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# Problem Creator: Viktor Ivanov

Theoretical 1: Magnetic Monopole
1

Introduction

Our everyday experience shows that the magnetic poles always exist in pairs North and South.
Breaking a magnet results in the appearance of a new pair of opposite magnetic poles on the
two broken ends. The fundamental laws of physics, however, do not contradict the existence of
magnetically charged particles called magnetic monopoles. The magnetic monopole is an object
possessing just one magnetic pole, either North, or South, which are analogues of the positive
and negative electric charges respectively. Thus, the magnetic field of the monopole is similar
to the electric field created by a static electric charge, i.e. its force lines begin or end at the
point where the monopole is located. This property is in contrast to the closed force lines of the
magnetic field created by permanent magnets (magnetic dipoles) and electric currents. The concept
of magnetic monopole was introduced in 1932 by the famous physicist Paul Dirac. On the basis of
quantum mechanics he proved that the existence of magnetic monopoles can explain the existence
of the elementary electric charge. That is why the physicists do not cease their efforts to discover
magnetic monopoles experimentally.
In the following questions you are going to establish some properties of the magnetic monopoles
by analyzing simple model situations (though experiments). You may assume that all laws of
physics known to you apply to the magnetic monopoles, except the statement for closed force lines
of the magnetic field. The velocities considered in this problem are much smaller than the speed
of light and, therefore, you may neglect the relativistic effects on time, length and mass.
Use the following physical constants in your solution:

2

magnetic permeability of vacuum:

µ0 = 4π × 10−7 H/m ;

electric permittivity of vacuum: 

0 = 8.85 × 10−12 F/m ;

speed of light:

c = 2.998 × 108 m/s ;

elementary electric charge:

e = 1.602 × 10−19 C ;

Planks constant:

h = 6.626 × 10−34 J.s .

Questions

1. When exposed to external magnetic field of induction B, a monopole of magnetic charge qm
experiences a force:
F = qm B

(1)

(a) Derive the unit of magnetic charge in terms of the basic SI units: kilogram, meter, second,
ampere.
(0.8 points)

Magnetic Monopole

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Questions

Question 1. When exposed to external magnetic field of induction B, a mon
Problem Creator: Viktor Ivanov
charge qm experiences a force:

Questions

osed to external magnetic field of induction B, a monopole of magnetic
F qm B
a force:
Theoretical 1: Magnetic Monopole
F

a. Derive the unit of magnetic charge in terms of the basic SI units: kilogra
ampere.

qm B

2. Electric current I circulates along a circular loop of radius a. A monopole of magnetic charge

of magnetic charge
terms ofonthe
SItheunits:
kilogram,
2.a Electric
currentsecond,
I circulates
a circular
loop of radius a
qm in
is situated
thebasic
axis ofQuestion
loop at
point ofmeter,
coordinate
z relative toalong
its center,
as shown

qm Zis and
situated
on the axis
of thecirculation
loop at a are
point of coordina
in Figure 1 . The positive magnetic
direction ofcharge
the axis
the direction
of current
related through the right-hand
rule.as shown in Figure 1. The positive direction of the axis Z and the di
center,

current I circulates
a an
circular
loop
a. AFthrough
monopole
of
circulation
are related
right-hand
(a) along
Find out
expression
for of
the radius
z-component
force
acting onrule.
the monopole.
z of the the
(1.1 points)
situated on the axis of the loop at a point of coordinate z relative to its
a. Find out an expression for the z-component Fz of the force acting on the
gure 1. The positive direction of the axis Z and the direction of current
I
hrough the right-hand rule.
a

qm

ression for the z-component Fz of the force acting on the monopole.

Z

qm

Figure 1.

Figure 1: Question 2

Z

Question 3. When at rest, the magnetic monopole creates static magnetic fi

3. When at rest, the magneticelectric
monopole
creates
staticby
magnetic
field, similar
to the
fieldinduction B at a
field
produced
a static electric
charge.
Theelectric
magnetic
produced by a static electric charge. The magnetic induction B at a point of position- vector
vector r, relative to the monopole (see Figure 2), is given by the equation:
r, relative to the monopole (see Figure 2), is given by the equation:
km qm r

k m qm r

B=
,
rest, the magnetic monopole creates static magnetic
field,r3 similar
to theB
r3
by a static electric charge. The magnetic induction B at a point of positionwhere km is a coefficient of proportionality and r = |r|.
km is a coefficient of proportionality and r
monopole (see Figure 2), is given by thewhere
equation:

B

(2)

r.

qm
Figure 2.

r

a. By analyzing theB system described in Question 2, express the unkno
throughrthe provided fundamental constants.

k m qm r
r3

qm

t of proportionality and r

r.

b. Formulate by means of equation the Gauss law for the flux
Figure
2.
created by the magnetic monopole.
Figure 2: Question 3

of the m

Question
A moving
electric charge
he system described in Question 2, express
the 4.
unknown
coefficient
km creates magnetic field. Likewise, the
(a) By analyzing the system described in Question 2, express the unknown coefficient km
monopole produces electric field with circular force-lines
(i.e. a vortex field) c
vided fundamental constants.
through the provided fundamental constants.
(1.6 points)

direction of motion of the monopole (see Figure 3). Consider a monopole of m

(b) Formulate by means of equation the Gauss law for the flux Φ of the magnetic induction
. points)
along
lineinduction
with a constant velocity v(0.5
equation thecreated
Gaussby
law
the moving
flux
of thea straight
magnetic
thefor
magnetic
monopole.

means of
magnetic monopole.

4. A moving electric charge creates magnetic field. Likewise, the moving magnetic
monopole
4
produces electric field with circular force-lines (i.e. a vortex field) concentric with the direction
g electric charge ofcreates
magnetic field. Likewise, the moving magnetic
motion of the monopole (see Figure 3). Consider a monopole of magnetic charge qm moving
ctric field with circular
force-lines
(i.e. aaconstant
vortex field)
with the
along a straight
line with
velocityconcentric
v.

the monopole (see Figure 3). Consider a monopole of magnetic charge qm
line with a constant velocity v.
Magnetic Monopole

4

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Problem Creator: Viktor Ivanov

Theoretical 1: Magnetic Monopole

r
qm

electric force line

v

Figure 3.
Figure 3: Question 4

an expression
for electric
the intensity
of the electric
created in
byathe monopole in a
(a) Derive an expression a.
for Derive
the intensity
E of the
fieldEcreated
by thefield
monopole
point of position-vector rpoint
making
an angle θ with
the vector
velocity,
shown
in of
Figure
r making
an of
angle
withasthe
vector
velocity, as shown in
of position-vector
3. Use vector notations in
your 3.
final
order to in
specify
the magnitude,
Figure
Useanswer
vectorinnotations
your both,
final answer
in order and
to specify both, the
the direction of the electric
field.
(1.7
points)
magnitude, and the direction of the electric field.
(b) Suppose that a positive electric charge qe and a positive magnetic charge qm are movb. Suppose that a positive electric charge qe and a positive magnetic charge qm are moving
ing toward you, perpendicularly to the sheet of paper. Draw
an arbitrary force line
against you, perpendicularly to the sheet of paper. Draw two arbitrary force lines in you
in your answer sheet for the magnetic field created by the electric charge. Draw sepaanswer sheet – one for the magnetic field created by the electric charge and another, fo
rately another arbitrary force line for the electric field created by the magnetic charge.
field created by the magnetic monopole. Indicate
directions of the two
Indicate the directions ofthe
theelectric
two lines.
(0.4 the
points)
lines.
5. The analogy between electric and magnetic charges is found also in the way they interact with
5. Therespectively.
analogy between
electrictoand
is found
external magnetic and Question
electric fields
Similarly
themagnetic
Lorentz charges
force acting
on also
an in the way they
with field,
external
electric
fields respectively.
Similarly
to the Lorentz force
electric charge moving interact
in magnetic
themagnetic
magneticand
charge
experiences
a force when
it moves
acting
on
an
electric
charge
moving
in
magnetic
field,
the
magnetic
charge
experiences a force
in electric field.
when it moves in electric field.
(a) Propose and analyze a thought experiment in order to derive an expression for the Lorentz
force acting on a monopole
of magnetic
charge
qm moving
with ain velocity
in electric
a. Propose
and analyze
a thought
experiment
order tovderive
an expression for the
field of intensity E. Use vector
notations
in
your
final
answer
in
order
to
specify
both, the
with a velocity v in
“Lorenz” force acting on a monopole of magnetic charge qm moving
magnitude and the direction
of
the
force.
When
describing
your
thought
experiment,
use
electric field of intensity E. Use vector notations in your final answer in order to specify
proper drawings and short
comments
to themand
instead
of a lengthy
(1.0 points)
both,
the magnitude
the direction
of thetext.
force. When
describing your though
experiment,
use propertodrawings
and short
comments
to them
instead of a lengthy text.
6. A point particle of electric charge
qe is confined
move along
a circle
without
any resistance
or friction, as shown inQuestion
Figure 4.6. A
of magnetic
charge qqmis passes
through
plane
A monopole
point particle
of electric charge
confined
to movethe
along
a circle without any
e
of the circle by movingresistance
along itsoraxis
Z
from
z

−∞
to
z

∞.
friction, as shown in Figure 4. A monopole of magnetic charge q passes through
m

the plane of the circle by moving along its axis Z from z

to z

.

qe
qm
Z

Figure 4.

