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Contents

Solving Engineering Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 Simulating Engineering Tasks with Flow Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Selecting Geometrical and Physical Features of the Task . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating the Model and the Flow Simulation Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Solving Engineering Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strategy of Solving the Engineering Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1-1
1-4
1-4
1-5
1-6
1-6

Settings for Resolving the Geometrical Features of the Model and for Obtaining the Required
Solution Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7
Monitoring the Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9
Viewing and Analyzing the Obtained Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Estimating the Reliability and Adequacy of the Obtained Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10

3 Frequent Errors and Improper Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11

Advanced Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
1 Mesh - Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Types of Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1
Mesh Construction Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Basic Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Control Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Resolving Small Features by Using the Control Planes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Contracting the Basic Mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5
Resolving Small Solid Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Curvature Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7
Tolerance Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Narrow Channel Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Local Mesh Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12

Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Basic Mesh Generation and Resolving the Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Visualizing the Basic Mesh Before Constructing the Initial Mesh . . . . Switching off the Interpolation and Extrapolation of Calculation Results . . . . Flow Freezing in a Permanent Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SSFRL or CRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Mesh-associated Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Visualizing the Real Computational Geometry . . . . . . . . Glossary . . . . . . . . . 5 Flow Freezing . . . . . . . . . . . . Tolerance Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . Mesh Diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local Mesh Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . Thin walls resolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The "Optimize thin walls resolution" option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Viewing the Initial Computational Mesh Saved in the . . . . . . . . . . . Small Solid Features Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Curvature Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13 2-14 2-14 2-14 2-14 2-16 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-20 2-20 2-21 2-21 2-23 2-25 2-26 2-28 2-28 2-28 2-29 2-30 2-31 2-31 2-32 2-33 2-33 2-33 2-33 2-34 2-36 2-38 2-38 2-38 2-39 2-40 Advanced Features Guide . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Calculation Control Options . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engineering Cavitation Model. . . Flow Freezing in a Periodic Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Recommendations for Creating the Computational Mesh . 3-1 1 Cavitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cpt Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . Narrow Channel Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refinements at Interfaces Between Substances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What is Flow Freezing? . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Additional Insight . . . . . . Viewing the Computational Mesh Cells with the Mesh Option . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Refinement of the Computational Mesh During Calculation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Interface . . . . . . Initial Mesh Generation Stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Finishing the Calculation . . . Square Difference Refinement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Postamble . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-3 . . . .. . . . . . . . Enhanced Capabilities of the Results Loading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Isothermal Cavitation Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How It Works . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14 4 Real Gases. 3-15 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-26 Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 iii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Examples of use. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16 Example of use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 3 Humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19 5 Rotation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Additional Information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22 Global Rotating Reference Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-15 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 Example of use . . . . . . 3-23 Examples of Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 2 Steam. . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Physical model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20 Local Rotating Regions . . . . . 3-18 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22 Local Rotating Regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Example of use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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if the object models are tested.. even if it is realized on the object models.1 Solving Engineering Problems Introduction Engineering problem is them problem connected with designing certain object or system. being properly conducted.g. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 1-1 . without conducting any experiments. since testing facilities and hardware are required anyway. Moreover. e. • a computational-experimental approach combines computations and experiments (with the manufactured full-scale object and/or its model) needed for designing the object. does not require additional validations of the obtained results. the full-scale object and/or its model. is manufactured and the experiments needed for designing the object are conducted with this hardware. so some computations are required anyway.e. their sequence and contents depending on the solved problem. but it is very expensive. iterative procedures may be run. i. There are three general approaches to solveing engineering problems: • an experimental approach: a hardware rig or prototype. • a computational approach: the computations needed for designing the object are performed and their results are directly used for designing the object. The purely experimental approach. the obtained results must be scaled to the full-scale object. Each of the first two approaches has advantages and disadvantages.

Naturally. is substantially less expensive than the experimental one. The third approach. if necessary. and this difference depends. and. a method of solving these equations. i. then the accuracy of solution of the mathematical problem required for solving this engineering problem is considered to be attained. which these experimental values have been measured with and which are known and tend to decrease upon increasing the number of tests peroformed to measure them. on a mathematical model of the governing physical processes (expressed in the form of a set of differential and/or integral equations derived from physical laws. on the error. from the conformity of the mathematical model and the simulated physical processes. So. from coarser to finer. both from mathematical and physical viewpoints.. Naturally. they are solved in a discrete form on a computational mesh.. joins the advantages of both of the first two above-mentioned approaches and avoids their disadvantages.e. it is necessary to take into account the following suggestions. firstly. so the solution of the mathematical problem is obtained with a certain degree of accuracy. the difference in the interesting physical parameters between the solutions obtained on the finer and coarser meshes becomes negligible from the viewpoint of the engineering problem. secondly. Then necessary experiments are conducted to verify the selection. firstly. the solution flattens. if it combines experiments and computations reasonably. from the solution of the physical problem. both in terms of finances and time. Complex engineering problems are solved mainly in this way. that is validated by comparing the computations with the available experimental data.e. secondly. being properly performed. Once these methods have been selected. and include. the accuracy of solution of the mathematical problem depends on how well the computational mesh resolves the problem regions of non-linear behavior. the solution of the mathematical problem can differ from the experimental values (i.. Any computational code is based. the accuracy of the solution of the mathematical problem depends on both the method of discretising the differential and/or integral equations and on the method of solving the obtained discrete equations. 1-2 . semi-empirical and empirical constants and/or relationships) and. Since the equations of the mathematical model cannot be solved analytically. a usual way of estimating the accuracy of solution of the mathematical problem consists of obtaining solutions on several different meshes. A computational code validated on available experimental data allows of quickly selecting the optimal object design and/or its optimal operating mode. When selecting from the world market a computational code that is most suitable for solving your problems.Solving Engineering Problems The purely computational approach. if it is known). both on the mathematical accuracy of the obtained results (the results’ adequacy to the used mathematical model) and on the adequacy of the used mathematical model to the governing physical processes.e. Moreover. the mesh has to be rather fine in these regions. Naturally. since the so-called solution mesh convergence is attained. To provide good accuracy. i. if beginning from some mesh in this set. such assurance must be based on numerous verifications and validations of the used computational codes. but it requires assurance in adequacy of the obtained computational results.

Naturally. then either the engineering problem becomes irrelevant. To obtain the steady-state solution quicker. A multigrid method is used for accelerating the solution convergence and suppressing parasitic oscillations. as well as. The computational domain is designed as a parallelepiped enveloping the model with planes orthogonal to the axes of the SolidWorks model’s Cartesian Global coordinate system. or alternative approaches. Since Flow Simulation is based on solving time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations. are used instead in order to solve this problem at given time span. e. because your competitors have out-distanced you by this time. but also in accuracy of mathematical simulation of the physical problems. The computational mesh is built by dividing the computational domain into parallelepiped cells with its sides orthogonal to the Global coordinate system axes. steady-state problems are solved through a steady-state approach. in the amount of user’s time needed for this specification. and at last in the procedures of processing and visualization of the obtained results and the user’s time needed for that. the computational codes presented on the market differ from each other not only in their cost. in the procedure of solving a problem and the computer memory and CPU time needed for obtaining a solution of the required accuracy. During the subsequent calculations during the solving of the problem the computational mesh can be refined additionally (if that is allowed by the user-defined settings) to better resolve the high-gradient flow and solid regions revealed in these calculations (Solution-Adaptive Meshing). but are surely faster. it is expedient to consider Flow Simulation features governing the below-described strategy of solving engineering problems with Flow Simulation. if the time needed to solve an engineering problem with a computational code exceeds some threshold time. increased user time and efforts for specifying the initial data for the calculation.g. thin walls surrounded by fluid. Before getting acquainted with the recommended procedure of obtaining a reliable and rather accurate solution of an engineering problem with Flow Simulation. and consequently rather substantial computer memory and CPU time. such as high-curvature surfaces in contact with fluid. which may be not so accurate. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 1-3 . (The cells lying outside the fluid-filled regions and outside solids with heat conduction inside do not participate in the subsequent calculations). in some cases. As a result. and the specified insulators’ boundaries.Correspondingly. Procedures of the computational mesh refinement (splitting) are used to resolve the model features better. narrow flow passages (gaps). a method of local time stepping is employed over the computational domain considered. a highly accurate solution requires a fine computational mesh. as well as in the procedure of specifying the initial data.

since model parts’ motions during a calculation are not considered in Flow Simulation (however. • if the problem contains movable parts. a force acting on a model surface. but.first of all. even worse. we strongly recommend that you carefully read this section. Therefore. if these motions are important. which are important for estimating the possibility of solving this problem with Flow Simulation.Solving Engineering Problems Since steady-state problems are solved in Flow Simulation through the steady-state approach.. i. Selecting Geometrical and Physical Features of the Task Before you start to create a SolidWorks model and a Flow Simulation project. i.e. On the contrary. for the subsequent calculations.. 1 Simulating Engineering Tasks with Flow Simulation It is necessary to remember that a fast but inaccurate beginning will cost you more efforts and time spent not only for specifying the initial data. if the calculation is finished too late. since chemical reactions are not considered in Flow Simulation. then it is 1-4 . then to estimate a possibility of introducing the reaction products as an additional fluid when solving this problem. is described in the chapters Simulating Engineering Tasks with Flow Simulation and Solving Engineering Tasks. when the steady state solution has not been attained yet.e. • if the problem includes several fluids. then some time has been wasted uselessly. the reactions rates are rather high and the reacting fluids are intensely mixed with each other under the problem’s conditions. it is necessary to select the engineering problem’s geometrical and physical features that most substantially influence this problem’s solution . those. The way to simulate an engineering problem with SolidWorks+Flow Simulation correctly and adequately from the physical viewpoint. or a model hydraulic resistance) with a sufficient degree of accuracy. For example. and to solve this model problem properly and reliably with Flow Simulation. or fluid and solid. a gas and a liquid). then it is necessary to estimate the importance of chemical reactions between them for the problem’s solution. you may specify a translational and/or rotational motion of the specific wall or a rotating reference frame). if the reactions are important. to estimate the possibility of solving this problem with a quasi-stationary approach. it is necessary to determine the termination moment for the calculation properly. then the obtained solution can depend on the specified initial conditions and so be not very reliable. you can specify them as the calculation goals.g. until they finally become reliable. then it is necessary to estimate the importance of taking into account their motions when solving the problem. i. If the calculation is finished too early. and. To optimize the termination moment for the calculation and to determine physical parameters of interest (e. and there is an interface between them or these fluids are mixing. to state the corresponding model problem.e. • if the problem includes fluids of different types (for example. and.

then.g. i.e. which do not influence the problem’s solution. by rough estimate. Creating the Model and the Flow Simulation Project If the SolidWorks model has already been created when designing the object. barely perceptible. and parts to denote rotating regions. If a model has not been created yet. as well as of simplifying the engineering problems for solving them with Flow Simulation. Both these actions. the basic part of the Flow Simulation project is specified. the problem type (internal or external). heat conduction in solids. but consume computer resources. If all effects of these actions are not clear enough. so that on each particular case you will have to make decision by yourself. lids to cover the inlet and outlet openings. if necessary. in accordance with the problem’s physical features revealed and adapted to Flow Simulation capabilities. rotating regions. and. being executed properly.g. e. or mixing of fluids of different types. it is expedient to take all the above-mentioned factors into account when creating it. fluid subdomains. adding the auxiliary parts to a model will inevitably cause an increase of the computational mesh cells and. volume and/or surface heat sources. etc. gravitational effects. Naturally. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 1-5 . We can present other examples of an clear impossibility of solving some engineering problems with Flow Simulation. the required computer memory and CPU time. Then. inlet and outlet tubes for stabilization of the flow. since Flow Simulation does not consider a free fluid surface.e. it may be worthwhile to vary the model parts and/or their dimensions in a series of calculations in order to determine their influence on the obtained solution. therefore these parts’ dimensions must be adequate to the stated problem. a corrugated model surface which will result in an exceedingly large number of mesh cells required to resolve it can be specified instead as smooth surface with equivalent wall roughness. If a model has narrow fluid-filled blind holes whose influence on the overall flow pattern is. but it is impossible to envision and describe all the possible situations in the present document. it would be better to remove these features in order to avoid the excessive mesh splitting around them. i. can be very pivotal in obtaining a reliable and accurate solution. • to add auxiliary parts to the model. local initial meshes or other areas where special conditions are applied. time-dependent analysis. to solve the engineering problem with Flow Simulation..). physical features taken into account (e.e. fans and other features and conditions. memory and CPU time. consequently. it is fully adequate to the object. fluids and solids involved in the problem. it may be required: • to simplify the model by removing the parts. For example. boundaries of the calculation domain. i.necessary to estimate the importance of taking this into account. initial and boundary conditions.

you may want to intervene in the calculation process by finishing the calculation manually if you see that either the calculation is unacceptable for you by some reasons. or.e. 2 Solving Engineering Tasks As soon as you have specified the basic part of the Flow Simulation project that is unlikely to be changed in the subsequent calculations. Secondly. the supervision for a behavior of the calculation goals during the calculation (i. On the contrary. since their behavior is saved on each iteration during the calculation and can be analyzed later. obtaining the reliable and accurate solution of the problem. as well as heat sources. As soon as the calculation on a finer mesh does not yield a noticeably different (from the engineering problem’s viewpoint) solution. the solution flattens with respect to the mesh cells’ number. fans. They can be local or integral. Eventually. we can estimate the accuracy of solution of the mathematical problem.Solving Engineering Problems The specified boundary conditions. optionally. you specify the physical parameters of interest as the Flow Simulation project goals. and other conditions and features must correspond to the problem’s physical statement and not conflict with each other. by performing a series of calculations on a set of computational meshes ranging from coarser to finer ones. we can conclude that the solution of the mathematical problem has achieved mesh convergence. average. or maximum. Since the determination of this threshold is possible only in relation with some physical parameter. it is natural to connect it with the physical parameters of interest of the engineering problem in question. it will allow you to determine their values and observation errors more accurately by averaging them over a number of iterations and determining their deviation from this average value.e. Firstly. Naturally.-mesh change. This allows you to increase substantially reliability and accuracy of determination of these parameters. first you must determine the threshold for a solution-vs. so that the change smaller than this threshold will be considered as negligible.. i. as they are saved only at the last iteration and. with the admissible determination errors of these physical parameters. the required mathematical solution accuracy is attained. defined within the whole computational domain or a certain volume. The parameters determined over some region are expressed in the form of their minimum. in particular. if the solution has actually already converged. i. in iterations) can serve two purposes. i. since steady-state problems are solved with Flow Simulation through the steady-state approach. at the user-specified iterations. Strategy of Solving the Engineering Tasks As it has been mentioned in Introduction. the convergence behavior of the parameters not specified as goals can not be analyzed afterwards.e. if these parameters oscillate during the solution. so that there is no reason to calculate any further. on a surface or a point.. the next step is to select the strategy of solving the engineering problem with Flow Simulation. vice versa.e. or bulk average values. 1-6 . Moreover..

