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# Compressor

A. Compressor C-101
Function : To increase pressure of CO
2
from the storage tank
Type : Centrifugal Compressor
Gas Properties
- k = 1.316
- Z = 0.966
Operating Condition;
- P inlet = 6 Bar
- P outlet = 12 Bar
- T Inlet = 306.9 K
- Mass Flow = 16 ton/day
Since we use 12 batch processes so, the mass flow would be 1333.33 kg/batch. Since the
charging process on each batch process need only 30 min or 0.5h. so, the flow rate have
to be 2666.7 kg/h for 1 batch process.
Discharge Temperature Calculation
To calculate discharge temperature, we use the following equation;

[
(

)

]

[
()

]

To calculate Compressor Head, we use the following equation;

(

)
[(

)

]

(

)
[()

]

BHP power Calculation
(

) (

) () (

) (

) [(

)

] ()
(

)(

) () (

) () [()

] ()

B. Compressor C-102
Function : To increase pressure of CO
2
from the storage tank
Type : Centrifugal Compressor
Gas Properties
- k = 1.286
- Z = 0.990
Operating Condition;
- P inlet = 2 Bar
- P outlet = 6 Bar
- T Inlet = 318 K
- Mass Flow = 172.5 kg/h
Since we use 12 batch processes so, the mass flow would be 1333.33 kg/batch. Since the
charging process on each batch process needs only 30 min or 0.5 h. so, the flow rates
have to be 690 kg/h for 1 batch process
Discharge Temperature Calculation
To calculate discharge temperature, we use the following equation;

[
(

)

]

[
()

]

To calculate Compressor Head, we use the following equation;

(

)
[(

)

]

(

)
[()

]

BHP power Calculation
(

) (

) () (

) (

) [(

)

] ()
(

) (

) () (

) () [()

] ()

Reactor

A. Precipitation Reactor
Operating Condition
- Pressure = 11.5 bar
- Temp = 318 K
- Flow Rate
o Black Liquor = 26000 kg/h
o CO
2
= 685.4 kg/h
- Since we don’t have enough information of kinetic reaction we cannot determine
total volume by using Fogler formula for batch reactor process. In this case, we get
reaction time information about 45 min (Per Tomani, 2001).

Step 1: Determine Batch Process per Day

Process Time (min)
Charging 30
Reaction time 45
Emptying 30
Cleaning Time 15

Total time needed for completing 1 batch process is 120 min or 2h. Based on this result,
total batch process per day can be calculated by using the following equation:

So, the capacity of 1 batch process is:
- Liquid = 624000 kg/day x 1 day/12 batch = 52000 kg/batch
- CO
2
= 16450 kg/day x 1 day/12 batch = 1370.8 kg/batch

Step 2: Determine Volume Tank (basis: 1 batch process)
a. Volume Liquid

b. Volume Gas
Gas holdup calculation
Gas holdup in bubble column can be estimated by empirical equation (Hikita &
Kikukaw, 1974)

(

)

(

)

(Per Tomani, 2001)

(Walas,1988)

After gas hold up fraction known, we can use the following equation (Doran, 1995)
to determine the volume of the gas phase on the tank:

c. Total Volume
After we evaluated the volume of the liquid and gas on the feed of the reactor, we
are able to determine total working volume of the reactor. The total volume is the
sum of the volume of liquid and gas. On the other hand the vessel also consists of
vapor space. Vapor space take 20% of column volume (Perry, 1999).

( ) (

)

Step 3: Determine Size of Tank
a. Body (Shell)
Based on the rule of thumb on the Walas (1988), Brownell (1969), typical dimension for

So,

(

)

Since this vessel are working on the high pressure around 11.5 bar, we choose
Ellipsoidal with major/minor = 2:1 , since this head are able to working on the pressure
11.5 bar or 170 psi (Brownell, 1969), so

So total volume of the tank can be evaluated with the following equation:

Based on this equation, we can do a modification to get diameter of the tank as
following equation;

So, the height of the tank can be evaluated by using the following equation;

