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A Practical Josephson Voltage Standard at One Volt

This paper [1] is considered the seminal 1 , definitive paper describing the revolutionary one-volt Josephson junction 2 array
standard. The National Institute of Standard Technologie (NIST) 3 changed forever high accuracy voltage measurements with
this development, which built on earlier work at NIST and a microwave feed design from the then West German standards laboratory, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB). The basic element of the array is the Josephson junction, in the form of
a superconductor-insulator-superconductor sandwich. When irradiated with microwave energy, such a junction exhibits a dc
potential uniquely determined by the frequency of the radiation, the electronic charge, and Planck’s constant, with a single junction providing a few millivolts. In other words, a Josephson junction can act as a superb frequency-to-dc voltage converter.
A properly designed and fabricated array of junctions can be excited to produce a series of very accurate quantized voltages, or
steps.
As developed and demonstrated by the NIST team [1-8], a Josephson-junction-based voltage standard system consists of microwave source and feed, cryostat, probe, chip, and readout and control system.
Microwave energy is fed into the chip
mounted in the probe’s chip carrier and cooled by liquid helium. The array standard microchip is fabricated by techniques
analogous to those used to fabricate silicon integrated circuits, although with very different material systems.
For almost 80 years, starting in 1901, the U.S. Legal Volt was maintained by several groups of standard cells. There was a
large effort in the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth century to establish a standard for electromotive force (emf)
based on electrochemical reactions within chemical cells. The first legal unit of voltage for the United States was based on the
Clark cell , developed by Latimer Clark in 1872, with its output assigned a value of 1.434 international volts by the 1893 International Electric Congress. Public Law 105, passed by the U.S. Congress in 1894, made this the legal standard of voltage in
the U.S. During the years between 1893 and 1905, the standard cell devised by Edward Weston was found to have many advantages over the Clark cell [9]. The Weston cell consists of a cadmium amalgam anode and a mercury-mercurous sulfate
cathode with a saturated cadmium sulfate solution as the electrolyte.
In 1908, at the London International Conference on
Electrical Units and Standards, the Weston cell was officially adopted for maintaining the volt. After 1908, only Weston cells
were used for maintaining the national standard in the United States.
The Weston standard cell can be disturbed by transport or if it is subjected to a change in temperature or a small electrical
current. When at times it was necessary to eliminate cells—due to changes in emf of a cell relative to the mean of the group—
new cells could be added. In 1965 the National Reference Group of standard cells [10] included 11 cells made in 1906, seven
cells made in 1932, and 26 cells made in 1948. Long-term stability of the volt reference was also maintained by comparisons
of neutral and acid cells, preparing and characterizing new cells, and through international comparisons and absolute ampere
and ohm experiments. According to Driscoll and Olsen [11], the results of the absolute current-balance measurements could
be regarded “as assigning a value to the emf of the standard cell used to control the strength of the current” and as a check on
the emf of the NIST standard cell bank. The use of the Weston cell as the national standard of voltage was supported by a
considerable amount of research in electrochemistry and related fields at National Bureau of Standars (NBS).
Before the Josephson effect was discovered, it was difficult to provide incontrovertible evidence regarding the long-term
stability of the U.S. Legal Volt. However, considerable evidence indicated that the unit of emf preserved with standard cells
was unlikely to have changed by any significant amount, relative to the best measurements of the time, from the early 1900s to
the 1960s.
In the late 1950s, research in solid-state physics stimulated the growth of the semiconductor industry. A new type of voltage standard based on a solid-state device, the Zener diode, appeared in the early 1960s. W. G. Eicke at NBS first reported the
possibility of using Zener diodes as transport standards [12]. In the following years, after several manufacturers started making commercial Zener voltage standards, these references began to replace standard cells in commercial use. Although Zener
voltage standards exhibit higher noise characteristics than standard cells and are affected by environmental conditions of temperature, atmospheric pressure, and relative humidity, they are now widely used in many metrology laboratories because of their
robust transportability.
In 1962, Brian Josephson, a graduate student at Trinity College, Cambridge, England, predicted that electrons can tunnel in
pairs (Cooper pairs) between two superconductors separated by a thin insulating barrier (a weak link or Josephson junction).