its full realization is usually troublesome due to the substantial difficulties including. The result resolution level specified in the Wizard governs the number of basic mesh cells.Therefore. as well as the criteria for refinement (splitting) of the initial mesh during the problem solution. because in doubtful cases it must be checked again. Since both the computer memory and the time for which the engineering problem must be solved are usually restricted.1 is the key item of the proposed strategy of solving engineering problems with Flow Simulation. and maybe its refinement during the calculation): Result Resolution Level. Perhaps. The Result Resolution specified in the Wizard defines the following parameters in the created project: the Level of initial mesh and the Results Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 1-7 . and with similar boundary and initial conditions) varying only the computational mesh.-mesh convergence again.-mesh convergence investigation. Since the computational mesh is built automatically in Flow Simulation. When performing these calculations. the dimensions of which are questionable from the viewpoint of their necessity and sufficiency. in your opinion.g.. The same applies also to the parametric engineering calculations while you are changing the model parts and/or flow parameters. for internal problems). the specific realization of this strategy eventually governs the accuracy of the problem solution. inside the same computational domain. a dramatic increase of the requirements for computer memory and CPU time when you are substantially increasing the number of cells in the computational mesh.e.-mesh convergence. Settings for Resolving the Geometrical Features of the Model and for Obtaining the Required Solution Accuracy The computational mesh variation described in Section 2. you must keep in mind the potential necessity for checking the solution-vs. It is enough to just perform these calculations with the project mesh settings that provided the solution with satisfactory accuracy during the solution-vs. inlet and outlet tubes attached to the inlet and outlet openings. first of all. Some specific description of this strategy is presented in the next sections of this document. Those physical parameters of the engineering problem whose values are not known exactly and which. first of all. in performing several calculations on the same basic project (i. there is no need to investigate the solution-vs. i. whether it will be satisfactory or not. it may be varied by varying the project parameters that govern its design (the initial computational mesh on which the calculation starts. with the same model. Minimum Gap Size. However. In spite of the apparent simplicity of the proposed strategy. the criteria for refinement (splitting) of the basic mesh to resolve the model geometry.. An additional item of this strategy of solving an engineering problem with Flow Simulation consists in varying the auxiliary elements added to the model as needed to solve the problem with Flow Simulation (e. must be varied also. a further simplification of the model and/or reducing the computational domain will be required. creating the initial mesh.e. since it has been already achieved before. Minimum Wall Thickness. the strategy of solving an engineering problem with Flow Simulation consists. can influence the problem solution.

the model flow passages not resolved with the computational mesh either are automatically replaced with a wall. Before creating the initial mesh. a finer initial mesh is generated and refinements during calculation take place. For more complex problems we recommend first of all to perform the calculation at the result resolution level of 4 or 5 1-8 . it is necessary to take into account that the number of the computational mesh cells generated to resolve the model geometrical features depends on the specified result resolution level. It makes sense to perform calculations at the result resolution level of 3 if both the model geometry and the flow field are relatively smooth. when creating a Flow Simulation project it is necessary to make sure that both the minimum gap size and the minimum wall thickness are relevant to the model geometry. it is taken into account that the number of the mesh cells along the normal to the model surface must not be less than a certain number if the distance along this normal from this surface to the opposite wall is not less than the minimum gap size. Result resolution levels of 5…7 yield the same initial mesh.e. as well as those surfaces and volumes on or in which heat sources. you can see the minimum gap size and the minimum wall thickness that are determined in such a way. is not adapted to the solution being obtained. So. e. The Geometry Resolution options that also influence the initial mesh may be changed on the Automatic Settings tab of the the Initial Mesh dialog box. sharp edges protruding into the stream. That is required for resolving the geometrical features of the model with Flow Simulation computational mesh. At that. In the automatic mode these mesh parameters are determined from dimensions of the surfaces on which boundary conditions have been specified. the model inlet and outlet openings in an internal analysis. surface and/or volume goals and some of the other conditions and features. but at result resolution levels of 6 and 7 the mesh is refined during the calculations in the regions of increased physical parameters gradients. Before the calculation. The Results resolution level is accessible from the Calculation Control Options dialog box and controls the refinement of computational mesh during calculation and the calculation finishing conditions. local initial conditions. when creating the initial mesh. i. In accordance with the strategy of solving engineering problems. etc. Their effects can be altered on the other tabs of the Initial Mesh dialog box or in the Local Initial Mesh dialog box.Solving Engineering Problems resolution level. The Level of initial mesh governs only the initial mesh and is accessible (after the Wizard has been finished) from the Initial Mesh dialog box. At level 8. Depending on the mesh cell arrangement. In this case it may be useful to perform several calculations by varying these parameters within a reasonable range in order to reveal their influence on the problem solution. if the model geometry is complicated (e. Flow Simulation automatically determines the minimum gap size and the minimum wall thickness for the walls which are in contact with a fluid on both sides. there are non-circular flow passages.g.). The initial mesh created at result resolution levels of 3…5 is not changed during the solving of a problem. you can specify them manually. If these values cannot provide an adequate resolution of the model geometry.g. or increased up to the mesh cell size. these calculations must be performed at different result resolution levels. However. it can be difficult to determine these parameters unambiguously. Evidently.

and in the subsequent iterations they will be refined finally.(naturally. After that. The first above-mentioned reason is especially useful since it allows you to substantially reduce the CPU time in some cases. manually finish the calculation before it finishes automatically. if the calculation at the result resolution level of 5 has been performed. monitoring behavior of the physical parameters specified by you as the project goals (you can inspect also physical parameters fields at the specified planar cross-sections) is useful for the following reasons: • you can intervene in the process of calculation. do not noticeably improve the problem solution (the values of the project goals does not change). at the result resolution level of 8. the solution has already converged. therefore.. at least. and the physical parameters specified by you as the project goals oscillate during the iterations. or. specify high Mach number flow for the first case or lengthen the model outlet tube for the second one). we recommend. i.e. you can obtain their intermediate (preliminary) values beforehand. you can finish the calculation relatively early (say. making it necessary to change some of the problem settings (i. whereas in fact the flow becomes supersonic. • if the physical parameters of interest do not change substantially during the calculation. Monitoring the Calculation Monitoring the calculation. when solving a steady-state problem (that concerns some time-dependent problems also). so that there is no reason to continue the calculation.e. if you do not specify the high Mach number gas flow in the project settings. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 1-9 . For example. if Flow Simulation has generated warnings making clear that the sequential calculation is senseless). to perform the calculation at the result resolution level of 7 and.e. if you see that either the calculation is unacceptable for you for some reasons (e. if the computer resources allow you to do this.g. after 1…2 travels have been performed).. you can see the calculation results obtained at the current physical time moment before the calculation is finished. with specifying explicitly the minimum gap size and minimum wall thickness). or if Flow Simulation warns you about a vortex at the model outlet. in order to ascertain the mesh convergence. • if a steady-state problem is solved. vice versa. If you solve a steady-state problem at the result resolution level of 7 or 8 and you see that the computational mesh refinements performed during the calculation do not increase the number of cells in the mesh and. i. that substantially reduces the calculation accuracy. then inspecting these parameters’ behavior during the calculation will allow you to determine their values and determination errors more accurately by averaging their values over the iterations and determining their deviations from these average values. • if you solve a time-dependent problem.

For example. Naturally. if heat transfer in solids has been calculated. As soon as the mathematical problem solution of a satisfactory accuracy has been obtained.. The accuracy of solution of the mathematical problem is determined by mathematical methods.e. whereas if you are interested in the temperature of solid. first of all it is expedient to see the obtained field of the physical parameter you are interesting in. that characterizes the goal determination error in the obtained solution. independently of the consistency of the model to the physical process under consideration. and an estimation of accuracy of simulating the physical process with the given mathematical model. the next step consists of estimating the accuracy of simulating the physical process under consideration with the mathematical model employed in the computational code. if you did not monitor them directly as the calculation went on. Estimating the Reliability and Adequacy of the Obtained Solution In accordance with the general approach to estimating reliability and accuracy of the engineering problem solution obtained with a computational code. the obtained solution is compared with the available experimental data (taking into account their errors which consist of measurement errors and experimental errors arising from possible spurious influences). it is recommended to plot the evolutions of the project goals during the calculation. i. you may want to see the velocity field. Then. In our case. then. It is also useful to check for vortices at the model outlet.Solving Engineering Problems Viewing and Analyzing the Obtained Solution When viewing and analyzing the obtained solution after finishing the calculation. this estimation consists of the following two parts: an estimation of how accurate is the solution of the mathematical problem corresponding to the mathematical model of the physical process. in which its steady-state oscillation is seen. if you are interested in the total pressure loss. as well as to see the flow pattern in the model and. it is useful to verify additionally the accuracy of the obtained solution by solving the similar time-dependent problem not employing local time steps. for this validation it is desirable to select the data which are as close to 1-10 . since experimental data are always restricted. if this parameter has oscillated during the calculation. this accuracy estimation is based on analyzing the mesh convergence of the problem solutions obtained on different computational meshes (See Section 2. If a steady-state problem is solved. a picture of the fluid-to-solid heat flux field is also useful. This wayt you also determine the variance of this goal. To do this.2). not only in the region of interest. its deviation from the average value. you can determine its value more accurately by averaging it over the last iterations interval. but also in a broader area. the temperature distribution over the solid parts of the model. and you have specified the physical parameter of interest as the project goal. Naturally. in order to check this field for apparently incosistent results. It is also worthwhile to examine the obtained fields of other physical parameters related to the one you are interested in. since steady-state problems are solved with Flow Simulation via a steady-state approach by employing local time steps.

check to see that you have properly specified the Flow Simulation project.the engineering problem being solved as possible. high Mach number gas flow (should be taken into account if M>3 for steady-state or M>1 for transient tasks or supersonic flow occurs in about a half of the computational domain or greater). when unsteady vortices are generated). or several fluids having substantially different densities are considered in a gravitational field). finally. gravitational effects (must be taken into account if either the fluid velocity is small.g. in particular when solving similar engineering problems. please do not forget to replace Symmetry by Default at the Boundary Condition tab. 3 Frequent Errors and Improper Actions Let us consider errors and improper actions frequently done when solving engineering problems with Flow Simulation.  When Specifying Initial Data: • not taking into account physical features which are important for the engineering problem under consideration: e. • if you specify integral boundary or volume conditions (heat transfer rates. and. you should keep in mind that the symmetry of model geometry and initial and boundary conditions does not guarantee you the symmetry of flow field).g. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 1-11 . but this operation increases the reliability of estimating the obtained solution of the engineering problem so substantially that the required additional time and efforts will be fully paid back later on. If after solving the test problem you see that accuracy of its solution obtained with Flow Simulation is not satisfactory from your viewpoint. the fluid density is temperature-dependent. instead of specifying the total flow rate. that all substantial features of the engineering problem have been taken into account. • if symmetry planes have been specified and you click Reset at the Size tab of the Computational Domain dialog box. • if you have specified symmetry planes and intend to specify a mass or volume flow rate at a model inlet or outlet opening. at the moderate Reynolds numbers. please do not forget to specify only the fraction of total flow rate proportional to the fraction of the opening area laying inside the computational domain.). that Flow Simulation restrictions do not impede solving this engineering problem. and a heat source is considered. heat generation rates. you have to solve the corresponding test problem in addition to the engineering problem being solved (preferably before you start to solve the engineering problem following the above-mentioned strategy). necessity of the time-dependent analysis (e. etc. when unsteady vortices are generated. please remember that their values specified in the Flow Simulation dialog boxes correspond to the fraction of area or volume laying inside the computational domain.g. To validate the computational code on the available experimental data. at the moderate Reynolds numbers. • incorrectly specifying symmetry planes as the computational domain boundaries (e.

instead of selecting them in the tree and looking for the respective places at the model in the SolidWorks graphics area. Surface Plots. 1-12 . • if you want to monitor the intermediate calculation results at certain sections of the model during the calculation.  When Viewing the Obtained Solution after Finishing a Calculation: • please take into account that all settings made in the View Settings dialog box concern all Cut Plots. it is better to give them sensible names to identify these goals unambiguously. 3D Plots. Instead it is more convenient to specify them for a cycle and perform a series of calculations. which are active in the SolidWorks graphicsarea.  When Monitoring a Calculation: • when monitoring intermediate calculation results during a calculation. it is incorrect to specify flow velocity or volume flow rate as a boundary condition at the model inlet. • if you solve a time-dependent problem. there is no need to specify the boundary conditions for several cycles. please do not forget the spatial nature of the problem being solved (of course.e. please do not forget to specify their directions. therefore: • your will not be able to open the Flow Trajectories dialog box if a parameter defined only on wall surfaces or in solid has been selected on the Contours tab and the Use from contours option has been selected at the Flow Trajectories tab of the View Settings dialog box. Isosurfaces. before actually running the calculation. thus leading to a steady-state cyclic-in-time solution. it is better to determine these sections’ positions in the Global coordinate system beforehand. • when specifying Surface Goals. • if you specify a Unidirectional or Orthotropic porous medium. since during the calculation it is a bit more difficult and you may be literally ’late’ in terms of the problem’s physical time. since they are fully determined by the geometry of the model flow passage and the fluid’s specific heat ratio. whereas the flow inside the model becomes supersonic. and this problem has cyclic-in-time boundary conditions. Volume Goals. every time specifying the solution from the previous calculation as the initial condition for the next calculation. please do not forget to properly specify their swirl axes and the coordinate system in the Definition tab.Solving Engineering Problems • if you specify a flow swirl on a model inlet or outlet openings (in the Fans or Boundary Conditions dialog boxes). Point Goals or Equation Goals. To take a look at the full pattern it is expedient to see the results at least in 2 or 3 intersecting planes. running each calculation with selected Take previous results check box in the Run dialog box. Flow Trajectories. • please do not forget that the specified boundary conditions must not conflict with each other. For example. if the problem itself is not 2D). i. if you deal with gas flows and the model inlet flow is subsonic. to obtain which you have to calculate the flow several times in cycle.

