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† ∗

ABB Industry, Marine Division, ABB Corporate Research,

Hasleveien 50, PO Box 6540, Rodeløkka, Info. Tech. and Control Systems Division,

N-0501 Oslo, Norway. Bergerveien 12, N-1375 Billingstad, Norway.

E-mail: einar.berglund@no.abb.com E-mail: geir.hovland@no.abb.com

Phone: int + 47 22872696 Phone/Fax: int + 47 6684 3232/3541

equipment which is mounted on the robots is customer

In this paper we present a new method for automatic specific. Hence, accurate estimation of model parame-

elasticity tuning of industrial robot manipulators. The ters must be performed at the customer site. Moreover,

main contributions of the work are a) The parameters of the estimation methods have to be practical to use in

a mechanical mass-spring-damper equivalent of any or- the field and preferably fully automatic with little or no

der are solved given only partial state information (mo- operator input. c) Most industrial manipulators only

tor encoder position and motor torque). b) The method provide motor measurements, such as joint torque and

is fully automatic with no operator input and can easily position, and no link position measurements. The es-

be applied in the field to update the dynamic model pa- timation methods must be able to estimate as many

rameters. The ability to automatically update the elas- model parameters as possible with only partial infor-

ticity parameters is particularly useful when the robot mation about the robot’s state variables.

operators mount flexible tooling or equipment on the

robot arms. c) The method separates friction and elas- In this paper we present a new method for automatic

ticity identification d) The method is demonstrated on elasticity tuning of industrial manipulators. The main

an industrial ABB robot. e) In the paper we combine an contributions of the paper are: a) The parameters of a

important result from the vibration literature, [7], with mechanical mass-spring-damper equivalent of any order

the solution of inverse eigenvalue problems, [4]. To our are solved given only partial state information (motor’s

knowledge, this is the first time that these methods have encoder position and motor torque). b) The method is

been combined and applied to the identification of flex- fully automatic with no operator input. c) The method

ible robot manipulators. The main advantage of the separates the friction and elasticity identification which

method compared to other identification methods is the results in more accurate and reliable parameter esti-

fact that only motor encoder position and motor torque mates. d) The method is demonstrated on an indus-

are required to identify the springs, masses and dampers trial ABB robot. e) In the paper we combine an im-

of an Nth order system. portant result from the vibration literature, [7], with

the solution of inverse eigenvalue problems, [4]. To our

knowledge, this is the first time that these methods

have been combined and applied to the identification

1 Introduction of flexible robot manipulators.

Path tracking accuracy is a key issue for industrial The problem of controlling robots with elastic be-

robot manufacturers. Customer requirements are push- haviour has received a significant amount of attention

ing the robot manufacturers towards more advanced dy- in the literature, see for example [2, 3, 6]. The iden-

namic modelling and more accurate estimation of the tification problem, especially identification of link elas-

model parameters to meet the increasing demands on ticities, has received less attention. One example of

path tracking. Examples of critical path tracking ap- the identification of multivariable joint elasticities in

plications in the automotive industry are laser cutting, the presence of coupled dynamics was presented by [5].

plasma cutting and waterjet cutting. The work in the literature dealing with the control of

elastic robots often assume that the elasticity parame-

Accurate modelling and identification of industrial ma- ters are known and these parameters are used directly

nipulators is complicated due to the following facts: a) in the design of the control laws. The methods and

heavy, flexible and unmodelled tools and equipment, results presented in our paper will be directly benefi-

such as cutting heads, laserfibres, waterpipes and inter- cial to several of the existing control strategies in the

literature. sections 3.2-3.3. Then, after the springs and masses

are known, the dampers are identified. Identifying the

dampers after the other parameters results in a small

identification error. It is, however, well-known that

2 Nth-order Elasticity Model

small dampers have a very little influence on the res-

onance frequencies. Hence, the identification errors of

The method presented in this paper estimates the mass, the springs and masses due to a small damping effect

spring and damper coefficients of an Nth-order model. will be small.

The model is illustrated in Figure 1. The method pre-

For robot paths where the frequency contents is well

below the first resonance mode, the dynamics (rigid-

body) of the robot axis is approximated by the following

equation

(1)

friction and C2 is the viscous friction. The identification

of the friction coefficients above can be performed as

described in, for example, [1]. The measured motor

torque τm for an example identification movement is

shown in Figure 2. The Coloumb friction parameter C1

Figure 1: Mechanical N-mass/spring/damper system. The

dampers d1 , · · · , dN are not shown in the figure,

but are connected in parallel with the springs

k1 , · · · , kN . The measurements available are

the position qN and the force τ acting on the

last mass.

of systems (not only mechanical) that can be modelled

by the system in Figure 1. In this paper, however, we

illustrate the method on one axis of a robot manipu-

lator. The last mass in Figure 1 corresponds to the

motor inertia. The other masses correspond to the in-

ertias of the robot links. The first spring, k1 , is set to

zero, since the links are not connected to any external

reference point. The last spring kN corresponds to the

transmission elasticity. The other springs k2 , · · · , kN −1

correspond to link and joint (for example bearings con-

necting the arms) elasticities. To summarise, the Nth-

order mass-spring-damper equivalent in Figure 1 de-

scribes a robot axis with one transmission elasticity plus

the dominating N − 2 vibration modes of the links.

