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Ariffuddin,Fatima-Nangco L.

Applied Science
BSBA O.M I MW 9.30-11.00
Agriculture is the production of food and goods through farming and forestry.
The Environmental Function. Agriculture and related land use can have beneficial or
harmful effects on the environment. The MFCAL approach can help to identify
opportunities to optimise the linkages between agriculture and the biological and
physical properties of the natural environment.
The Economic Function. Agriculture remains a principal force in sustaining the
operation and growth of the whole economy, even in highly industrialised countries.
Valuation of the various economic functions requires assessment of short, medium and
long-term benefits. Important determinants of the economic function include the
complexity and maturity of market development and the level of institutional
The Social Function. The maintenance and dynamism of rural communities is basic
to sustaining agro-ecology and improving the quality of life (and assuring the very
survival) of rural residents, particularly of the young, women, the elderly and other
marginal groups.
Bonsai (pronounced bone-sigh) is an ancient oriental horticultural art form. The word
Bonsai literally means, in both Chinese and in the Japanese language, tree-in- a-pot.
Originally developed in the Orient almost 2000 years ago, today the sublime art of
bonsai is practiced throughout the world. Shape-harmony-proportion-scale are all
weighed carefully as art, and the human hand combines this in a common cause with

A tree planted in a small pot is not a bonsai until it has been pruned, shaped, and
trained into the desired shape. Bonsai are kept small by careful control of the plant's
growing conditions. Only branches important to the bonsai's overall design are allowed
to remain and unwanted growth is pruned away. Roots are confined to a pot and are
periodically clipped. Bonsai may have a stylized or an exaggerated form ... but, as
found in nature. The appearance of old age of a plant is much prized and bonsai may
live to be hundreds of years old. The living bonsai will change from season to season
and from year to year requiring pruning and training throughout it's lifetime ... and as
time goes on it will become more and more beautiful.

It is impossible to write a simple set of care rules. Every species of plant has it's own
special needs. Each location and environment is different too, and have to be
considered. Therefore it is important, when starting in bonsai, to read all you can on
the art. Take advantage of your local bonsai club.
Landscaping-working as a landscape gardener
Natural landscaping, also called native gardening, is the use of plants, including
trees, shrubs, groundcover, grass which are indigenous to the geographical area in
which the garden is located, as well as rocks and boulders in place of groomed lawns
and planned planting beds to blend residential or commercial property into the natural
surroundings of the particular area.
Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of
plants and plant extracts
Akapulko (scientific name: Cassia alata) - a shrub known to be a diuretic, sudorific and
purgative. The medicinal uses of akapulko are to treat fungal infection of the skin and
for the treatment of ringworms. English name: ringworm bush.
Ampalaya (scientific name: Momordica charantia) - a vegetable used to treat diabetes
(diabetes mellitus) it is now commercially produced in tablet form and tea bags.
English name: bitter melon and bitter gourd.

Atis (scientific name: Anona squamosa L.) - a small tree used as a medicinal herb. The
leaves, fruit and seeds are used in the treatment of diarrhea, dysentery and fainting.
English name: Sugar apple and Sweet sop.

Banaba (scientific name: Lagerstroemia speciosa) - a tree found throughout the

Philippines. The leaves, roots, fruit and flowers all have medicinal uses. It is used in the
treatment of diabetes and other ailments. It is a purgative and a diuretic.

Bayabas (scientific name: Psidium guajava) - more popularly known as guava,

bayabas is a small tree whose boiled leaves are used as an disinfectant to treat
wounds. The decoction is also used as a mouth wash to treat gum infection and tooth
decay. The bark is also used in children with chronic diarrhea.

Gumamela (scientific name: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn) - called China rose or

Hibiscus in the West, it is a common ornamental plant in the Philippines. As a medicinal
herb, it is used as an expectorant for coughs, cold, sore throat, fever and bronchitis.