Isosurfaces defined in these areas.g. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 1-13 . Surface Plots. area.) with the Surface Parameters dialog box. mass or volume flow rates. the latter depends on the computational mesh. Options. make sure that the Display mesh is enabled under Tools. • their determination errors include errors of representing these surfaces in SolidWorks and Flow Simulation. Flow Trajectories. please remember that: • their shown values are determined over the parts of the surface that belong to the computational domain. • if you want to see the computational mesh in Cut Plots and/or Surface Plots. etc. heat generation rates. 3D Plots. Third Party Options. • if you intend to see integral physical parameters (e. otherwise the Mesh button in the Cut Plots and Surface Plots PropertyManagers will be unavailable. you can split the SolidWorks graphics area into 2 or 4 panes and build different result features in different graphical areas through their individual Cut Plots.• to view different result features in different panes simultaneously. forces.

Solving Engineering Problems 1-14 .

A computational mesh splits the computational domain with a set of planes orthogonal to the Cartesian Global Coordinate System's axes to form rectangular parallelepipeds called cells.Introduction This chapter provides the fundamentals of working with the Flow Simulation computational mesh. Types of Cells Any Flow Simulation calculation is performed in a rectangular parallelepiped-shaped computational domain which boundaries are orthogonal to the axes of the Cartesian Global Coordinate System. conditions of finishing the calculation)  Flow freezing 1 Mesh . let us introduce a set of definitions. describes the mesh generation procedure and explains the use of parameters governing both automatically and manually controlled meshes. The resulting computational mesh consists of cells of the following four types: Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-1 . First. organized in the following topics:  Manual adjustment of the initial computational mesh settings  Mesh-associated tools (viewing the mesh before and after the calculation and advanced post-processing tools)  Calculation control options (refinement of the computational mesh during calculation.2 Advanced Knowledge Introduction The present document supplies you with our experience of employing the advanced Flow Simulation capabilities.

Advanced Knowledge • Fluid cells are the cells located entirely in the fluid.1. As an illustration let us look at the original model (Fig.1) and the generated computational mesh (Fig. • Solid cells are the cells located entirely in the solid.2 The computational mesh cells of different types 2-2 . Fig. For each partial cells the following information is kept: coordinates of intersections of the cell edges with the solid surface and normal to the solid surface within the cell.1.1 The original model. • Partial cells are the cells which are partly in the solid and partly in the fluid. Fluid cell First level cell Partial cell Partial cell Solid cell Zero level cell (basic cell) Fig.2).1.1.

1 ≤ Nx ≤ 1000 2 Ny.g. 1 ≤ Nz ≤ 1000.  Narrow channels refinement.Mesh Construction Stages Refinement is a process of splitting a rectangular computational mesh cell into eight cells by three orthogonal planes that divide the cell's edges in halves. a set of control procedures. the next splitting produces second level cells. or add/move insulators. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-3 . The following rule is applied to the processes of refinement and merging: the levels of two neighboring cells can only be the same or differ by one. The maximum level of splitting is seven. fifth. and/or solid. the number of basic mesh cells (zero level cells) along the Y axis of the Global Coordinate System.  Mesh conservation. and/or partial mesh cells up to the user-specified level. During the solution-adaptive meshing the cells can be refined and merged.e. you should rebuild the mesh. i. In Flow Simulation you can control the following parameters and options which govern the computational mesh: 1 Nx. the number of basic mesh cells (zero level cells) along the Z axis of the Global Coordinate System. solid/porous and a fluid/porous boundaries to resolve the interface curvature (e. etc). After each of these stages is passed. A seventh level cell is 87 times smaller in volume than the basic cell. 3 Nz. small-radius surfaces of revolution. including refinement of the basic mesh at the solid/fluid and solid/solid boundaries to resolve the relatively small solid features and solid/solid interface.  Resolving of the interface between substances. See ”Refinement of the Computational Mesh During Calculation’ on page 36. a fifth level cell can have only neighboring cells of fourth. If you switch on or off heat conduction in solids. that is the refinement of the mesh in narrow channels taking into account the respective user-specified settings. The non-split initial cells that compose the basic mesh are called basic cells or zero level cells. The mesh is constructed in the following steps:  Construction of the basic mesh taking into account the Control Planes and the respective values of cells number and cell size ratios. including check for the difference in area of cell facets common for the adjacent cells of different levels. the number of basic mesh cells (zero level cells) along the X axis of the Global Coordinate System. the number of cells is increased to some extent.  Refinement of all fluid. so that. say. and so on. 1 ≤ Ny ≤ 1000. or sixth level. Cells obtained by the first splitting of the basic cells are called first level cells. tolerance and curvature refinement of the mesh at a solid/fluid.

In case of 2D calculation (i. if you select the 2D plane flow option in the Computational Domain dialog box) only one basic mesh cell is generated automatically along the eliminated direction. 10 Narrow channels refinement: Characteristic number of cells across a narrow channel. 0 ≤ Ltol ≤ 7. 0 ≤ C tol. By default Flow Simulation constructs each cell as close to cubic shape as possible. 2-4 . b) 40x36x1 a) 10x12x1 Fig.Advanced Knowledge 4 Control planes. By adding and relocating them you can contract and/or stretch the basic mesh in the specified directions and regions. There is no limitation on a cell oblongness or aspect ratio. 0 ≤ Ccur ≤ π. Six control planes coincident with the computational domain's boundaries are always present in any project. 8 Tolerance refinement level (Ltol).e. 0 ≤ Lb ≤ 7.3 Basic mesh examples. Nz).1. 6 Curvature refinement level (Lcur). 7 Curvature refinement criterion (Ccur). 5 Small solid features refinement level (Lb). These options are described in more detail below in this chapter. The number of basic mesh cells could be one or two less than the user-defined number (Nx. 0 ≤ Lcur ≤ 7. 9 Tolerance refinement criterion (Ctol). Ny. but you should carefully check the calculation results in all cases for the absence of too oblong or stretched cells. Narrow channels refinement level. Basic Mesh The basic mesh is a mesh of zero level cells. The minimum and maximum height of narrow channels to be refined.

two methods can be used to improve the mesh: • increase the level of splitting. Control planes allow you to resolve small features. For example. contract the basic mesh locally to resolve a particular region by a denser mesh and stretch the basic mesh to avoid excessively dense meshes.1.g. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-5 . in which case the Ratio value becomes mandatory. this may result in unnecessary increase of the number of cells in other regions. Negative values of the ratio correspond to the reverse order of cell size increase.4) and the ratio on the interval between them is set to 2. However. Resolving Small Features by Using the Control Planes If the level of splitting is not high enough. The cell sizes on the interval are changed gradually so that the proportion between the first and the last cells of the interval is close (but not necessarily equal) to the entered Ratio value. Then the basic mesh cells adjacent to the Plane1 will be approximately two times longer than the basic mesh cells adjacent to the Plane2. This will allow you to resolve this feature better without creating an excessively dense mesh elsewhere. In this case. creating a non-optimal mesh. It is especially convenient in cases of sharp edges oriented along the Global Coordinate System axes. and avoid placing it coincident with the solid surface. you may explicitly set the Number of cells for each interval. a solid's sharp edge). or • set a control plane crossing the relevant small feature (e.Control Planes The Control Planes option is a powerful tool for creating an optimal computational mesh. To do this. and the user should certainly become acquainted with this tool if he is interested in optimal meshes resulting in higher accuracy and decreasing the CPU time and required computer memory. Contracting the Basic Mesh Using control planes you may contract the basic mesh in the regions of interest. assume that there are two control planes Plane1 and Plane2 (see Fig. It is recommended that you place a control plane slightly submerged into the solid. Alternatively. small solid features may be not resolved properly. you need to set control planes surrounding the region and assign the proper Ratio values to the respective intervals.

Fig. In the Fig.1. where the computational domain may be substantially larger than the model.Advanced Knowledge Default control plane Plane 4 Interval 3: number of cells=3 (automatic) ratio=1 Plane 3 Custom control plane Interval 2: number of cells=12 (manual) ratio=1 Custom control plane Plane 2 Interval 1: number of cells=12 (automatic) ratio=2 Default control plane Plane 1 Fig.1.6 two custom control planes are set through the center of the body with the ratio set to 5 and -5.1. on the intervals to the both sides of each plane.6 Two custom control planes. 2-6 . Use of control planes is especially recommended for external analyses.1.4 Specifying custom control planes. Fig.5 Default control planes. respectively.

solid/porous as well as fluid/porous) interface curvature is too high: the maximum angle between the normals to a solid surface inside the cell exceeds 120°. The performance settings do not govern the triangulation performance. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-7 . The curvature refinement procedure has the following stages: 1 Each solid surface is triangulated: Flow Simulation gets triangles that make up the SolidWorks surfaces. 2 A local (for each cell) interface curvature is determined as the maximum angle between the normals to the triangles within the cell.Resolving Small Solid Features The procedure of resolving small solid features refines only the cells where the solid/fluid (solid/solid.e. and the curvature refinement level is not reached then the cell is split. Such cells are split until the the Small solid features refinement level of splitting mesh cells is achieved. i. Curvature Refinement The curvature refinement level is the maximum level to which the cells will be split during refinement of the computational mesh until the curvature of the solid/fluid or fluid/porous interface within the cell becomes lower than the specified curvature criterion (Ccur). 3 If this angle exceeds the specified Ccur. the solid surface has a protrusion within the cell.

Advanced Knowledge The curvature refinement is a powerful tool.9 Curvature refinement level is 2.1. Curvature criterion is 0.8 Curvature refinement level is 1. Fig. so that the competent usage of it allows you to obtain proper and optimal computational mesh. Fig. Fig. Curvature criterion is 0.1. 2-8 Fig. .1. Total number of cells is 64.317.7 Curvature refinement level is 0.1.10 Curvature refinement level is 2.1. Total number of cells is 148. Total number of cells is 120. Total number of cells is 120. Look at the following illustrations to the curvature refinement by the example of a sphere.

1 mm. This approach accurately represents flat faces though curvature surfaces are approximated with some deviations (e.1. a circle can be approximated by a polygon).11 Curvature refinement level is 3. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-9 . The tolerance refinement criterion controls this deviation. and. A cell will be split if the distance (h. thus avoiding refinements in regions of less importance (see images below). Fig. in contrast to the curvature refinement. It resolves the interface's curvature more effectively than the small solid features refinement. Curvature criterion is 0.g. Tolerance criterion is 0. The tolerance refinement may affect the same cells that were affected by the small solid features refinement and the curvature refinement.12 Tolerance refinement level is 3. Any surface is approximated by a set of polygons which vertices are surface's intersection points with the cells' edges. discerns small and large features of equal curvature. see below) between the outermost interface's point within the cell and the polygon approximating this interface is larger than the specified criterion value. Fig.1.Tolerance Refinement Tolerance refinement allows you to control how well (with what tolerance) mesh polygons approximate the real interface.1.

The basic concept of narrow channel refinement is to resolve the narrow channels with a sufficient number of cells to provide a reasonable level of solution accuracy. in such analyses where the boundary layer thickness becomes comparable to the size of the partial cells where the layer is developed. if the resulting cells satisfy the specified L. 2-10 . The narrow channel refinement operates as follows: the normal to the solid surface for each partial cell is extended up to the next solid surface. The maximum height of narrow channels – the minimum and maximum bounds for the height outside of which a flow passage will not be considered as a narrow channel and thus will not be refined by the narrow channel resolution procedure. The narrow channel settings available in Flow Simulation are the following: • Narrow channels refinement level – the maximum level of cells refinement in narrow channels with respect to the basic mesh cell.Advanced Knowledge Narrow Channel Refinement The narrow channel refinement is applied to each flow passage within the computational domain (or a region. It is especially important to have narrow channels resolved in analyses of low Reynolds numbers or analyses with long channels. For example. which will be considered to be the opposite wall of the flow passage. in case that local mesh settings are specified) unless you specify for Flow Simulation to ignore passages of a specified height. i. whatever the specified Nc. the number of cells across narrow channels will be equal to the specified characteristic number. The Narrow Channels term is conventional and used for the definition of the flow passages of the model in the direction normal to the solid/fluid interface. In other words. If possible. The Characteristic number of cells across a narrow channel (let us denote it as Nc) and the Narrow channels refinement level (let us denote it as L) both influence the mesh in narrow channels in the following manner: the basic mesh in narrow channels will be split to have Nc number per channel. the smallest possible cell in a narrow channel is 8L times smaller in volume (or 2L times smaller in each linear dimension) than the basic mesh cell.e. If the number of cells per this normal-to-wall direction is less than the specified Nc. otherwise it will be as close to it as possible. • Characteristic number of cell across a narrow channel – the number of cells (including partial cells) that Flow Simulation will attempt to set across the model flow passages in the direction normal to the solid/fluid interface. if you specify the minimum and maximum height of narrow channels. • The minimum height of narrow channels. the cells will be split to satisfy the narrow channel settings as described above. the cells will be split only in those fluid regions where the distance between the opposite walls of the flow passage in the direction normal to wall lies between the specified minimum and maximum heights. This is necessary to avoid undesirable mesh splitting in very fine channels that may cause the number of cells to increase to an unreasonable value.

avoid setting high values for the narrow channels refinement level. 3 If possible.13 Small solid features refinement level is 3. Fig. Fig. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-11 . Narrow channels refinement level is 2.1.Although the settings that produce an optimal mesh depends on a particular task. here are some ’rule-of-thumb’ recommendations for narrow channel settings: 1 Set the number of cells across narrow channel to a minimum of 5.1. Narrow channel refinement is on: 5 cells across narrow channels.14 Small solid features refinement level is 3. since it may cause a significant increase in the number of cells where it is not necessary. 2 Use the minimum and maximum heights of narrow channels to concentrate on the regions of interest. Narrow channel refinement is disabled.

edge or vertex. edge. face.15 Small solid features refinement level is 3. You can apply local mesh settings to fluid regions and solid bodies. or a cell enclosing the selected vertex. face. Local Mesh Settings The local mesh settings option is one more tool to help create an optimal mesh. The local mesh settings are applied to the cells intersected with the selected component. Use of local mesh settings is especially beneficial if you are interested in resolving a particular region within a complex model.1. cells adjacent to the cell of the local region may be also affected due to the refinement rules described in the Mesh Construction Stages chapter. 2-12 . To apply the local mesh settings to a fluid region you need to specify this region as a solid part or subassembly and then disable this component in the Component Control dialog box. Narrow channels refinement level is 5. However. Narrow channel refinement is on: 5 cells across narrow channels. The local mesh settings can be applied to a component.Advanced Knowledge Fig.

