's integrity, capacity, pecuniary ability, and the like; as, I <i>referred</i> to his employer for the truth of his story.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To allude; advert; suggest; appeal. <u>Refer</u>, <u>Allude</u>, <u>Advert</u>. We <i>refer</i> to a thing by specifically and distinctly introducing it into our discourse. We <i>allude</i> to it by introducing it indirectly or indefinitely, as by something collaterally allied to it. We <i>advert</i> to it by turning off somewhat abruptly to consider it more at large. Thus, Macaulay <i>refers</i> to the early condition of England at the opening of his history; he <i>alludes</i> to these statements from time to time; and <i>adverts</i>, in the progress of his work, to various circumstances of peculiar interest, on which for a time he dwells. "But to do good is . . . that that Solomon chiefly <i>refers</i> to in the text." <i>Sharp.</i> "This, I doubt not, was that artificial structure here <i>alluded</i> to." <i>T. Burnet.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Now to the universal whole <i>advert</i>:<BR> The earth regard as of that whole a part.</blockquote> <i>Blackmore.</i></p>

<p><hw>Ref"er*a*ble</hw> (r?f"?r*?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of being referred, or considered in relation to something else; assignable; ascribable.</def> [Written also <i>referrible</i>.]</p> <p><blockquote>It is a question among philosophers, whether all the attractions which obtain between bodies are <i>referable</i> to one general cause.</blockquote> <i>W. Nicholson.</i></p> <p><hw>Ref`er*ee"</hw> (-&?;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One to whom a thing is referred; a person to whom a matter in dispute has been referred, in order that he may settle it.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Judge; arbitrator; umpire. See <u>Judge</u>.</p> <p><hw>Ref"er*ence</hw> (r?f"?r-<i>e</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [See <u>Refer</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of referring, or the state of being referred; as, <i>reference</i> to a chart for guidance.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which refers to something; a specific direction of the attention; as, a <i>reference</i> in a textbook.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Relation; regard; respect.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Something that hath a <i>reference</i> to my state.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>One who, or that which, is referred to.</def> Specifically; <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>One of whom inquires can be made as to the integrity, capacity, and the like, of another.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A work, or a passage in a work, to which one is referred.</def></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The act of submitting a matter in dispute to the judgment of one or more persons for decision.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <i>(Equity)</i> <def>The process of sending any matter, for inquiry in a cause, to a master or other officer, in order that he may ascertain facts and report to the court.</def></p> <p><sn><b>6.</b></sn> <def>Appeal.</def> [R.] "Make your full <i>reference</i>." <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><col><b>Reference Bible</b></col>, <cd>a Bible in which brief explanations, and references to parallel passages, are printed in the margin of the text.</cd></p> <p><hw>Ref`er*en"da*ry</hw> (r?f`?r*?n"d?*r?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [LL. <i>referendarius</i>, fr. L. <i>referendus</i> to be referred, gerundive of <i>referre</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;f&eacute;rendaire</i>. See <u>Refer</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One to whose decision a cause is referred; a referee.</def> [Obs.] <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>An officer who delivered the royal answer to petitions.</def> "<i>Referendaries</i>, or masters of request." <i>Harmar.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Formerly, an officer of state charged with the duty of procuring and dispatching diplomas and decrees.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ref`er*en"dum</hw> (r?f`?r*?n"d?m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Gerundive fr. L. <i>referre</i>. See <u>Refer</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A diplomatic agent's note asking for instructions from his government concerning a particular matter or point.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The right to approve or reject by popular vote a meassure passed upon by a legislature.</def></p> <p><hw>Ref`er*en"tial</hw> (-sh<i>a</i>l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Containing a reference; pointing to something out of itself; as, notes for <i>referential</i> use.</def> -- <wf>Ref`er*en"tial*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re*fer"ment</hw> (r?*f?r"m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of referring; reference.</def> <i>Laud.</i></p> <p><! p. 1207 !></p> <p><hw>Re`-fer*ment"</hw> (r&?;`f&?;r*m&?;nt"), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To ferment, or cause to ferment, again.</def> <i>Blackmore.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fer"rer</hw> (r?*f?r"r?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who refers.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fer"ri*ble</hw> (-r?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Referable.</def> <i>Hallam.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fig"ure</hw> (r?*f?g"?r), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To figure again.</def> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fill"</hw> (r?*f?l"), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> <def>To fill, or become full, again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*find"</hw> (r?*f?nd), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To find again; to get or experience again.</def> <i>Sandys.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fine"</hw> (r?*f?n"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Refined</u> (-find"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Refining</u>.] [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>fine</i> to make fine: cf. F. <i>raffiner</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To reduce to a fine, unmixed, or pure state; to free from impurities; to free from dross or alloy; to separate from extraneous matter; to purify; to defecate; as, to <i>refine</i> gold or silver; to <i>refine</i> iron; to <i>refine</i> wine or sugar.</def></p> <p><blockquote>I will bring the third part through the fire, and will <i>refine</i> them as silver is <i>refined</i>.</blockquote> <i>Zech. xiii. 9.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To purify from what is gross, coarse, vulgar, inelegant, low, and the like; to make elegant or exellent; to polish; as, to <i>refine</i> the manners, the language, the style, the