3 Automatic Tuning Method solid line shows the identified Coloumb friction,

while the noisy curve is the measured motor

The automatic tuning of the Nth-order elasticity model torque for small movements with low velocity.

in Figure 1 is described in this section. Section 3.1 de-

scribes an approach to friction estimation. The friction is estimated as C1 = L

where L is the discontinuous

2

parameters are estimated first and the effects from fric- jump in Figure 2.

tion is removed from the measured joint torque before

the elasticity parameters are estimated. The method The robot axis dynamics after linearisation are now on

first identifies the mass and the spring coefficients in the form shown in Figure 1 where the torque τ is given

by Alternatively, the sum of the masses can be identified

at the same time as the friction model from the rigid-

τ = τm − C1 sgn(q̇N ) − C2 q̇N (2) body analysis, see eq. (1). The frequency vectors ω0 ,

ωp and the amplitudes A0 , Ap , AL are automatically

3.2 Automatic Resonance Estimation generated by the robot controller from the frequency

The first step in the self-tuning of the elasticity model response measurements and a simple search algorithm.

is to identify the resonance frequencies in the transfer In the next two sections we describe the method for

function q̈τN (s), where τ is defined by eq. (2). An ex- estimating all masses, springs and dampers from these

ample transfer function is illustrated in Figure 3. The frequency vectors and the amplitudes.

Spring System

In this section we make use of an important result de-

scribed in [7]. Consider the system illustrated in Figure

1. If we neglect the dampers the frequency response

F(ω) of the position of mass mN to the excitation

τ = sin ωt (on mass mN ) will have the following form

−1

ΠN 2 2

i=1 (ω − ω̂i )

F(ω) = (8)

MT ΠN 2 2

i=1 (ω − ω̃i )

frequencies, respectively. MT is a constant depending

on the system’s total mass, ω̂i and ω̃i . Note that the

extra resonance frequency corresponds to the double

Figure 3: Transfer function from torque τ to motor ac- integrator from motor torque to motor position.

celeration q̈N . Each anti-resonance defines two

complex conjugated zeros in the transfer func-

tion, while each resonance defines two com-

plex conjugated poles. In the figure, two anti-

resonance and two resonance frequencies are

identified plus the low-frequency amplitude.

fined as

ωp = [ωp (1), · · · , ωp (N − 1)] (4)

ier to observe from q̈τN (s) than from qτN (s). To ob-

tain q̈τN (s) from the position measurements, every am-

plitude is multiplied by the corresponding frequency

squared. Hence, the noise problems associated with Figure 4: Two mechanical N-mass/spring systems.

second derivatives are avoided. For a linear N-mass

system with the ladder structure, there will be N − 1 Now consider the two systems illustrated in Figure 4.

anti-resonance and resonance frequencies, respectively. We define the eigenvalues of system 1 as λ̃i and the

In addition to the frequency vectors ω0 and ωp , the cor- eigenvalues of system 2 as λ̂i . By using the results from

responding amplitude vectors A0 and Ap are recorded. [7], we have the following important lemma:

A0 = [A0 (1), · · · , A0 (N − 1)] (5)

Ap = [Ap (1), · · · , Ap (N − 1)] (6) Lemma 1 The eigenvalues of system 1 in Figure 4 are

given by the squared resonance frequencies of F(ω), ie.

Finally, the amplitude value AL at low frequencies is λ̃i = ω̃i2 , where i = 1, · · · , N . The eigenvalues of

recorded. It can be shown that system 2 in Figure 4 are given by the squared anti-

resonance frequencies of F(ω), ie. λ̂i = ω̂i2 , where

AL = −20log(m1 + · · · + mN ) (7) i = 1, · · · , N − 1. 2

PN

Given λ̃i and λ̂i by the method of [7], we apply an Let V = 1/(AL i=1 m̂i ). The masses are then finally

inverse eigenvalue method for mass-spring systems given by mi = V m̂i , where i = 1, · · · , N .

described in the book [4]. The steps in the solution

are: To find the spring coefficients, we first define a diagonal

(i)

1. Find the Nth eigenvector uN , see 3.3.1. matrix M = diag(mi ), a matrix C = M1/2 BM1/2 and

2. Apply a method (Lanczos algorithm) to find a a matrix E as follows.

Jacobian matrix B, see 3.3.2.

