Petroleum Refinery: A refinery processes crude oil into different components such as

kerosene, gasoline, diesel, LPG (light petroleum gases), etc.

Petrochemical Plant:A petrochemical plant is a chemical plant that will use a petroleum
based feedstock, such as LPG or other products from a petroleum refinery to produce a chemical
product, such as plastics for example

Hydrocarbons: Hydrocarbons are molecules made out of hydrogen atoms and
carbon atoms. The simplest hydrocarbon molecule is methane, which is one carbon
atom with four hydrogen atoms stuck to it. Because both carbon and hydrogen were
common in nebulae, hydrocarbon molecules are very common in space. Many of these
molecules are small, like methane, but others are very big, involving hundreds of
atoms. One of the interesting things about carbon is that can easily make itself into
long chains of carbon atoms, so it is easy to build big molecules using carbon as a
building block.
Out in space, the biggest hydrocarbon molecules are amino acids. But here on Earth,
those amino acids were able to hook up with each other to make protein molecules.
One protein molecule can contain hundreds of amino acids in various combinations.
All living cells are made out of those protein molecules, so all living cells are made out
of hydrocarbons: your body, fish, sweet potatoes, trees, cheese, seaweed. Anything that
was once alive is also made of hydrocarbons, so that also includes things like oil
(made out of plants that died billions of years ago), gasoline and plastic (made out of
oil), rubber, wood, food, alcohol, and many medicines like antibiotics.
Crude oil:
Crude oil quality is measured in terms of density (light to heavy) and sulfur content (sweet
to sour) Density is classified by the American Petroleum Institute (‘API’). API gravity is
defined based on density at a temperature of 15.6 ºC. The higher the API gravity, the lighter
the crude. Light crude generally has an API gravity of 38 degrees or more, and heavy crude
an API gravity of 22 degrees or less. Crude with an API gravity between 22 and 38 degrees is
generally referred as medium crude.
Sweet crude is commonly defined as oil with a sulfur content of less than 0.5%, while sour
crude has a sulfur content of greater than 0.5%.
( The most common method of crude oil extraction is drilling)
1 unit Barrel = 42 U.S. gallons.
1 unit Gallon=3.78 Litre

. While hydrocarbons are usually the primary component of crude oil. The purpose of atmospheric distillation is primary separation of various ‘cuts’ of hydrocarbons namely. their composition can vary from 50%-97% depending on the type of crude oil and how it is extracted.A mixture of hydrocarbons that exists in liquid phase in natural underground reservoirs and remains liquid at atmospheric pressure after passing through surface separating facilities Crude oil. The temperature of 293oK (20oC) is also used. Crude distillation unit: Crude oil is sent to the atmospheric distillation unit after desalting and heating. further distillation is carried out at a reduced pressure and high temperature. commonly known as petroleum. LPG.01325 bar or 101325 Pa (absolute). Unlike the fractionating column for atmospheric distillation. a system of packed beds instead of trays is used for condensation of the low-pressure vapours. This vacuum distillation process is important in maximising the upgrading of crude oil. diesel and fuel oil. naphtha. The heavy hydrocarbon residue left at the bottom of the atmospheric distillation column is sent to vacuum distillation column for further separation of hydrocarbons under reduced pressure. oxygen. Organic compounds like nitrogen. vanadium and iron account for less than 1% of the total composition. organic compounds and small amounts of metal. The residue from vacuum distillation. fuel gases. Vacuum distillation unit: The residue from atmospheric distillation is sometimes referred to as long residue and to recover more distillate product. is used as a feedstock for further upgrading or as a fuel component. is a liquid found within the Earth comprised of hydrocarbons. Atmospheric Pressure: The Standard Atmospheric Pressure is defined at sea-level at 273oK (0oC) and is 1. and sulfur typically make-up between 6%-10% of crude oil while metals such as copper. sometimes referred to as short residue. The different cuts of hydrocarbons taken out at this stage are the result of primary separation and undergo further processing before being transformed to end products. kerosene. nickel.

2. Any change of state from a liquid to a gas at boiling point is considered vaporization.Pressure vessel is designed to withstand circumferentialload.e. 3.90 ftH2O Vacuum pressure: Pressures below atmospheric pressure are called vacuum pressures and are measured by vacuum gages that indicate the difference between the atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure. 1 atm = 1. Column act as a force through one direction equal. .92 inHg = 1013 mbar = 1. Pressure vessel and column difference: 1. Boiling point: The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which it can change its state from a liquid to a gas throughout the bulk of the liquid .0332 kgf/cm2 = 33. but column takes the axial load..A liquid may change to a gas at temperatures below the boiling point through the process of evaporation.3 kPa = 14.Pressure vessel stores pressurised product in it dependingon the requirements of processColumn normally has atmospheric pressure. pressurevessel act as a force all direction equal. Gage pressure : Gage pressure is the pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure. how much above or below is the pressure with respect to the atmospheric pressure.01325 bar = 101. and it is measured relative to absolute vacuum (i.33 mH2O = 760 torr = 29. Absolute pressure :The actual pressure at a given position is called the absolute pressure. absolute zero pressure).known as Hoope Stess.696 psi (lbf/in2)= 760 mmHg =10. In other words.

colum always higher thanvessel.colum actual a staic producer . .thatswhy we are using trays inside .4.vessel always using to storeor gas through demester pads.Colum is using for seperation of gases or liquids .vessel storespressorised product.