taste, the intellect, or the moral feelings.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Love <i>refines</i><BR> The thoughts, and heart enlarges.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To purify; clarify; polish; ennoble.</p> <p><hw>Re*fine"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To become pure; to be cleared of feculent matter.</def></p> <p><blockquote>So the pure, limpid stream, when foul with stains,<BR> Works itself clear, and, as it runs, <i>refines</i>.</blockquote> <i>Addison.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To improve in accuracy, delicacy, or excellence.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Chaucer <i>refined</i> on Boccace, and mended his stories.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><blockquote>But let a lord once own the happy lines,<BR> How the wit brightens! How the style <i>refines</i>!</blockquote> <i>Pope.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To affect nicety or subtilty in thought or language.</def> "He makes another paragraph about our <i>refining</i> in controversy." <i>Atterbury.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fined"</hw> (-f?nd"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Freed from impurities or alloy; purifed; polished; cultured; delicate; as; <i>refined</i> gold; <i>refined</i> language; <i>refined</i> sentiments.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Refined</i> wits who honored poesy with their pens.</blockquote> <i>Peacham.</i></p> <p>-- <wf>Re*fin"ed*ly</wf> (r&?;*f&?;n"&?;d*l&?;), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -- <wf>Re*fin"ed*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re*fine"ment</hw> (r?*f?n"m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>raffinement</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of refining, or the state of being refined; as, the <i>refinement</i> or metals; <i>refinement</i> of ideas.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The more bodies are of kin to spirit in subtilty and <i>refinement</i>, the more diffusive are they.</blockquote> <i>Norris.</i></p> <p><blockquote>From the civil war to this time, I doubt whether the corruptions in our language have not equaled its <i>refinements</i>.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which is refined, elaborated, or polished to excess; an affected subtilty; as, <i>refinements</i> of logic.</def> "The <i>refinements</i> of irregular cunning." <i>Rogers.</i></p>

<p><b>Syn.</b> -- Purification; polish; politeness; gentility; elegance; cultivation; civilization.</p> <p><hw>Re*fin"er</hw> (-f?n"?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who, or that which, refines.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fin"er*y</hw> (-?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>Refineries</b></plw> (-&?;z). [Cf. F. <i>raffinerie</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The building and apparatus for refining or purifying, esp. metals and sugar.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>A furnace in which cast iron is refined by the action of a blast on the molten metal.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fit"</hw> (r?*f?t"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To fit or prepare for use again; to repair; to restore after damage or decay; as, to <i>refit</i> a garment; to <i>refit</i> ships of war.</def> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To fit out or supply a second time.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fit"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To obtain repairs or supplies; as, the fleet returned to <i>refit</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fit"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of refitting, or the state of being refitted.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fix"</hw> (r?*f?ks"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To fix again or anew; to establish anew.</def> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*flame"</hw> (r?*fl?m"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To kindle again into flame.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*flect"</hw> (r?*fl?kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Reflected</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Reflecting</u>.] [L. <i>reflectere</i>, <i>reflexum</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>flectere</i> to bend or turn. See <u>Flexible</u>, and cf. <u>Reflex</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To bend back; to give a backwa&?;d turn to; to throw back; especially, to cause to return after striking upon any surface; as, a mirror <i>reflects</i> rays of light; polished metals <i>reflect</i> heat.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Let me mind the reader to <i>reflect</i> his eye on our quotations.</blockquote> <i>Fuller.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Bodies close together <i>reflect</i> their own color.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To give back an image or likeness of; to mirror.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Nature is the glass <i>reflecting</i> God,<BR> As by the sea <i>reflected</i> is the sun.</blockquote> <i>Young.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*flect"</hw> <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn>

<def>To throw back light, heat, or the like; to return rays or beams.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To be sent back; to rebound as from a surface; to revert; to return.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Whose virtues will, I hope,<BR> <i>Reflect</i> on Rome, as Titan's rays on earth.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>To throw or turn back the thoughts upon anything; to contemplate. Specifically: To attend earnestly to what passes within the mind; to attend to the facts or phenomena of consciousness; to use attention or earnest thought; to meditate; especially, to think in relation to moral truth or rules.</def></p> <p><blockquote>We can not be said to <i>reflect</i> upon any external object, except so far as that object has been previously perceived, and its image become part and parcel of our intellectual furniture.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Hamilton.</i></p> <p><blockquote>All men are concious of the operations of their own minds, at all times, while they are awake, but there few who <i>reflect</i> upon them, or make them objects of thought.</blockquote> <i>Reid.</i></p> <p><blockquote>As I much <i>reflected</i>, much I mourned.</blockquote> <i>Prior.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>To cast reproach; to cause censure or dishonor.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Errors of wives <i>reflect</i> on husbands still.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Neither do I <i>reflect</i> in the least upon the memory of his late majesty.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To consider; think; cogitate; mediate; contemplate; ponder; muse; ruminate.</p> <p><hw>Re*flect"ed</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Thrown back after striking a surface; as, <i>reflected</i> light, heat, sound, etc.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Hence: Not one's own; received from another; as, his glory was <i>reflected</i> glory.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Bent backward or outward; reflexed.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*flect"ent</hw> (r?*fl?kt"<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>reflectens</i>, p. pr. of <i>reflectere</i>. See <u>Reflect</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Bending or flying back; reflected.</def> "The ray descendent, and the ray <i>reflectent</i> flying with so great a speed." <i>Sir K. Digby.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Reflecting; as, a <i>reflectent</i>