Fig.1.16 The local mesh settings used: Two narrow channels are refined to have 10 cells across them.

Recommendations for Creating the Computational Mesh
1 At the beginning create the mesh using the default (automatic) mesh settings. Start
with the Level of initial mesh of 3. On this stage it is important to recognize the
appropriate values of the minimum gap size and minimum wall thickness which will
provide you with the suitable mesh. The default values of the minimum gap size and
minimum wall thickness are calculated using information about the overall model

dimensions, the Computational Domain size, and area of surfaces where conditions
(boundary conditions, sources, etc.) and goals are specified. Don't switch off the
Optimize thin walls resolution option, since it allows you to resolve the model's thin
walls without the excessive mesh refinement.
2 Closely analyze the obtained automatic mesh, paying attention to the total numbers of

cells, resolution of the regions of interest and narrow channels. If the automatic mesh
does not satisfy you and changing of the minimum gap size and minimum wall
thickness values do not give the desired effect you can proceed with the custom mesh.
3 Start to create your custom mesh with the disabled narrow channel refinement, while
the Small solid features refinement level and the Curvature refinement level are

both set to 0. This will produce only zero level cells (basic mesh only). Use control
planes to optimize the basic mesh.
4 Next, adjust the basic mesh by step-by-step increase of the Small solid features
refinement level and the Curvature refinement level. Then, enable the narrow

channels refinement.
5 Finally, try to use the local mesh settings.

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Advanced Knowledge

2 Mesh-associated Tools
Introduction
Since the mesh settings is an indirect way of constructing the computational mesh, to
better visualize the resulting mesh various post-processing tools are offered by Flow
Simulation. In particular, these tools allow to visualize the mesh in detail before the
calculation, substantially reducing the CPU and user time.
The computational mesh constructed by Flow Simulation or other CFD codes cannot
resolve the model geometry at the mesh cell level exactly. A discrepancy can lead to
prediction errors. To facilitate an analysis of these errors and/or to avoid their appearance,
Flow Simulation offers various options for visualizing the real computational geometry
corresponding to the computational mesh used in the analysis.
Since the numerical solution is obtained inevitably in the discrete form, i.e., in the centers
of computational mesh cells, it is interpolated and extrapolated by the post-processor to
present the results in a smooth form, which is typically more convenient to the user. As a
result, some prediction errors can stem from these interpolations and extrapolations. To
facilitate an analysis of such errors and/or to prevent their appearance, Flow Simulation
offers an option to visualize the physical parameters’ values calculated at the centers of
computational mesh cells, so that when presenting results by coloring an area with a
palette, the results are considered constant within each cell.

Visualizing the Basic Mesh Before Constructing the Initial Mesh
Using this option the user can inspect the Basic mesh and its Control planes corresponding
to the mesh settings, which can be made manually or retained by default. The plot appears
as soon as these settings have been made or changed, so you immediately see the resulting
mesh. (See Help or User’s Guide defining the Basic mesh and its Control planes).
To enable this option, select the Show basic mesh option in the Flow Simulation,
Project menu, or in the Initial Mesh dialog box. The option is accessible both before and
after the calculation.
Using this option, you may shifting the Control planes to desired positions to assure that
certain features of the model geometry are captured by the computational mesh.

Enhanced Capabilities of the Results Loading
Flow Simulation allows to view not only the calculation results and the current
computational mesh, which they have been obtained on, but also the initial computational
mesh (i.e., which the calculation begins on). The latter can be viewed either before or after
the calculation, allowing the user to compare the initial and current (i.e., refined during the
calculation) computational meshes.

2-14

Fig.2.1 The Basic mesh (left) and the Initial mesh (right).

To view various meshes, you must open the corresponding file via the Load results dialog
box. The calculation results, including the current computational mesh, are saved in the
.fld files, whereas the initial computational mesh is saved separately in the .cpt file. All
these files are saved in the project folder, which name (a numeric string) is formed by
Flow Simulation and must not be changed. The .cpt files and the final (i.e., with the
solution obtained at the last iteration) .fld files have the name similar to that of the project
folder, whereas the solutions obtained during the calculation at the previous iterations
(corresponding to certain physical time moments, if the problem is time-dependent) are
saved in the .fld files with names “r_<iteration number>”, e.g. the project initial data are
saved in the r_000000.fld file.
Do not try to load the calculation results obtained in another project
with a different geometry; the effect will be unpredictable.

Fig.2.2 The Load Results dialog box.

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Advanced Knowledge

Viewing the Initial Computational Mesh Saved in the .cpt Files
To optimize the process of solving an engineering problem and to save time, in some cases
it may be useful to view the initial computational mesh before performing the calculation,
particularly to be sure that the model features are resolved well by this mesh. To view the
initial computational mesh after loading the .cpt file, Flow Simulation offers you Cut
Plots, Surface Plots, and the Mesh option (see below), which are also used for viewing
the calculation results.

Viewing the Computational Mesh Cells with the Mesh Option
To view fluid cells of the computational mesh cells (i.e. the cells lying fully in the fluid),
solid cells (lying fully in the solid), and partial cells lying partly in the fluid and partly in
the solid, Flow Simulation offers you the Mesh option.
Different colors can be used to better differentiate between the computational mesh cells
of each of the above-mentioned types. To see the cells in a certain parallelepiped region,
the user must specify the coordinates of the region boundaries in the Global Coordinate
System.
Visualization of a large amount of computational mesh cells (e.g. all
fluid cells in the whole computational domain) may be impractical,
since it could require substantial time and memory, and even then
you might not be able to see all the visualized cells because the
majority of them will likely be screened from view by other cells.
Using the Mesh option, you can also save the information concerning the mesh cells,
including the physical parameters values obtained in their centers, in ASCII or
Microsoft® Excel® files.

2-16

Visualizing the Real Computational Geometry
Since the SolidWorks model geometry, especially its high-curvature parts, cannot be
resolved exactly at the cell level by the rectangular (parallelepiped) computational mesh,
the real computational geometry corresponding to the computational mesh used in the
analysis can be viewed after the calculation to avoid or estimate the prediction errors
stemming from this discrepancy. If no solution-adaptive meshing occurs during the
calculation, the real computational geometry can be viewed just after the mesh generation.
This option is employed by clearing the Use CAD geometry check box in Cut Plots, 3D
Plots, Surface Plots, Flow Trajectories, Point Parameters and XY Plots. The result is
especially clear when colored Contours are used to visualize a physical parameter values
(see Fig.2.3).

Fig.2.3 Cut Plots around the SolidWorks model outer surface (left) and on its computational
realization (right).

This capability is especially useful for revealing important surface regions in the model,
which are inadequately resolved by the computational mesh.
On the other hand, this option may be useful when creating Surface Plots for SolidWorks
models containing rippled surfaces, where ripples, which are supposed to be not essential
from the problem solution viewpoint, were not resolved by the computational mesh. In
this case, coloring of the simplified solid/fluid interface instead of coloring the actual
SolidWorks model faces can lead to substantial reduction of the CPU time and memory
requirements.

Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012

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2-18 . which may differ from the mesh-approximated surface of the model. solid/fluid interfaces of all partial cells will be colored. so the obtained computational results are adequate. then enable the Use CAD geometry option before performing the final Cut Plots and Surface Plots to obtain smooth pictures which are more convenient for the analysis. only the solid/fluid interfaces of partial cells within the computational mesh will be colored. this circumstance concerns visualization only and does not affect the calculation results. However. there may be such cases when certain partial cells are not intersected by the triangulated surface and therefore the corresponding solid/fluid interfaces would not be colored. When a Surface Plot is created in the Use all faces mode. the solid/fluid interfaces are colored only in the partial cells intersected by the SolidWorks model surface approximated by triangles inside SolidWorks. Naturally. Notice that when creating a Surface Plot with the Use CAD geometry option switched off. when a Surface Plot is created on a selected surface.Advanced Knowledge If the computational mesh has resolved the SolidWorks model well. Depending on the problem considered.

2. when presenting calculation results in Cut Plots and Surface Plots (other result features. it is interpolated and extrapolated by the post-processor to present the results in a smooth form. As a result. isosurfaces.Switching off the Interpolation and Extrapolation of Calculation Results Since the numerical solution is obtained inevitably in the discrete form.2. so when coloring a surface with a palette. i. flow streamlines and particle trajectories can not be built at all without interpolation). Since the mesh cells’ centers used in coloring the surface can lie at different distances from the surface. without interpolation.4). which is typically more convenient to the user. this can introduce an additional variegation into the picture. isolines. namely.4 The fluid velocity Surface Plots in the near-wall region created with the interpolation of the calculation results (left) and without interolation (right). Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-19 . if the value of the displayed parameter depends noticeably on this distance (see Fig. i. Fig..2.4). analysis.e. in the form of values in the centers of the computational mesh cells in Flow Simulation. the results are considered constant within the mesh cells (see Fig.e. To facilitate the revealing. prediction errors can stem from and/or be hidden by such interpolation and extrapolation that smoothens the calculation results. Flow Simulation offers an option to visualize the physical parameter values ’as is’. and elimination of such errors.

These tools are summarized in the table: Application Basic mesh Initial mesh After the calculation + + + To inspect the Basic mesh and setting its Control planes Widened capabilities of loading the results + + To view the Initial mesh and the calculation results Viewing the Initial mesh + + To analyze the Initial mesh Viewing mesh cells of different type + + To view mesh cells and save the respective physical parameters values Visualizing the computational geometry + + For analysis of inadequate results and quick post-processing of the results of complicated models + For analysis of inadequate results Option Visualizing the Basic mesh Switching off the interpolation of results Reason 3 Meshing . which the calculation starts from. using information about the model geometry. Then. splitting of the basic mesh cells into smaller rectangular parallelepiped-shaped cells.Advanced Knowledge Conclusion The presented mesh-associated tools of Flow Simulation are additional tools for obtaining reliable and accurate results with this code. 2-20 . thus better representing the model and fluid regions. which form a so-called basic mesh. so-called initial mesh.Additional Insight Flow Simulation considers the real model created in SolidWorks and generates a rectangular computational mesh automatically distinguishing the fluid and solid domains. i. the computational domain is divided into uniform rectangular parallelepiped-shaped cells. The corresponding computational domain is generated in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped enclosing the model.e. Flow Simulation further constructs the mesh by means of various refinements. In the mesh generation process. is fully defined by the generated basic mesh and the refinement settings. The mesh.

] 2 Analyze triangulation in each basic mesh cell at the interfaces between different substances (such as solid/fluid. Narrow channel refinement level (NCRL). For abbreviation list refer to the Glossary paragraph. Curvature refinement level (CRL) and Curvature criterion (CRC).Each refinement has its criterion and level. the initial mesh can be refined further using the  Solution-Adaptive Refinement. The main types of refinements are:  Small Solid Features Refinement  Curvature Refinement  Tolerance Refinement  Narrow Channel Refinement  Square Difference Refinement In addition. which the cells can be split to. and the refinement level denotes the smallest size. 3 Depending on the maximum angle found. [Nx. solid/solid and porous/fluid interfaces) in order to find the maximum angle between normals to the triangles which compose the interface within the cell. Parameters which act on each stage are summarized in square brackets at the end of the stage. solid/porous. In the chapter below the most important conclusions are marked with the blue italic font. the decision whether to split the cell or not is made in accordance with the specified Small solid features refinement level (SSFRL). we will consider all of them (except for the Solution-Adaptive Refinement) to give you a comprehensive understanding of how the Flow Simulation meshing works. The refinement criterion denotes which cells have to be split. the following two types of refinements can be invoked locally:  Cell Type Refinement  Solid Boundary Refinement During the calculation. Control Planes. Ny. Initial Mesh Generation Stages Basic Mesh Generation and Resolving the Interface 1 Create basic mesh cells which sizes are governed by the computational domain size. Though it depends on a refinement which criterion or level is available for user control. Tolerance refinement level (TRL) and Tolerance Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-21 . the user-specified Control Planes and the number of the basic mesh cells. Nz. the smallest cell size is always defined with respect to the basic mesh cell size so the constructed basic mesh is of great importance for the resulting computational mesh. Regardless of the refinement considered.

1 Fluid cell refinement due to the Cell Mating rule. The mesh at this stage is called the primary mesh.e. CRC and TRC. solid/porous. 5 The operations 2 to 4 are applied for the next basic mesh cell and so on. NCRL. that. if necessary. The fourth-level red cells appearing after resolving the cog cause the neighboring cells to be split up to third level (yellow cells).3. or the corresponding level of splitting reaches its specified value. The specified levels of splitting denote the maximum admissible splitting. etc. The rule is also enforced for the cells that are entirely in a solid. they show to which level a basic mesh cell can be split if it is required for resolving the solid/fluid interface within the cell. The primary mesh implies the complete basic mesh with the resolution of the solid/fluid (as well as solid/solid. The cell splitting will proceed until the interface resolution satisfies the specified SSFR criterion. 2-22 . thus satisfying the rule. If a cell belongs to a local initial mesh area. [SSFRL. 4 If a basic mesh cell is split. The white zero level cell (basic mesh cell) remains unsplit since it borders on first level cells only. then the corresponding local refinement levels will be applied (see the Local Mesh Settings paragraph). i. and split further. cells having a common face) can be only cells which levels are similar or differ by one. This rule has the highest priority as it is necessary for simplifying numerical algorithm in solver. taking into account the following Cell Mating rule: two neighboring cells (i. The Cell Mating rule is strict and has higher priority than the other cell operations. CRL and CRC]. in turn.Advanced Knowledge Refinement Criterion (TRC) (see the Refinements at Interfaces Between Substances paragraph). Fig. the resulting child cells are analyzed as described in items 2 and 3.) interface by the small solid features refinements and the curvature refinement also taking into account the local mesh settings.e. causes the subsequent refinement producing second level cells (green cells) and first level cells (blue cells).

