Differential (87)
This section is an introduction to the topic of transmission line protection using distance
relays. Further sections and courses will complete the wide and interesting topic of
distance protection.
L
d
Radial
Line
ThreePhase Bolted Fault
For a perfect threephase fault, only the positivesequence impedance is involved in the
calculations. With the usual convention, the phase a voltage and current are equal to the
positivesequence voltage and current.
Impedance Diagram
( d / L ) Z L1
Z S1
+
V1 = Va
E

I1 = I a
I 1 = I a = I FAULT =
z
z
Bolted
Fault
E
Z S 1 + ( d / L ) Z L1
The positivesequence impedance diagram for a threephase fault is as shown in the figure.
For this radial system, disregarding the influence of load, the fault current in each phase is
balanced and is equal to the phase current measured by the relays at the substation.
This current depends on the following parameters:
System voltage
Line impedance
The Thevenin impedance depends on the conditions of the system, such as the topology
and system loading.
L
0.8L
Radial
Line
ThreePhase Bolted Fault
I SETTING
E
Z S 1 + ( 0 . 8 ) Z L1
E
Z S 1 + ( 0 . 8) Z L1
I FAULT ( LIMIT ) =
E
Z S1 + ( 0 .8) Z L1
As the system topology behind the substation bus changes, ZS1 changes. As a result, the
relay reach will change. The only way to avoid nonselective operations for faults
beyond the remote bus is to calculate the instantaneous setting for the worst case value of
ZS1, which results in a shorter reach of the instantaneous element for all other system
configurations. It is highly probable that the system presents the worst case value for
relatively short periods of time, meaning that the relay reach will be permanently
sacrificed for a situation that occurs for short periods. This is a disadvantage of
instantaneous overcurrent relays.
21
ThreePhase
Solid Fault
Radial
Line
 Va  (0 .8)  Z L1  I a 
Suppose that it is possible to design a relay that operates not when the current is larger
than a given threshold, but when the phase voltage is less than the current times a constant,
as shown in the figure.
This relay requires voltage and current information.
V a = ( d / L ) Z L1 I a
Therefore, the Relay will Operate when:
 ( d / L ) Z L1 I a  (0 .8)  Z L1  I a 
d 0 .8 L
This Result Does Not Depend on the Thevenin Impedance
The inequality originally stated in terms of voltage and current implicitly states that the
relay will operate when the distance to the fault is less than a given limit distance, called
the distance relay reach.
Ideally, the reach of such a relay does not depend on the source impedance.
Impedance Relay
If Relay Operates for:
 Va  (0 .8)  Z L1  I a ,
Then Equivalent is:
 Va 
( 0 .8)  Z L1 
 Ia 
The Quantity
 Va 
 Ia 
is an impedance
This relay is called impedance or underimpedance relay because the relay design is
such that the relay operates for an impedance condition. The relay measures or sees a
given impedance, equal to the ratio of the applied sinusoidal voltage and the applied
sinusoidal current.
10
Apparent Impedance
Define the Apparent Impedance for this Relay as:
Z = R + jX = Z =
Va
Ia
 Z < (0 .8)  Z L1 
Which is Equivalent to:
R 2 + X 2 ( 0 .8)  Z L1 
R 2 + X 2 (( 0.8)  Z L1 ) 2
11
Relay Setting
Define the Relay Setting as:
Z r 1 = ( 0 .8)  Z L1 
The Relay Operating Condition Becomes:
Z Z r1
Or.
R 2 + X 2 Z r21
12
Z r1
Z r1 I
Operates When:
Magnitude
Comparator
TRIP
 V  Z r 1 I 
Z Z r1
The figure shows the simplest design for an underimpedance relay. The current is passed
through a single amplifier. The magnitude of the resulting quantity is compared to the
magnitude of the voltage by a twoinput magnitude comparator. The gain of the amplifier
Zr1 is the relay setting.
In the past, these devices were implemented through use of an electromechanical balance
unit. Today, in computerbased relays, the relay equation is directly implemented in the
relay routines.
13
Va, Vb, Vc
69 kV Line
zL1=0.24+j0.80 Ohms/mile
L = 15 miles
21
Z L1 = (0.24 + j 0.8) 15 =
= 3.6 + j12 Ohms
Relay setting:
This example shows the calculations involved in the determination of a simple impedance
relay setting.