<i>Sir K. Digby.</i></p>

<p><hw>Re*flect"i*ble</hw> (-?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of being reflected, or thrown back; reflexible.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*flect"ing</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Throwing back light, heat, etc., as a mirror or other surface.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Given to reflection or serious consideration; reflective; contemplative; as, a <i>reflecting</i> mind.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reflecting circle</b></col>, <cd>an astronomical instrument for measuring angless, like the sextant or Hadley's quadrant, by the reflection of light from two plane mirrors which it carries, and differing from the sextant chiefly in having an entire circle.</cd> -<col><b>Reflecting galvanometer</b></col>, <cd>a galvanometer in which the deflections of the needle are read by means of a mirror attached to it, which reflects a ray of light or the image of a scale; -called also <i>mirror galvanometer</i>.</cd> -- <col><b>Reflecting goniometer</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Goniometer</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Reflecting telescope</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Telescope</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*flect"ing*ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>With reflection; also, with censure; reproachfully.</def> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*flec"tion</hw> (r?*fl?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>reflexio</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;flexion</i>. See <u>Riflect</u>.] [Written also <i>reflexion</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of reflecting, or turning or sending back, or the state of being reflected.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The return of rays, beams, sound, or the like, from a surface. See <i>Angle of reflection</i>, below.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The eye sees not itself,<BR> But by <i>reflection</i>, by some other things.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The reverting of the mind to that which has already occupied it; continued consideration; meditation; contemplation; hence, also, that operation or power of the mind by which it is conscious of its own acts or states; the capacity for judging rationally, especially in view of a moral rule or standard.</def></p> <p><blockquote>By <i>reflection</i>, . . . I would be understood to mean, that notice which the mind takes of its own operations, and the manner of them, by reason whereof there come to be ideas of these operations in the understanding.</blockquote> <i>Locke.</i></p> <p><blockquote>This delight grows and improves under thought and <i>reflection</i>.</blockquote> <i>South.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Shining; brightness, as of the sun.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>That which is produced by reflection.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>An image given back from a reflecting surface; a reflected counterpart.</def></p> <p><blockquote>As the sun water we can bear,<BR> Yet not the sun, but his <i>reflection</i>, there.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A part reflected, or turned back, at an angle; as, the <i>reflection</i> of a membrane.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>Result of meditation; thought or opinion after attentive consideration or contemplation; especially, thoughts suggested by truth.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Job's <i>reflections</i> on his once flourishing estate did at the same time afflict and encourage him.</blockquote> <i>Atterbury.</i></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <def>Censure; reproach cast.</def></p> <p><blockquote>He died; and oh! may no <i>reflection</i> shed<BR> Its poisonous venom on the royal dead.</blockquote> <i>Prior.</i></p> <p><sn><b>5.</b></sn> <i>(Physiol.)</i> <def>The transference of an excitement from one nerve fiber to another by means of the nerve cells, as in reflex action. See <i>Reflex action</i>, under <u>Reflex</u>.</def></p> <p><col><b>Angle of reflection</b></col>, <cd>the angle which anything, as a ray of light, on leaving a reflecting surface, makes with the perpendicular to the surface.</cd> -- <col><b>Angle of total reflection</b></col>. <i>(Opt.)</i> <cd>Same as <i>Critical angle</i>, under <u>Critical</u>.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Meditation; contemplation; rumination; cogitation; consideration; musing; thinking.</p> <p><hw>Re*flect"ive</hw> (r?*fl?kt"?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;flectif</i>. Cf. <u>Reflexive</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Throwing back images; as, a <i>reflective</i> mirror.</def></p> <p><blockquote>In the <i>reflective</i> stream the sighing bride, viewing her charms.</blockquote> <i>Prior.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Capable of exercising thought or judgment; as, <i>reflective</i> reason.</def> <i>Prior.</i></p> <p><blockquote>His perceptive and <i>reflective</i> faculties . . . thus acquired a precocious and extraordinary development.</blockquote> <i>Motley.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>Addicted to introspective or meditative habits; as, a <i>reflective</i> person.</def></p> <p><sn><b>4.</b></sn> <i>(Gram.)</i> <def>Reflexive; reciprocal.</def></p>

<p>-- <wf>Re*flect"ive*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -<wf>Re*flect"ive*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> "<i>Reflectiveness</i> of manner." <i>J. C. Shairp.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*flect"or</hw> (-&etilde;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;flecteur</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who, or that which, reflects.</def> <i>Boyle.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Physics)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>Something having a polished surface for reflecting light or heat, as a mirror, a speculum, etc.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>A reflecting telescope.</def> <sd><i>(c)</i></sd> <def>A device for reflecting sound.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"flex</hw> (r?"fl?ks), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>reflexus</i>, p. p. of <i>reflectere</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;flexe</i>. See <u>Reflect</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Directed back; attended by reflection; retroactive; introspective.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The <i>reflex</i> act of the soul, or the turning of the intellectual eye inward upon its own actions.</blockquote> <i>Sir M. Hale.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Produced in reaction, in resistance, or in return.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Physiol.)</i> <def>Of, pertaining to, or produced by, stimulus or excitation without the necessary intervention of consciousness.</def></p> <p><col><b>Reflex action</b></col> <i>(Physiol.)</i>, <cd>any action performed involuntarily in consequence of an impulse or impression transmitted along afferent nerves to a nerve center, from which it is reflected to an efferent nerve, and so calls into action certain muscles, organs, or cells.</cd> -- <col><b>Reflex nerve</b></col> <i>(Physiol.)</i>, <cd>an excito-motory nerve. See <u>Exitomotory</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re"flex</hw> (r?"fl?ks; <i>formerly</i> r?*fl?ks"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>reflexus</i> a bending back. See <u>Reflect</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Reflection; the light reflected from an illuminated surface to one in shade.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Yon gray is not the morning's eye,<BR> 'Tis but the pale <i>reflex</i> of Cynthia's brow.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><blockquote>On the depths of death there swims<BR> The <i>reflex</i> of a human face.</blockquote> <i>Tennyson.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Physiol.)</i> <def>An involuntary movement produced by reflex action.</def></p> <p><col><b>Patellar reflex</b></col>. <cd>See <i>Knee jerk</i>, under <u>Knee</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*flex"</hw> (r?*fl?ks"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [L.

<i>reflexus</i>, p. p. of <i>reflectere</i>. See <u>Reflect</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To reflect.</def> [Obs.] <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To bend back; to turn back.</def> Gregory.</i></p> <i>J.