An applied dc voltage V across the barrier would generate an ac current at the frequency f = 2eV/h, where e is the elementary
charge and h is Planck’s constant. Conversely, an applied ac current of frequency f would generate a dc voltage Vn at the
quantized values
Vn = nhf /2e ,
where n is an integer and the value of 2e/h is approximately 483.6 MHz/µV.
1

As palavras sublinhadas estão transcritas, no Apêndice I, na pág. 4, da referência [24] American Heritage Dictionary ,.
“Algumas” palavras em Itálico estão transcritas, no Apêndice II, na pág. 6, da referência [25] The Penguin Ddictionary of
Physics
3
As siglas que aparecem neste trabalho estão reunidas no Apêndice III, na pág. 8.
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based on an ideal Josephson voltage standard. as well as the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM). NIST had made a 19 000 junction. Then in 1977. F.S. It was argued on fundamental grounds that the above must be exact.018 V standard cells to a few parts in 108 [15. In 1968 Parker. 12 V array [2]. By 1989. The conventional value was assumed by the CCE to have a relative standard uncertainty of 0. using about 1500 junctions and rf fields of 70 GHz to 90 GHz. R. L. the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) in the U. both of which seriously limited the accuracy of measuring 1. Legal Volt. M. A. Josephson junctions were undoubtedly better references than standard cells. led the CCE to recommend a new exact conventional value for the Josephson constant: KJ–90 = 483 597.16]. via a potentiometer. found that the measured values of 2e/h agreed with each other to within 2 x 10–7 [17]. Soon after. can shift values on transport.S.018 V Weston saturated standard cells [10] calibrated by NBS. the Consultative Committee on Electricity (CCE) of the International Committee of Weights and Measures (CIPM) recommended the value KJ–72 = 483 594 GHz/V. Kautz. NBS began maintaining and disseminating the U. The new value was adopted worldwide on January 1. One-volt NIST Josephson Junction array standard having 3020 junctions.9 GHz/V.4 µV/V. which was adopted by all countries except the United States. Arrays with output voltages at the level of 1 V soon were used in National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) throughout the world [21]. the National Standards Laboratory (NSL) in Australia. The United States was the first nation to do this. The chip was designed and built by staff of the Electromagnetic Technology Division in Boulder in the cryoelectronic fabrication laboratory. By the early 1970s. Stable 1 V zero-crossing arrays were operating at NBS [1] and PTB [20] by 1985. They obtained a value of 2e/h with a one-standard-deviation fractional uncertainty of 3. and others of the NBS Electromagnetic Technology Division at Boulder began developing and improving Josephson standards based on series arrays of junctions operated near zero dc voltage bias [3.K. These results from the NMIs suggested the course of adopting a value of 2e/h for use in maintaining units of voltage.6 x 10–6. microwave energy is fed to four chains of junctions through the finguide structure at the left.One of the issues was whether this relationship was materials independent. which is fractionally larger by 8 x 10–6 than the 1972 conventional value. and the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. Denenstein. opening the path to successful Josephson junction arrays. and the value of 2e/h to be used at NBS was chosen to prevent a discontinuity when NIST converted from standard cells to the Josephson effect [18]. and thereby became the new basis for the U. The widespread use of Josephson junction arrays in national standards laboratories. and better SI determinations of 2e/h. The use of superconducting-quantum-interference device (SQUID) null detectors in the early 1970s allowed this to be tested to a few parts in 109. International comparisons in 1971-72 among national metrology institutes (NMIs). L. Langenberg. In many applications. the National Research Council (NRC) in Canada. using a 10 mV measurement system with relative uncertainty of 2 x 10–8. and thus the Josephson effect had obvious potential for use as a voltage standard [14]. C. including NBS. Hamilton.018 V standard cells. JVS 7010 Josephson Junction Array Chip 10V . volt based on the Josephson effect in July 1972. since any offset from the SI volt will be consistent among different laboratories using the Josephson effect standard. By convention. and can drift by a few parts in 108 per year. which are sensitive to environmental conditions.19]. France. The typical 5 mV to 10 mV reference output from early Josephson devices made from a few junctions required both very low-level voltage balances and scaling by a factor of 100. It operates at liquidhelium temperatures.T. This definition of KJ–90 is the present volt representation. Levinson and colleagues showed that unbiased Josephson junctions would spontaneously develop quantized dc voltages when irradiated with microwaves. The thin tapered structures at the end of each chain are terminations to prevent reflection of energy back up the chain. and Taylor [13] compared. the Josephson voltages of junctions consisting of five different superconducting materials and various combinations of thin-film tunnel junctions or point contacts with 1. 1990. Lloyd. and the Soviet Union.. NIST staff had set up a potentiometric measurement system in Gaithersburg that compared 2 mV to 10 mV dc Josephson junction voltages with 1. this uncertainty is not included in the uncertainties of the representation of the volt.