Figure 4: Question 6
5

Magnetic Monopole

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a. Obtain an expression for the change in Z–component, Lz, of the angular momentum of
Problem Creator:
Viktor Ivanov
the electrically
charged particle during the whole motion of the magnetic monopole.
Express your answer in terms of qe, qm and fundamental constants only.

Theoretical
1:monopoles
Magnetic
Monopole
Question 7. In his famous
work on magnetic
Paul Dirac
has argued that if just one
single magnetic monopole existed in the Universe, all electric charges should be multiple of a
specific elementary electric charge, whose magnitude is related to the magnetic charge of that
(a) Obtain
an expression
for itthe
change
Zcomponent,
∆Lz , ofwhich
the angular
momentum
monopole.
Historically,
is the
firstinhypothesis
in physics,
explains
the existence of the
of
the
electrically
charged
particle
during
the
whole
motion
of
the
magnetic
monopole.
elementary electric charge.
Express your answer in terms of qe , qm and fundamental constants only.

(1.3 points)

the system
described
in Question
6, assuming
that that
all magnetic
monopoles
7. In hisConsider
famous work
on magnetic
monopoles
Paul Dirac
has argued
if just one
magnetic existing in
qm respectively
.
the Nature
magnetic
of the
sameshould
magnitude,
+qm and
monopole
existedhave
in the
Universe,charges
all electric
charges
be multiple
of a–specific
elementary
electric charge, whose magnitude is related to the magnetic charge of that monopole. Historithein concepts
of quantum
physics
to the
motion
of electrically
charged
cally, it isa.theBy
firstapplying
hypothesis
physics, which
explains the
existence
of the
elementary
electric
particle along the circular orbit, derive a relationship between the elementary electric
charge.
, assumedintoQuestion
be the charge
of thethat
electron,
and the
magneticexisting
charge qm of the
Consider thecharge
system edescribed
6, assuming
all magnetic
monopoles
in the Naturemonopole.
have magnetic
charges
the same magnitude, +qm and −qm respectively.
qm of
numerically.
Calculate
(a) By applying the concepts of quantum physics to the motion of electrically charged
particle
2
b. the
The
electron
possesses
self magnetic
moment
pm 9.274electric
10 24 A.m
along
circular
orbit,
derive aa relationship
between
theofelementary
charge. By
e, assuming
assumedthat
to be
charge of
the electron,
and
the magnetic
qm of
monopole.
thethe
magnetic
properties
of the
electron
are duecharge
to a pair
of the
spatially
separated point
Calculate qm numerically.
(1.1 points)

magnetic monopoles of opposite magnetic charges, +qm and –qm respectively; calculate the

(b) The electron
possesses
a self these
magnetic
moment of pm = 9.274 × 10−24 A.m2 . By assuming
distance
d between
monopoles.
that the magnetic properties of the electron are due to a pair of spatially separated point
magnetic monopoles of opposite magnetic charges, +qm and −qm respectively; calculate
the distance d between these monopoles.
(0.5 points)

Useful math:

Useful math :

The solid
angle byenclosed
by half-opening
a cone of half-opening
angle
(see the
• The solid angle
Ω enclosed
a cone of
angle θ (see
the Figure
5) figure)
is: Ω =is:
2π(1 − cos(θ))
2 (1 cos( ))

Figure 5: Solid Angle

Depending on your approach to the solution you may need the following integral:

• Depending on your approach to the solution you may need the following integral:
Z ∞
dz
2
dz
2
= 2.
3/2
2
2
2
2 32
2
a
−∞ (z + a )
(z a )
a

(3)

6

Magnetic Monopole

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Figure 2: Representation of the Figure 1: Scheme of the oil produc. A similar thing occurs with oilsaturated rocks. which is the fraction of the void space in the rock to the total volume: ϕ= Vvoid . with a profile similar to the sketch shown in Figure 4. Fluid molecules moves along free paths and collide with each other. which are located a few kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth. To understand meaning of this concept. the oil flows to the surface (see Figure 1). Vgrains + Vvoid (1) where V stands for the volume. When all the rocks above the reservoir exert a huge pressure on the petroleum sponge. Void space between particles of sand is filled with oil like a sponge is filled with water. Consider a flow of the viscous fluid through a tube with length L0 and radius r0 (Figure 4). it is found in very small pores with a size comparable to the diameter of human hair. this process is not uniform.porous medium (grains in white and tion process void space in blue) 1 Figure 3: Cubic stacking of identical spherical grains Basic Concepts (a) One of the most important characteristics of the reservoir is porosity. imagine identical balls (grains of sand) that put in a pile as shown in Figure 3. (0. where y is measured from the axis of the tube. However. Physics of the Oil and Gas Production Page 1 of 6 . Find the porosity of the system if the number of balls is infinitely large.3 points ) (b) A fluid flow between the grains of sand is controlled by viscosity and permeability.Problem Creator: Pavel Levchenko Theoretical 2: Physics of the Oil and Gas Production It is a common misunderstanding that oil is located in the form of an underground lake. If one pushes on the sponge. Close to the solid boundary molecules are stuck. while in other regions velocity varies. In this problem we neglect capillary and gravity effects on the fluid flow. Actually. water comes out.

6 points) (c) Under described conditions fluid will flow through the tube with a flow rate: q= k0 2 P1 − P2 πr . because approaches are very similar). If two adjacent layers of fluid flow with slightly different speeds.3 points) (d) A fluid flow through a porous medium is governed by Darcy’s law: q= dV k (Pin − Pout ) = A . (3) (0. whereas intrusion of slower molecules into the faster stream will tend to slow down the faster stream. Af r is a contact area on which applied the internal friction force. µ is the fluid property called coefficient of viscosity. Using analogies with heat transfer could significantly help in solution of this problem. r0 .Problem Creator: Pavel Levchenko Theoretical 2: Physics of the Oil and Gas Production Figure 4: Schematic of the viscous fluid flow in the tube The reason for this effect is the internal friction of the fluid. (0. the random sidewise intrusion of some faster molecules into the slower stream will tend to speed up the slower stream. or viscosity. Find the velocity distribution v(y) in terms of µ. Porous medium can be modeled as a system of twisted tubes (Figure 5). This effect could be quantified with following well-known equation: Ff r = −µAf r dv . k is the permeability and is the property of the rock (You can easily recognize some similarity with Fouriers Law for heat transfer. dt µ L (4) where dV dt is the amount of fluid transferred through the rock in some period of time. Physics of the Oil and Gas Production Page 2 of 6 . which have differences in velocities dv. ϕ2 accounts for nonlinearity of the tubes in a porous medium with porosity ϕ. L are the cross-sectional area and length of the sample shown in Figure 5. dy (2) where Ff r is a friction force which occurs between two thin layers of the fluid separated by a small distance dy. with permeability k = k0 ϕ2 Where k0 is permeability of a straight capillary. µ 0 L0 (Poiseuille equation) Calculate coefficient k0 in Poiseuille equation. Assume that a mean free path of molecules is much smaller than the radius of the tube. A. L0 . Pin − Pout is the pressure drop. P1 and P2 .

one can conclude that the fluid flows only in the radial direction. An incompressible fluid flows through that system with a flow rate q and viscosity µ. we consider a sample consisting of two different rock types as shown in Figure 6. rock properties are not uniform throughout the reservoir. 2 (0.1 points) (e) Usually. which is uniform throughout the new homogeneous sample. (0. Physics of the Oil and Gas Production Page 3 of 6 . However.4 points) Vertical Well Often the reservoir can be modeled as a cylinder (see Figure 7). For this problem all properties were averaged out as in the previous part. and parameters shown in Figure 6. To examine this issue. This means that the initial system could be replaced with a new model that has the same sizes and fluid flow parameters with the only difference in permeability. Because the rocks above and below the reservoir are impermeable and the height of the cylinder is much less than its radius (h << R). with radiuses of the balls equal to 10−6 m. Figure 6: Composite rock sample Calculate pressure at the boundary between two different rocks Pb in terms of q.Problem Creator: Pavel Levchenko Theoretical 2: Physics of the Oil and Gas Production Figure 5: Diagaram showing definition of Darcy’s law Estimate permeability of the system described in 1. so the reservoir is assumed homogeneous with uniform permeability k.8 points) (f) Find the effective permeability of the system kef f .a. Oil can be viewed as an incompressible fluid with viscosity µ. (0. it is possible to apply an averaging procedure to find an effective permeability kef f . µ.