<p><hw>Re*flexed"</hw> (r?*fl?kst"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Bent backward or outward.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*flex`i*bil"i*ty</hw> (r?*fl?ks`?*b?l"?*t?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;flexibilit&eacute;</i>.] <def>The quality or capability of being reflexible; as, the <i>reflexibility</i> of the rays of light.</def> <i>Sir I. Newton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*flex"i*ble</hw> (r?*fl?ks"?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [CF. F. <i>r&eacute;flexible</i>.] <def>Capable of being reflected, or thrown back.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The light of the sun consists of rays differently refrangible and <i>reflexible</i>.</blockquote> <i>Cheyne.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*flex"ion</hw> (-fl?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>See <u>Reflection</u>.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*flex"i*ty</hw> (r?*fl?ks"?*t?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The state or condition of being reflected.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Re*flex"ive</hw> (-?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;flexif</i>.] <def>Bending or turned backward; reflective; having respect to something past.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Assurance <i>reflexive</i> can not be a divine faith.</blockquote> <i>Hammond.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Implying censure.</def> [Obs.] "What man does not resent an ugly <i>reflexive</i> word?" <i>South.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Gram.)</i> <def>Having for its direct object a pronoun which refers to the agent or subject as its antecedent; -said of certain verbs; as, the witness <i>perjured</i> himself; I <i>bethought</i> myself. Applied also to pronouns of this class; reciprocal; reflective.</def></p> <p>-- <wf>Re*flex"ive*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -<wf>Re*flex"ive*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re*flex"ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a reflex manner; reflectively.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"float</hw> (r?"fl?t), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Reflux; ebb.</def> [Obs.] <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`flo*res"cence</hw> (r?`fl?*r?s"s<i>e</i>ns), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Bot.)</i> <def>A blossoming anew of a plant after it has apparently ceased blossoming for the season.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*flour"ish</hw> (r?*fl?r"?sh), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos>

<def>To flourish again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*flow"</hw> (r?*fl?"), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To flow back; to ebb.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*flow"er</hw> (r&emacr;*flou"&etilde;r), <pos><i>v. i. & t.</i></pos> <def>To flower, or cause to flower, again.</def> <i>Sylvester.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fluc`tu*a"tion</hw> (r?*fl?k`t?*?"sh?n; 135), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A flowing back; refluence.</def></p> <p>{ <hw>Ref"lu*ence</hw> (r?f"l?-<i>e</i>ns), <hw>Ref"lu*en*cy</hw> (-<i>e</i>n*s?), } <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality of being refluent; a flowing back.</def></p> <p><hw>Ref"lu*ent</hw> (-<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>refluens</i>, p. pr. of <i>refluere</i> to flow back; pref. <i>re</i> re- + <i>fluere</i> to flow. See <u>Flurent</u>.] <def>Flowing back; returning; ebbing.</def> <i>Cowper.</i></p> <p><blockquote>And <i>refluent</i> through the pass of fear<BR> The battle's tide was poured.</blockquote> <i>Sir W. Scott.</i></p> <p><hw>Ref"lu*eus</hw> (-?s), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>refluus</i>.] <def>Refluent.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re"flux`</hw> (r?"fl?ks`), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Returning, or flowing back; reflex; as, <i>reflux</i> action.</def></p> <p><hw>Re"flux`</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>reflux</i>. See <u>Refluent</u>, <u>Flux</u>.] <def>A flowing back, as the return of a fluid; ebb; reaction; as, the flux and <i>reflux</i> of the tides.</def></p> <p><blockquote>All from me<BR> Shall with a fierce <i>reflux</i> on me redound.</blockquote> <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*foc"il*late</hw> (r?*f?s"?l*l?t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [L. <i>refocillatus</i>, p. p. of <i>refocillare</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>focillare</i> to revive by warmth.] <def>To refresh; to revive.</def> [Obs.] <i>Aubrey.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*foc`il*la"tion</hw> (-l?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Restoration of strength by refreshment.</def> [Obs.] <i>Middleton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fold"</hw> (r?*f?ld"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To fold again.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`fo*ment"</hw> (r?`f?*m<i>?</i>nt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To foment anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*for`est*i*za`tion</hw> (r?*f?r`?st*?*z?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act or process of reforestizing.</def></p>

<p><hw>Re*for"est*ize</hw> (r?*f?r"?st*?z), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To convert again into a forest; to plant again with trees.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*forge"</hw> (r?*f?rj"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. <i>re-</i> + <i>forge</i>: cf. F. <i>reforger</i>.] <def>To forge again or anew; hence, to fashion or fabricate anew; to make over.</def> <i>Udall.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*for"ger</hw> (r?*f?r"j?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who reforges.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*form"</hw> (r?*f?rm"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;former</i>, L. <i>reformare</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>formare</i> to form, from <i>forma</i> form. See <u>Form</u>.] <def>To put into a new and improved form or condition; to restore to a former good state, or bring from bad to good; to change from worse to better; to amend; to correct; as, to <i>reform</i> a profligate man; to <i>reform</i> corrupt manners or morals.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The example alone of a vicious prince will corrupt an age; but that of a good one will not <i>reform</i> it.</blockquote> <i>Swift.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To amend; correct; emend; rectify; mend; repair; better; improve; restore; reclaim.</p> <p><hw>Re*form"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To return to a good state; to amend or correct one's own character or habits; as, a man of settled habits of vice will seldom <i>reform</i>.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*form"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;forme</i>.] <def>Amendment of what is defective, vicious, corrupt, or depraved; reformation; as, <i>reform</i> of elections; <i>reform</i> of government.</def></p> <p><col><b>Civil service reform</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Civil</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Reform acts</b></col> <i>(Eng. Politics)</i>, <cd>acts of Parliament passed in 1832, 1867, 1884, 1885, extending and equalizing popular representation in Parliament.</cd> -- <col><b>Reform school</b></col>, <cd>a school established by a state or city government, for the confinement, instruction, and reformation of juvenile offenders, and of young persons of idle, vicious, and vagrant habits.</cd> [U. S.]</p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Reformation; amendment; rectification; correction. See <u>Reformation</u>.</p> <p><hw>Re-form"</hw> (r?*f?rm"), <pos><i>v. t. & i.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Re-formed</u> (-f?rmd"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Re-forming</u>.] <def>To give a new form to; to form anew; to take form again, or to take a new form; as, to <i>reform</i> the line after a charge.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*form"a*ble</hw> (r?*f?rm"?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of being reformed.</def> <i>Foxe.</i></p> <p><hw>Ref`or*made"</hw> (r?f`?r*m?d"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A