N = 2.4+0. For example.2 Fig. there is always a flat element within a partial cell and the normal to this element denotes the direction normal to the solid/fluid interface for this partial cell. where Nf is the number of fluid cells on the interval. Thus. CNC = 3.3. [NCHmin. If the line normal to the solid/fluid interface crosses a local initial mesh area.Narrow Channel Refinement After the primary mesh has been created. and np1 and np2 are the fluid portions of the both partial cells. the number of cells across the channel (i.3. normal to the flat surface element located in the cell). If N is less than the specified CNC then the cells on this interval are split. and the criterion is satisfied (N > CNC). and N = 2+0. the number of cells per this interval is calculated including both partial cells and taking into account which portion of each partial cell is in fluid.e. 2 If the distance value falls within the range defined by the Minimum height of narrow channel (NCHmin) and Maximum height of narrow channel (NCHmax ) options. which nodes are the points where the model intersects with the cell edges.4 = 2.3. 3 More precisely. NCHmax].4.2 Nf = 2.3 the partial cells are split. whatever the model geometry. on the interval between the two partial cells) is calculated as N = Nf + np1 + np2 . The Narrow Channels term is conventional and used for the definition of the model flow passages which are ’narrow’ in the direction normal to the solid/fluid interface.8 < CNC NCRL = 3. The narrow channel refinement operates as follows: 1 For each partial cell Flow Simulation calculates the “local” narrow channel width as the distance between this partial cell and the next partial cell found on the line normal to the solid/fluid interface of this cell (i. Fig. On Fig. the mesh approximation is that the solid boundary is always represented by a set of flat elements.e. then the corresponding local narrow channel refinement settings is applied to the cells in this direction. np1 = n p2 = 0. CNC = 3.8 > CNC Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-23 . N = 3.3 NCRL = 2.3. on Fig. the narrow channel refinement is put in action. Regardless of the real solid curvature. This value is compared with the specified Characteristic number of cells across a narrow channel (CNC). so that the fluid portions of the newly-formed partial cells are np1 = np2 = 9/10.8 which is less than the criterion.

3.3.4. NCRL].5 CNC = 5.5. the specified Characteristic number of cells across a channel is 5 but only two cells were generated since the maximum refinement level of one allows only basic mesh cells and first-level cells to be generated.Advanced Knowledge Like in the other refinements. 5 Next. the Narrow channel refinement level (NCRL) denotes the maximum level to which the cells can be split to satisfy the CNC criterion. 2-24 . for all the fluid cells within the entire computational domain the following Fluid Cell Leveling procedure is applied: if a fluid cell is located between two cells of higher level. [CNC. The NCRL has higher priority than the CNC. The narrow channel refinement is symmetrical with respect to the midpoint of the interval and proceeds from the both ending partial cells towards the midpoint. In Fig. NCRL = 1 CNC = 5. so the refinement will proceed until the CNC criterion is satisfied or all the cells reach the Narrow channel resolution level. it is split to be equalized with the level of neighboring smaller cells. Fig.3.4 Fig.3. the specified Narrow channel refinement level is high enough to allow five cells to be placed across the channel. NCRL = 3 In Fig.

Thin walls resolution In contrast to the narrow channels. See Fig.3. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-25 . Solid 2 Fluid 1 Solid 1 Fluid 2 Fig.6 One mesh cell can contain more than one fluid and/or solid volume. Such walls are resolved with two or more cells across. Therefore. then the opposite sides of the wall will not lay within the same cell.6 .3.3. Fig. since the both sides of the thin wall may reside in the same cell. thin walls can be resolved without the mesh refinement inside the wall. during calculation each volume has an individual set of parameters depending on its type (fluid or solid). the amount of cells needed to resolve a thin wall is generally lower than the number of cells needed to properly resolve a channel of the same width.7 If the wall thickness is greater than the basic mesh cell's size across the wall or if the wall creates only one fluid volume in the cell.3.8 illustrating the thin walls resolution technology and its limitations.

3.10 Two adjacent partial cells of different levels at the cylinder surface. 2-26 Fig.3. As with the Cell Mating rule. this is another condition imposed by the solver to provide stability for the convergence processes.3. The concerned cells are blue. SSFRL = 2.8 The edges of thin walls ending within a mesh cell may be trimmed in certain cases. CRL = 0.Advanced Knowledge Model geometry Meshed geometry Trimmed edge Trimmed cell Fig.14. NCRL = 1. CRC = 3. The Square Difference Refinement is always enabled and cannot be disabled since it is a strict solver requirement. you can control its criterion.9 Fig. which is directly proportional to the Curvature refinement criterion. Cut plot of the cylinder. These mesh cells are called Trimmed cells. [CRC]. Square Difference Refinement The Square Difference Refinement checks the neighboring partial cells of different levels for the difference between their fluid passage areas. .3. If the difference between the fluid passage area of the higher-level cell and the total fluid passage areas of the adjacent lower-lever cells exceeds the Square Difference Refinement Criterion (SDRC) then the greater-level cell is split to the level of adjacent cells in order to equalize the fluid passage areas (see Fig.9). Though you cannot turn off the Square Difference Refinement.

9 shows neighboring partial cells of different levels at the cylinder's solid/fluid interface. If in the first case we specify the same CRC as in the second case (0. In this example we have increased the curvature refinement criterion to π. So the smaller Square Difference Refinement criterion leads to a greater number of cells subject to the Square Difference Refinement. in turn. and.11 the total number of cells is nearly 20% more than in the Fig.3. The total fluid passage area of the lower-level cells is the ABCDE polygon. However. the model geometry is similar and before the Square Difference Refinement the mesh is practically the same in both cases and mostly governed by the Small Solid Features Refinement when the SSFRL exceeds the CRL. Total cells = 41376. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-27 .11 you can see a stripe of the third level cells along the cylinder. resulting in an increased number of cells.12 SSFRL = 3. in the first case the curvature criterion is lower.Fig. In the Fig. the total number of cells decreases to 40963. changing the CRL from 0 to 3 would not change substantially the number of cells.50.3.45 Total cells = 49391. CRL = 0.e. The fluid passage area of the higher-level cell is the ABDE polygon. thereby increasing the Square Difference Refinement Criterion so that the fluid passage difference (BCD) is smaller than the criterion. so the difference between the fluid passages is the yellow BCD triangle.3. decrease the number of cells in both cases.12 in spite of the fact that the Curvature refinement is disabled (CRL = 0) in the first case. and so on.11 Fig.3.3. CRC = 0. CRC = 0. In the Fig. i. and thus. resulting in a more stringent criterion of the Square Difference Refinement. there is no need to split the higher-level cell. Increase of the curvature criterion will increase the Square Difference Refinement Criterion.5054 rad). Fig.3. SSFRL = 3. Note that the Square Difference Refinement may cause a domino effect when one splitting produces cells which become lower-level cells for the next adjacent cell causing it to split too. Here. This is the result of the Square Difference Refinement and the domino effect when a cell on the cylinder edge involves the neighboring cell in the refinement procedure and so forth along the cylinder. CRL = 2.

Advanced Knowledge Mesh Diagnostic The mesh diagnostic is intended to inspect the resulting initial mesh but not to change the total number of cells.e.13 SSFRL = 1. If the angle between the normals becomes greater than 120° (121° for the 59°-cog) then the cell is split.3. solid1/solid2. namely: small solid features criterion. NCRL = 0 In Fig. Fig. or better the angle between faces. solid/porous or porous/fluid) are checked on different refinement criteria. small solid features criterion and curvature refinement criterion for porous/fluid interfaces. 2-28 . Refinements at Interfaces Between Substances Different interface types (solid/fluid. Therefore.13 the cells with the cogs of 150 and 60 degrees were not split by the small solid features refinement because the maximum angles between the faces (i. thus satisfying the 120-degree criterion. Whereas the specified refinement levels are equally applied to any interface type. respectively. To make this 120-degree criterion easier to understand. The cell with the square spike surely has to be split because the lateral faces of the spike have their normals at the angle of 180°. The normal to triangles that form the planar face is normal to the planar face too. Note that rectangular corners (like in the rightmost cell) do not satisfy the criterion and therefore will not be resolved by the small solid features refinement.3. let us consider simple small solid features of planar faces only. small solid features criterion for solid1/solid2 interfaces. tolerance refinement criterion and narrow channel refinement criterion for solid/fluid and solid/porous interfaces. instead of considering the normals to the triangles we can consider normals to faces. Small Solid Features Refinement The small solid features refinement acts on the cells where the maximum angle between normals to the surface-forming triangles is strictly greater than 120°. between normals to the triangles enclosed by the cell) are 30° and 120°. curvature refinement criterion. CRL = 0.

the SSFRL has no effect if it is smaller than the NCRL. Here. [degrees] >19 >25 >31 >36 >60 >90 >120 180 α between faces.14 SSFRL = 0.3176 0.1416 α' between normals. Table 2. the smaller the criterion. Fig. Curvature criterion. as defined by the narrow channel refinement level. the following table presents several CRC values together with the corresponding angles between normals and the angles between planar faces.Remember that if the Narrow channel refinement is enabled.0944 3. [degrees] <161 <154 <148 <143 <120 <90 <60 0 Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-29 . the maximum level to which the small solid features refinement can split the cells is set as the maximum level from the specified SSFRL and Narrow channel refinement level (NCRL). if the Narrow channel refinement is enabled. In other words.4510 0. the better resolution of the solid curvature.3.3. NCRL = 1 From Fig.0472 1. For the information about how the NCRL influences the narrow channel refinement see the Narrow Channel Refinement paragraph.5708 2.14 it is clear that the cells are split by the 120-degree criterion up to the first level. CRL = 0. To give more precise and descriptive explanation. rad 0.5548 0.6435 1. Curvature Refinement The curvature refinement works in the same manner as the small solid features refinement with the difference that the critical angle between the normals can be specified by the user (in radians) as curvature refinement criterion (CRC).1: Influence of the curvature criterion on the solid curvature resolution.

the curvature refinement has higher priority than the small solid features refinement if the curvature criterion is smaller than 2/3 π. NCRL = 0 You can see that the curvature criterion set to 0.4510 rad splits the cells with the 150-degrees cog. then all the cells where the angle between normals to the surface-forming triangles is more than 25 degrees will be split. the advantage of the small solid features refinement is that being sensitive to relatively small geometry features it does not “notice” the large-scale curvatures. NCRL = 0 Fig. Nevertheless. the default curvature criterion values are small enough to resolve obtuse angles and curvature well. the curvature refinement can be used to resolve the large-scale curvatures. SSFRL = 0.0944 rad (2/3π).451. However. CRC = 0.3. if you did not set the CRC greater than 2/3 π and if the SSFRL and NCRL are smaller than the CRL.15 CRL = 1. thus avoiding refinements in the entire computational domain but resolving only the areas of small features. so the smaller CRC. then the small solid feature refinement would be idle. So both the refinements have their own coverage providing a flexible tool for creating an optimal mesh.Advanced Knowledge The table states that if the CRC is equal to 0. The curvature criterion also denotes the criterion of the Square Difference Refinement. At the same time. resulting in a greater number of cells appearing after the Square Difference Refinement. Note that the curvature refinement works exactly as the small solid features refinement when the curvature criterion is equal to 2. Increasing the curvature criterion is reasonable if you want to avoid superfluous refinement but it is recommended that you try different criteria to find the most appropriate one. CRC = 0.3. The square difference refinement criterion is directly proportional to the CRC. In other words.4510 rad. Fig. the smaller square difference refinement criterion.5548.16 CRL = 1. 2-30 . SSFRL = 0. SSFRL or CRL Why is it necessary to have two criteria? As you can see. Note that Flow Simulation-specified values of the curvature criterion are always smaller than 2/3 π.

face. edge or vertex. A cell will be split if the distance between the outermost point of the surface within the cell and the polygon approximating this surface is larger than the specified criterion value. The refinement level of cells of a specific type (all cells. If a cell intersects with different local mesh setting regions. Small Solid Feature Refinement (refinement occurs regardless of the feature’s size) Tolerance Refinement Tolerance criterion = 0. Cell Type Refinement. the refinement settings in this cell will be used to achieve the maximum refinement. but are basic mesh sensitive in that all refinement levels are set with respect to the basic mesh cell.03 Local Mesh Settings The local mesh settings influence only the initial mesh and do not affect the basic mesh in the local area.1 Refines cells only if the solid part cut by the polygon is large enough (h > 0. The tolerance refinement criterion controls the precision of this approximation. The local mesh settings are applied to the cells intersected with the local mesh region which can be represented by a component. This approach accurately represents flat faces though curved surfaces are represented by some approximation (e. as a circle can be represented by a polygon). Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-31 .1) Tolerance criterion = 0.08 Tolerance Refinement Curvature Refinement (refinement occurs regardless of the curvature only) Tolerance criterion = 0. or only partial cells) denotes the minimum level to which the corresponding cells must be split if it doesn’t contradict the Cell Mating rule. solid and partial cells.g.1 Tolerance criterion = 0.Tolerance Refinement Any surface is approximated by a set of polygons which vertices are the points of intersection of this surface with the cells' edges. fluid and partial cells.

The "Optimize thin walls resolution" option In the earlier versions of Flow Simulation refinement of the mesh around model's walls was needed to resolve thin walls properly. (see Fig.3. If different cell types are to be refined.e.17 Mesh refinement around a thin wall: (a) the Optimize thin walls resolution option is switched off. 2-32 . i. especially in narrow channels between walls. Therefore. the refinement level of partial cells is set as the maximum level among all selected levels. Narrow channels refinement or Solid Boundary Refinement.17).Advanced Knowledge The minimum level means the lower bound to which it is obligatory to split cells. The local mesh settings have higher priority over the initial mesh settings. but it could also lead to increase in number of cells in adjacent fluid regions. (b) the Optimize thin walls resolution option is selected (the default state). clear the Optimize thin walls resolution check box. CRL and NCRL (specified in the Initial Mesh dialog box). This. solid/fluid interfaces (a) (b) Fig. though the cells can be split further if it is required to satisfy the other criteria such as Small solid features refinement. the mesh cells are split as in the previous versions of Flow Simulation. If this additional mesh refinement is critical for obtaining proper results and you want to perform calculation on the same mesh as in the earlier version of Flow Simulation.e. however. i. the local mesh cells will be split to the specified local refinement levels regardless of the general SSFRL. Curvature refinement. may cause refinement of cells located outside of the local region due to imposing the Cell Mating rule. In this case the mesh will be almost the same as in the early versions.3. the mesh cells are not split.