In this part assume that both Pb and Pw are constants (time-independent values). as well as the oil production rate Physics of the Oil and Gas Production Page 4 of 6 . pressure at the bottom of the well Pw is constant (hydrostatic column of oil). Figure 8: System used for modeling reservoir depletion This time. if the flow rate is 30 m3 (0.4 points) 3 Modeling Reservoir Depletion In this part the depletion process will be analyzed for the reservoir shown in Figure 8. (0. (b) The calculated fluid velocity in the reservoir is rather small therefore the reservoir pressure can be treated as a constant for several months or even years. (1.4 points) day . Calculate pressure drop Pb − Pw .0 points) (c) Make a sketch of pressure distribution in the reservoir P (r) as a function of the distance from the well. However.Problem Creator: Pavel Levchenko Theoretical 2: Physics of the Oil and Gas Production Figure 7: Cylindrical reservoir with a vertical well drilled in the center (a) Find the velocity of the oil vw inside the well with radius rw = 0.1 m. as well as the radial pressure distribution. therefore. the fluid flow in the reservoir is linear (h << L). Let Pb be the pressure at the outer boundary of the reservoir and Pw be the pressure at the bottom of the well. the pressure at the boundary Pb (t) is changing with time. Estimate the fluid velocity in the reservoir near the well vr . The well has a horizontal part. which is required to produce oil with flow rate q. especially if the reservoir is connected with an underground source of water.

Fortunately. In the model supposed that the production from fractured reservoir goes from the matrix to the fracture and therefrom to the well. Pf is pressure at fracture. (6) P¯ ≈ 2 (a) Derive an explicit expression for q(t) in terms of k. dt (5) where cr is the compressibility of the rock. Such a simple model gives incredibly good results for oil production forecasts with an equation: q=σ a3 (Pm − Pf ) .Problem Creator: Pavel Levchenko Theoretical 2: Physics of the Oil and Gas Production q(t). derive its compressibility cg as funtion of pressure P . first attempts to predict reservoir performance were made by doing analogies to electric circuits. as in Figure 9 (right).3 points) 4 Fractured Reservoir Most of the world’s largest oil reservoirs have a different structure. (0. Thus. Pm is average pressure at the matrix. (7) V dP T where V is initial volume of the examined sample. µ (8) where q is a flow rate from matrix to fracture. (1. matrix does not produce directly into the well.0 points) (c) Historically.c. which is not a pile of small balls with fluid between. and σ is shape factor. In this model the flow rate of the fluid is given by: q = −2ϕL2 cr h dP¯ . ϕ and reservoir dimensions. µ. with a compressibility being strongly dependent on the applied pressure. is that gas is highly compressible. which is analogous to the system described in Part 3. cr . related to the dimensions of the sugar cubes.5 points) (d) The reason why gas reservoirs cannot be modeled with the circuit as in 3. near the boundary of the sugar cube with a side a. Assuming natural gas as ideal. Draw a simple electric circuit. such reservoirs could be easily modeled with a stack of sugar cubes. Compressibility is defined as:   1 dV c=− . but a very complex system of porous medium and fractures as shown in Figure 9 (left). if the initial flow rate is q0 .2 points) (b) For the system described in this section. when additional pressure dP is applied. and the average pressure inside the reservoir P¯ is approximated by: Pb + Pw . dV is isothermal volume change. Physics of the Oil and Gas Production Page 5 of 6 . (1. (0. determine the time needed to deplete the oil reservoir by a half.

and.Problem Creator: Pavel Levchenko Theoretical 2: Physics of the Oil and Gas Production Figure 9: Idealization of a fractured system Figure 10: Sugar cube from the inside The goal of this part of the problem is to estimate shape factor σ. a. Oil flows with a constant rate q symetrically from the center of the cube to its boundaries. where pressure is equal Pf . µ. (2. Furthermore. k. if the well producing at constant flow rate then the cell pressure will decline in such a way that dPm ≈ const for all x and t.5 points) Physics of the Oil and Gas Production Page 6 of 6 . which changes with time t. dt (9) (a) Calculate pressure distribution inside the cube Pm (x) in terms of Pf . and compressibility cr . q. permeability k.2 points) (b) What is the shape factor for the cube with side a ? (0. Consider a cube with the side a filled with a porous medium with porosity ϕ.

US. It is a violent vortex (rotating column) of air connecting the base of cumulonimbus1 cloud and the ground.K) P0 = 105 Pa T0 = 15 ◦ C γ = Cp /Cv = 1.2 kg/m3 MAir = 0. calculate the pressure and temperature inside the tornado and most interestingly derive the equation for the shape of a tornado rC (z). dense.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan Theoretical 3: Tornado CONSTANTS AND DATA: Gravitational acceleration Air density Molar mass of dry air Universal gas constant Sea level pressure Standard sea level temperature Heat capacity ratio of air : : : : : : : g = 9. you will try to estimate the rotating speed of tornado.029 kg/mol R = 8.8 m/s2 ρAir = 1. 1 Cumulonimbus cloud is a towering vertical cloud that is very tall. 1(b). Figure 1: (a) A tornado wreaking havoc in Texas.314 J/(mol. This region is defined by the core radius rC (z) which generally increases with altitude forming the signature funnel-shape of the tornado. 1(b) and few basic principles. Using a simple model as shown in Fig. Region I and II have different velocity distribution profile as we will explore later. Region I is the region outside tornado core. (b) A cross section diagram of a tornado and its coordinate system. A distinct feature of the tornado is its funnel-like core or condensation funnel (Region II) which is made of small water droplets that condense as they are sucked into the core as shown in Fig.4 Introduction Tornado is one of the deadliest atmospheric phenomena known to man. Let us explore the interesting physics of tornado. and involved in thunderstorms and other rainy weather. Tornado Page 1 of 4 .

0 points) (c) Using your result in (b) calculate the pressure at point B on the base of the cumulonimbus! (use h = 1 km) (0. ρAir . Find b! (1. constant gravity acceleration and a constant temperature T0 . Show that the atmospheric pressure as a function of altitude z is: P (z) = P0 e−αz Express α in terms of the constants listed in “Constants and Data”. The water vapor condenses when the temperature drops below Tornado Page 2 of 4 . Let us start from a calm weather location at point A far away from the tornado. At point A the pressure is P0 and temperature T0 (see Constants and Data). (0. is constant.8 points) (b) Now we consider a situation where the air density. (a) Assuming ideal gas law.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan Theoretical 3: Tornado Questions ! Figure 2: A Tornado landscape 1 The calm weather We will investigate the atmospheric pressure of the troposphere (the lowest part of the atmosphere) where most of the weather phenomena including tornado occurs. Derive the pressure as a function of altitude: P (z)! The temperature T drops with altitude z at a linear rate of b.2 points) 2 The shape of tornado Inside the tornado’s core the water vapor condenses into liquid droplets as the air spirals into the core forming condensation funnel.

where h is the height defined in Fig. Now only consider region I. Velocity v is only tangential (along the circle).e. 2) very close to the ground (z ≈ 0) located at radius rG . (a) In region II (r < rC ) the tornado core behaves as rigid body.4 points) (b) In region I calculate the tangential wind velocity v as a function of r and in terms of vC and rC (velocity and radius at the core boundary)at any given altitude (z)! (0. which one do you think has the higher ground rotation speed vG ? (0.0 points) (e) Most tornadoes look like funnel (the radius is larger at higher altitude) while some is more uniform in diameter like a pipe. (iii) The wind velocity v is independent of altitude z. (iv) We ignore turbulence very close to the ground.5 points) (d) Derive the shape of the condensation funnel or the tornado core i. at the same altitude as point G! Use vG from part 2(c)! (1. not radial. Now we will consider both region I and II. We further assume: (i) The tornado is stationary (only has rotation and no translation). This temperature drop is caused by pressure drop.2 points) (c) Estimate the temperature at the center of the tornado (point C)! (0.5 points) 3 The core of tornado We will try to calculate the pressure at the center of tornado.1 points) (b) Calculate the pressure at the center of the tornado (point C.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan Theoretical 3: Tornado certain point called dew point. (v) We assume air mass density (ρair ) is constant. derive expression for the (tangential) speed v(r) in this region. (ii) The wind radial velocity is negligible. This is the boundary between region I and II. the function rC (z). Consider a reference point G (Fig. express them in terms of rG and vG and altitude z! Plot or sketch this tornado shape in dimensionless quantities z/h vs. 2! (2.5 points) (d) Based on your finding in (c) suggest in only few words what could be a possible source of tornado’s tremendous energy! (0. r/rG . The speed vG can be treated as the ground rotation speed of the tornado. it only depends on the radial position r. Thus the region where the water vapor starts to condense marks a boundary of equal pressure called isobar boundary layer that stretches from the base of the cumulonimbus cloud down to the base of tornado (shown as red boundary in Figure 2).3 points) Tornado Page 3 of 4 .5 points) (c) Estimate the air speed vG at the base of tornado at point G! (0. (a) Show that in both region I and II along r : ∂P v2 = ρair ∂r r (0. Given everything the same. Plot the velocity profile from r = 0 to ∞! (1.

Therefore some people suggest that the windows have to be opened to vent or let the pressure in the house equilibrates with outside quickly. Consider a house with all windows and openings closed with a flat roof of dimension (width x length x thickness) 15 m x 15 m x 0.8 points) (b) Shall you open or close the windows? (0. (a) What is the ratio of the lift force on the roof compared to its weight? (0. The tornado is coming fast and passing at a distance d = 2rG away from the house.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan Theoretical 3: Tornado 4 Shall you open or close the windows? The differential pressure near a tornado is thought to cause poorly ventilated houses to “explode” even though the tornado is only passing at a distance.2 points) Tornado Page 4 of 4 . opening the windows will risk more damage due to debris and projectiles getting into the house.1 m and mass density ρRoof = 800 kg/m3 . However.