reformado.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Ref`or*ma"do</hw> (-m?"d?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Sp., fr. <i>reformar</i>, L. <i>reformare</i>. SEe <u>Reform</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A monk of a reformed order.</def> [Obs.] <i>Weever.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>An officer who, in disgrace, is deprived of his command, but retains his rank, and sometimes his pay.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re*form"al*ize</hw> (r?*f?rm"<i>a</i>l*?z), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To affect reformation; to pretend to correctness.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Ref`or*ma"tion</hw> (r?f`?r*m?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;formation</i>, L. <i>reformatio</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of reforming, or the state of being reformed; change from worse to better; correction or amendment of life, manners, or of anything vicious or corrupt; as, the <i>reformation</i> of manners; <i>reformation</i> of the age; <i>reformation</i> of abuses.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Satire lashes vice into <i>reformation</i>.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><! p. 1208 !></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Specifically <i>(Eccl. Hist.)</i>, the important religious movement commenced by Luther early in the sixteenth century, which resulted in the formation of the various Protestant churches.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Reform; amendment; correction; rectification. -<u>Reformation</u>, <u>Reform</u>. <i>Reformation</i> is a more thorough and comprehensive change than <i>reform</i>. It is applied to subjects that are more important, and results in changes which are more lasting. A <i>reformation</i> involves, and is followed by, many particular <i>reforms</i>. "The pagan converts mention this great <i>reformation</i> of those who had been the greatest sinners, with that sudden and surprising change which the Christian religion made in the lives of the most profligate." <i>Addison.</i> "A variety of schemes, founded in visionary and impracticable ideas of <i>reform</i>, were suddenly produced." <i>Pitt.</i></p> <p><hw>Re`-for*ma"tion</hw> (r?`f?r*m?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of forming anew; a second forming in order; as, the <i>reformation</i> of a column of troops into a hollow square.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*form"a*tive</hw> (r?*f?rm"?*t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Forming again; having the quality of renewing form; reformatory.</def> <i>Good.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*form"a*to*ry</hw> (-t?*r?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Tending to produce reformation; reformative.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*form"a*to*ry</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>-ries</b></plw> (-r&?;z). <def>An institution for promoting

the reformation of offenders.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Magistrates may send juvenile offenders to <i>reformatories</i> instead of to prisons.</blockquote> <i>Eng. Cyc.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*formed"</hw> (r?*f?rmd"), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Corrected; amended; restored to purity or excellence; said, specifically, of the whole body of Protestant churches originating in the Reformation. Also, in a more restricted sense, of those who separated from Luther on the doctrine of consubstantiation, etc., and carried the Reformation, as they claimed, to a higher point. The Protestant churches founded by them in Switzerland, France, Holland, and part of Germany, were called the <i>Reformed churches</i>.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The town was one of the strongholds of the <i>Reformed</i> faith.</blockquote> <i>Macaulay.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Amended in character and life; as, a <i>reformed</i> gambler or drunkard.</def></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Mil.)</i> <def>Retained in service on half or full pay after the disbandment of the company or troop; -- said of an officer.</def> [Eng.]</p> <p><hw>Re*form"er</hw> (r?*f?rm"?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who effects a reformation or amendment; one who labors for, or urges, reform; as, a <i>reformer</i> of manners, or of abuses.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Eccl.Hist.)</i> <def>One of those who commenced the reformation of religion in the sixteenth century, as Luther, Melanchthon, Zwingli, and Calvin.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*form"ist</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;formiste</i>.] <def>A reformer.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*form"ly</hw>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In the manner of a reform; for the purpose of reform.</def> [Obs.] <i>Milton.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*for`ti*fi*ca"tion</hw> (r?*f?r`t?*f?*k?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A fortifying anew, or a second time.</def> <i>Mitford.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*for"ti*fy</hw> (r?*f?r"t?*f?), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To fortify anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fos"sion</hw> (r?*f?sh"?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>refodere</i>, <i>refossum</i>, to dig up again. See <u>Fosse</u>.] <def>The act of digging up again.</def> [Obs.] <i>Bp. Hall.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*found"</hw> (r?*found"), <i>re-</i> + <i>found</i> to cast; <u>Refund</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> "Ancient bells <i>refounded</i>." <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [Pref. cf. F. <i>refondare</i>. Cf. <def>To found or cast anew.</def> <i>T. Warton.</i></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To found or establish again; to