Y and Z directions. CRL – Curvature refinement level. • saving of the results during the calculation. In general. CRC – Curvature refinement criterion. SDRC – Square difference refinement criterion. Ny. • refinement of the computational mesh during the calculation. 4 Calculation Control Options Introduction The Calculation Control Options dialog box introduced into Flow Simulation allows you to control: • conditions of finishing the calculation. • freezing the flow calculation. • time step for a time-dependent analysis. try different mesh settings and analyze the obtained results carefully in order to understand whether it is necessary to refine the mesh or a coarser resolution is acceptable for the desired accuracy. When performing a calculation. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-33 . CNC – Characteristic number of cells across a narrow channel. TRL – Tolerance refinement level. TRC – Tolerance refinement criterion.Postamble The problem of resolving a model with the computational mesh is always model-specific. NCRL – Narrow channel refinement level. a denser mesh will provide better accuracy but you should tend to create an optimal mesh and to avoid redundant refinement. Nz – Number of basic mesh cells per X. SSFRL – Small solid features refinement level. NCHmax – The maximum height of narrow channels. respectively. NCHmin – The minimum height of narrow channels. Glossary Nx.

In any case. for the maximum number of travels and the Goals convergence settings) Flow Simulation presents their default values (details are described below). You can also select the superposition mode for multiple finishing conditions in the Finish Conditions value cell: either to finish the calculation when all the selected finishing conditions are satisfied or when at least one of them is satisfied. • maximum physical time (for time-dependent problems only). • maximum number of iterations.. including steady-state cases. • maximum number of travels. For the latter two conditions (i. The following finishing conditions are offered by Flow Simulation: • maximum number of refinements. • maximum CPU time. For such cases it is necessary to recognize the moment when a steady-state solution is attained and therefore the calculation should be finished. and specify their values.Advanced Knowledge • number of rays traced from the surface if radiating heat transfer is enabled. This dialog box is accessible both before the calculation and during the calculation. 2-34 . information on the finishing conditions due to which the calculation has finished is shown in the Monitor’s Log box. The main information on employing the options of Finishing the calculation and Refining the computational mesh during calculation is presented in this document. In the last case the new-made settings are applied to the current calculation starting from the next iteration. Travel is the number of iterations required for the propagation of a disturbance over the whole computational domain.e. In Flow Simulation you can select the finishing conditions that are most appropriate from your viewpoint to solve the problem under consideration. Current number of iterations per one travel is presented in the Info box of the Calculation monitor. • convergence of the Goals. Finishing the Calculation Flow Simulation solves the time-dependent set of equations for all problems. A set of independent finishing conditions offered by Flow Simulation allow the user to select the most appropriate conditions and criteria on when to stop the calculation.

Total Pressure. which are not shown in the Calculation Control Options dialog box.. incompressible liquid or compressible gas. A specified Goal criterion includes a specified dispersion. Dynamic Pressure. can change during it.e. low or high Mach number gas flow. time-dependent or steady-state). Let us consider the Flow Simulation default values for the maximum number of travels and the Goals convergence settings in detail. but. As soon as the Goal dispersion obtained in the calculation becomes lower than the specified dispersion. instead. Volume Flow Rate. Heat transfer rate. which is the difference between the maximum and minimum values of the Goal. which is shown in the Finish tab of the Calculation Control Options dialog box. moreover. As soon as all Goals included in the Goals convergence finishing condition (by selecting them in the On/Off column) have converged. after an automatically or manually specified relaxation period (in travels or in iterations) since the last mesh refinement is reached. the Goals criterion dispersion values specified manually do not change during the calculation. • the specified Result resolution level. the Goal is considered converged. The Dynamic goals are: Static Pressure. The default Goals convergence settings are the default analysis interval. In contrast. if refinement of the computational mesh during calculation is enabled. dynamic or diffusive. Density. Concentrations. see below). and Volume Flow Rate of species. Mass Flow Rate of species. The default maximum number of travels depends on • the type of the specified Goal (i. Mass Flow Rate. The interval is taken from the last iteration rearwards and is the same for all specified Goals. • the problem's type (i. the dispersion) is determined.. and a specified analysis interval over which this difference (i. and the default Goals criterion dispersion values.e.. Mass in Volume. These default (recommended by Flow Simulation) values depend on the Result resolution level either specified in the Wizard or changed by pressing the Reset button in the Calculation Control Options dialog box. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-35 . Forces. i. The Diffusive goals are: Temperature. this condition is considered satisfied. The Goals not included into the Goals convergence finishing condition are used for information only. are shown in the Monitor’s Goal Table or Goal Plot table (in the Criteria column). with no influence on the calculation finishing conditions. and. Heat flux.e.e. since they depend on the values of the Goal physical parameter calculated in the computational domain.The Goals convergence finishing condition is complex since it consists of satisfying all the specified Goals criteria. and Velocity. For higher Result resolution levels the finishing conditions are tighter.. and therefore are not known before the calculation and. The analysis interval is applied after an automatically specified initial calculation period (in travels).

The following three strategies are available: • Periodic refinement. As a result.Advanced Knowledge As for the automatically specified initial calculation period (measured in travels). Therefore. a period of at least two relaxation intervals is recommended before the first refinement. respectively. especially integral ones. On the other hand. the period over which the gradients are analyzed is 2-36 . which is calculated from the current moment rearwards. in some cases. • the Goals determined on solid/fluid interfaces or model openings. Refinement of the Computational Mesh During Calculation Refinement of the computational mesh during calculation is a process of splitting or merging of the computational mesh cells in high-gradient flow areas. • Manual Only refinement. In the first two strategies the refinement moment is known beforehand. let us consider the Refinement Strategy for transient analysis in detail. as well as the Post-processor Surface Parameters. • Global Goals yield the most reliable information on flow or solid parameters. in order to avoid taking into account the initial highly unsteady period. Here. the Goal type. • Surface and Volume Goals provide exactly the same information that may be obtained via the Surface and Volume Parameters Post-processor features. yield the most accurate and correct numerical information on flow or solid parameters. If the first assigned refinement is scheduled in a shorter term from the beginning. The solution gradients are analyzed over iterations belonging to the Relaxation interval. • approximate maximum number of cells. and the specified Result resolution level. only steady-state gradients are taken into account. • strategy of refinements during the calculation. it depends on the problem type. vary substantially in the case of presence of a Surface Goal. The first two parameters are described in Flow Simulation Help. • the CPU time depends slightly on the number of the specified Goals. but. although they may be too general. the analysis must not continue with the same relaxation interval defined from the start of the calculation. The default length of the Relaxation interval can be adjusted manually. This option has the following governing parameters: • refinement level. • Tabular Refinement. • the manually specified analysis interval for the Goals convergence finishing criteria must be substantially longer than the typical period of the flow field oscillation (if it occurs).

Case 3 demonstrates the possible error of performing manual and previously assigned refinements concurrently.shortened accordingly. In the Case 2 the first refinement is too close to the starting point of the calculation. Auto ref. Fig. the letter r denotes the relaxation interval. Here. but on the other hand. the manual refinement is well-defined. point 1 r2 Manual ref. Case 3 is a particular case when a refinement is initiated manually just before a previously assigned refinement. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-37 . the previously assigned refinement is performed on the substantially shorter interval. point 1 Case 2 r 0 Case 3 r r1 Ref. As a result. Collecting of the statistics is prohibited Statistics are collected Refinement Case 1 r r 0 Ref. Case 1 is the recommended normal approach. The figure below illustrates these concepts. so that in the extreme case it can be as short as one current iteration. Naturally. and therefore its action can be incorrect. If you initiate a refinement manually within this period. This figure involves both Periodic and Tabular refinements. since the gradients have been analyzed over almost the entire relaxation interval. such a short period give not very reliable gradients and hence may result in an inadequate solution or excessive CPU time and memory requirements.4. point 2 Ref. so the gradients are analyzed over the shorter interval (which could even be reduced to only one current iteration in the extreme case).1 Refinement strategy. the gradients are analyzed in one current iteration only.

a reasonable approach is to stop the calculation of the fastest process (which is fully developed by that time and does not change further) and use its results to continue the calculation of the slower processes. 2-38 . This option has three modes: Disabled (by default). or fix. As a result. Flow Simulation treats Flow Freezing for the High Mach number flows differently. This option is especially useful in solving steady-state problems involving diffusion processes that are important from the user’s viewpoint. Such an approach is called “freezing”. open the Calculation Control Options dialog box. If the difference in rates is substantial (10 times or higher) then the CPU time required to solve the problem is governed almost exclusively by the slower process. All flow parameters are frozen. If custom time step is not specified. Flow Simulation offers the “Flow Freezing” option that allow you to freeze. momentum. It is impossible (and makes no sense) to use Flow Freezing for calculation of concentration propagation in the High Mach number flow. Accordingly. the steady-state temperature of solid will be reached in one time step assumed to be infinite. Time-dependent analyses with nearly steady-state velocity fields and diffusion processes developing with time are also examples of this class of problems. How It Works To access the Flow Freezing option. and energy transfer by diffusion are the slowest ones. momentum. species or heat propagation in dead zones of the flow. To reduce the CPU time. whereas the processes of mass. Periodic.g. In the case of problems solved with Flow Simulation the processes of convective mass. the pressure and velocity field while continuing the calculation of temperature and composition. and Permanent. e. Temperature change on the solid's surface and relevant variation of the heat flows are accounted in the boundary layer only. and energy transport are the fastest processes to develop and to converge. the CPU time for solving such problems can be substantially reduced by applying the Flow Freezing option. then the Advanced tab.Advanced Knowledge 5 Flow Freezing What is Flow Freezing? Sometimes it is necessary to solve a problem that deals with different processes developing at substantially different rates. but the temperature of the solid is calculated using these fixed parameters at the outer of the boundary layer and user defined time step.

Flow Freezing in a Permanent Mode As an example of applying the Flow Freezing option. The only user-specified parameter in Permanent mode is the starting moment of enabling the Flow Freezing option. it is no longer calculated. as well as other parameters of the Calculation Control Options dialog box can be changed during a calculation. First of all. the minimum fluid temperature in this region) is the Volume Goal of the calculation..5.e.25 travels is required to satisfy this condition. After this moment the fluid velocity field becomes frozen. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-39 . a small body is placed at the vortex center and disabled in the Component Control dialog box. The vortex core temperature is changed mainly due to heat diffusion. As a rule. Until this moment the calculation runs in a usual manner. Its minimum temperature (i. A hot (T=400K) liquid enters the vessel through the lower channel (the upper channel is the exit). an initial period of not less than 0. The Flow Freezing Start moment.1 Heating the vortex core in a vessel.e. let us consider a plane flow (2D) problem of heating the vortex core in a vessel (Fig. The starting moment of the Flow Freezing option should be set not too early in order to let the flow field to fully develop.1). but there are problems that require a longer initial period. In most problems the 0. but is taken from the last iteration performed just before the Flow Freezing Start moment. To measure it. a vortex with a cold core is developed in the vessel. For the remainder of the run only the equations’ terms concerning heat conduction and diffusion are calculated.. so that it is treated by Flow Simulation as a fluid region. At the beginning the entire fluid region is filled with a cold (T=300 K) liquid. As a result. As a result. let us consider Flow Freezing operating in the Permanent mode. i.5.5 travel initial period is sufficient. Fig. the CPU time required per iteration is reduced.

so both the velocity and the temperature (concentrations) change simultaneously throughout the calculation. If you forget to use the calculated results as initial conditions. the Flow Freezing option can be used in a Periodic mode to reduce the CPU time required for solving such problems. therefore approaching its steady state solution earlier. but different temperatures and/or species concentrations. only the slowest processes are calculated. and perform the remaining calculations for these projects using the calculated results as initial conditions and applying the Flow Freezing option in the Permanent mode with a zero Start period. to avoid obtaining incorrect results when enabling the Flow Freezing option. make the required changes to these projects. The Periodic mode of the Flow Freezing option consists of calculating the velocity field not in each of the iterations (time steps).e.e. If it is necessary to perform several calculations with the same fluid velocity field.5 travels) the same calculation requires substantially less time on the same computer to reach the convergence of the project Goal. Therefore. by applying the Flow Freezing option in the Permanent mode (just after 0.5…5 times compared to the number that was set automatically or required for the calculation performed without the Flow Freezing option.5. As a result.. select the Transferred type of Parameter definition for the initial conditions in the General Settings dialog box. it is recommended to increase the maximum number of travels specified at the Finish tab of the Calculation Control Options dialog box by 1. Nevertheless. i. The calculation performed without applying the Flow Freezing option then required about 10 travels to reach the convergence of the project Goal (the steady-state minimum fluid temperature in the vortex core).. Flow Freezing in a Periodic Mode In some problems the flow field depends on temperature (or species concentrations).2) The 2-40 . clone the Flow Simulation project into several projects (including copying the calculation results). it is expedient to first calculate this fluid velocity field without applying the Flow Freezing option.5 travels. then the saved fluid velocity field will be lost in the cloned project. the convergence and finishing criteria can become non-optimal. However. the steady-state fluid velocity field was reached in about 0. Then. since they change in a different manner. So. but periodically for a number of iterations specified in No freezing (iterations) after a period of freezing specified in the Freezing (iterations) (see Fig. i. To use the calculated results as initial conditions for the current project. When first solving the problem under consideration we set the maximum number of travels to 10. so the project must be created again.Advanced Knowledge As soon as the Flow Freezing option is invoked. the velocity field changes faster than the temperature (concentrations) field. substantially earlier.

the wire frame is the computational domain.2 As an example. we set the outlet air temperature to T = 400 K. As a result.3. so the velocity field depends on the fluid temperature. let us consider a 3D external problem of an air jet outflow from a body face into still air (see Fig. which is equal to the environment temperature) air jet.25 travels (in order for the heat to have time to propagate along the jet to the measuring face) and under Duration specify 10 as both the Freezing (iterations) and No freezing (iterations) values. Fig. where due to the buoyancy the hot fluid rises. Examples include channel flows with specified mass flow rates and pressures. specify the Periodic mode of the Flow Freezing option by its Start moment of 0. in which the jet outflow face is marked by a red line). The other body seen in this figure is introduced and disabled in the Component Control dialog box (so it is a fluid region) in order to see the air temperature averaged over its face (the project Goal).5. Here. or flows involving free convection. Next.3 Air jet outflow from a body face into a still air. the calculation is performed for the cold (T = 300 K.5. depending on the air temperature specified at the jet outflow face. This problem is solved in several stages. Then we clone the project including copying the results.temperatures and concentrations are calculated in each iteration. velocity depend on the fluid temperature. therefore.5. the calculation with flow freezing takes less CPU time than the similar calculation without the Flow Freezing option enabled. At the first stage. No Freezing Start Iterations Freezing Fig. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 2-41 . Then perform the calculation on the same computational mesh with the Take previous results option in the Run box. so the fluid density and.

