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Aim of the Experiment

Galvanic series
To calculate the electrode potential of different materials and
to study different aspects of the galvanic series

An electrochemical cell is based on an oxidation-reduction
(redox) reaction and consists of two half-cells: an anode halfcell and a cathode half-cell. Oxidation occurs at the anode;
reduction occurs at the cathode.
An electrochemical cell can produce an electric current, which
is driven by an electrical potential
difference between the two half-cells. In this experiment We will
use a meter to measure and compare
the electrical potential differences of several electrochemical
cells, some of which will have different
concentrations of metal ions.
Electrochemical Cell
If two half-cells are connected by placing a wire between the
pieces of metal and by adding a salt bridge between the two
solutions, a direct electric current can flow through the circuit.
The electric current is generated because metal atoms in the
more reducing metal convert to ions and leave one electrode to
enter the solution and ions of the less reducing metal accept
electrons and plate out on the other electrode. The electrons
left behind when positive ions are formed at one electrode pass
through the external circuit and into the other electrode. There
the electrons combine with ions from the solution to form metal
atoms. By measuring the direction of current flow, and the
voltage generated in the cell, we can determine which is the
more reducing metal (stronger reducing agent), and by how

Salt Bridge
In order for current to flow, there must be a complete electric
circuit. The wire is part of the circuit and the salt bridge
completes the circuit. In this experiment, the salt bridge is a
porous cylinder soaked with aqueous potassium chloride and
agar agar gel. The solutions of salts, such as potassium
chloride, are electrolytesthey conduct electrical current by
movement of positive and negative ions in the solution. Thus
the porous cylinder provides a path for conduction of electricity,
just as the wire does,
completing the electrical circuit. Because diffusion of the
solutions through the porous cylinder is slow, there will be no
mixing of the solution of one half-cell with the solution of
another on the time scale of the experiment. Thus the half-cells
are connected electrically, but not chemically, by the salt
bridge. Without a salt bridge a cell will not produce an electric
current and we will not be able to measure the electrical
potential difference between the two electrodes.
Anode and Cathode
The half-cell in which oxidation occurs is called the anode. This
is the half-cell in which metal atoms
lose electrons (are oxidized) to form positively charged ions
(which go into solution). The electrons flow into the external
circuit from the anode.
The half-cell in which reduction occurs is called the cathode.
This is the half-cell in which metal ions
from the solution gain electrons (are reduced) and plate out
onto the electrode as uncharged atoms. The electrons flow out
of the external circuit into the cathode.

Apparatus :1. Reference Electrode-Saturated Calomel Electrode(SCE)

2. Salt bridge
3. Potentiostat
4. Lead strip
5. Zinc strip
6. Copper strip
7. Aluminium strip
8. Stainless steel strip
9.Graphite rod

Procedure:1.The sample is immersed in a beaker containing water.

2. The sample is connected to the positive end of the
multimeter and the reference electrode is connected to the
negative end of the multimeter.
3. The potential of the sample is measured.
4. Another sample strip is placed and the potential of it is
measured following the above procedure.


Remarks:1. Care is taken to ensure that the electrodes do not touch the
glass-walls as it might lead to erroneous results.
2. Care is taken to avoid any parallax error.