re&?;stablish.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*found"</hw>, <def><pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> of <u>Refind</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos></def></p> <p><hw>Re*found"er</hw> (-?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who refounds.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fract"</hw> (r?*fr$kt"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Refracted</u>; <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Refracting</u>.] [L. <i>refractus</i>, p. p. of <i>refringere</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>frangere</i> to break: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;fracter</i>. SEe <u>FRacture</u>, and cf. <u>Refrain</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To bend sharply and abruptly back; to break off.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To break the natural course of, as rays of light orr heat, when passing from one transparent medium to another of different density; to cause to deviate from a direct course by an action distinct from reflection; as, a dense medium <i>refrcts</i> the rays of light as they pass into it from a rare medium.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fract"a*ble</hw> (-?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Capable of being refracted.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fract"ed</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <i>(Bot. & Zo&ouml;l.)</i> <def>Bent backward angularly, as if halfbroken; as, a <i>refracted</i> stem or leaf.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Turned from a direct course by refraction; as, <i>refracted</i> rays of light.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fract"ing</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Serving or tending to refract; as, a <i>refracting</i> medium.</def></p> <p><col><b>Refracting angle of a prism</b></col> <i>(Opt.)</i>, <cd>the angle of a triangular prism included between the two sides through which the refracted beam passes in the decomposition of light.</cd> -- <col><b>Refracting telescope</b></col>. <i>(Opt.)</i> <cd>See under <u>Telescope</u>.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*frac"tion</hw> (r?*fr?k"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>r&eacute;fraction</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of refracting, or the state of being refracted.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>The change in the direction of ray of light, heat, or the like, when it enters obliquely a medium of a different density from that through which it has previously moved.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Refraction</i> out of the rarer medium into the denser, is made towards the perpendicular.</blockquote> <i>Sir I. Newton.</i></p> <p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <i>(Astron.)</i> <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>The change in the direction of a ray of light, and, consequently, in the apparent position of a heavenly body from which it emanates, arising from its passage through the earth's atmosphere; -- hence

distinguished as atmospheric refraction, or astronomical refraction.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The correction which is to be deducted from the apparent altitude of a heavenly body on account of atmospheric refraction, in order to obtain the true altitude.</def></p> <p><col><b>Angle of refraction</b></col> <i>(Opt.)</i>, <cd>the angle which a refracted ray makes with the perpendicular to the surface separating the two media traversed by the ray.</cd> -- <col><b>Conical refraction</b></col> <i>(Opt.)</i>, <cd>the refraction of a ray of light into an infinite number of rays, forming a hollow cone. This occurs when a ray of light is passed through crystals of some substances, under certain circumstances. Conical refraction is of two kinds; <i>external conical refraction</i>, in which the ray issues from the crystal in the form of a cone, the vertex of which is at the point of emergence; and <i>internal conical refraction</i>, in which the ray is changed into the form of a cone on entering the crystal, from which it issues in the form of a hollow cylinder. This singular phenomenon was first discovered by Sir W. R. Hamilton by mathematical reasoning alone, unaided by experiment.</cd> -- <col><b>Differential refraction</b></col> <i>(Astron.)</i>, <cd>the change of the apparent place of one object relative to a second object near it, due to refraction; also, the correction required to be made to the observed relative places of the two bodies.</cd> -- <col><b>Double refraction</b></col> <i>(Opt.)</i>, <cd>the refraction of light in two directions, which produces two distinct images. The power of double refraction is possessed by all crystals except those of the isometric system. A uniaxial crystal is said to be <i>optically positive</i> (like quartz), or <i>optically negative</i> (like calcite), or to have <i>positive</i>, or <i>negative</i>, <i>double refraction</i>, according as the optic axis is the axis of least or greatest elasticity for light; a biaxial crystal is similarly designated when the same relation holds for the acute bisectrix.</cd> -- <col><b>Index of refraction</b></col>. <cd>See under <u>Index</u>.</cd> -<col><b>Refraction circle</b></col> <i>(Opt.)</i>, <cd>an instrument provided with a graduated circle for the measurement of refraction.</cd> -- <col><b>Refraction of latitude</b></col>, <col><b>longitude</b></col>, <col><b>declination</b></col>, <col><b>right ascension</b></col>, <cd>etc., the change in the apparent latitude, longitude, etc., of a heavenly body, due to the effect of atmospheric refraction.</cd> -- <col><b>Terrestrial refraction</b></col>, <cd>the change in the apparent altitude of a distant point on or near the earth's surface, as the top of a mountain, arising from the passage of light from it to the eye through atmospheric strata of varying density.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*fract"ive</hw> (r?*fr?kt"?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;fractif</i>. See <u>Refract</u>.] <def>Serving or having power to refract, or turn from a direct course; pertaining to refraction; as, <i>refractive</i> surfaces; <i>refractive</i> powers.</def></p> <p><col><b>Refractive index</b></col>. <i>(Opt.)</i> <cd>See <i>Index of refraction</i>, under <u>Index</u>.</cd> -- <col><b>Absolute refractive index</b></col> <i>(Opt.)</i>, <cd>the index of refraction of a substances when the ray passes into it from a vacuum.</cd> -<col><b>Relative refractive index</b></col> (of two media) <i>(Opt.)</i>, <cd>the ratio of the sine of the angle of incidence to

the sine of the angle of refraction for a ray passing out of one of the media into the other.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*fract"ive*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or condition of being refractive.</def></p> <p><hw>Re`frac*tom"e*ter</hw> (r?`fr?k*t?m"?*t?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [<i>Refraction</i> + <i>-meter</i>.] <i>(Opt.)</i> <def>A contrivance for exhibiting and measuring the refraction of light.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fract"or</hw> (r&?;-fr&?;kt"&?;r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Anything that refracts</def>; specifically: <i>(Opt.)</i> <def>A refracting telescope, in which the image to be viewed is formed by the refraction of light in passing through a convex lens.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*frac"to*ri*ly</hw> (r?*fr?k"t?*r?*l?), <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> <def>In a refractory manner; perversely; obstinately.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*frac"to*ri*ness</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The quality or condition of being refractory.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*frac"to*ry</hw> (-r?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>refractorius</i>, fr. <i>refringere</i>: cf. F. <i>refractaire</i>. See <u>Refract</u>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>Obstinate in disobedience; contumacious; stubborn; unmanageable; as, a <i>refractory</i> child; a <i>refractory</i> beast.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Raging appetites that are<BR> Most disobedient and <i>refractory</i>.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Resisting ordinary treatment; difficult of fusion, reduction, or the like; -- said especially of metals and the like, which do not readily yield to heat, or to the hammer; as, a <i>refractory</i> ore.</def></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- Perverse; contumacious; unruly; stubborn; obstinate; unyielding; ungovernable; unmanageable.</p> <p><hw>Re*frac"to*ry</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>A refractory person.</def> <i>Bp. Hall.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>Refractoriness.</def> [Obs.] TAylor.</i></p> <i>Jer.