R. Harris. W. Instrum. Eicke and Barry N. and J. Langenberg and B. Appl. Hamilton. [13] W. Meier. Prog. Kautz. Vollmer. NBS Special Publication 343. Standard Cells—Their Construction. [6] R. New York (1986) pp. in [20] J. Stable Josephson reference voltages between 0. Appl. Phys. Rev. 47. R. A. A. L. L. Meas. D. Kautz. 449-450 (1987). A. . H. Accurate Hamon-pair potentiometer for Josephson frequency-tovoltage measurements. and Frances L. IM-36.S. [19] R. as well as the environment and the user technique. L. Beall. Steiner. etc. Tang. J. R. 134-142 (1970). L. Such comparisons are now carried out regularly under the auspices of the National Conference of Standards Laboratories. Frances L. Precision Measurement and Fundamental Constants. Hamilton. [3] R. MD. Steiner. Metrologia 3. 71-77. Application of nuclear resonance to the monitoring of electrical standards. Richard L. Frances L. NBS Monograph 84.and Characteristics. Kautz. with support from NIST as necessary. Taylor. T. Eicke. N. History of the present value of 2e/h commonly used for defining national units of voltage and possible changes in national units of voltage and resistance. J. Volt maintenance at NBS via 2e/h : a new definition of the NBS volt. Driscoll and P. 38. 316-319 (1972). 883-890 (1987). H. 623-625 (1985). CO. C. L. in which five other U. Goeke. T. and J. W. N. National Bureau of Standards. and Frances L. 51. Taylor. France (1963) pp. Kautz. Meas. such as a Josephson Voltage Standard (JVS). using macroscopic quantum phase coherence in superconductors: I. L. Ono. Rep. Kautz. Precision of SeriesArray Josephson Voltage Standards. DC (1949). A. Toots. Kautz and Frances L. Lloyd. Dziuba. can contribute uncertainty to the voltage measurement. to ensure the correctness of the measurements in these laboratories. Richard L. Hamer. [15] F. Experiment. L. Boulder. N. July 15-18. Hamilton. Lloyd. Parker. A 10-V Josephson Voltage Standard. Olsen. Accordingly. Lloyd. In 1991 NIST conducted the first JVS laboratory comparison experiment using transportable 10 V Zener standards. and B. 935-992 (1996). National Bureau of Standards. Meas. Denenstein. 1874-1877. Grimm. IEEE Electron Device Lett. Commentaires sur l’utilisation des diodes de zener comme etalons de tension. [2] Clark A. Washington. authored by members of the Electricity Division. Series-Array Josephson Voltage Standards. 659-664 (1987). 1222-1223 (1985). A Josephson Series Array Voltage Standard at One Volt. Hamilton.The term “intrinsic standard” is sometimes used to describe a type of standard. N. Hamilton. Clark A. 11e Session. N. [11] R. H.. The NBS Josephson Array Voltage Standard. K. 117-121. DC (1965). Gaithersburg. A Practical Josephson Voltage Standard at 1 V. Fowler. On the use of the ac Josephson effect to maintain standards of electromotive force. Determination of e/h. N. IM-36. Phys. Paris. National Bureau of Standards. MAG-23.). A. L. Establishment and Maintenance of the Electrical Units. Denenstein. Mayo-Wells based on excerpts from the paper The Ampere and Electrical Units [23]. Phys. an industry trade association. 155-166 (1973). H. L. Washington. and Bruce F. Phys. quantum Hall resistance standard. Magn. Field. industrial and military laboratories participated [22]. (1985) pp. Langenberg. A. N. Meas. 639-664 (1969). [14] B. A Josephson Array Voltage Standard at 10 V. Noise. D. Comite´ Consultatif d’Electricite´. F. Instrum. 314-316 (1989). Kao Chieh. D. (ed. and the Josephson voltage standard. and A.3 V for high-precision voltage standards. Summary of international comparisons of as-maintained units of voltage and values of 2e/h. Metrologia 6. Hinken. and Frances L. B. and E. Langenberg. [18] Barry N.1 and 1. EDL-8. IEEE Trans. Bibliography [1] C. [7] C. National Bureau of Standards. 1986. Lloyd. it is necessary to make intercomparisons among independent JVS laboratories. Silsbee. deadweight pressure gauge. 2043-2045 (1987). Parker. chaos. IEEE Electron Device Lett. Maintenance. R. Prepared by Y. and P. Hamilton. A. DC (1971) pp. Taylor. triple point cell. Diane Go. [4] Frances L. [9] F. 258-261 (1987). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.). Metrologia 9. [16] B.Instrum. Instrum. F. in CPEM 86 Digest: 1986 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements. [10] Walter J. Lloyd. based on physical laws rather than on the stability of physical artifacts that depend on bulk materials properties. Washington. Hamilton. There are approximately twenty industrial and military calibration laboratories throughout the United States that operate a JVS as a basis for traceable calibration measurements. and R. [5] Clark A. 108-109. just as it is at the international level. [8] C. EDL-6. IEEE Trans. Lett. Niemeyer. The JVS consists of many cryogenic and microwave components. L. [17] Woodward G. Lloyd. Harris. [12] W. Belecki. T. and Wayne C. 59. Ronald F. 177. F. IEEE Trans. and each of these. Olsen. BIPM. The NBS Josephson Array Voltage Standard. G. June 23-27. F. IEEE Trans. 89-98 (1967). Lett. Lloyd. NBS Circular 475. B. Taylor (eds. Lloyd. and Richard E. Finnegan. IEEE Trans. H. Kautz. Taylor. Field. in Proceedings of the NCSL Workshop and Symposium. IM21.

or having the power to originate. and is perhaps justified by the observation that we do not expect that legislators will actually write the bills to which they attach their names. b. Lab. where it serves a useful purpose. To remain floating. Without an equal or equivalent. To assume responsibility for the content of (a published or an unpublished text). Starley. creative.adj. from s¶men. Conf. To remain in an uncertain state. Technol. 296-301 (1989). To remain or linger in or near a place: hovering around the speaker's podium. condition. suspended. USAGE NOTE: Over the course of the century unique has become the paradigmatic example of the class of terms that do not allow comparison or modification by an adverb of degree such as very.] --sem“i·nal·ly adv. 2. E. · The verb coauthor is well established in reference to scientific and scholarly publications. N. Instrum. from Latin ¿nicus. Natl. See SEMEN. au·thor·ing. though phrases such as nearly unique and almost unique are acceptable. since the people listed as authors of such works routinely include research collaborators who have played no part in the actual writing of the text. [French. Highly influential in an original way.. An originator or creator: the author of a new theory. from Old French. 3. from Old French. 2. MAP voltage transfer between 10 V Josephson array systems. hov·er·ing. Inst. See aug. from Latin auctor. perfect. Steiner and Bruce F. b. and the writer who ghostwrites a book for a celebrity cannot be said to have “authored” the creation. hov·ers. USAGE NOTE: The verb author. hov·ered. liams. The sentence The Senator authored a bill limiting uses of desert lands in California was similarly rejected by 64 percent of the Panel. L. 3. Tang. which had been out of use for a long period. --au·thor tr. au·thored. but who are nonetheless entitled to credit for the published results. though here the usage is common journalistic practice. Stand. In the most recent survey the sentence Her designs are quite unique in today's fashion scene was unacceptable to 80 percent of the Usage Panel. Penguin Books [23] R. [Middle English hoveren. Unusual. ô-th¼r“-) adj. The Ampere and Electrical Units. 2. R. Precision. s¶min-. creator.. --u·nique“ness n. Stand. A-M. but not author. One who practices writing as a profession. Of. exactness. or locality: a problem unique to coastal areas. has been rejuvenated in recent years with the sense “to assume responsibility for the content of a published text.[21] Richard L. extraordinary: spoke with a unique accent. M. past participle of aug¶re. hov·er . Natl.] --hov“er·er n. relating to. Usage Problem. such words denote properties that . 1. Critical objections to the comparison and degree modification of absolute terms date to the 18th century and have been applied to a wide group of adjectives including equal. See Synonyms at flutter. The sentence He has authored a dozen books on the subject was unacceptable to 74 percent of the Usage Panel. [Middle English. IEEE Trans. and which seems to smack of press agentry. Of.. E. relating to. 38. 