While for height of ellipsoidal can be evaluated by using,

So, the total height of the tank is

Step 4: Determine Design Pressure
 Volume of Tank = 51.7 m
3

 Volume of Liquid = 41.135 m
3

 Liquid Level = 3.8 m
 Height of Tank = 4.908 m

a. Determine Hydrostatic Pressure

b. Determine Operating Pressure

c. Determine Design Pressure
The design pressure of vessel must be 20% above the maximum pressure in the
column. (Walas, 1988):

( )

Step 5: Determine Thickness of Tank
a. Material Selection
SA 285 grade C is selected as the material for the vessel. The selection criteria are
based on the operating temperature and the maximum allowable stress of the
material. SA 285 grade C, can be operated in the range of -20 to 650
o
F with
maximum allowable stress is 18750 psi (ASME Code). For welding, we use Double
Welded Butt Joint, which have welded efficiency is 0.85 (Brownell, 1969).
Corrosion allowance is assumed to be 0.014 in per year (Perry, 1999).
b. Thickness of Shell (Body)
 Double Welded Joint  E=0.85
 Using Material SA-285 Grade C  allowable stress (S) = 18750 psi
 Lifetime Equipment = 20 years
 Corrosion Rate = 0.014 in per year

( )

( )

Step 6: Determined Sparger and Agitator
Sparger
An orifice sparger was placed under the bottom impeller and its size was calculated to
be 75% the impellers diameter. The holed on this circular ring must not exceed 6 mm
(Doran, 1995) and therefore for design calculations their size was assumed to be 5 mm.
A magnetic drive was chosen as the driveshaft seal as this is more common in non-
viscous fermentation broths like Escherichia cell culture which is a very dilute culture
since the cell density is low. The location of sparger is 0.6 from the distance of impeller
from bottom of vessel (Walas,1988). Sparger clearance is 2.664 ft.
Agitator
a. Type : typically the impeller commonly used on the gas dispersion
b. Total Baffle : Baffle is essentially needed, commonly for gas dispersion 4
baffles are needed (Walas, 1988). The main purpose is to prevent dead zone on the
mixing process on the reactor or vessel.
c. Specification Design of agitator (Walas,1988):
 Diameter Impeller

( )
So, diameter impeller is 1.386m
 Length and Width of blade on the turbine

()
The length of blades on turbine is 0.3465m

()
The width of blades on turbine is 0.2772m

 Width and offset of baffle

( )

So the width of baffle is 0.3348 m while the offset of baffle is 0.048 m
 Total Amount of Impeller:
Since , we only need one single impeller.
 Position of impeller:

The position of impeller is 0.933m from the bottom of vessel.

d. Power Needed
Data Needed:
- Viscosity = 3.8 cP = 0.00255 lb/ft.s
- Density = 1264.78 kg/m
3
= 78.96 lb/ft
3

- N = Assume to be 1 rev/s
- d = 4.54 ft
 Determine N
Re

()

 Determine Power
Since the flow is turbulence we use the following equation (McCabe, 1999) to
determine power consumption of agitator:

To determine Power Number (Np), we can use the following graphic (Walas,
1988) which depend on the type of impeller and Reynolds number.

By using this graphic Np is about 1.3, so

Assume efficiency of motor is 80% (Walas, 1988), so:

Step 7: Heater for Reactor Design
a. Determine Enthalpy on the Reactant Stream (T = 298K)
Table 3.1 Enthalpy on Reactant Precipitator Reactor Stream
Comp Mass (kg/h) g mol T(K) H Sensible H formation Total (kJ/h)
Lean Liquor 4377.91667 11415.69 298 0 0 0
Lignin 2626.875 1250.893 298 0 0 0
NaOH 437.8125 10945.31 298 0 -5134993.359 -5134993.359
Na2SO4 262.689583 1849.302 298 0 -2560357.964 -2560357.964
Na2CO3 1050.75833 9914.685 298 0 -11203594.23 -11203594.23
H2O 13134.4808 729693.4 298 0 -208575555.6 -208575555.6
H2SO4 0 0 298 0 0 0
NaHCO3 0 0 298 0 0 0
CO2 577.916667 13134.47 298 0 -5168545.17 -5168545.17
Total Enthalpy Reactant -232643046.4