<p><sn><b>3.</b></sn> <def>O<i>Pottery</i>) A piece of ware covered with a vaporable flux and placed in a kiln, to communicate a glaze to the other articles.</def> <i>Knight.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*frac"ture</hw> (r?*fr?k"t?r;135), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <i>(Surg.)</i> <def>A second breaking (as of a badly set bone) by the surgeon.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*frac"ture</hw>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <i>(Surg.)</i> <def>To break again, as a bone.</def></p> <p><hw>Ref"ra*ga*ble</hw> (r?f"r?*g?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [LL.

<i>refragabilis</i>, fr. L. <i>refragari</i> to oppose.] <def>Capable of being refuted; refutable.</def> [R.] -<wf>Ref"ra*ga*ble*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [R.] -<wf>Ref`ra*ga*bil"i*ty</wf> (-b&?;l`&?;*t&?;), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Ref"ra*gate</hw> (-g?t), <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> [L. <i>refragatus</i>, p. p. of <i>refragor</i>.] <def>To oppose.</def> [R.] <i>Glanvill.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*frain"</hw> (r?*fr?n"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Refrained</u> (-fr?nd"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb/ n.</i></pos> <u>Refraining</u>.] [OE. <i>refreinen</i>, OF. <i>refrener</i>, F. <i>refr&?;ner</i>, fr. L. <i>refrenare</i>; influenced by OF. <i>refraindre</i> to restrain, moderate, fr. LL. <i>refrangere</i>, for L. <i>refringere</i> to break up, break (see <u>Refract</u>). L. <i>refrenare</i> is fr. pref. <i>re-</i> back + <i>frenum</i> bridle; cf. Skr. <i>dh&?;</i> to hold.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To hold back; to restrain; to keep within prescribed bounds; to curb; to govern.</def></p> <p><blockquote>His reson <i>refraineth</i> not his foul delight or talent.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote><i>Refrain</i> thy foot from their path.</blockquote> <i>Prov. i. 15.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To abstain from</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>Who, requiring a remedy for his gout, received no other counsel than to <i>refrain</i> cold drink.</blockquote> <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*frain"</hw>, <pos><i>v. i.</i></pos> <def>To keep one's self from action or interference; to hold aloof; to forbear; to abstain.</def></p> <p><blockquote><i>Refrain</i> from these men, and let them alone.</blockquote> <i>Acts v. 38.</i></p> <p><blockquote>They <i>refrained</i> therefrom [eating flesh] some time after.</blockquote> <i>Sir T. Browne.</i></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To hold back; forbear; abstain; withhold.</p> <p><hw>Re*frain"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [F. <i>refrain</i>, fr. OF. <i>refraindre</i>; cf. Pr. <i>refranhs</i> a refrain, <i>refranher</i> to repeat. See <u>Refract</u>,<u>Refrain</u>, <pos><i>v.</i></pos>] <def>The burden of a song; a phrase or verse which recurs at the end of each of the separate stanzas or divisions of a poetic composition.</def></p> <p><blockquote>We hear the wild <i>refrain</i>.</blockquote> <i>Whittier.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*frain"er</hw> (r?*fr?n"?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>One who refrains.</def></p>

<p><hw>Re*frain"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>Act of refraining.</def> [R.]</p> <p><hw>Re*frame"</hw> (r?*fr?m), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> <def>To frame again or anew.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fran`gi*bil"i*ty</hw> (r?*fr?n`j?*b?l"?*t?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;frangibilit&eacute;</i>.] <def>The quality of being refrangible.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fran"gi*ble</hw> (-fr?n"j?*b'l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;frangible</i>. See <u>Refract</u>.] <def>Capable of being refracted, or turned out of a direct course, in passing from one medium to another, as rays of light.</def> -<wf>Re*fran"gi*ble*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Ref`re*na"tion</hw> (r?f`r?*n?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>refrenatio</i>. See <u>Refrain</u>, <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos>] <def>The act of refraining.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><hw>Re*fresh"</hw> (r?*fr?sh"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Refreshed</u> (-fr?sht"); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Refreshing</u>.] [OE. <i>refreshen</i>, <i>refreschen</i>, OF. <i>refreschir</i> (cf. OF. <i>rafraischir</i>, <i>rafreschir</i>, F. <i>rafra&?;chir</i>); pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>fres</i> fresh. F. <i>frais</i>. See <u>Fresh</u>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos>] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>To make fresh again; to restore strength, spirit, animation, or the like, to; to relieve from fatigue or depression; to reinvigorate; to enliven anew; to reanimate; as, sleep <i>refreshes</i> the body and the mind.</def> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><blockquote>Foer they have <i>refreshed</i> my spirit and yours.</blockquote> <i>1 Cor. xvi. 18.</i></p> <p><blockquote>And labor shall <i>refresh</i> itself with hope.</blockquote> <i>Shak.</i></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>To make as if new; to repair; to restore.</def></p> <p><blockquote>The rest <i>refresh</i> the scaly snakes that fol&?;<BR> The shield of Pallas, and renew their gold.</blockquote> <i>Dryden.</i></p> <p><col><b>To refresh the memory</b></col>, <cd>to quicken or strengthen it, as by a reference, review, memorandum, or suggestion.</cd></p> <p><b>Syn.</b> -- To cool; refrigerate; invigorate; revive; reanimate; renovate; renew; restore; recreate; enliven; cheer.</p> <p><hw>Re*fresh"</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The act of refreshing.</def> [Obs.] <i>Daniel.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fresh"er</hw> (-?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>One who, or that which, refreshes.</def></p>