1. au·thored au·thor . waver: hovered between anger and remorse. or fluttering in the air: gulls hovering over the waves.v. Kinard. Josephson array voltage calibration system: operational use and verification. Informal. [Middle English auctour. F. Jeffery. fatal. Boulder. --hov“er·ing·ly adv. Characteristic of a particular category. 205-209. Being the only one of its kind: the unique existing example of Donne's handwriting. constituting or providing a basis for further development. Steiner and S. parallel. See oi-no. Dziuba. 1.” As such it is not quite synonymous with the verb write.a. 3. Y. most grammarians believe that it is incorrect to say that something is very unique or more unique than something else. Thus. Elmquist. The original writer of a literary work.intr. or quite. from Old French autor. a love letter or an unpublished manuscript. Cage. R. M. or conveying semen or seed.v. Field. somewhat.below. unparalleled. a notion that sits poorly with conventional literary sensibilities. auth. Oldham. to create. --hov·er n.below. one can write. 2. Abbr. Conformity to fact. Res. God. omnipotent.adj.] --u·nique“ly adv. 3. Author. from Latin s¶min³lis. in Proceedings of the NCSL Workshop and Symposium NCSL’91. probably because it implies that the fact of having a book published is worthy of special lexical distinction. seed. sem·i·nal . R. J.n. 1. containing.n. [22] R. au a. CO (1991) pp. from auctus. According to the standard argument. au·thors.] -au·thor“i·al (ô-thôr“¶-…l. and unanimous. Meas. January-February (2001) [24] The American Heritage Dictionary – third edition [25] The Penguin Dictionary of Physics. The act or state of hovering: a helicopter in hover. Wil- APÊNDICE I Vocabulário [24] ac·cu·ra·cy . u·nique“ly adv u·nique . 2. and E. 1. Third Edition. J. frequentative of hoven. See Synonyms at single.

Atomic number 50. where it may lack any connotations of hyperbole. Constructed of inferior material. for once it is granted that uniqueness can be claimed for any product or service that is somehow distinctive from all its competitors. Tin plate. To plate or coat with tin. Chiefly British. Over. b. then. being. See Usage Note at equal. luxurious. relating to. suffixed form *super-bhw-o-.n. 4. they do not constitute legitimate grounds for putting the things into a class by themselves according to the criteria ordinarily invoked when things are sorted into classes. it is the copywriters who are using the word in conformity with strict logic. above. where the metals were produced and metal objects were manufactured. 2. it's patented. c. we might freely apply the term to anything in the world since nothing is wholly equivalent to anything else. “being above” (*bhw-o-. specific gravity 7. arrogant. [Latin superbus. superior. SOUBRETTE. A container for preserved foodstuffs. 3. The contents of such a container. Clearly. or for a resort hotel that simply happens to have a singularly picturesque view of the bay. SUPERB. 4. Extended form *uperi. tin·ning. and a travel writer states that Chicago is no less unique an American city than New York or San Francisco. d. top. SUR-. SOPRANO. to use. Spurious. melting point 231. over. OVER.270°C. [Middle English. from us.69. highest. If we were to use unique only according to the strictest criteria of logic. but not one that is rendered only in pigments whose names begin with the letter o. from Old French. b. treatment: subjected the car to rough usage. superb skill. over. (SOPRANINO). from Old English. see bheu…-). tins. parallel. 1. 3. SUM. b. The act or manner of treating. type metal. or written in a speech community. as in the advertisement announcing that Omaha's most unique restaurant is now even more unique or in the claim that a new automobile is So unique. a. excellent: a superb wine. Thus a legitimately unique painting might be one that realizes an unparalleled aesthetic vision. from Middle Low German over. from Latin superbus. and bronze.89°C. ORLOP. Such borrowing is supported by the fact that during the Bronze Age the Near East imported most of its tin and copper from Europe. 