14
Vsec =
V prim
VTR
I sec =
I prim
CTR
VTR
Define : ZTR =
CTR
V prim
V prim
I prim
Z prim
V
Z sec = sec = VTR = VTR =
I prim
I sec
ZTR
CTR
CTR
The setting calculated in the former slide is in primary ohms. Because the relay is
connected to CTs and VTs, the ratios of the instrument transformer must be considered.
It is usual to find an impedance ratio ZTR = VTR/CTR to determine the secondary
impedance measured by the relay. This ZTR is also used to determine the actual relay
setting, in secondary ohms.
15
Va, Vb, Vc
69 kV Line
zL1 = 0.24+j0.80 Ohms/mile
L = 15 miles
21
Z L1 = (0.24 + j 0.8) 15 =
= 3.6 + j12 Ohms
This is the same example as before, but now the relay setting is calculated in secondary
ohms.
16
Z = R + jX = Z
X
Z
The complex plane is commonly used to represent the apparent impedance measured by
distance relays.
17
Operation Zone
Z Z r1
Zr1
Radius Zr1
R
A plain impedance relay will operate for any apparent impedance whose magnitude is less
than, or equal to, the relay setting. In the complex plane, this is represented by the region
within a circle with radius equal to the relay setting. The border of the circle represents the
operation threshold of the relay.
18
Va, Vb, Vc
21
Radial
Line
ThreePhase
Bolted Fault
m=
d
L
The unit distance is the distance to the fault in per unit of the total lines length. This
parameter is commonly used in protective relaying.
19
Va, Vb, Vc
21
Radial
Line
ThreePhase
Bolted Fault
V a = ( d / L ) Z L1 I a
The Apparent Impedance is:
Z =
Va
= ( d / L ) Z L 1 = m Z L1
Ia
If the apparent impedance of a distance relay is calculated for threephase bolted faults
along the line, for distances varying from 0 miles to L miles, the resulting set of complex
numbers can be plotted in the complex impedance plane.
20
Z = m Z L1 = mZ L1 L1 = mR L1 + jmX L1 ;
For
0 m 1
X
ZL1
XL1
L1
RL1
This set of points is a line segment as shown in the figure. The segment has the same
length and angle as the total line impedance and is called the bolted fault locus.
21
Solid Fault
Locus
X
Operation zone
Z = m Z L1 ;
Z Z r1
Zr1
0 m 1
R
If the fault locus is superimposed with the relay operating characteristic in the same
complex plane, the resulting plot indicates the degree of protection of the relay. The case
shown in the figure represents a case in which the relay has been set to reach faults up to
~80 percent of the line.
22
Distance Protection
Load vs. Fault Apparent Impedance
V
Fault
Relay
Bolted Fault
Locus
X
Fault
Load
V
Z=
I
Operation Zone
During normal load conditions, the impedance seen by a distance relay has a magnitude
much larger than the length of the bolted fault locus (line). When a fault occurs, the
impedance moves instantly to a point in the complex plane located on, or very near, the
bolted fault locus. The accuracy of this statement for nonbolted faults will be shown later.
23
F2
1
RELAY 3
Operation Zone
X
F1
F2
NonSelective
Relay Operation
24
Directionality Improvement
F1
F2
1
RELAY 3
Operation Zone
X
F1
Directional Impedance
Relay Characteristic
F2
The Relay Will
Not Operate for
This Fault
25
V I Z M cos( MT )
Z Z M cos( MT )
ZM
Z
MT
There are three traditional distance elements: impedancetype, reactancetype, and Mhotype distance elements.
The figure shows the operation equation and operating characteristic of a Mho distance
element. The characteristic is the locus of all apparent impedance values for which the
relay element is on the verge of operation. The operation zone is located inside the circle,
and the resraint zone is the region outside the circle.
The Mho characteristic is a circle passing through the origin of the impedance plane. The
Mho element operates for impedances inside the circle. The characteristic is oriented
towards the first quadrant, which is where forward faults are located. For reverse faults, the
apparent impedance lies in the third quadrant and represents a restraint condition. The fact
that the circle passes through the origin is an indication of the inherent directionality of the
Mho elements. However, closein bolted faults result in a very small voltage at the relay
that may result in a loss of the voltage polarizing signal. This needs to be taken into
consideration when selecting the appropriate Mho element polarizing quantity.