Luya (scientific name: Zingiber officinale) or Ginger. It is botanically not a root but a
rhizome of the monocotyledonous perennial plant. It has many uses as a medicinal
herb with antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, antiviral, diuretic and antiseptic

Niyog-niyogan (scientific name: Quisqualis indica L.) - is a vine that is an effective in

the elimination of intestinal worms, particularly the Trichina and Ascaris by ingesting its
matured dried seeds. Chew (5 to 7 dried seeds for children or 8 to 10 seeds for adults)
two hours after eating. Repeat treatment after a week if necessary. Roasted leaves are
also used for fever and diarrhea while pounded leaves are used for skin diseases.
English name: Chinese honey suckle.

Pansit-Pansitan (scientific name: Peperomia pellucida Linn.) - an herb used to treat

arthritis, gout, skin disorders, abdominal pains and kidney problems. It is applied to the
skin as poultice or as a decoction when taken internally.

Sabila (Aloe barbadensis miller liquid) - one of the most common medicinal plants in
the Philippines that can be found in many Filipino homes. It is a succulent plant used to
treat burns, cuts, eczema and other disorders. Aloe vera has antiviral, antifungal,
antibiotic, antioxidant and antiparasitic properties.

Sambong (scientific name: Blumea balsamifera) - a Philippine medicinal plant used to

treat kidney disorders, colds, fever, rheumatism, hypertension and other ailments. As a
diuretic, it helps in the excretion of urinary stones. A decoction of leaves is taken
internally for treatment. It can also be used as an edema. English name: Blumea

Tsaang Gubat (scientific name: Ehretia microphylla Lam.) - a shrub prepared like tea,
it is now commercially available in tablets, capsules and tea bags. This medicinal herb
is effective in treating diarrhea, dysentery, gastroenteritis and other stomach ailments.
It has high fluoride concentration making it a good mouth wash for the prevention of
tooth decay. English name: Wild Tea.

Ulasimang Bato (scientific name: Peperomia pellucida) - an annual herb also known
as "pansit-pansitan". It is a medicinal herb that is effective in treating gout, arthritis
and prevents uric acid build up. A decoction of the plant is taken internally or the
leaves and stem can be eaten fresh as salad. To make a decoction, boil a cup of
washed chopped leaves in 2 cups of water, simmer for about 15 minutes, strain, let
cool. Drink a cup 2 times a day after meals.

Yerba Buena (scientific name: Clinopodium douglasii) - a vine of the mint family,
popularly known as Peppermint. Its analgesic properties make it an ideal pain reliever
to alleviate the body's aches and pains. A decoction of clean leaves is taken internally
or externally as a poultice by pounding the leaves mixed with a little water then
applied directly on the afflicted area.
Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) - Although not a medicinal plant, VCO is a product of the
coconut tree. VCO is one of the more popular alternative medicine widely used in the
Philippines today. It is taken internally for various aliments like diabetes to high blood
pressure. Topically, VCO is also applied to the skin and scalp to nourish and heal.
Plant propagation is the process of multiplying or increasing the number of
plants of the same species and at the same time perpetuating their desirable

1. To retain the desirable characteristics of the mother plants.
2. To increase or multiply the number of plants rapidly.
3. To shorten the bearing age of plants, especially in fruit trees.
4. To prevent the plant species from being lost or extinct.
5. To produce superior strains and disease-resistant plants that will be best suited under a
given climate and soil conditions.
Methods of Plant Propagation

Plants may be propagated under two (2) general categories: sexual and
vegetative or asexual propagation.

1. Sexual propagation - is the common method of reproduction and multiplication of

plants.� This is usually done with the use of seeds and spores.� Garden vegetables
like tomato, eggplant, pechay, radish, carrot, mustard and legume crops (cowpea,
mungo and peas) are generally propagated by seeds.� Fruit trees such as caimito,
avocado, santol, jackfruit, guava, mango, etc. are also propagated by the use of seeds,
although in some cases, the resulting plants may not come true to type and do not
have the same characteristics as the parent plants.

Ferns and mosses are by nature propagated by spores.