1. Related words for this metal are found in almost all Germanic languages. we might remember another remarkable achievement of pre-IndoEuropean society. from Old English ofer. infinite. Swedish tenn. The way in which words or phrases are actually used. SUPRA- . Though it may be true that such properties render these things logically unique. But it is not surprising that these uses of unique should lend themselves to promiscuous modification and comparison. Of. SUPERABLE. 2. To preserve or pack in tins. Thus if unique is properly used to mean “without equal or equivalent.31. from past participle of ¿tº. Uniqueness is claimed for a restaurant in virtue of some trivial properties of its decor or menu. such as soft solder. It is used to coat other metals to prevent corrosion and is a part of numerous alloys. 1. --tin adj. 2. it is not inherently impossible to think of uniqueness as a matter of degree. perfect. a. Both a and b from Germanic *uberi. super-. an instrument that measures water usage. atomic weight 118. The relative acceptability of these usages reflects the semantic subtlety of unique itself. habitual. upper. Rather. imposing: The cheetah is a superb animal. such as German Zinn. we may suspect that the distinctive properties of the color selection are not so remarkable as the advertiser would have us believe. A container or box made of tin plate. suffixed form *super-o-.” It is true that comparison and modification of unique are often associated with the style favored by copywriters. after all. SUMMIT. such as the Germanic and Celtic languages. SUPREME.] WORD HISTORY: The history of the word tin may take us back to a time before Europe had been settled by speakers of Indo-European languages. Lest we be too amazed by this accomplishment. from Latin super. See uper. Majestic. or accepted practice. silvery metallic element obtained chiefly from cassiterite. A painting is described as the most unique of Beckman's self-portraits.” something either is unique or it isn't. Of unusually high quality. over.] --su·perb“ly adv. --su·perb“ness n. from Latin supernus. SIRLOIN. excellent. it is inevitable that an increase in uniqueness will be seen in every minor innovation. tinned. boiling point 2. and phrases such as very unique and more unique can only betray a weakening of the sense to mean something like “unusual” or “distinctive. when we read an advertisement for a line of sportswear that features a unique selection of colors. in the sense that one painting or restaurant may be more or less worthy of inclusion in a class by itself than some other. use: the usage of a technical term. the construction of huge megalithic monuments such as Stonehenge. uper. SUPERIOR. not one that has been installed in a converted sardine cannery. the abuse of unique can be cloying even when no modification or comparison is involved. valence 2. Given this understanding. 1. --tin tr. or amount of using. b. A particular expression in speech or writing: a nonce usage.a. suffixed (superlative) reduced form *sup-mo. when we say that a restaurant or painting is unique. 2. b. from Latin ¿sus.a. 1. 3. 2. SOVEREIGN. us·age . Chiefly British. we mean that it is worthy of inclusion in a class by itself according to certain implicit but generally accepted criteria. Symbol Sn A malleable. (SUPREMO). pewter. [Middle English. The word may have been borrowed into the Germanic languages from a preIndo-European language of Western Europe. Variant form *(s)uper. from Latin summus. A usual. above.adj. The act.v. topmost. In fact. tin n. but no other IndoEuropean language family has such a word. SUPER-. manner.a thing either does or does not have but cannot have to a qualifiable degree. superior. But modification of unique is also found in the work of reputable writers. can. Rich. 4. 2. a. or made of tin. e. a can.] su·perb . spoken. SUPERNAL. and Old English tin (as in Modern English). 1. See Synonyms at habit. What is troubling about the copywriters' use of unique is not that the word has become a synonym for unusual. arrogant. suffixed form *(s)uperno-. and a legitimately unique restaurant might be one that serves 18th-century French cuisine according to the original recipes.