b. Determine Enthalpy on the Product Stream (T=318K)
Table 3.2 Enthalpy on Product Precipitator Reactor Stream
Comp Mass (kg/h) g mol T(K) H Sensible H formation Total (kJ/h)
Lean Liquor 4377.91667 11415.69 318 113825.83 0 113825.8333
Lignin 2626.875 1250.893 318 84060 0 84060
NaOH 0 0 318 0 0 0
Na2SO4 0 0 318 0 0 0
Na2CO3 1210.88333 11425.58 318 27649.912 -12910909.29 -12883259.38
H2O 13095.0771 727504.3 318 1099986.5 -207949824.1 -206849837.6
H2SO4 181.4375 1851.403 318 5152.825 -1680166.792 -1675013.967
NaHCO3 976.391667 11623.71 318 20392.637 -10991380.48 -10970987.84
CO2 0 0 318 0 0 0
Total Enthalpy Product -232181213

c. Determined Transfer Heat around The Reactor

Work done on the system, kinetic change, and potential energy can be neglected since
it doesn’t give significant changes to the overall energy balance. So the following
equation can be simplified to:

Based on these calculations, to maintain reactor operates at temperature 45
0
C, we
have to add heater with duty 318480.4 kJ/h to the reactor. Since it less endothermic,
so we can use external jacket as heater on the reactor (Sinnot, 2005).
d. Determined Steam Consumption
Specification of steam (Steam Table) :
 Saturated Vapor Steam (1bar, 100
0
C)
 Enthalpy Vapor = 2693.6 kJ/kg
 Enthalpy Liquid = 417.46 kJ/kg
 Specific volume vapor = 1.694 m
3
/kg
 Specific volume liquid = 1.043 x 10
-3
m
3
/kg

̇ (

)

̇ ( )

̇

Since there are 12 batch processes per day so, steam consumption is about 279.84
kg/batch.
Volumetric flow of steam on the inlet of Jacket:
̇

Volumetric flow of liquid on the outlet of Jacket:
̇

e. Specification of the Jacket
 H = H of Liquid = 2.8 m = 9.184 ft
 Spacing Between Baffle and Vessel = 180 mm (Sinnot)
 Spiral Baffle with pitch between spiral = 200 mm

The baffle forms a continuous spiral channel, section 75mm x 200mm
Number of Spiral = Height of jacket / Pitch = 2.8/0.2 = 14
Length of Channel = 14 x 3.14 x 4.018 = 176.63 m
Cross Sectional area of channel = (180 x 200) x 10
-6
= 0.036 m
2

Hydraulic mean diameter:

()
( )

Calculating heat transfer coefficient on the jacket:

B. Re-slurry Reactor
Operating Condition
- Pressure = 3 bar
- Temp = 318 K
- Flow Rate
o Black Liquor = 4928.4 kg/h
o H
2
SO
4
= 445.4 kg/h
- Residence Time
Since we don’t have enough information of kinetic reaction we cannot determine
total volume by using Fogler formula for batch reactor process. In this case, we get
reaction time information about 45 min (Per Tomani, 2001).

Step 1: Determine Batch Process per Day

Process Time (min)
Charging 30
Reaction time 45
Emptying 30
Cleaning Time 15

Total time needed for completing 1 batch process is 120 min or 2h. Based on this result,
total batch process per day can be calculated by using the following equation:

Step 2: Determine Volume Tank (basis: 1 batch process)
a. Volume Liquid - 1

b. Volume Liquid - 2

c. Total Volume
After we evaluated the volume of the liquid-1 and liquid-2 on the feed of the reactor,
we are able to determine total working volume of the reactor. The total volume is
the sum of the volume of liquid-1 and liquid-2.