3. size : 0.5 mm diameter (60 mm long 2 pcs). Magnetic pendulum assembly (1 set) 7. various length) 8. Platform (1 pc) 6.9 mm diameter (4 mm long 2 pcs each). Toothpicks (3 pcs) 5. Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap Page 1 of 8 . 0.4 mm long x 6.7 mm 0.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan & Yudistira Virgus Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap 1 APPARATUS 1.9 mm 0.3 mm Toothpicks Card Stacks Ruler Acrylic Sticks Figure 1: Experimental setup. Acrylic sticks (5 pcs. Pencil leads. Stopwatch (1 pc) 10.5 mm 0. Scissor (1 pc) 9. Tweezer (1 pc) 4.7.3. Ruler (15 cm) Platform Scissor Stop Watch Tweezer 0. 0.3 mm diameter ( 2 pcs) 2. 0. Cylinder magnet 25.

e.5 kg/m3 3 mm 1770 kg/mm INTRODUCTION Magnetic trap is a very useful system in physics which is used to trap matter like molecules. 2(c). We will also attempt to measure the Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap Page 2 of 8 . The magnetization M is defined as volume (V ) density of the magnetic moment (m). This allows us to study various physical characteristics of the trapped matter. i. and weakly confined in z direction forming a one–dimensional potential well. It is strongly confined or trapped in the x and y direction. Both magnets are identical and they have uniform diametric magnetization M which means the magnetization is along the diameter (or x-axis) of the magnet as shown in Fig. In this experiment we will study a very simple and fascinating magnetic trap system using items familiar to you: pencils and magnets. the pencil will levitate. Let’s explore the interesting physics of this magnetic trap. or subatomic particles for various research and applications. floating in free space.320 µT 1178. You will observe that the pencil is confined in all three directions. atoms.257 × 10−6 H/m 38. Figure 2: (a) Experimental setup (b) Cross-section view of the experimental setup (c) Diametric magnetization of the magnet. If you put the pencil in between the magnet as shown below.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan & Yudistira Virgus Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap IMPORTANT EXPERIMENTAL DATA: Magnetic permeability in vacuum Local earth magnetic field (horizontal component) Mass density of Acrylic stick Diameter of the stick Mass density of pencil 2 : : : : : µ0 BE ρs ds ρP = = = = = 1. M = m/V . The trap suspends (or levitates) the matter in free space isolating them from the environment.

Introduction (2 points) If you touch a paper clip with a magnet. (0. For example. In general.8 points) Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap Page 3 of 8 . Ferromagnet (µr > 1 or χ > 0) 2. Notice: Error analysis is not required in this experiment. for a cylindrical object like pencil with relative magnetic permeability µr in a uniform magnetic field B as shown below. which is the volume density of the magnetic moment: M = m/V . any material with magnetic permeability µr in a uniform magnetic field B will become magnetized with magnetization M. 3 EXPERIMENT & QUESTIONS A. Sketch roughly how the magnetic field is distributed around a single and a pair of cylindrical magnets below (cross section are shown). then the paper clip becomes magnetized and it will attract another paper clip. it will experience an induced magnetization M given as: M= 2 χ B µ0 χ + 2 (1) The direction of the induced magnetization M depends on the relative magnetic permeability of the material that determines the type of magnetic material: 1. Paramagnet (µr ∼ 1 or χ ∼ 0) 3. Diamagnet (µr < 1 or χ < 0) A.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan & Yudistira Virgus Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap magnetic susceptibility χ of the pencil which is defined as: χ = µr − 1.1. Note that the cylinder magnet is uniformly magnetized indicated by the arrow where N is the North pole of the magnet and S is the South pole. where µr is the magnetic permeability.

In the case of a pair of diametric magnets. paramagnet or diamagnet? (0.3 points) Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap Page 4 of 8 .5 points) A.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan & Yudistira Virgus Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap A.4.2. How can the pencil levitate? Draw and write down the forces working on the pencil! (0. Sketch the magnetic field (B) distribution along y axis! (0.3.4 points) A. the magnetic field along y axis at the center (x = 0) is given as:   a4 y2 B = µ0 M 2 1− 2 x ˆ (2) (a + y 2 )2 a where M is the magnetization of the magnets and a is the radius of the cylindrical magnet. Deduce what kind of magnetic material is the pencil: a ferromagnet.

Plug the magnet (without the ruler on it) into the wooden fixture as shown in Fig. If they collide with each other they may break! B. scissor) from the magnet in the pendulum setup so they will not interfere with the magnet oscillation. Separate the magnet carefully by twisting the magnet pairs as shown above. Please join the magnets by bringing the magnets carefully by holding the magnets slowly. Magnetic moment of the magnet (2 points) The height where the pencil levitates (y0 ) depends on the strength” of the magnet i. 2. 3. 4.g. We will measure mM using a compass experiment by hanging the magnet and measuring its oscillation period as shown below: Plug the magnet into the fixture as shown and the system will act as a compass that aligns and oscillates towards the earth’s magnetic field. Use one magnet for the compass/torsional pendulum setup (use the one without the ruler on it) and place another one at least 80 cm away.e. The magnets are very strong. The magnets are fragile ! Once you are ready for the next experiment. Put away all metallic or magnetic objects (e. This oscillation has a period: r IT otal T = 2π (3) mM BE where BE is the local earth’s magnetic field and IT otal is the total moment inertia of the system given as : IT otal = IM AGN ET + IF IXT U RE + IST ICK . The moment inertia of the stick (mounted centered to the fixture as shown below) is given as: IST ICK = Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap 1 ms Is2 12 (4) Page 5 of 8 . The acrylic stick helps us to track the orientation of the compass. 3.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan & Yudistira Virgus Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap Warning/Instruction: ! 1. Note that we do not need to know IM AGN ET and IF IXT U RE in order to calculate mM . its magnetic moment mM .

4 points) C. The relevant data are given in Constants and Data section B. Perform experiment to determine the magnetic moment of the magnet mM ! (1. Measure the levitating or equilibrium height (yeq ) of the pencils with various diameters! (0. where mS is the mass of the acrylic stick and lS is the length of the stick. l is the pencils length.7 and 0.2. and χ is the magnetic susceptibility of the pencil.3. 0. (5) above! Is this consistent with your experimental result? (0.3. b is the radius of pencil.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan & Yudistira Virgus Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap Acrylic Figure 3: The Compass experiment or torsional pendulum setup.9 mm already cut with approximately l = 4 mm.8 points) B. (0.2 points) C.5. This potential energy can be expressed as (excluding gravity):  4 2 2 2 χ 2a a − y U (y) = −2πb l µ0 M χ+2 (a2 + y 2 )4 2 (5) where M is the magnetization of the magnet.1. Calculate the volume magnetization of the magnet M = mM /V where V is the volume of the magnet. Does yeq depends on the diameter of the pencil? Deduce theoretically using Eq. The levitating pencil (2 points) The interaction between the magnetized pencil and the magnetic field along y–axis [Fig. deduce the magnetic susceptibility (χ) of the pencil! Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap (1.1. C. From the experiment.2.2 points) Page 6 of 8 . The mass density of the pencil (ρP ) is given in the Constants and Data section. 0. In this experiment you are provided with different diameters of pencils: 0.4 points) C. where mp is the induced magnetic moment of the pencil. 2(b)] has a potential energy U = −mp · B.

1.5 mm diameter pencil with 4 mm length. Investigate experimentally the range of pencil length l where the pencil levitates in stable condition.4.4 points) D. (0. D. explain with mostly diagram and few words. For the critical length(s) you find above. Is there any critical length(s) where the pencil is no longer in stable levitation? Note: You can cut the pencil to any length l. (0.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan & Yudistira Virgus Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap D.5 mm diameter pencil. Note that the plot in Fig.6 points) D. In this experiment you can use the name cards to tilt the platform if needed. Perform experiment to deduce the peak position zP (measured from the center of the magnet). (0. 4 below is for potential per unit length. D. Perform experiment to deduce the potential depth ∆U ! Note: Use 0. Figure 4: The “camel back” potential along the z–axis.5 points) Note: Use 0.5 points) Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap Page 7 of 8 . Use 0.3.2. why the pencil no longer levitates beyond this (these) critical length(s)? (0. Compare your finding with part (1) above. The one–dimensional potential well : Stability & Profile (2 points) We will investigate the one-dimensional potential along the z– axis which because of its shape is called a “camel-back ” potential in physics.5 mm diameter pencil with 4 mm length.