The electrons forming the current are able to leak across the junction as a result of the Tunnel Effect. the microwave frequency can be related to increments in the voltage developed across the junction when a superconducting current flows. These voltage can be used. and is usually in the form of a very thin film. and to standardize the volt to within a few parts in 108. The practical advantage of these high-temperature superconductors is that they can operate at liquid-nitrogen temperatures rather then the liquid-helium temperatures required by BCS superconductors. zinc. It is now possible to connect many thousands of Josephson junctions in a long line to obtain a measurable voltage. Conversely. This theory accounts for many of the properties of conventional superconductors but is less successful for the recently discovered high-temperature superconductors. Cooper. above. soprano. SOMERSAULT. or even above. There is a dynamic pairing of electrons ( a Cooper pair ) such that if the quantum state with wawenumber -σ and spin –½ . in a weak magnetic field. The voltage increments are very precise. from Latin supr³ (feminine ablative singular). being equal to multiples of (h/2e) times the frequency. and cadmium. This effect has been used in superconducting magnets in which very large magnetic field strengths can be produced without the expenditure of large amount of . from Greek huper. for example. The Meissner effect implies that superconductor exhibit perfect diamagnetism. The current varies at a microwave frequency. This in turn implies the existence of a large energy gap between ground state and first excited state so that all superconducting electrons are in a particular ground state. HYPER-. hyper-. Important derivatives are: over. Basic form *uper. Current research are aimed at developing superconductors with TC near to. c. A current induced in a closed ring of superconducting material by a magnetic field will continue to flow after the removal of the field for a considerable time. and Schrieffer ). This is the Meissner effect. sirloin. where h is the Planck constant and e the electron charge. v. if microwave radiation ( frequency 10 – 100 GHz ) impinges on a Josephson junction. [Pokorny uper 1105.. The magnetic behavior of superconductors is extremely complicated. Josepshon junction – see Josephson effect Josephson effect [24] – any of the phenomena that occur at sufficiently low temperatures when a current flows through a thin insulating layer between two superconducting substances ( see superconductivity ). If a voltage is applied across a Josephson junction. 3. was defined to be 1. The current can flow across the junction in the absence of an applied voltage: this is the d. Since a compound of two nonsuperconducting metals can be superconduting. then na alternating current flows through the junction: this is the a. which is related to the voltage V: V = (2e/h)V . When a superconductor. aluminium.f. named after Bardeen. The theory of these superconductors has not been established yet but various models have been proposed and tested. ( There is also a marked difference in the variation with temperature of the Specific Heat Capacity below TC ). Superconductivity – a phenomenon occurring in many metals including tin. superior. and the formation of these bound pairs is not prevented by the presence of other electrons. If these substances are cooled below a transition temperature. Its e.m. the superconducting current is highly sensitive to a magnetic field. super-. An example of such superconductor is YBa2Cu3O1-7 . the electrical resistance vanishes. the negative electrode being a rod of pure zinc in a saturated solution of zinc sulphate. is cooled below its transition . sum. In certain circuit configurations of Josepshon junctions.] uper. exhibiting levitation. the quantity 2e/h is called the Josephson constant. It consist of a mercury electrode surrounded by a paste of mercury sulphate. over. sovereign.m. and intermetallic compounds. the magnetic flux inside the substance is expelled except for a thin surface layer. Jophson effect. room temperatures. A bar magnetic dropped onto such a conductor will be repelled and will hover above it. The narrow insulating gap between the superconductors is know as a Josephson junction. In the superconducting state the electrons do not move independently. superb. Cooper pairs are the basis of the BCS theory ( 1957. These pais are superimposed in phase. to compare laboratory voltage standards.f. somersault. supreme. Josephson effect. if the temperature is kept below TC . This allows it to be used as a extremely fast electronic switch with very low power dissipation ( see squid ).4345 volts ar 15o C.c. without diminution in strength. these rely on Heavy-fermion substances in which the transition temperature can be as high as 100 K. beyond. mercury. This is used in the criotron. summit. this is possible for Cooper pairs. The two electron interact throght lattice vibrations. A P Ê N D I C E II Vocabulário técnico de física [25] Clark cell – a voltaic cell. Superconduticvity can be destroyed by a magnetic field – either an external field or one produced by a current flowing in the metal. the phenomenon is not a property of the atom but of the free electrons in the metal. formerly adopted as a standard of e. It has now been superseded by the Weston Standard Cell. For pure metals the transition temperature is usually a few kelvin but for some compounds much higher values are obtained. TC . many alloys.

