Introduction
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control
Charts
Examples
X bar Control Chart
R Control Chart
S Control Chart
Out of Control
In Statistical Control
MR Control Chart
Individual Control Chart
2
Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control
Charts
Examples
Attribute data
Data that can be classified into one of several categories or classifications
Classifications such as conforming and nonconforming are commonly used in
quality control. Another example of attributes data is the count of defects
Attributes control charts are used for discrete or count data
Fraction nonconforming control charts (p charts)
Number nonconforming control charts (np charts)
Control charts for nonconformities (c and u control
charts)
3
Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control
Charts
Examples
Fraction Nonconforming
The ratio of the number of nonconforming items in a population to the total number
of items in that population. Control charts for fraction nonconforming are based on
the binomial distribution
Number of Nonconformities
The number of defects per unit inspected or per subgroup
Notation
n  number of items examined (lot size, sample size)
m  number of subgroups
p  probability that any one item of interest will be nonconforming. This parameter
is often unknown and must be estimated.
p is the sample fraction nonconforming
p is the average fraction nonconforming
4
Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control
Charts
Examples
Development of the p Control Chart
n = number of units of product selected at random.
D = number of nonconforming units from the sample
p = probability of selecting a nonconforming unit from the sample
The sample fraction nonconforming is given as
x n x
p p
x
n
x D P


.

\

= = ) 1 ( ) (
n
D
p =
p
n
p p
=
o
) 1 (
2
5
Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control
Charts
Examples
If a standard value of p is given, then the control limits for the fraction
nonconforming are
n
p p
p LCL
p CL
n
p p
p UCL
) 1 (
3
) 1 (
3
=
=
+ =
6
Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control
Charts
Examples
If no standard value of p is given, then the control limits for the fraction
nonconforming are
Where
n
p p
p LCL
p CL
n
p p
p UCL
) 1 (
3
) 1 (
3
=
=
+ =
m
p
mn
D
p
m
i
i
m
i
i
= =
= =
1 1
7
Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control
Charts
Examples
Development of the np Control Chart
The np chart is a variation of the p chart, with the actual number of nonconforming
items plotted on the chart.
The npchart and the p chart for the same problem will provide identical
information.
The average fraction nonconforming p is the only value that must be estimate
before constructing the control limits
m
p
mn
D
p
m
i
i
m
i
i
= =
= =
1 1
) 1 ( 3
) 1 ( 3
p p n p n LCL
p n CL
p p n p n UCL
=
=
+ =
8
Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control Charts
Examples
Example
A process that produces bearing housings is investigated. Ten samples of size
100 are selected.
Is this process operating in statistical control?
n = 100, m = 10
Sample # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
# Nonconf. 5 2 3 8 4 1 2 6 3 4
Sample # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
# Nonconf. 5 2 3 8 4 1 2 6 3 4
Fraction
Nonconf.
0.05 0.02 0.03 0.08 0.04 0.01 0.02 0.06 0.03 0.04
038 . 0
1
= =
=
m
p
p
m
i
i
9
Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control Charts
Examples
Control Limits are:
0 02 . 0
100
) 038 . 0 1 ( 038 . 0
3 038 . 0
038 . 0
095 . 0
100
) 038 . 0 1 ( 038 . 0
3 038 . 0
=
+ =
=
=
+ =
LCL
CL
UCL
10
Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control Charts
Examples
A small bank collects data on the number of error in weekly account activities.
Over a 12week period 1000 account activities are randomly selected and
examined for the number that are in error. Use attribute control chart to monitor
the proportion of errors. (p and np)
The fraction in error for each week must be computed
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Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control Charts
Examples
The average fraction in error must be found
The control limits and centerline for the p chart are
12
Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control Charts
Examples
p chart for accounts in error.
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Attributes Control Charts
Introduction
Industrial Engineering
Attributes
Control Charts
Examples
np chart for accounts in error.