6 and 7 and assuming c4 = 0.1. c2 and c4 are constants and z = 0 is the mid–point of the magnets (the point that divides each magnet equally in length). The exact one–dimensional potential has a complicated form.7 points) E. however. we can approximate this potential in the well region as shown in Fig.7 points) E. Using Eq.3. derive the period of oscillation of pencil along the z–axis! Does the period depend on the pencil length? (0. Oscillation in the one-dimensional potential well (2 points) In this final section we will investigate the longitudinal oscillation of the pencil along the camelback potential and deduce the magnetic susceptibility of the magnet again. Measure the period of the oscillations of pencil for various pencil lengths up to l = 14 mm.5 mm diameter pencils. This form of potential can reproduce the real potential very well except at the regions close to the ends of the magnets (|z| > 7 mm). use 0. From your oscillation measurement. Does the period depend on the length of the pencil? (0. The constant c0 is irrelevant because it will not affect the shape of the potential. c4 is unknown but c2 is given as: χ c2 = −439πb2 l µ0 M 2 (7) χ+2 In this experiment. E. 4(b) (−7 mm < z < 7 mm) as: U (z) = c0 + c2 z 2 + c4 z 4 (6) where c0 . calculate the magnetic susceptibility χ of the pencil again! (0.Problem Creator: Oki Gunawan & Yudistira Virgus Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap E.6 points) Experiment 2: Pencil In A Magnetic Trap Page 8 of 8 .2.

(b) Magnetic field distribution along the y-axis : 1 . Oki Gunawan SOLUTION [1] Introduction (a) Note that the field inside the magnet follows the magnetization direction.SOLUTION PENCIL IN A MAGNETIC TRAP Experimental problem for The 2nd World Physics Olympiad 2012 Yudistira Virgus.

Thus to counter the gravity. diamagnetic). Thus the pencil is a diamagnet. (d) The pencil is a diamagnet. (See semi-quantitative answer above). This repulsion force counteracts the weight W of the pencil so the pencil levitates. Fy has to be positive (pointing upward) thus χ has to be negative (i. One could also deduce from the familiar fact that a ferromagnet is attracted to another magnet (or to regions with higher magnetic field density) but a diamagnet is the opposite.SOLUTION (c) Short answer: The pencil behaves as a cylindrical magnet with opposite magnetization so the pencil and the magnets repel (Fm) each other. We have mP ~ χ χ +2 B thus U M ~ − χ χ +2 B 2 and FM = − dU M / dy ~ χ χ +2 d ( B 2 ) / dy .e.B where mP is the pencil’s induced magnetic moment. 2 . This repulsion force is greater at lower height and at some point this will counteract the weight W of the pencil so the pencil levitates. Semi quantitative answer: The magnetized pencil interacts with the surrounding magnetic field and yields a potential energy: U M = −mP . From part (b) above we have d ( B 2 ) / dy < 0 for 0 < y < a.

97 2.114 0.075 0.96 4.33 1.056 0 The oscillation period T is related to the length of the stick as.15 2.465 0. This leads to a linear relationship between T 2 and lS 3. lS 5xT T (m) (s) (s) 5.SOLUTION [2] Magnetic moment of the magnet We measure the oscillation period T using various lengths of wooden stick by cutting it.362 0. The longer the stick the longer is the period.594 0.133 0.992 0.190 0.830 0.094 0.81 1.95 4. using (2π)2 4π 2 T = ITOT = mM BE mM BE 2  π 2  3  I M + I F +  48 ρ S d S  lS      We use mS = ρ S (π d S lS / 4) for the mass of the stick. The data is shown below: 2 3 .

7 0.0 2.3 ± 0. including gravity.19e − 6) (b) Thus the volume magnetization of the magnet is: M= mM m = M2 = 8. is given as: 4 2 2 2   a a − y ( ) .3 0.683A.SOLUTION (a) Given the slope B.3 (mm) 2.62 × 105 A/m V πa L [3] The Levitating Pencil (a) The equilibrium heights (yeq) of the pencils with various diameters and length l ~ 5 mm are shown below: dP y0 (mm) 0.0 (b) The total potential energy.0 2. with η = y / a : 4 .5 0.0 2.m 2 12 B BE 12(554.09e − 3)2 = = 0.0 2. we obtain the magnetic moment mM of the magnet : 2 mM = π3ρ S d S π 3 (677)(2. χ U ( y ) = π b 2l  ρ gy − 2 µ0 M 2 4  χ + 2 ( a2 + y2 )    We can calculate the net force in the y-direction.9 1.5)(20.

which is consistent with the experimental result. The last position of the edge where the pencil is still trapped is approximately the peak position. This makes the levitation unstable and the pencil get stuck touching the surface of the magnet.4 − 83) ×10 −5 [http://en. For very long pencil (l > lC2). Thus the total potential energy (integrated over the length of the pencil) will becomes smaller if the pencil is outside the well – thus the pencil gets ejected and become unstable. (c) To deduce the peak position zP one can tilt the platform until the pencil comes off. (b) For very short pencil (l < lC1). we have Fy = 0 thus: 2 2 χ 4η (3 − ηeq )(1 − ηeq ) ρ P g a + 2µ0 M =0 2 χ +2 (1 + ηeq )5 2 It is clear from the above equation that yeq is independent of the pencil’s diameter b. This uncertainty leads to a range of χ as: χ = −(4.9 − 39) ×10 −5 . We have to make sure 5 . lC1 = 3 ± 1 mm and lC 2 = 20 ± 1 mm. The uncertainty in this experiment is actually rather large due to the very coarse precision of the ruler within 0.SOLUTION 2 2 π b 2l  χ 4η ( 3 − η )(1 − η )  ∂U 2 ρ ga + 2 µ o M Fy = − =− 5 2  χ +2 ∂y a  η + 1 ( )   At equilibrium position yeq. the pencil becomes easily rotated along y-axis because it tends to align itself with the magnetic field in x direction.5 mm. a portion of the pencil is outside the potential well and in these area the potential falls off rapidly. [4] The one-dimensional potential well : Stability and Profile (a) By cutting the 0.org/wiki/Magnetic_ susceptibility].1 ×10−4 Note that this susceptibility value is reasonable as it is within the range of literature values of χ for graphite which is in the range of −(1.5 mm pencil to various lengths we found the range for stable levitation is: 3 ± 1 mm < l < 20 ± 1 mm Therefore. (c) By solving the equation above and from the data available and using the M from part 2(b) we get: χ = −1. Note that the length of the magnet is L = 25 mm.wikipedia.

SOLUTION that the pencil is as stationary as possible. 6 . This can be done easily by inserting stacks of name cards and sliding them towards the magnet to increase the angle of inclination and the pencil will be pushed towards the “cliff” as shown below: In this experiment. using 0.5 mm diameter / 4 mm length pencil. will be able to just get out from the magnet. after being released from the center (held by a toothpick). ∆U can be found by finding the critical angle αC when the pencil. otherwise a little oscillation will eject the pencil. we obtain ∆z = 3mm that yields: zP = L / 2 − ∆z = (9. (d) To deduce the potential depth ∆U requires a little trick as shown below. since the steep cliff outside the well is the cause for instability for pencil length l > lC2. thus ∆U then can be calculated using: ∆U = mP g zP sin α C . Comparing this result with part (a) we have good agreement that 2 z P ~ lC 2 as expected. At this point the potential at the peak position zP is equal to that at the origin (z = 0).5 ± 1)mm .

33 1. (b) The longitudinal oscillation period data : l (mm) 10T (s) T (s) 6 13.35 1.29 .26 1.31 1.SOLUTION We found a very small critical angle sin αC = 2/140 or αC ~ 0.5e − 3 × 2 /140 = 2.3 13.30 1.0 1.25e − 3)2 × (4e − 3) × 9.82° which is enough to make the pencil escapes from the magnet after being released from the center.32 1.2 13.30 8 10 12 7 T (s) 1.34 1.0 13.1 13.5 13.33 1.36 1.31 1. thus : T = 2π −ρ P χ ⋅ 2 878µ0 M χ + 2 and it is independent of pencil length. [5] Oscillation in the one-dimensional potential well (a) The potential function can be written as: 1 U ( z ) = c0 + k z 2 2 where k = −878π b 2l χ χ +2 µ0 M 2 .34 1.6 13. Given the diameter and the length of the pencil we obtain: ∆U = ( ρ P π b 2 l ) g z P sin α C = 2100 × π (0.32 1. For simple harmonic oscillator.30 1.1 12.4 13.6 13.2 nJ which is a very small confinement barrier indeed.6 13.0 13. T = 2π mP / k and mP = ρ P π b 2l .36 1.

32 s and by solving the equation in (b) we obtain: χ = −1. the “spring constant” k is uniform everywhere in this range (|l| < 14 mm). (d) Using the average oscillation period T = 1. in agreement with theory assuming that there are no higher order terms (c4 z4  0) (c) The experiment shows that there is no significant dependence between the pencil length and the period or in other words. 8 . This implies that the potential function is purely harmonic thus there is no higher order terms or the c4 z4 term is negligible compared with c2z2.SOLUTION The experimental result suggests that the period is independent of length.38 × 10−4 which is in reasonable agreement with the previous result in 3(c).