1 −1

3. Use the matrix B to compute all springs ki and 0 1 −1

masses mi , see 3.3.3. E= ·

(24)

· · 1 −1

0 1

The computations required in the three steps above are The spring coefficients are finally given as the diagonal

described in the following subsections. For a more de- elements of the following matrix K.

tailed description of the methods, see Chapter 4 in [4].

K = E−1 CE−T (25)

3.3.1 Computation of Nth Eigenvector:

The components of the Nth eigenvector uN are given 3.4 Non-Linear Optimization of Damper Coef-

by ficients

(i) −1 0 N 0 The damper coefficients are found by using non-linear

[uN ]2 = ΠN

j=1 (λj − λi )/Πj=1 (λj − λi ) (9)

optimisation. In this section we define the optimisa-

where 0 indicates that the term j = i is omitted. tion function F (x), where x is a vector of the damper

coefficients, x = [d1 , · · · , dN ].

3.3.2 Lanczos Algorithm: Define the matrix

B as follows. Let M = diag(m1 , · · · , mN ) and K and D be N × N

matrices on the following form.

a1 −b1

−b1 a2 −b2 K

=

· · · · ·

B=

(10)

k1 + k2 −k2 0 0 0 ··· 0

aN −1 −bN −1 −k2

k2 + k3 −k3 0 0 ··· 0

−bN −1 aN

0 −k3 k3 + k4 −k4 0 ··· 0

.. .. .. .. .. .. ..

and the N × N matrix Λ = diag(λi ). The coefficients . . . . . . .

a1 , · · · , aN and b1 , · · · , bN are computed as follows. 0 0 ··· 0 0 −kN kN

aN = uTN ΛuN (11) (26)

dN −1 = aN uN − ΛuN (12) D has the same structure as K except that all ki ’s are

bN −1 = kdk2 (13) replaced by di ’s. We now define the matrix A and the

vector B as follows.

where the di vectors are introduced for convenience.

For i = N − 1, · · · , 2, we have 0 I

A = (27)

−M−1 K −M−1 D

ui = di /bi (14)

0

ai = uTi Λui (15) B =

M−1

(28)

N

di−1 = ai ui − bi ui+1 − Λui (16)

bi−1 = kdi−1 k2 (17) where M−1N is the Nth coloumn of M

−1

. Let C be a

1 × 2N vector given by C = [0, · · · , 0, 1]. We now have

For i = 1, we finally have the transfer function H(s) = q̈τN (s) given by

u1 = d1 /b1 (18) H(s) = sC(sI − A)−1 B (29)

d0 = −b1 u2 − Λu1 (19)

The non-linear optimisation function F (x) is now fi-

a1 = kd0 k2 (20)

nally given by

3.3.3 Spring and Mass Coefficients: The |H(jω0 (1))| − A0 (1)

..

spring and mass coefficients are found from the B ma-

.

trix as follows.

|H(jω0 (N − 1))| − A0 (N − 1)

F (x) = (30)

m̂N = 1 (21)

|H(jωp (1))| − Ap (1)

2

..

m̂i = (ai+1 /bi ) ∗ m̂i+1 , i = N − 1, · · · , 2 (22) .

m̂1 = (b1 /a1 )2 m̂2 (23) |H(jωp (N − 1))| − Ap (N − 1)

The nonlinear least-squares problem is solved using the response from motor torque to motor position. In Fig-

Gauss-Newton method, similar to the methods used in ure 5 we have measured the frequency response from

the “Optimisation Toolbox” in Matlab. torque to motor acceleration, where the double inte-

grator disappears.

4 Experiments

following values.

In this section we present experimental results from an u3 = [0.38, 0.32, 0.87]T (38)

ABB industrial robot. Figure 5 shows the frequency a3 = 39352 (39)

d2 = [15177, 7957, −9622]T (40)

b2 = 19653 (41)

u2 = [0.77, 0.40, −0.49]T (42)

a2 = 14495 (43)

d1 = [3649, −6184, 642]T (44)

b1 = 7209 (45)

u1 = [0.51, −0.86, 0.09]T (46)

d0 = [5567, −9434, 980]T (47)

a1 = 10998 (48)

m1 = 15.4 (49)

m2 = 35.8 (50)

m3 = 8.8 (51)

Figure 5: Experimental results. The dotted curve shows k1 = 0 (52)

the frequency response measurements from the

manipulator. The solid curve shows the fre- k2 = 169000 (53)

quency response of the automatically generated k3 = 350000 (54)

3rd order mass-spring-damper equivalent.