Advanced Knowledge 2-42 .

The deleterious effects of cavitation include: lowered performance. Steam. such as the fuel spray formation in diesel and gasoline engines. It has the capability to account for the thermal effects. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-1 . and some examples of the feature’s application for solving engineering problems. 1 Cavitation Cavitation is a common problem for many engineering devices in which the fluid is in liquid state. load asymmetry. cavitation is also used in some industrial processes. vibration and noise. Fluid density is defined by the barotropic equation of state.3 Advanced Features Guide This chapter gives an overview of the advanced physical simulation features available in Flow Simulation such as Cavitation. a full description of all interface options and settings you need to set to include the feature into the analysis. • Isothermal cavitation model: This model is based on the approach considering isothermal two-phase flows. The provided information includes a general description of the feature. However. The following models of cavitation are available in Flow Simulation: • Engineering cavitation model (for pre-defined water only): This model employs a homogeneous equilibrium approach and is available for pre-defined water only. and reduction of the overall machine life. the assumptions and limitations of the employed physical model. Humidity and Real Gases. The isothermal cavitation model is only available for user-defined incompressible liquids. erosion and pitting of blade surfaces.

• The model does not describe the detailed structure of the cavitation area. • The volume fraction of vapour is limited by 0.. 800 < P < 107 Pa. Carbon dioxide. the non-condensable gas is Air and the mass fraction is set to 10 -4.Advanced Features Guide Physical model Engineering Cavitation Model The homogeneous equilibrium approach is employed. • The liquid phase is an incompressible fluid.e parameters of individual vapour bubbles are not considered. The dissolved gas mass fraction is a constant. i.95. • The fluid contains non-condensable (dissolved) gas. One of the four gases can be used as dissolved gas: Air. but it can be modified by the user in the range of 10-3. This is a typical model value appropriated in most cases but it can be modified by the user in the range of 10-2. By default. the mass fraction of the dissolved non-condensable gas is set to 10-4. The model has the following limitations and/or assumptions: • The properties of the dissolved non-condensable gas are set to be equal to those of air. The vapour mass fraction is defined at the local equilibrium thermodynamic conditions. Helium and Methane. It is applicable for a variety of important industrial processes. The fluid is assumed to be a homogeneous gas-liquid mixture with the gaseous phase consisting of the vapour and non-condensable (dissolved) gas.10-5. 3-2 . • For mixtures of different liquids the cavitation option cannot be selected. which can be modified by user..15 K. • When liquid turns into vapour completely the vapour and non-condensable gas density is defined by the ideal gas law. In the isothermal cavitation model the following assumptions are made: • The fluid temperature is constant and the thermal effects are not considered. • The velocities and temperatures of the gaseous (including vapour and non-condensable gas) and liquid phases are assumed to be the same. The parameters of the flow at the inlet boundary conditions must satisfy this requirement. By default...10-6. • The fluid density is defined by the barotropic equation of state. • The temperature and pressure ranges in the cavitation area must be within the following bounds: 280 < T < 583. Isothermal Cavitation Model This model provides a capability to analyze two-phase flows of industrial liquids which thermophysical properties are not described in details.

Engineering cavitation model becomes available when you select pre-defined Water as the project’s Default fluid. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-3 .Interface Isothermal cavitation model can be employed for any user-defined incompressible Liquid in the Engineering Database by selecting the Cavitation effect check box and specifying the Molar mass of the liquid and the Saturation pressure at the specific Temperature. Cavitation option in Flow Simulation is switched on by selecting the Cavitation check box under Flow Characteristic either in the Default Fluid dialog of the Wizard or the Fluids dialog of General Settings.

Once enabled. This is a typical value under normal conditions and appropriate in most cases.10-6 for each gas which can be selected as the dissolved gas: Air. which corresponds to the local mass or volume fraction of the vapour component. the Cavitation option requires you to specify the Dissolved gas mass fraction. If needed. Helium or Methane.10-5 and for a user-defined liquid in the range of 10-2. Carbon dioxide.Advanced Features Guide For a fluid subdomain the Cavitation option is switched on under Flow Characteristic of the Fluid Subdomain dialog. For the pre-defined water the default value of this parameter is 10-4. Cavitation is represented in the calculation results via the following parameters: Mass Fraction of Vapour and Volume Fraction of Vapour. Make sure that those parameters are enabled in the Parameter list to make them available for selection in the View Settings dialog. For a user-defined liquid the default Dissolved gas is Air and the default value of the Dissolved gas mass fraction is 10-4. for the pre-defined water you can specify a different value of the Dissolved gas mass fraction in the range of 10-3.. 3-4 .. This value is typical for air dissolved in water under normal conditions and therefore is appropriate for most cases...

2 contains a representation of the calculated cavitation area visualized in terms of Volume Fraction of Vapour. Fig.1 Isosurfaces for vapour volume fraction of 10%. Due to the pressure drop on the suction side of the impeller blades.1. as shown on the picture. Obviously.1. The aim of simulation is to predict the impeller characteristics. a cavitation may develop in these areas.1. The appearance of the calculated cavitation area in the form of isosurfaces is shown below on Fig. water flow develops some pressure drop on the upper surface of the hydrofoil. Hydrofoil in a tunnel A symmetric hydrofoil is placed with a non-zero angle of attack in a sufficiently wide water-filled tunnel. 3-5 . Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 Fig.1.1.2 Calculated cavitation area. which can lead to cavitation under certain conditions.Examples of use Rotating impeller Water flows through a rotating impeller with five blades of a curved shape. which cannot but affect the impeller performance. Fig.

Fig.4 Distribution of the vapour volume fraction.3) at the relatively low pressure and high velocity producing cavitation.1. 3-6 .3 Model of the ball valve.1.1. The results visualized in the form of Cut plot with Volume Fraction of Vapour as displayed parameter are presented on Fig. Fig. It is clearly seen that sudden expansion of the flow produces an area of strong cavitation.Advanced Features Guide Ball valve Water flows inside an half-opened ball valve (see Fig.4.1.

1. When a high velocity fluid passes through a contraction like a nozzle. an area of low pressure is formed in the wake of its edge.5 Model of the throttle.1. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-7 .1. In this wake the pressure can decrease below the saturation pressure.6. The results visualized in the form of Cut plot with Volume Fraction of Vapour as displayed parameter are presented on Fig.Throttle flow Diesel fuel flows through a throttle (see Fig. The red color indicates the region of high vapor fraction. Fig.5) under a relatively high difference between the injection pressure and back pressure.6 Distribution of the vapour volume fraction. and thus cause the liquid to cavitate.1. Nozzle wall Fig.

To avoid this. • Besides the Volume Fraction of Vapour you can also select Density as the visualization parameter to see the cavitation areas in your simulation. • Cavitation area growths slowly during calculation and there is a risk that the calculation will stop before the cavitation area develops completely. • The fluid region where cavitation occurs must be well resolved by the computational mesh. The easiest way to ensure this is to select If all are satisfied in the Value cell for the Finish conditions on the Finish tab of the Calculation Control Options dialog box. specify Global Goal of Average Density and increase the Analysis interval on the Finish tab of the Calculation Control Options dialog box. • The Cavitation option is not applicable if you calculate a flow in the model without flow openings (inlet and outlet). it is recommended to use the Engineering cavitation model.Advanced Features Guide Recommendations • If you analyze a flow of water in some points of which the local static pressure can reach the saturation pressure at the local temperature causing cavitation or if a vaporization of water can occur in the water flow due to intense heating. 3-8 . Also make sure that the other finish conditions do not cause the calculation to stop before goals are converged.

the two can not be employed simultaneously. P < 107 Pa. In this case. Steam may be assigned for a fluid subdomain as well as for the whole project. the Steam option may be used to analyze engineering problems concerning water vapour and its volume condensation. Steam option in Flow Simulation describes the behavior of pure water steam or its mixtures with other gases. Interface Steam is treated by Flow Simulation as a special kind of fluid and may be selected from the Engineering Database just like any other fluid. • Steam option is incompatible with the High Mach number flow option. Limitations and Assumptions The model has the following limitations and/or assumptions: • Flow Simulation project may include pure Steam or its mixture with Gases (but not with Real gases). Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-9 . along with the corresponding changes in the physical properties of the project fluid. i.e. as well as in all boundary conditions. • The employed model of condensation is fully equilibrium and considers only volume condensation. Steam may be mixed with any regular Gases (but not with Real gases).2 Steam Physical model Flow Simulation allows you to consider water steam among the project fluids. its concentration in a form of mass or volume fraction must be specified in Initial conditions. • The volume fraction of condensed water should never exceed 5%. Like Humidity. • Thermodynamic parameters of steam should be contained within the following bounds: 283 < T < 610 K.

is represented via Mass Fraction of Condensate (that represents mass fraction of condensed steam in the fluid) and Moisture Content (that represents the fraction of condensed steam with respect to the overall content of steam). always specify some goal strongly dependent on condensation. The content of particular form of water. Outlet Inlet Fig. vapor or liquid. i. 3-10 .e. Example of use Heat exchanger Flow Simulation calculates the equilibrium condensation in water steam as steam flows through a cooled tube of a heat exchanger. you may use Relative Humidity or the Condensate Mass Fraction as the parameter for visualization.Advanced Features Guide Steam content in the mixtures of water steam with other gases is represented in the calculation results via Mass Fraction of Water (that represent mass fraction of water wapour) and Relative Humidity (which is the ratio of the local partial density of water to the density of saturated water vapor under current conditions). • To see the condensation areas.2.2.1 shows cut plot of the condensate mass fraction parameter. for example Global Goal of Average Density. Note that you may need to check some of those parameters in the Parameter list to enable their selection in the View Settings window. and make sure that the calculation will not stop before this goal is converged. Fig.1 Cut plot showing the condensate mass fraction. Recommendations • To avoid the risk of finishing the calculation before the condensation develops completely.

• The volume fraction of condensed water should never exceed 5%.e. In other words. the state of condensed steam at given point is governed solely by the local conditions at this point. This allows you to analyze engineering problems where the condensation of water vapor contained in the air (or other gas).e. libraries. • Humidity option is incompatible with the High Mach number flow option. P < 107 Pa. steam turbines and other kinds of industrial equipment. the formation of dew on solid surfaces. Flow Simulation can calculate equilibrium volume (but not surface) condensation of steam into water. enthalpy. art museums. • Thermodynamic parameters in the fluid areas where humidity is considered should be contained within the following bounds: 283 < T < 610 K. is not considered. • Surface condensation. • The condensed steam has no history. Examples may include air conditioning systems (especially in wet climate or in the places where relative humidity is very important. and sonic velocity are determined and taken into account. Limitations and Assumptions The model has the following limitations and/or assumptions: • Humidity is currently available only in Gases (both in individual gases and in mixtures). i. the two can not be employed simultaneously. the corresponding changes of the fluid temperature. specific heat. e. As a result. etc. density. i. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-11 . where any differences in physical properties of wet and dry air play an important role.3 Humidity Physical model Flow Simulation allows you to consider the relative humidity of the gas or mixture of gases. tank steamers. more generally speaking. since the employed condensation model is fully equilibrium. or. but not in Real gases.g. In addition.). the local fractions of gaseous and condensed steam are determined. • The model does not describe the condensation process in as subtle detail as the parameters of individual liquid droplets.

Humidity can be assigned for a fluid subdomain as well as for the whole project by selecting the check box of the same name. 3-12 . becomes available to specify in the Humidity Parameters group box. once assigned. and. Once Humidity is switched on. This check box is present only if the current fluid type is set to Gases. the relative humidity of the gas becomes available to specify in the Initial conditions window. The relative humidity must be specified within all boundary and initial conditions in contact with the fluid region for which the calculation of relative humidity is performed. The relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the current water vapor density to that of saturated water vapor under current conditions.Advanced Features Guide Interface Humidity option in Flow Simulation is switched on by checking the Humidity check box either in Wizard or in the General Settings window.

i.Together with the humidity value for boundary and initial conditions you must also specify the values of Humidity reference pressure and Humidity reference temperature that describe the conditions under which the relative humidity has been determined.e. Heat Boundary condition Humidity is represented in the calculation results via the following parameters: Mass Fraction of Water (that represent mass fraction of water wapour) and Relative Humidity (which is the ratio of the local partial density of water to the density of saturated water vapor under current conditions). Note that you may need to check some of those parameters in the Parameter list to enable their selection in the View Settings window. The content of particular form of water. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-13 . since these values may differ from the current pressure and temperature. vapor or liquid. is represented via Mass Fraction of Condensate (that represents mass fraction of water condensate in the fluid) and Moisture Content (that represents the fraction of condensed water with respect to the overall content of water).