1. is very important in modern technique: Peltier-coolers are common parts in PC’s.1 Seebeck-effect Let us consider a simple set-up of n. in the second case the current through the cell pumps heat from one plate to the other. In the first case the temperature difference between the plates generates an electromotive force (emf) between the terminals of the cell. 2. the internal resistance of the cell. for examples. and radioisotope thermoelectric generators are used in space missions.Problem Creator: Peter Vanko Experiment 1: Thermoelectricity A. The constant α (called Seebeck-coefficient) depends on the properties of the different materials (in this case n-type and p-type semiconductors) but independent of the connecting materials. as well as the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator are to be measured. thermocouples are widely used for temperature measurements. i. Theoretical background The thermoelectric cell used in this measurement consists of several n-type and p-type semiconductors connected in series and attached between two aluminium plates using electrically insulating glue that is a good thermal conductor at the same time (Fig. Thermoelectricity Page 1 of 9 . and the Seebeck-coefficient. B. If we keep plates A and C at temperature T0 and plate B at temperature T = T0 + ∆T then a voltage V = α · ∆T occurs between A and C. Initially the cell is used as a thermocouple.e. Introduction Thermoelectricity. Then it is studied as a Peltier-cell and the Peltier-coefficient is measured. In this problem a semiconductor thermoelectric cell is studied. The cell can be used as a thermoelectric generator or as a Peltier-cell. Figure 1: (a) Left: Schematic of Thermoelectic cell (b) Right: Thermoelectric cell B. 1(a) and Fig. Finally the absolute temperature can be determined from Seebeck. direct conversion of electricity into heat or heat into electricity.and p-type semiconductors connected as shown in Fig.1 In these processes the following thermoelectric and purely thermal phenomena are performing significant roles: B.and Peltier-coefficient. 1(b)).

The heat released per unit time is P = R · I 2 .3 Joule-heat An electric current I flowing through a conductor releases heat. B. Using electric power (PP .2 Thermoelectric generator and Peltier cooler Fig.2 Peltier-effect If we force an electric current I through the set-up on Fig. where R is the (temperature-dependent) resistance of the conductor. If there is a temperature difference ∆T between two sides of a material then heat is flowing from the warmer side to the colder one.1. 2 then. we have to take into account this purely thermal effect too. 3(a) shows the thermal scheme of the cell used as a thermoelectric generator. (1) where T is the absolute temperature of the connecting point B. The rate of heat flow is P = λ · Ad · ∆T . B.1.4 Thermal conduction To understand the behaviour of the thermoelectric cell. A small part of the heat absorbed on the warmer side of the cell (P2 ) is converted into electric power (PE ) and the rest of it is emitted at the colder side (P1 ). The heat absorbed or emitted per unit time is P = π · I . where π is the Peltier-coefficient. depending on the direction of the current. Thermoelectricity Page 2 of 9 . B. Peltier-power) the cell absorbs heat (P2 ) on the cooled side and emits the total heat at the heated side (P1 ).Problem Creator: Peter Vanko Experiment 1: Thermoelectricity Figure 2: B.1. at the connection of the two different materials (B). The Joule-heat released in the thermoelectric cell is equally distributed between the two sides of the cell. where λ is the thermal conductivity of the material. Notice the opposite effect of the thermal conduction. The Peltier-coefficient π is not independent of the Seebeck-coefficient α: π = α · T. 3(b) shows the thermal scheme of the cell used as a Peltier cooler. Similarly Fig. heat is absorbed or emitted. A the cross-sectional area and d the thickness of the material (the distance between the two sides).

1 × top part with heating resistor (big red-black connectors) and platinum thermometer (small red-black connectors. current and power. otherwise you can cause damages of the apparatus. 1 × heat isolation cap for the top part E. the appropriate range of the multimeter. ATTENTION! Use the apparatus always as suggested in the tasks. Apparatus A. 4. 1 × stop watch The whole apparatus is seen on Fig. 2 × DC power supplies (one with voltmeter. 1 × bottom part with water cooling and platinum thermometer (small red-black connectors) D. Take care of the correct polarity of the cell. the other without) F.Problem Creator: Peter Vanko Experiment 1: Thermoelectricity Figure 3: (a) Left: Thermoelectic generator (b) Right: Peltier cooler C. Thermoelectricity Page 3 of 9 . 3 × connecting cables with banana jacks at both ends H. RH = 10 Ω) B. the maximum allowed values of voltage. 1 × thermoelectric cell (red and black connectors) with heat conducting paste C. 4 × multimeters G.

(2) where R0 = 100.1 Studying the thermoelectric generator Determining the Seebeck-coefficient The temperature dependent resistance R of the platinum thermometers (small yellow-green connectors) is R = R0 · (1 + αP t · T ). TASK. Check whether the water cooling system works properly. Write your result on the answer sheet. The heating power can be Thermoelectricity Page 4 of 9 .1 points Express the temperature T (in ◦ C) in the function of the measured resistance R using the given constants R0 and αP t .1.1.1.851 · 10−3 1/◦ C and T is the temperature in ◦ C.1 0.0 ohm. TASK.1 TASK. The resistance of the heating resistor (big yellow connectors) is RH = 10.0 ohm which can be taken independent of temperature in the range of your measurement. αP t = 3.Problem Creator: Peter Vanko Experiment 1: Thermoelectricity Figure 4: TASKS Place the isolation cup carefully on the top part.

In this measurement you will load the cell with an ammeter in range 200 mA that has internal resistance about 2 ohms. ATTENTION! The multimeters have to be disconnected from any other circuits! Thermoelectricity Page 5 of 9 .1.1. Measure the internal resistance of the ammeter: connect a multimeter in range 200 mA (DC) to another multimeter used as an ohmmeter in appropriate range.3.5 points Measure the electromotive force V of the thermoelectric cell in the function of temperature difference ∆T between the top and bottom parts. TASK.1. R2 . Write your result on the answer sheet. e.4 points Plot the electromotive force V of the cell versus temperature difference ∆T .g.1. Fit a line to the measured data points and estimate the Seebeck-coefficient α of the cell.). TASK. Finally increase the heating voltage up to VH = 10.0 V and after this measurement leave it switched on. Be careful with the connectors because they do not fit the ammeter and ohmmeter very well. T2 . Label the quantities concerning to the bottom part with index 1 and to the top part with index 2 (R1 .3 1.2 1.00V .2 on the answer sheet with the measured and calculated data. T1 .0 V) of the last task. TASK. If you load the thermoelectric generator cell with a resistor for a short time a current starts to flow.g.1. Use a graph paper and label it as Graph 1.Problem Creator: Peter Vanko Experiment 1: Thermoelectricity Figure 5: controlled by the output voltage of the power supply. the temperature difference and the electromotive force of the cell approach a maximum value and equilibrium. Fill in the Table 1. e. ATTENTION! Never use more then 10 V heating voltage in this task.) and later increase the voltage from time to time.2 Determining the internal resistance off the cell Using the constant heating voltage (VH = 10. At the next measurement start with a small heating voltage (VH = 2.1.1.

1.1.2. TASK.1. For the sake of this you can use an ammeter (in range 200 mA) as a load.3 points Express and calculate the internal resistance RC of the thermoelectric cell and write the expression and your numerical result on the answer sheet. 0.2.5 0.0 V) as in the last task before.1 points Draw a circuit diagram on the answer sheet to show how you connect the ammeter (as a load) to the thermoelectric cell and the voltmeter. After some time a new equilibrium can be approached with a constant voltage VE and a constant current IE .1.1 points ATTENTION! If you are ready with this task.2.4 0.1 Read the equilibrium voltage VE and current IE and write them on the answer sheet. TASK.1. Thermoelectricity Page 6 of 9 . TASK.3 Determining the efficiency of the thermoelectric generator In this task use the constant heating voltage (VH = 10. switch off the power supply connected to the heating resistor.3.1 points Measure the internal resistance RA of the ammeter (in range 200 mA) and write your result on the answer sheet.1.2. We can approach this maximum if the resistance of the load and the internal resistance of the cell are in the same range.1 0. the resistance of the load should be equal to the internal resistance of the cell. Read the current IL immediately after connecting the ammeter.3. too.Problem Creator: Peter Vanko Experiment 1: Thermoelectricity TASK. To obtain maximum external power from the cell.1 points Read the electromotive force V0 of the unloaded cell and write your result on the answer sheet.2. Write your result on the answer sheet. TASK.1 points Express and calculate the useful (external) electric power PE of the thermoelectric generator and write the expression as well as your numerical result on the answer sheet.2 0.1.2 0. TASK.1. TASK.3 0. TASK. If you connect the ammeter the launched current decreases the temperature difference between the two sides of the cell (because of Peltier-effect) and thus it decreases the electromotive force.1 points Load the cell with an ammeter (in range 200 mA) for a short time.