the comstituetns being shown in the diagram.   h   where A is a constant. If the wave function .06 x 10-5 ( t – 20 – 9. however.626 076 x 10-34 Tunnel Effect – The movement of particles through barriers that.   h   Provided the barrier is not infinitely thick or wide there is thus a probability of the particle crossing this region and reaching X . solution is If E < U the   2π x   ψ = A exp  −   (2 m(U − E ))  . it may rise because of increased phonon conductivity Planck constant – Symbol: h . they would have insuffient energy to surmount. + d 2 x2 h2 A B X distance and a general solution:   2π i x   ψ = A exp  −   (2 m(U − E ))  . and currents. taking point A as x = 0 .5% cadmium Platinum wire contacts fused through the glass . it can get over it by converting some of its kinetics energy into potential energy.the reciprocal of the Wavelenght.m.5 x 10-7 ( t – 20 )2 + 1 x 10-8 ( t – 20 ) 3 seal Electrolyte of CdSO4 solution 3CdSO4 · 8H2O crystals HgSO4 paste Mercury pool Amalgam of mercury with 12.f. e. and i = √-1. This is the magnitude of the angular wave vector or propagation vector.018 58 – 4. is given by 2π/λ. Classically. The cell has a very low temperature coefficient of e. h the Plank constant. The superconduction electrons form an energy band below that of the normal conduction band and do not take part e in heat conduction. i. Josephson current flowing across Josephson junctions ( see Josephson effect ) in certain configurations. the Schrödinger wave equation has the form: energy Squid ( Superconducting quantum device ) – Any of a family of superconducting devices that are capable of measuring extremely small magnetic fields. However. even when E < U the particle can tunnel through the barrier.electrical power or the production of heat. i. This is explained by wave mechanics. the current in such a device being highly sensitive to na external magnetic field. Their action is based on the d. U E d 2ψ 8π 2 m ( E − U )ψ = 0 . Hence the thermal conductivity of metals is usually less in superconting state. It is expressed in m-1 .m. x the distance into the barrier. symbol: k . e. Its e. Ψ. m the particle mass. If E< U the probability of finding the particle at a point ( see diagram ) would be zero. of the particle is considered inside the region of the barrier. The effect is too unlike to occur in macroscpic systems but is the basis of Alpha decay and Field emission Wawenumber Symbol: σ .f at toC is givem as: Et = 1. voltages. Weston standard cell – syn. The Angular wavenumber. if a particle moves in one direction with kinetic energy E and approaches a potential-energy barrier of height U . the number of waves per unity path length. At very low temperatures. Cadmium cell. It is constructed in an H-shaped glass vessel. A universal constant having the value 6. on classical theory. A cell that is a portable standard of electromotive force and is used for calibrating potentiometers and hence all other voltage-measuring instruments. c. symbol: k .

Consultative Committee on Electricity (France) CIPM .National Research Council (Canada) NSL .National Physical Laboratory (U.International Committee of Weights and Measures (France) JVS .National Conference of Standards Laboratories NIST – National Institute of Standard Technologie NMIs .National Metrology Institutes NPL .Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Former West German standards laboratory) SQUID . .) NRC .National Standards Laboratory (Australia) PTB .International Bureau of Weights and Measures(France).Superconducting-quantum-interference device.K.Josephson Voltage Standard NBS – National Bureau of Standars (now NIST) NCSL . CCE .A P Ê N D I C E III Siglas: BIPM .