By applying 20% as vapor space on the reactor (Perry,1999), so the volume of tank
will be:

Step 3: Determine Size of Tank
c. Body (Shell)
Based on the rule of thumb on the Walas (1988), Brownell (1969), typical dimension for

So,

(

)

Since this vessel are working on the high pressure around 11.5 bar, we choose
Ellipsoidal with major/minor = 2:1 , since this head are able to working on the pressure
3 bar (Brownell, 1969), so

So total volume of the tank can be evaluated with the following equation:

Based on this equation, we can do a modification to get diameter of the tank as
following equation;

So, the height of the tank can be evaluated by using the following equation;

While for height of ellipsoidal can be evaluated by using,

So, the total height of the tank is

Step 4: Determine Design Pressure
 Volume of Tank = 9.83 m
3

 Volume of Liquid = 8.185 m
3

 Liquid Level = 2.08 m
 Height of Tank = 2.83 m

a. Determine Hydrostatic Pressure

b. Determine Operating Pressure

c. Determine Design Pressure
For the design pressure, we add safety factor around 20% (Walas, 1988) of the
operating pressure, so:

( )

Step 5: Determine Thickness of Tank
a. Material Selection
SS 316 is selected as the material for the vessel. The selection criteria are based on
the operating temperature, the maximum allowable stress of the material and also to
accommodate the corrosion due to presence of acid (H
2
SO
4
) on the tank. SS 316,
can be operated in the range of -20 to 650
o
F with maximum allowable stress is
12650 psi (ASME Code). For welding, we use Double Welded Butt Joint, which
have welded efficiency is 0.85 (Brownell, 1969). Corrosion allowance is assumed to
be 0.014 in per year (Perry, 1999).
b. Thickness of Shell (Body)
 Double Welded Joint  E=0.85
 Using Material SS 316  allowable stress (S) = 12650 psi
 Lifetime Equipment = 20 years
 Corrosion Rate = 0.014 in per year

Step 6: Determine Agitator
a. Type : typically the impeller commonly used on the gas dispersion system is
b. Total Baffle : Baffle is essentially needed, commonly for gas dispersion 4
baffles are needed (Walas, 1988)
c. Specification Design of agitator (Walas,1988):
 Diameter Impeller

( )
So, diameter impeller is 0.8 m
 Length and Width of blade on the turbine

()
The length of blades on turbine is 0.2m

()
The width of blades on turbine is 0.16m
 Width and offset of baffle

( )

So the width of baffle is 0.1667 m while the offset of baffle is 0.027 m
 Total Amount of Impeller:
Since , we need two impellers (Walas, 1988).
 Position of impeller:
o First Impeller

o Second Impeller

The position of first impeller is 0.3467 m and for the second impeller is 1.3867
m from the bottom of vessel.
d. Power Needed
Data Needed:
- Viscosity = 10.8 cP = 0.00725 lb/ft.s
- Density = 1290.78 kg/m
3
= 80.54 lb/ft
3

- N = Assume to be 1 rev/s
- d = 2.624 ft
 Determine N
Re

()

 Determine Power
Since the flow is turbulence we use the following equation (McCabe, 1999) to
determine power consumption of agitator:

To determine Power Number (Np), we can use the following graphic (Walas,
1988) which depend on the type of impeller and Reynolds number.

By using this graphic Np is about 1.3, so

Assume efficiency of motor is 80%, so:

Since we use 2 impeller, so the total power consume to move an agitator is:

Pump

A. Pump P-101
Operating Condition
 Pressure = 1 atm.
 Temperature = 25
0
C
 Mass Flow = 57570 kg/day  9595 kg/h (for 1 batch process which need
charging process 0.5m)
 Density = 1000 kg/m
3
= 62.4 lb/ft
3

 Type = Centrifugal Flow
 Viscosity = 1 cP = 0.00067 lb/ft.s
 Volumetric Flow = 6.664 E-04 m
3
/s = 0.0235 ft
3
/s = 10.56 GPM

Calculation
1. Pump Design

()

()

( )

()

From Appendix A3 (Noel De Nevers, 1991), we choose commercial steel pipe with
specification below:
 Nominal Size = 1 1/2 in
 Schedule Number = 40
 Inside Diameter (ID) = 1.610 in = 0.1342 ft
 Outside Diam. (OD) = 1.990 in = 0.1650 ft
 Inside Sec. Area = 0.01414 ft
2

2. Check Reynold Number
a. Average Velocity

b. Reynold Number

c. Fanning factor
For commercial pipe, = 0.000046 (geankoplis, 1997), for Re = 14513.64 and
= 0.00034 the fanning (f) factor is 0.0070.
3. Calculate Friction Loss
Assume there are accessories along the pipe which can be seen on the following table:

Item Amount L/D Total L/D
Elbow 90 4 30 120
Gate Valve 2 13 26
Elbow 45 1 16 16
Entrance 1 30 30
Exit 1 60 60
Total L/D 252
*(App. C-2a, Foust, 1980, Nevers, 1991)

So, the equivalent length;

We assume, that length of the pipe needed to transport the fluid is around 20 m or 65.6
ft, so the total L is 99.318 ft. with this number, we are able to calculate total friction loss
along the pipeline with following equation:

()

()

4. Work Done by Pump

(

)

(

)
(

)

Where for turbulence flow, , there is no velocity change after being pump since
inlet pipe and outlet pipe have the same size. In this case we assume there is a height
difference where

= 10m = 32.8 ft. and then . So,

()
()

()
()

To be noted negative sign means work done to the fluids.

5. Power of Pump
Efficiency pump, η =70%

Mass flow through the pump is 6.131 lb/s, so the power of the pump:
̇

So we choose the pump with power around 2 HP

B. Pump P-201
Operating Condition
 Pressure = 1 atm
 Temperature = 25
0
C
 Mass Flow = 135000 kg/day = 45000 kg/h (for 1 batch process which need
charging time 0.5 h)
 Density = 1226 kg/m
3
= 76.53 lb/ft
3

 Type = Centrifugal Flow
 Viscosity = 3.3 cP = 0.00221 lb/ft.s
 Volumetric Flow = 1.275 E-03 m
3
/s = 0.045 ft
3
/s

Calculation
1. Pump Design

()

()

( )

()

From Appendix A3 (Noel De Nevers, 1991), we choose commercial steel pipe with
specification below:
 Nominal Size = 2 in
 Schedule Number = 40
 Inside Diameter (ID) = 2.067 in
 Outside Diam. (OD) = 2.375 in
 Inside Sec. Area = 0.0233 ft
2

2. Check Reynolds Number
a. Average Velocity

b. Reynolds Number

c. Fanning factor
For commercial pipe, = 0.000046 (geankoplis, 1997), for Re = 14513.64 and
= 0.00026 the fanning (f) factor is 0.0075.
3. Calculate Friction Loss
Assume there are accessories along the pipe which can be seen on the following table:

Item Amount L/D Total L/D
Elbow 90 4 30 120
Gate Valve 2 13 26
Elbow 45 1 16 16
Entrance 1 30 30
Exit 1 60 60
Total L/D 252
*(App. C-2a, Foust, 1980, Nevers, 1991)

So, the equivalent length;

We assume, that length of the pipe needed to transport the fluid is around 20 m or 65.6
ft, so the total L is 109 ft. with this number, we are able to calculate total friction loss
along the pipeline with following equation:

()

4. Work Done by Pump

(

)

(

)
(

)

Where for turbulence flow, , there is no velocity change after being pump since
inlet pipe and outlet pipe have the same size. In this case we assume there is a height
difference where

= 10m = 32.8 ft. and then . So,

()
()

()
()

To be noted negative sign means work done to the fluids.

5. Power of Pump
Efficiency pump, η =80%

Mass flow through the pump is 28.75 lb/s, so the power of the pump:
̇

So we choose the pump with power around 3.5 HP

C. Pump P-202
Operating Condition
 Pressure = 1 atm
 Temperature = 25
0
C
 Mass Flow = 2291 kg/day
 Density = 1181 kg/m
3
= 73.69 lb/ft
3

 Type = Centrifugal Flow
 Viscosity = 1.12 cP = 0.00075 lb/ft.s
 Volumetric Flow = 2.275 E-05 m
3
/s = 7.93 E-04 ft
3
/s = 0.355 GPM

Calculation
1. Pump Design

()

()

( )

()

From Appendix A3 (Noel De Nevers, 1991), we choose commercial steel pipe with
specification below:
 Nominal Size = 2 in
 Schedule Number = 40
 Inside Diameter (ID) = 2.067 in
 Outside Diam. (OD) = 2.375 in
 Inside Sec. Area = 0.0233 ft
2

2. Check Reynold Number
a. Average Velocity

b. Reynold Number

c. Fanning factor
For commercial pipe, = 0.000046 (geankoplis, 1997), for Re = 14513.64 and
= 0.00026 the fanning (f) factor is 0.0075.
3. Calculate Friction Loss
Assume there are accessories along the pipe which can be seen on the following table:

Item Amount L/D Total L/D
Elbow 90 4 30 120
Gate Valve 2 13 26
Elbow 45 1 16 16
Entrance 1 30 30
Exit 1 60 60
Total L/D 252
*(App. C-2a, Foust, 1980, Nevers, 1991)

So, the equivalent length;

We assume, that length of the pipe needed to transport the fluid is around 20 m or 65.6
ft, so the total L is 109 ft. with this number, we are able to calculate total friction loss
along the pipeline with following equation:

()

4. Work Done by Pump

(

)

(

)
(

)

Where for turbulence flow, , there is no velocity change after being pump since
inlet pipe and outlet pipe have the same size. In this case we assume there is a height
difference where

= 10m = 32.8 ft. and then . So,

()
()

()
()

To be noted negative sign means work done to the fluids.

5. Power of Pump
Efisiensi pompa, η =80%

Mass flow through the pump is 3.445 lb/s, so the power of the pump:
̇

So we choose the pump with power around 0.3 HP

D. P-301

PUMP
Identification: Item Centrifugal Pump
Item no. P-301
No. required 2 (1 active, 1 stand by)
Function: Pumping Water from Tank
Operation: Batch
Material handled: Hot Water
Composition (%):
Water 100
Design Data: Type Centrifugal Pump
Material of construction Carbon Steel
Mass flow (lb/s) 0.673450971
Power (HP) 0.155650165
Suction pressure (bar) 1
Viscosity (cP) 1
Inlet temperature (
o
C) 110

E. P-302

SCREW PUMP
Identification: Item Centrifugal Pump
Item no. P-302
No. required 2 (1 active, 1 stand by)
Function: Pumping Water from Tank
Operation: Batch
Material handled: Water
Composition (%):
Water 100
Design Data: Type Centrifugal Pump
Material of construction Carbon Steel
Mass flow (lb/s) 23.27
Power (HP) 4.17
Suction pressure (bar) 1
Viscosity (cP) 1
Inlet temperature (
o
C) 30

F. P-303

SCREW PUMP
Identification: Item Centrifugal Pump
Item no. P-303
No. required 2 (1 active, 1 stand by)
Function: Pumping Water from Tank
Operation: Batch
Material handled: Water
Composition (%):
Water 100
Design Data: Type Centrifugal Pump
Material of construction Carbon Steel
Mass flow (lb/s) 5.817754141
Power (HP) 0.471853844
Suction pressure (bar) 1
Viscosity (cP) 1
Inlet temperature (
o
C) 30

G. P-304

SCREW PUMP
Identification: Item Centrifugal Pump
Item no. P-304
No. required 2 (1 active, 1 stand by)
Function: Pumping Water from Tank
Operation: Batch
Material handled: Water
Composition (%):
Water 100
Design Data: Type Centrifugal Pump
Material of construction Carbon Steel
Mass flow (lb/s) 5.817754141
Power (HP) 0.471853844
Suction pressure (bar) 1
Viscosity (cP) 1
Inlet temperature (
o
C) 30

H. P-305

SCREW PUMP
Identification: Item Centrifugal Pump
Item no. P-305
No. required 2 (1 active, 1 stand by)
Function: Pumping Water from Tank
Operation: Batch
Material handled: Water
Composition (%):
Water 100
Design Data: Type Centrifugal Pump
Material of construction Carbon Steel
Mass flow (lb/s) 5.817754141
Power (HP) 0.471853844
Suction pressure (bar) 1
Viscosity (cP) 1
Inlet temperature (
o
C) 30

I. P-306

SCREW PUMP
Identification: Item Centrifugal Pump
Item no. P-306
No. required 2 (1 active, 1 stand by)
Function: Pumping Water from Tank
Operation: Batch
Material handled: Water
Composition (%):
Water 100
Design Data: Type Centrifugal Pump
Material of construction Carbon Steel
Mass flow (lb/s) 5.817754141
Power (HP) 0.471853844
Suction pressure (bar) 1
Viscosity (cP) 1
Inlet temperature (
o
C) 30