2. Asexual Propagation - is the development of a new plant natural or artificial without
the use of seeds, since it does not involve the function of sex, it is commonly referred
to as asexual.
1. Desirable characteristics of the parent plants are retained.
2. Grafted and budded plants bear fruit early.
3. Trees are generally, low, thus labor cost and time in the maintenance and harvesting
are economical.
4. There is a uniform appearance of the trees and more number of trees can be planted
per unit area.
Methods of Asexual Plant Propagation
a. Vegetative or natural propagation - is the perpetuation and multiplication of plants
by means of the growing parts like crown, suckers, bulbill, tubers, root stock, corms,
runners, rhizomes, slips, etc.� Gabi, sweet potato, Irish potato, strawberry, pineapple
and garlic are some of the plants that may be reproduced vegetatively.
b. Artificial propagation - is a method of asexual propagation in which new plants are
produced and multiplied by the use of parts and buds of the selected mother plants
and employing several methods as cuttings, layering, inarching, marcotting, grafting
and budding.
Methods of Artificial Propagation
1. Cutting - is a detached portion of the selected mother plants intended to be
multiplied, of which at least one-third to one-half� of the length is inserted in the soil
or rooting media with the sole purpose of producing new plant.� Cuttings may be
divided into tree classes:
• Root cuttings � made from matured roots as in the case of rimas
• Leaf cuttings � as in Begonia
• Stem cuttings � soft wood cuttings may either be made from young and immature
parts of the plants as in the case of gumammela, San Francisco and Papua.�
Hardwood cuttings are made from matured twigs of the plants intended to be produced
as in the case of bougainvillea.� Lately, success has been made in producing rooted
chico and citrus with the use of cuttings dipped in root hormone solution.
2. Marcotting - is the process of inducing branch or twigs to produce roots while still
attached to the parent plant.
• Make a notch or girdle around the branch of about 1-2 cm wide or depending on the
size of the branch.
• Scrape off the cambium layer completely to prevent the re-growth of the bark.� It may
help to apply a rooting compound to the exposed stem.
• Wrap the cut surface with about 2 handful of slightly moist sphagnum moss.� If the
moss is too wet, the stem may decay.� Some propagators do not cover the ringed
branch for several days.� This practice favors rooting in caimito.
• Wrap with a piece of plastic film about 15 x 20 cm around the ball of sphagnum moss
and tie all around with cotton twine.� The plastic film keeps down loss of moisture
from the moss.
• As soon as you see enough roots throughout the plastic film, cut the marcotted branch
from the mother plant.� This may be from 2-12 months after marcotting depending on
the crop.
• Cutting may be done in gradual basis until it attain sufficient roots to live by itself as
indicated by a new flush of growth (a critical period for the new plant).
3. Grafting - is the process of joining together a rootstock and a scion until they united
• Inarching or Approach grafting
• Cleft grafting
• Saddle grafting
• Whip or tongue grafting
• Splice grafting
Factors to be considered in grafting:

The weather conditions and the stage of plants should be considered for the
success in grafting.� Grafting may be done at the beginning of the dry season and the
rainy season.� The scion should be well-prepared from selected pedigreed trees, the
characteristics of which are to� be perpetuated.� In the same manner, the stock
should be healthy, vigorous and free from diseases and insect pests.
a. Inarching or Approach grafting
• Select an actively growing stock and bring it to the branch you intend to graft.
• Cut a longitudinal section about 4-5 cm long and about half its thickness.
• Make a similar cut on the scion then fit together.
• Tie firmly with a string or a cotton� twine.
• Cut the scion below the point of union of scion and the stock if already established.
b. Cleft grafting
• Select a healthy rootstock about the size of the ordinary lead pencil or slightly larger.
• Cut off the top of the rootstock to a desirable height where there is an active growth.
• Make a longitudinal cut at the center of the cut surface deep enough to accommodate
the wedge that may be cut on the scion.
• Select healthy scion of the same size as the rootstock and cut about 10-15 cm long.
• Hold firmly and make a wedge cut about 4-5 cm long on the basal section.
• Insert the wedge on the rootstock and secure firmly with a plastic tape.
c. Saddle Grafting
This is done in the same manner as cleft grafting.� The only difference is that
with the saddle grafting the longitudinal cut is made on the scion while the wedge is
made on the rootstock.
d. Whip or Tongue Grafting
This method has distinct advantage of allowing a much greater area of cambial
contact than either cleft or saddle grafting.
• Start in the same manner as cleft or saddle grafting.
• After cutting back the rootstock, make a smooth slanting cut about 3-5 cm long where
you intend to make the graft.
• About 1/3 from the cut surface, make a downward cut so it would form some sort of a
tongue that point upward.
• Make similar but reverse cut on the scion.
• Fit them together making sure their tongues interlock snugly and bind with a plastic
e. Splice Grafting
It is done in the same way as whip grafting except that the scion and the
rootstock are prepared without the tongue.
• To bark graft, cut back the selected rootstock about one meter above� the ground.
• Cut two vertical incisions as deep as the bark on one side where you intend to make a
• Carefully peel off the bark away from the wood but make sure it remains attended at
the bottom.
• Then make a smooth slanting cut at the base of the scion.� This cut should match the
cut you previously made on the rootstock.
• Opposite the first incisions, make a second cut but shorter to remove the section of the
bark that may be damaged or would interfere� when the scion is inserted into the
• After making the second cut, insert the scion underneath the bark flap of the rootstock.

4. Budding
Is a form of grafting that makes use of single bud as the scion instead of stem
bearing�� several buds.

Types of budding:
• Shield Budding - is widely used in citrus.�
1. Select an actively growing rootstock.
2. Make a vertical incision, 2-3 cm long as deep as the bark (4-6 inches above the ground
3. Make a cross cut above the vertical cut thus forming some kind of a T.� Some
propagators make the cross cut below the vertical incision, thus, forming an inverted T.
Choose whichever is convenient to you.
4. Slice out smoothly a shield of bud including a thin layer of the wood� from the
5. Insert the shield into the slit made on the rootstock until it is even with the cross cut.
6. Once set in place, tie securely with a plastic tape.� Don�t press the tape too firmly
against the inserted bud, as it will crush and destroy or even mutilate the growing bud.
• Patch Budding � widely used on fruit trees with thick bark.
1. To chip bud, select surface on the rootstock where you intend to make the graft.
2. On the same spot make a smooth slanting downward incision.
3. About 1.5-2 cm above this incision, make an acute angle cut to remove the chip.
4. After removing the chip with the bud, insert it into the notch in the rootstock.
5. Secure firmly in place by a plastic tape.

FLOWER-is the part of the plant that makes the seeds. The main parts of a
flower are the carpels and stamens.
There are Four Main Part of Plants:
• Roots. absorb water and mineral from the soil
• Stem. provide transportation between roots and leaves
• Leaves. Photosynthesis ,.Cellular respiration
• Flowers. is the part of the plant that makes the seeds.
Flower Whorls
• Sepals-are the part of the flower that cover the petals when at
bud stage. They also help protect the flower bud .
• A petal is a part of a flower, a single flower has many/several petals
• Carpel-The structure that bears and encloses the ovules in flowering
• Stamens-The male reproductive organ of the flowering plant,
• Seeds-Contain Food Supply.
There are The Main Part of Seeds:
A. Seed Coat-Protective outer layer of seeds of flowering plants.
B. Endosperm-is the Tissue Produced in the Seeds of most Flowering Plants
Around the time of Fertilization.
C. Embryo-The Seed Contains a Well-Formed Multicultural Young Plant Embryo.
Monocot and Dicots
• Monocot -are seeds that only have one cotyledon, such as the corn seed
• Dicot – are seeds that have two parts, such as a bean seed. A bean seed
that has soaked in water for a day or two has a soft outside covering.