Naturally. Fig. Fig. you may use Relative Humidity or the Condensate Mass Fraction as the parameter for visualization.2 Isosurfaces of condensate mass fraction = 0.3.3. • To see the condensation areas. 3-14 .00015 Recommendations • If your analyze a flow of gas containing some amount of water vapor and the conditions are likely to get over the dew point.Advanced Features Guide Example of use Aircraft An air flow around an aircraft model can be simulated with the Humidity option selected.3. • To avoid the risk of finishing the calculation before the condensation develops completely. The examination of relative humidity distribution (Fig.1 Flow trajectories colored in accordance with relative humidity.1) reveals broad areas of more than 80% relative humidity from above of both wings. always specify some goal strongly dependent on condensation. it is recommended to consider humidity in the calculation as described in this chapter. as it may be seen on Fig. for example Global Goal of Average Density. these areas (together with smaller zones near the cockpit and the tail unit) are enriched with water condensate. and make sure that the calculation will not stop before this goal is converged.2.3.

with comment: P < Pmin. (Each predefined real gas has its own values of Pmin. Pmax.8 is: Real gas parameters (pressure and/or temperature) are outside the definitional domain of substance properties. T < Tmin. The warning for zone 9 is: Phase transition in the Real gas may occur. i. P > Pmax. Flow Simulation issues a warning. Tmin. at conditions where the behavior of the gas can no longer be represented adequately by the ideal-gas state equation. 11 and 12. and those are also to be specified for a user-defined real gas. or T > Tmax . Naturally. The model of real gas implemented in Flow Simulation employs a custom modification of the Redlich-Kwong state equation. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-15 . and Tmax.) If the calculated pressure and/or temperature fall outside of this area. A wide choice of predefined real gases is presented. which are explained on the picture below: Supercritical Liquid Vapor The area of validity of the model includes zones 10. the equation unavoidably has certain bounds of applicability. The user may also create user-defined real gases by specifying their parameters. This option may be useful in the engineering problems concerning gases at nearly-condensation temperatures and/or at nearly-critical and supercritical pressures. depending on what has actually happen. The warning for zones 1 .4 Real Gases Physical model Flow Simulation has an ability to consider real gases.e.

Real gases may be mixed with regular Gases (though not with each other). • Pressure and temperature of real gas should be contained within certain limits (those are specified individually for each of the predefined real gases). Real gas may be assigned for a fluid subdomain as well as for the whole project. as well as in all boundary conditions.Advanced Features Guide Limitations and Assumptions The model has the following limitations and/or assumptions: • Real gas may be used in a Flow Simulation project as pure fluid or in mixture with Gases (but not with other Real gases). In this case. substance concentrations in a form of mass or volume fractions must be specified in Initial conditions. • The copying of pre-defined real gases to user-defined folder is impossible since the employed models are not exactly similar. The calculations involving user-defined real gases at supercritical pressures are not recommended. • Real gas should not be put under conditions that cause its condensation into liquid. 3-16 . Interface Real gases are a special type of fluids and may be selected from the Engineering Database along with other fluids. • The precision of calculation of thermodynamic properties at nearly-critical temperatures and supercritical pressures may be lowered to some extent in comparison to other parameter ranges. • The use of real gas is incompatible with the High Mach number flow option.

the corresponding upper margin. • Critical temperature Tc. i. • Vapor thermal conductivity dependence on temperature. the original one or its modifications by Wilson.e. • Polarity (check if the gas in question has polar molecules). • Maximum temperature.e. • Redlich-Kwong equation type that should be used. i. the lower margin of validity of the model. Barnes-King. the order of polynomial function of temperature that defines the "ideal-gas" constituent of the real gas specific heat at constant pressure. • Vapor viscosity dependence on temperature. • Order of ideal gas heat capacity polynomial. which includes the coefficients a and n and the choice of dependency type between linear λ = a+n·T and power-law λ = a·Tn forms.e. • Critical compressibility factor Zc. • Coefficients of ideal gas heat capacity polynomial. • Liquid viscosity dependence on temperature. which includes the coefficients a and n and the choice of dependency type between power-law η = a·Tn and exponential η = 10a(1/T-1/n) forms.e. the coefficients a and n in the equation describing vapor viscosity as η = a·Tn. i. i. or Soave. • Minimum temperature. • Acentric factor ω (if applicable).e. i. the user must create a new item in the corresponding folder in the Engineering Database and specify the following parameters: • Molar mass.e. the coefficients of the aforementioned polynomial.To create a user-defined real gas. i. • Critical pressure pc. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-17 .

or Out of range. This is an expected behavior of an ideal gas. 3-18 . which may be Vapor. results in the temperature distribution shown on Fig. The calculation within ideal gas approximation. Once selected. their values at low-pressure limit.e. it renders inaccessible the Palette and Min/Max settings within the Color Bar dialog and replaces the Color bar with the schematic phase diagram that provides an explanation of meaning of particular colors. Example of use Joule-Thomson effect A flow of nitrogen through a tube containing narrow restriction is simulated.4. Liquid. It is clearly seen that the temperature of the gas. The latter parameter represents the local phase state of real gas. To reduce computation time. Fig.Advanced Features Guide • Liquid thermal conductivity dependence on temperature. later reinstates its initial value.e. Note that the foregoing dependencies for the specific heat and transport properties cover only the ’ideal-gas’ constituents of the corresponding properties.1. as shown on the picture. which includes the coefficients a and n and the choice of dependency type between linear λ = a+n·T and power-law λ = a·Tn forms. except those for the exponential form of dynamic viscosity of the liquid. after undergoing a noticeable drop while passing through the hole. The post-processor display parameters concerning real gas includes its mass and volume fractions in a mixture (if it is not a sole component of the fluid) and the Real Gas State. Supercritical. which should be taken exclusively from Ref. as its enthalpy does not depend on pressure. with nitrogen selected from Gases as the project fluid. The coefficients of the user-specified dependencies for thermophysical properties should be entered only in SI unit system. i. the tube was split in halves by a symmetry plane and Symmetry condition was applied to the corresponding boundary of the Computational Domain.1 Field of temperatures for a flow of ideal gas. i.4. and the actual formulae contain pressure-dependent corrections which are calculated automatically. 1.

The calculation was repeated with fluid changed to nitrogen selected from Real Gases and all other conditions similar. Poling. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-19 . NY. USA. Hence we may conclude that the real gas reveals a nonzero Joule-Thomson effect.C. Reid.2 Field of temperatures for a flow of real gas. as expected. Fig. • The user-specified dependencies for the specific heat and transport properties of the user-defined real gases should be valid in the whole temperature range from Tmin to Tmax (or.E... The properties of gases and liquids. in the whole temperature range where the liquid exists). Recommendations • Minimum temperature for user-defined real gas should be set at least 5.M. 4th edition. • Maximum temperature for user-defined real gas should be set so as to keep away from the area of dissociation of the gas. J.2). McGraw-Hill Inc. Now the gas temperature at outlet is different from that at inlet (see Fig. 1987.4. References 1 R.10 K higher than the triple point of the actual substance. B.4. Prausnitz. as for liquid..

Depending on the model geometry. If you consider gravitational effects in your analysis. • Local regions of rotation. All non-rotating components within a rotating reference frame must be axisymmetrical with respect to the selected rotation axis. Please note that even in case of time-dependent (transient) analysis the flow parameters within a rotating referrence frame are calculated using a steady-state approach and averaged at the rotating refrence frame boundaries. This option allows to specify multiple local rotating coordinate systems within the model. you can choose one of the following two options to simulate your rotating equipment: • Global rotating reference frame. You can specify some model components within a global rotating reference frame or local rotating region as non-rotating by applying the Stator wall Boundary Condition to the components surfaces. the rotation axis must be parallel to the gravity vector. With this option you can simulate rotation of specific model components and non-rotating model components outside rotating regions are not required to be axisymmetrical . The rotating reference frame approach has the following prerequisites that must be satisfied in order to apply it successfully and obtain reliable results: • the supposed inlet flow field at the rotating refrence frame boundaries must be axisymmetrical with respect to the rotation axis. The rotating reference frame boundaries are the computational domain outer boundaries for the Global rotating option and the rotating region outer surface for Local regions option.Advanced Features Guide 5 Rotation Physical model Flow Simulation is capable of simulating rotation of model parts and components with the rotating reference frame approach. With this option the model and the global coordinate system are considered rotating with specified angular velocity. 3-20 . • the supposed outlet flow field at the rotating refrence frame boundaries must be as close to axisymmetrical with respect to the rotation axis as possible. All model parts and components within the local rotating regions are considered rotating by default. Global rotating reference frame is applicable when all non-rotating model components are axisymmetrical with respect to the selected rotation axis.

Additional Information In accordance with the employed approach. The rotating region option is not applicable for high Mach number flows. A rotating region is defined by adding an auxiliary component representing the rotating region to the model and specifying the angular velocity. • the components defining different rotating regions must not intersect. Computational domain or fluid subdomain Flow parameters are calculated in the inertial Global Coordinate System Local rotating region Flow parameters are calculated in the local rotating coordinate system Flow parameters are averaged over these rings Rotation axis Fig.5. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-21 . • it must be axisymmetrical (with respect to the rotating component's rotation axis). Then the values of flow parameters transferred as boundary conditions from the adjacent fluid regions are averaged circumferentially over each of these rings. which has its own coordinate system rotating together with the component. The rotating region’s boundaries are sliced into rings of equal width as shown on the Fig.5.1. special internal boundary conditions are set automatically at the fluid boundaries of the rotating region. Please note that even in the case of time-dependent (transient) analysis the flow parameters within the rotating regions are calculated using a steady-state approach and averaged on the rotating regions' boundaries as described above.Local Rotating Regions . A component defining a rotating region must meet the following requirements: • the rotating component must be fully enclosed by it and the rotating component walls must not contact or intersect the rotating region boundaries. • its intersections with other fluid and solid regions must be axisymmetrical too.1 Slicing of rotating region boundaries into rings. each rotating solid component is surrounded by an axisymmetrical Rotating region. To connect solutions obtained within the rotating region and in non-rotating part of the computational domain.

3-22 .Advanced Features Guide Interface The rotation type is specified in the Analysis Type dialog box of the Wizard or General Settings by selecting the Global rotating or Local region(s) option. Global Rotating Reference Frame For Global rotating reference frame specify Rotation axis and Angular velocity. click Axis dialog box specify either a reference axis or axis of the reference coordinate system. These settings are applied to the entire computational domain. To select the rotation axis for the Global and in the Rotation rotating reference frame.

and the direction of the angular velocity vector considered as positive. • Circumferential velocity RRF (m/s) is the fluid velocity component along the peripheral velocity vector relative to the Z axis of the selected rotating coordinate system. Insert. are useful for analyzing the results of a calculation involving rotation: • Axial velocity (m/s) is the fluid velocity component along the rotating coordinate system’s rotation axis. • Circumferential velocity (m/s) is the fluid velocity component along the rotating coordinate system’s peripheral velocity vector relative to the Z axis of the selected absolute (i. the values of this parameter outside the rotating regions are determined in the absolute (i. Rotating Region. non-rotating) coordinate system. where ω is the angular velocity at which the rotating Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-23 . non-rotating) coordinate system. non-rotating) one.e. • Peripheral velocity (m/s) is the circumferential speed of the rotating coordinate system’s rotation: ω·r. it can be determined both in the rotating coordinate system and in the absolute (i. available in the results processing tools.Local Rotating Regions In the Rotating Region dialog available under Flow Simulation.e. The following parameters. Note that if rotation is considered in the project in the form of local rotating regions (i. and specify Angular velocity.e. in which the local rotating reference frame is applied. During the definition of rotating region in the graphics area you can see the green arrows denoting the rotation axis and direction. not as the global rotating reference frame). you select the model component representing the volume.e.

3 The static pressure distribution in the impeller flow passage midsection 3-24 .2) can be simulated with the Global rotating refrence frame option since all non-rotating components of the pump are axisymmetrical with respect to the rotation axis. Note that you may need to Enable some of those parameters in the Parameter list to make them available for selection in the View Settings dialog. The static pressure distribution in the impeller flow passage midsection is shown on Fig. • Velocity RRF (m/s) is the fluid velocity vector and/or its absolute value in the rotating coordinate system.5. Note that if rotation is considered in the project in the form of local rotating regions (i. Examples of Use Rotating impeller Flow through the rotating impeller of a centrifugal pump (Fig. not as the global rotating reference frame).2 Problem statement Fig. Fig.e.e.5. the values of this parameter outside the rotating regions are determined in the absolute (i.5.3.5. non-rotating) coordinate system.Advanced Features Guide coordinate system rotates and r is the radius of the point under consideration in the cylindrical coordinate system corresponding to the rotating coordinate system.

5. Fig.5.5 Pressure and velocity vectors distribution CPU cooler in external flow An air flow around a CPU cooler is simulated with the Local rotating regions option. Fig.5.4). The rotating region encloses the fan and has a relatively simple shape.5.4 Problem statement Fig. and we can use the Local rotating region to simulate the rotation of the CPU cooler fan. The external air flow from the chassis fan disturbs the flow over the CPU cooler.5. The temperature and velocity vectors distributions are shown on Fig. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-25 . The pressure and velocity vectors distributions are shown on Fig.5.6 Temperature and velocity vectors distributions.5. this disturbance does not influence the CPU cooler performance much.Axial fan An air flow in an axial fan can be simulated with the Local rotating regions option (Fig. However.6. The resulting flow field at the boundaries of the rotating region enclosing the cooler fan is not axisymmetrical.

• Local rotating region can be used to simulate rotation of a part or component even if the flow field at the local rotating region boundaries is not axisymmetrical.8 Pressure and velocity vectors distribution Recommendations • Choose such shape of the rotating region. 3-26 . from where it exits into the piping system downstream.8.7). Fig. if possible. The fluid enters the pump impeller near the rotation axis and is accelerated by the impeller. The centrifugal pump uses a rotating impeller to increase the pressure of the fluid to move the fluid through a piping system. to ensure that the flow at the rotating region boundaries is axysimmetrical. use the Moving Wall boundary condition instead of a rotating reference frame to simulate rotation of such component. The pressure and velocity vectors distributions are shown on Fig. change the shape or position of the rotating region or make some other modifications.5. but these deviations from axial symmetry are relatively small and do not influence the pump characteristics much. • If the rotating model component is a body of revolution. but you must consider how it can affect the device performance.5.5.5.7 Problem statement Fig. The flow field at the boundaries of the rotating region enclosing the impeller is not completely axisymmetrical. flowing radially outward into the volute chamber. that the flow direction will be as much perpendicular to the rotating region boundary as possible.Advanced Features Guide Centrifugal pump A water flow in a centrifugal pump can be simulated with the Local rotating region option (Fig. • Adjust the mesh settings to have at least 2 or 3 cells across the gaps between the rotating region boundary and the surface of the rotating component within the region. If you solve a problem in which the flow symmetry directly influence the device characteristics.

This will allow you to reduce possible negative influence of the flow disturbances within the narrow gap on the calculation results.• You can place rotating region boundary within a solid body instead of putting it into a narrow gap between the rotating component and non.rotating model geometry. Solving Engineering Problems with Flow Simulation 2012 3-27 .

Advanced Features Guide 3-28 .