23 1.32 1.14 1.51 0.52 1.68 0.81 0. In this task you will cool down the top part by the cell used as a Peltier-cooler.82 0. TASK.63 0.30 1.83 0. too. TASK.41 1.45 IP (A) 0.85 0.67 0. The Peltier-current IP through the cell have to be measured by an other multimeter. ATTENTION! The red connector must be connected to the positive output of the power supply.59 1.39 1.44 0.72 0. Indicate the voltmeter of the power supply.16 1.59 VP (V) 2.57 0.69 IP (A) 0.00 W Peltier-power Thermoelectricity Page 7 of 9 .61 1.64 0.60 0.15 1.22 2.1 Cooling by the Peltier-cell TASK.42 0. (Otherwise the top part will be heated instead of be cooled.75 1.1 points Draw a circuit diagram on the answer sheet to show how you connect the cell and the ammeter to the power supply. that the power supply connected to the heating resistor is switched off.54 1. Use the other power supply to operate the Peltier-cooler and to measure the Peltier-voltage VP applied to the cell.50 2.4 0.77 0.00 W.13 2. So time to time you have to change the Peltier-voltage VP in order to keep the Peltier-power PP constant.56 0.61 0.66 0.88 0. For easy and fast adjustment use the following table.79 1.17 2.78 0.22 1.84 0.37 1.52 0.VP values for PP = 1.49 VP (V) 2.3. the Peltier-current IP is changing during the measurement.71 0.92 1.49 1.62 0.87 0.56 1.86 0.40 0.33 1.35 1.25 1.47 1. But.2 points Express and calculate the efficiency η of the thermoelectric generator and write the expression as well as your numerical result on the answer sheet.20 1.75 0.47 0.1.1.43 0.27 2.74 0.1 0.04 IP (A) 0.96 1.38 2.19 1.12 Table 1: Appropriate IP .43 1.00 1.3 0.2.2.27 IP (A) 0.46 0.85 1.08 2.33 2. Use the COM and 10 ADC inputs of the multimeter and the 10 A range.18 1.44 2. because of the changing electromotive force appearing on the cell.72 1.) ATTENTION! The Peltier current is bigger then 200 mA. TASK.Problem Creator: Peter Vanko Experiment 1: Thermoelectricity TASK.58 0.82 1.2 Studying the Peltier-cooler Check.54 0. During your measurement you have to apply a constant Peltier-power PP = 1.64 1.1 points Express and calculate the power PH of the heating resistor and write the expression as well as your numerical result on the answer sheet.89 VP (V) 1.76 0.79 VP (V) 1.28 1. otherwise you can damage the multimeter.55 0.53 0.67 1.48 0.73 0.3.80 0.50 0.70 0.65 0.69 VP (V) 1.1.89 1.45 0.41 0. IP (A) 0.

For estimating the heat pumped by the cell we should investigate the case where no temperature difference.1.2. PH2 = 11. switch off both power supplies.1.8 points Measure the temperature difference ∆T between the top and bottom parts in the function of time t when PP = 1.2 and TASK.Problem Creator: Peter Vanko Experiment 1: Thermoelectricity TASK. i.00 W.2. and so no thermal conduction are present.2.2. Use PH1 = 5. Label the quantities as in TASK. but we couldnt estimate the heat pumped by the Peltier-cooler.2. ATTENTION! If you are ready with this measurement.00 W and PH3 = 18.2 in the same graph continuously after each other. Plot the ∆T values of TASK. Label the quantities as in TASK.00 W. You have to keep the Peltier-power at constant value PP = 1. because of the presence of an unknown thermal conduction.00 W after each other and continue the measurement for 10 minutes in each case. Estimate the four equilibrium temperature differences ∆TE and write your result on the answer sheet. You can observe that after a long enough time the temperature difference approaches an equilibrium value ∆TE in any case if the heating power PH is kept constant (or switched off).00 W and different heating power PH are applied. Fill in the Table 1 on the answer sheet with the measured and calculated data. as in the last task and you have to apply heating powers PH1 = 5.1.2. TASK.2 and TASK. the time scale should be 15 + 3 · 10 = 45 minutes long. Fill in the Table 1 on the answer sheet with the measured and calculated data.1 0.1.2.00 W.00 W and PH3 = 18.2 Using the Peltier-cooler heated again In the previous task we know the electric power used for the cooling (PP ).2. TASK.2.2.2. Thermoelectricity Page 8 of 9 .00 W.2 1.2 plot the temperature difference ∆T versus time t . Use a graph paper and label it as Graph 2.00 W is applied during 15 minutes.1.2 ATTENTION! After this measurement let the Peltier-power switched on.2.3.1 points Express and calculate the voltage VH to be applied on the heating resistor (RH = 10 ohm) for the appropriate heating powers.0 points Measure the temperature difference ∆T between the top and bottom parts in the function of time t when PP = 1.e.3 1. Write the expression as well as your numerical results on the answer sheet.1. In this task you will use the Peltier-cooler and the heating resistance in the same time. PH2 = 11. TASK.2 1.2. TASK.1.2.2 points Using the results of TASK.2.2.

2.3 Determining the cells coefficient of performance and the Peltier-coefficient TASK.1 0.3.3 and TASK.1.2. there is no thermal conduction and so the external heat pumped by the Peltier-cell in unit time is equal with the heating power PH0 . The Peltier-cell can pump more heat per unit time then the electric power consumed.2 points Express and calculate the cell’s coefficient of performance ε and write the expression as well as your numerical result on the answer sheet.2. Write down how you do it and your numerical result on the answer sheet.4 0.2 0.4 express and calculate the average absolute temperature T of your device during the measurement.3 plot the equilibrium temperature difference ∆TE versus heating power PH .3.1.2.Problem Creator: Peter Vanko Experiment 1: Thermoelectricity TASK. Write the expression and your numerical result on the answer sheet. If the temperature difference ∆TE = 0. Use a graph paper and label it as Graph 2.00 W and ∆TE = 0. Fit a line to the measured data points and estimate the heating power PH0 .2.2.1 points Estimate or calculate the Peltier-current IP at PP = 1. therefore here the term “coefficient of performance” is used instead of the term “efficiency” used for thermoelectric generator. Write your result on the answer sheet. If the temperature difference ∆TE = 0 .3 0. there is no electromotive force generated in the cell and the Peltier-current IP can be simply calculated from the Peltier-power PP and the internal resistance of the cell RC measured earlier.3. TASK.3.3 points Using the result of TASK.3 Estimating the absolute temperature TASK.2.2.8 points Using the results of TASK. TASK. TASK.1.2 points Express and calculate the Peltier-coefficient π of the cell at the conditions of your measurement.1 0.3.3. Thermoelectricity Page 9 of 9 . The cell’s coefficient of performance ε is the quotient of the external heat pumped per unit time and the electric power consumed by the cell. TASK. where the equilibrium temperature difference ∆TE = 0.3. Write the expression and your numerical result on the answer sheet.

T= R − R0 R0 ⋅ α Pt 1.9 113.6 4.0 19.1.6 25.8 35.4 17.1 0. circuit diagrams.9 111. etc.3 107.7 17.4 6.2 32.8 106.).5 109.1 10.5 106.2 10.9 31. T1 .2 108. Label the quantities concerning to the bottom part with index 1 and to the top part with index 2 ( R1 .7 20. measured and calculated values + errors TASK 1 TASK 1.).5 20.1 0.4 107.0 112.2 26.5 112.2 13.2 110.3 29.7 106.7 106.9 11.2 18.1 pts Express the temperature T (in °C) in the function of the measured resistance R using the given constants R0 and α Pt . labels.5 pts TASK 1.5 107.6 3.3 22. T2 .6 106.1 107.2 108.2 V (mV or V) R1 (ohm) R2 (ohm) T1 (°C) T2 (°C) ΔT (K or °C) 13 28 47 62 85 107 128 148 205 245 290 350 400 435 480 500 525 535 106.2 with the measured and calculated data.1 2.1 17. e.6 107.0 107.9 107.1 17.15 ± 0.2 5. Table 1.8 106.7 110. Fill in the Table 1.8 1. R2 .2 errors: ±2 .3 107.5 17.8 21. units.9 2.0 ± 0.7 19.3 1.4 19.2 19.9 18.1 109.0 19.1.3 20.2 107.4 113.9 107.2 Measure the electromotive force V of the thermoelectric cell in the function of temperature difference ΔT between the top and bottom parts.0 108.Solution (expressions.4 108.5 28.1 23.8 21.6 106.15 ± 0.9 18.4 17.0 13.g.05 ± 0.3 21.6 106.5 9.8 108.05 ± 0.5 34.6 112.7 33.7 108.8 22.1.7 17.0 108.1.1 3.1 17.9 12.0 20.5 7.1 17.

3.05 ohm TASK 1.1. I L = 125 mA ± 5 mA (or 0.).6 mV/K ± 0.0002 V/K) Don’t forget to attach Graph 1.1 pts Draw a circuit diagram to show how you connect your ammeter (as a load) to the thermoelectric cell and the voltmeter. circuit diagrams. Read the current I L immediately after connecting the ammeter. 0. labels. TASK 1.3 0.1.125 A ± 0.2 mV/K (or 0.0426 V/K ± 0.2.2.1 pts R A = 2.3 to your answer sheet.4 pts Plot the electromotive force V of the cell versus temperature difference ΔT .9 ohm ±0. Use a graph paper and label it as Graph 1. α = 42. 0. cell V A TASK 1.1 pts V0 = 540 mV ±2 mV (or 0. units.1 pts Load your cell with your ammeter (in range 200 mA) for a short time. etc.1 Measure the internal resistance R A of the ammeter (in range 200 mA). Fit a line to the measured data points and estimate the Seebeck-coefficient α of the cell.1.4 0.002 V) TASK 1.2.2 Read the electromotive force V0 of the unloaded cell. measured and calculated values + errors TASK 1.005 A) 2 .540 V ± 0.2.Solution (expressions.3 1.