The dampers are found using the method in section 3.4

response from the torque in eq. (2) to the motor accel- and the values are

eration q̈3 for a 3rd order mechanical equivalent. Note

that the gravity torque has no influence on the reso- d2 = 185 (55)

nance frequencies and the amplitudes, due to the lin- d3 = 456 (56)

earisation. Hence, the method presented here works for

systems subject to gravity as well as systems with no Note that the damper coefficients are small compared

gravity. From Figure 5 the vectors ω0 , ωp , A0 and Ap to the spring coefficients. The dampers have a very

plus the amplitude AL are automatically generated as little effect on the values of the resonance frequencies.

follows. Hence, the errors in the identified spring and mass co-

efficients are small. The frequency response of the 3rd

ω0 = [73, 142] (31) order mechanical equivalent with the parameters given

ωp = [120, 225] (32) in eqs. (49)-(56) is shown as a solid line in Figure 5.

We see from the frequency response that the estimated

A0 = [−58, −33] (33)

3rd order model is a very good approximation to the

Ap = [−23, −14] (34) robot axis dynamics.

1

AL = −35.6dB = (35)

60.3

The corresponding eigenvalues are given by 5 Conclusions

Λ = [0, 1202 , 2252 ] (37) the position of a mass, the eigenvalues of the locked

system are given by the zeroes in the transfer func-

tion of the unlocked system. The transfer function is

Note that Λ has an eigenvalue at zero. This eigenvalue generated from the unlocked mass from torque and po-

corresponds to the double integrator in the frequency sition measurements. 2) From [4] page 40 we have: If

a linear constraint is applied to a mechanical system, [4] G.M.L. Gladwell, Inverse Problems in Vibration,

each natural frequency increases, but does not exceed Dordrecht, Martinus Nijhoff, 1986.

the next natural frequency of the original system. In [5] G.E. Hovland, E. Berglund and O.J. Sørdalen,

our paper, the linear constraint on system 2 in Figure “Identification of Joint Elasticity of Industrial Robots”,

4 makes the new natural frequencies equal to the anti- Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Ex-

resonance frequencies of the original system. Hence, perimental Robotics, Sydney, March 26-28 1999.

between two resonance frequencies, there will always

be an anti-resonance frequency. 3) If we assume a lad- [6] J.H. Oh and J.S. Lee, “Backstepping Control De-

der structure, as in Figure 1, we can identify a unique sign of Flexible Joint Manipulator Using Only Position

system with the given anti-resonance and resonance Measurements”, Proceedings of the 37th IEEE Interna-

frequencies. The identification procedure requires the tional Conference on Decision and Control (CDC’98),

eigenvalues of the locked and the unlocked system, and Tampa, Florida, pp. 931-936, 1998.

is described in [4]. 4) If the physical system is not a lad- [7] Y.M. Ram and S. Elhay, “The Theory of a

der structure, but has N − 1 anti-resonance frequencies Multi-Degree-of-Freedom Dynamic Absorber”, Journal

and N resonance frequencies, there still exists a model of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 195, No. 4, pp. 607-615,

with ladder structure which matches the transfer func- 1996.

tion.

new method for the automatic estimation of the flexi-

ble dynamics of a robot axis. The method first identi-

fies friction coefficients by moving the robot axis at low

speeds without excitation of the resonance frequencies.

Second, the mass and spring coefficients of an Nth-order

mechanical equivalent are automatically identified from

the robot axis anti-resonance and resonance frequen-

cies. Third, the damper coefficients are identified by

using a nonlinear optimisation method. The methods

have been applied to the identification of the flexible

dynamics of an industrial ABB robot. The frequency

response of the identified model parameters shows very

good correspondence with the measured frequency re-

sponse.

tion literature with the solution of inverse eigenvalue

problems. To our knowledge, this approach to the iden-

tification of flexible robot dynamics is new. The method

has significant advantages compared to other identifi-

cation algorithms. The main advantage is the fact that

only motor encoder position and motor torque are re-

quired to identify the springs, masses and dampers of

an Nth order system.

References

[1] B. Armstrong-Hélouvry, Control of Machines

with Friction, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1991.

[2] De Luca A., “Trajectory Control of Flexible Ma-

nipulators”, Control Problems in Robotics and Automa-

tion, pp. 83-104, Editors: B. Siciliano and K.P. Valava-

nis, Springer, 1998.

[3] S.S. Ge, et.al., “Controller Design for a Single-

Link Flexible Smart Materials Robot with Experimen-

tal Tests”, Proceedings of the 37th IEEE International

Conference on Decision and Control (CDC’98), Tampa,

Florida, pp. 421-426, 1998.

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