<p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <i>(Law)</i> <def>An extra fee paid to counsel in a case that has been adjourned from one term to another, or that is unusually protracted.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Ten guineas a day is the highest <i>refresher</i> which a counsel can charge.</blockquote> <i>London Truth.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*fresh"ful</hw> (-f?l), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Full of power to refresh; refreshing.</def> -- <wf>Re*fresh"ful*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re*fresh"ing</hw>, <pos><i>a.</i></pos> <def>Reviving; reanimating.</def> -- <wf>Re*fresh"ing*ly</wf>, <pos><i>adv.</i></pos> -- <wf>Re*fresh"ing*ness</wf>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos></p> <p><hw>Re*fresh"ment</hw> (-m<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [CF. OF. <i>refreschissement</i>, F. <i>rafra&icirc;chissement</i>.] <sn><b>1.</b></sn> <def>The act of refreshing, or the state of being refreshed; restoration of strength, spirit, vigor, or liveliness; relief after suffering; new life or animation after depression.</def></p> <p><sn><b>2.</b></sn> <def>That which refreshes; means of restoration or reanimation; especially, an article of food or drink.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*fret"</hw> (r?*fr?t"), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [OF. <i>refret</i>, L. <i>refractus</i>, p. p. See <u>Refrain</u>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>, <u>Refract</u>.] <def>Refrain.</def> [Obs.] <i>Bailey.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*freyd"</hw> (r?*fr?d"), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [OF. <i>refreidier</i>.] <def>To chill; to cool.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote><i>Refreyded</i> by sickness . . . or by cold drinks.</blockquote> <i>Chaucer.</i></p> <p><hw>Ref`ri*ca"tion</hw> (r?f`r?*k?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L. <i>refricare</i> to rub again.] <def>A rubbing up afresh; a brightening.</def> [Obs.]</p> <p><blockquote>A continual <i>refrication</i> of the memory.</blockquote> <i>Bp. Hall.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*frig"er*ant</hw> (r?*fr?j"?r-<i>a</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>refrigerans</i>, p. pr. of <i>refrigerare</i>: cf. F. <i>r&eacute;frig&eacute;rant</i>. See <u>Refrigerate</u>.] <def>Cooling; allaying heat or fever.</def> <i>Bacon.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*frig"er*ant</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>That which makes to be cool or cold; specifically, a medicine or an application for allaying fever, or the symptoms of fever; -- used also figuratively.</def> <i>Holland.</i> "A <i>refrigerant</i> to passion." <i>Blair.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*frig"er*ate</hw> (-&amacr;t), <pos><i>v. t.</i></pos> [<pos><i>imp. & p. p.</i></pos> <u>Refrigerated</u> (-

&amacr;`t&ebreve;d); <pos><i>p. pr. & vb. n.</i></pos> <u>Refrigerating</u>.] [L. <i>refrigeratus</i>, p. p. of <i>refrigerare</i>; pref. <i>re-</i> re- + <i>frigerare</i> to make cool, fr. <i>frigus</i>, <i>frigoris</i>, coolness. See <u>Frigid</u>.] <def>To cause to become cool; to make or keep cold or cool.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*frig`er*a"tion</hw> (-?"sh?n), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;frig&eacute;ration</i>, L. <i>refrigeratio</i>.] <def>The act or process of refrigerating or cooling, or the state of being cooled.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*frig"er*a*tive</hw> (r?*fr?j"?r*?*t?v), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [Cf. F. <i>r&eacute;frig&eacute;ratif</i>.] <def>Cooling; allaying heat.</def> -- <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>A refrigerant.</def></p> <p><blockquote>Crazed brains should come under a <i>refrigerative</i> treatment.</blockquote> <i>I. Taylor.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*frig"er*a`tor</hw> (-?`t?r), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>That which refrigerates or makes cold; that which keeps cool.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>A box or room for keeping food or other articles cool, usually by means of ice.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>An apparatus for rapidly cooling heated liquids or vapors, connected with a still, etc.</def></p> <p><col><b>Refrigerator car</b></col> <i>(Railroad)</i>, <cd>a freight car constructed as a refrigerator, for the transportation of fresh meats, fish, etc., in a temperature kept cool by ice.</cd></p> <p><hw>Re*frig"er*a*to*ry</hw> (-?*t?*r?), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>refrigeratorius</i>.] <def>Mitigating heat; cooling.</def></p> <p><hw>Re*frig"er*a*to*ry</hw>, <pos><i>n.</i></pos>; <i>pl.</i> <plw><b>-ries</b></plw> (-fr&?;z). [CF. F. <i>r&eacute;frig&eacute;ratoire</i>.] <def>That which refrigerates or cools.</def> Specifically: <sd><i>(a)</i></sd> <def>In distillation, a vessel filled with cold water, surrounding the worm, the vapor in which is thereby condensed.</def> <sd><i>(b)</i></sd> <def>The chamber, or tank, in which ice is formed, in an ice machine.</def></p> <p><hw>||Ref`ri*ge"ri*um</hw> (r?f`r?*j?"r?*?m), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> [L.] <def>Cooling refreshment; refrigeration.</def> [Obs.] <i>South.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*frin"gen*cy</hw> (r?*fr?n"j<i>e</i>n*s?), <pos><i>n.</i></pos> <def>The power possessed by a substance to refract a ray; as, different substances have different <i>refringencies</i>.</def> <i>Nichol.</i></p> <p><hw>Re*frin"gent</hw> (-j<i>e</i>nt), <pos><i>a.</i></pos> [L. <i>refringens</i>, p. pr. of <i>refringere</i>. See <u>Refract</u>.] <def>Pertaining to, or possessing, refringency; refractive; refracting; as, a <i>refringent</i> prism of spar.<