001 V) I E = 111 mA ± 1 mA (or 0. etc.2 0.325 V ± 0. Expression: PE = VE ⋅ I E Numerical result: PE = 36. Expression: PH = VH2 RH Numerical result: PH = 10. 0.1 pts VE = 325 mV ± 1 mV (or 0.0004 W) TASK 1.2 pts Expression: RC = V0 − RA IL Numerical result: RC = 1.).1 pts Express and calculate the useful (external) electric power PE of the thermoelectric generator.1 pts . units.4 ohm ± 0.0 W 3 0. labels.Solution (expressions. 0. circuit diagrams.3.001 A) TASK 1.111 A ± 0.1 Read the equilibrium voltage VE and current I E .3.4 mW (or 0.1 ohm TASK 1.0361 W ± 0. measured and calculated values + errors TASK 1.5 Express and calculate the internal resistance RC of the thermoelectric cell.1 mW ± 0.3 Express and calculate the power PH of the heating resistor.2.3.

36 % ± 0.0001 = 0.Solution (expressions.4 Express and calculate the efficiency η of the thermoelectric generator.1 pts Draw a circuit diagram to show how you connect the cell and your ammeter to the power supply. Indicate the voltmeter of the power supply. labels. units.).3. etc. A V cell power supply 4 . too.0036 ± 0.1 0.1.01 % TASK 2 TASK 2.2 pts Expression: η= PE PH Numerical result: η = 0. circuit diagrams. measured and calculated values + errors TASK 1. 0.

7 103.4 0.7 -11.1 107.15 ± 0.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 10 12 15 R1 (ohm) R2 (ohm) T1 (°C) T2 (°C) ΔT (K or °C) 106.7 101.9 105.6 8.0 19. Expression: VH = PH ⋅ RH Numerical results: VH 1 = 7.1 102.0 pts Measure the temperature difference ΔT between the top and bottom parts in the function of time t when PP = 2.0 ± 0.7 -13.4 17.6 107. Fill in the Table 2.).2 errors: ± 0.7 17.Solution (expressions.8 101.6 -10.1 102.05 ± 0.9 13.2. T1 .3 107.9 -12.4 18.7 18. units. e.1 19. Table 2.1 0.00 W is applied during 15 minutes.1 pts Express and calculate the voltage VH to be applied on the heating resistor for the appropriate heating powers. R2 . measured and calculated values + errors TASK 2.0 18.5 -13.3 20.4 4.0 -14.0 19.1 7.0 6.15 ± 0.2 4.8 107.7 18.7 4.7 107.2 107.5 107.05 ± 0.42 V 5 .2 TASK 2.8 -6.3 -13.2 with the measured and calculated data.7 20.9 101.2 1.4 102.5 19. labels.1.7 -8.2 t (min or s) 0 0.0 20.0 -14.6 107.3 107.7 102.8 -14.6 107.). circuit diagrams.0 101.1 106.0 104.7 19.4 103.5 5.8 -13. etc.9 4. Label the quantities concerning to the bottom part with index 1 and to the top part with index 2 ( R1 .1.4 9. T2 .75 V VH 2 = 10.0 11.7 107.1.95 V VH 3 = 13.2 107.g.2 5.

units.2 109.6 11.4 18. measured and calculated values + errors TASK 2.6 108.5 109.6 101.2 1.2 19.7 13.2 107.9 -2.5 110.4 109.00 W and different heating power PH are applied. e.9 108. Fill in the Table 2.6 20.4 -2.3 108.7 24.0 25 + 4 12. labels.2 26.0 19.0 35 + 6 18.3 105.4 24.0 25 + 8 12.6 10.9 105.4 -3.8 16.6 23.9 25.1 ± 0.8 +3.7 18.0 35 + 0.8 104.8 +2.00 15 + 5 6.0 15 + 10 12.0 108.9 24.9 -3.2 6.3 +1. R2 .2. circuit diagrams.5 6.1 -8.Solution (expressions.6 107.2 6 .4 -9.0 35 + 1 18.4 12.15 ± 0.7 108.0 27.1 104.3 107.6 111.9 108.0 26.2 108.0 35 + 3 18.8 109.0 25 + 2 12.0 110.7 19.05 ± 0.3 111.5 4.7 104.9 -6.5 22.2 108.8 107.3 103.3 27.2 107.9 110.4 107.8 pts Measure the temperature difference ΔT between the top and bottom parts in the function of time t when PP = 2.2 24.5 -12.0 W and 18.9 18.5 18.0 25 + 1 12.00 15 + 6 6.0 -13.0 7.).3 20.1 108.8 -0.00 15 + 8 6.7 106.0 21.5 12. etc.0 25 + 3 12.6 -7.00/12.4 110.0/18.g.9 -1.2 -10.5 110.3 109.6 -14.7 -11.00 15 + 4 6.3 22.3 108. T2 .8 21.1 30.2 110.3 28.2 109.0 35 + 10 T1 (°C) T2 (°C) ΔT (K or °C) R1 (ohm) R2 (ohm) 107.7 110.2.5 104.00 15 + 0 6.).0 102.7 14.3 104.00 15 + 3 6.5 +1.15 ± 0.2 errors: ± 0.0 35 + 8 18.2.4 30.0 35 + 4 18.9 111.7 27.4 -4.1 23.0 25 + 0.00 15 + 0.5 27.3 21.6 22. Table 2. T1 .05 ± 0.3 21.2 t (min or s) PH (W) 6.0 25 + 10 18.00 15 + 2 6.8 +0. 12.05 ± 0.3 108.6 -8.7 -9.9 109.00 W.1 -9.6 21.0 25 + 6 12.7 20.9 23.3 29.4 +2.0 W after each other and continue the measurement for 10 minutes in each case.8 9. Use 6.5 107.7 12.0 35 + 2 18. Label the quantities concerning to the bottom part with index 1 and to the top part with index 2 ( R1 .8 -5.1 107.5 109.00 15 + 1 6.0 107.2 with the measured and calculated data.7 102.0 103.4 5.7 25.2 11.8 18.5 21.2 20.

1 to your answer sheet. i.8 pts TASK 2.Solution (expressions. PH 0 = 14. circuit diagrams. 0.6 K ± 0.2 pts .2 K (or °C) PH = 6. Expression: ε= PH 0 PP Numerical result: ε = 7. Plot the ΔT values of Task 2.e.1 K (or °C) Don’t forget to attach Graph 2.1.2 Express and calculate the cell’s coefficient of performance ε .2.2 in the same graph continuously after each other. where the equilibrium temperature difference ΔTE = 0 .3.3 plot the equilibrium temperature difference ΔTE versus heating power PH . TASK 2. measured and calculated values + errors TASK 2.4 ± 0.3 W Don’t forget to attach Graph 2. Use a graph paper and label it as Graph 2.9 K ± 0.3. Estimate the four equilibrium temperature differences ΔTE .1.2. the time scale should be 15 + 3 ⋅10 = 45 minutes long.1 K ± 0.2 and Task 2. Fit a line to the measured data points and estimate the heating power PH 0 .3.9 W ± 0.0 W ΔTE = +3.2 = 740 % ± 20 % 7 0.1 K (or °C) PH = 18.2 and Task 2.).1 Using the results of Task 2.3 1.0 K ± 0.2. units.1. You can observe that after a long enough time the temperature difference approaches an equilibrium value ΔTE in any case if the heating power PH is kept constant (or switched off). etc. labels. Use a graph paper and label it as Graph 2.0 W ΔTE = -2.3 to your answer sheet.2 plot the temperature difference ΔT versus time t .2.1 K (or °C) PH = 12.2.2 pts Using the results of Task 2. PH = 0 ΔTE = -14.3.3.00 W ΔTE = -8.2.

).Solution (expressions. See Fig.3.00 W and ΔTE = 0 . according to the comment above] TASK 3 0. labels. etc.2.5.3.2 A ± 0. – both solution are accepted] Numerical result: π = 12.6 express and calculate the Peltier-current I P at PP = 2.3 V ± 1 V.1. according to the comment above] 8 . too.2 pts Express and calculate the Peltier-coefficient π of the cell at the conditions of your measurement.3. measured and calculated values + errors TASK 2. the Peltier-cell has to pump one half of the Jouleπ= [or more accurate: π = IP IP heat.4 express and calculate the average absolute temperature T of your device during the measurement.5 V ± 1 V [or 13. circuit diagrams. Expression: P PH 0 + P PH 0 2 . units.1 pts Using the result of Task 1.3 0. Expression: T= π α Numerical result: T = 290 K ± 20 K [or 310 V ± 20 V.3 and Task 2.1 A TASK 2. Expression: IP = PP RC Numerical result: I P = 1.1 Using the result of Task 1.4 0.3 pts TASK 3.