There are typically two settings in a Mho element: the characteristic diameter, ZM, and the
angle of this diameter with respect to the R axis, MT. The angle is equivalent to the
maximum torque angle of a directional element. The Mho element presents its longest
reach (greatest sensitivity) when the apparent impedance angle coincides with MT.
Normally, MT is set close to the protected line impedance angle to ensure maximum relay
sensitivity for faults and minimum sensitivity for load conditions.
26
S1
Phase
Forming
Comparison
S2
Signal
Trip
Forming
S1 = V + I Z r ;
Operating Quantity
S2 = V
Polarizing Quantity
Operation Condition:
1 arg(S1 S 2 ) 2
The early electromechanical relays with a Mho characteristic used a product unit
(induction cylinder element) to achieve the torque equation: V2 V I cos(MT) > 0.
Analog static relays used a twoinput phase comparator to create the Mho characteristic.
The inputs to the comparator are properly mixed from the original voltage and current to
obtain the desired behavior.
27
90o arg(S1 S 2 ) 90 o
V /I
Z Z
90 o
90o arg r
Z
These simple algebraic manipulations show how the voltagecurrent equations become
impedance equations.
28
arg ( Z r Z ) Z = 90
B
Zr
ZrZ
90o
Z
A
The operation condition is the region within the Mho circle. Zr and the angle, defining the
circle diameter, are the relay settings.
The shape and position of the circle can be changed by changing the inputs to the phase
comparator.
Currently, with computerbased relays, it is much easier to implement a Mho relay.
29
Zone 1 is Instantaneous
So far, a directional distance relay, which operates instantaneously and is set to reach less
than 100 percent of the protected line, has been described. Two important principles of
protection have been missing:
1. What happens for a fault on the protected line that is beyond the reach of the relay?
2. If the relay operates instantaneously, it cannot be used as a remote backup for a
relay protecting a line adjacent to the remote substation.
These two problems are overcome by adding timedelay distance relays. This is
accomplished by using the distance relay to start a definite time timer. The output of the
timer can then be used as a tripping signal.
The figure shows how a second zone (or step) is added to each of the directional
impedance relays. A third zone, with a larger delay, can also be added.
The operation time of the second zone is usually around 0.3 seconds, and the third zone
around 0.6 seconds. However, the required time depends on the particular application.
The ohmic reach of each zone also depends on the particular power system. The figure and
the next slide show a typical reach scheme for three zones.
What about Circuit Breakers 2, 4 and 5?
30
Relays at A
(CB 1)
Zone 2
A
R
Zone 1
The slide shows how the instantaneous Zone 1, and the delayed Zones 2 and 3 look in a
complex impedance plane if Mho units are used for all three zones. Note the reference to
buses A, B, and C of the previous slide, which indicate that the distance elements
correspond to the relays associate with Circuit Breaker 1, located at Substation A.
31
Time
What about Circuit Breakers 2, 4, and 5? The figure shows the operating time as a function of
the electrical distance for six distance relays. Here, the relays looking in both directions are
shown. We show the characteristics for Relays 1, 3, and 5 above the system oneline diagram.
We represent the characteristics for Relays 2, 4, and 5 below the oneline diagram.
Zone 1 must underreach the remote line end to make sure that it will not operate for faults in
the adjacent lines. Zone 2 is intended to cover the end of the protected line, so it must
overreach the protected line. Zone 3 is intended to provide remote backup protection to
adjacent lines, so it must overreach the longest adjacent line.
We typically leave a coordination interval (including breaker tripping time) between Zones 1
and 2 and between Zones 2 and 3 of adjacent distance relays. This means that the end of Zone
2 of a backup relay should not overlap with the begininning of Zone 2 of the primary relay.
The same is true for adjacent third zones. This is not always possible, however.
In the figure, we can see that faults located in the central section of a given line are cleared by
simultaneous and instantaneous operation of the first zones at both line ends. Should a first
zone fail to operate, the remote backup relay operates in second or third zone. On the other
hand, faults close to one line end will be cleared sequentially: the nearest line end will operate
in first zone, and the remote end will operate in second zone. This sequential fault clearing is a
limitation of distance protection, because it could jeopardize system stability.
An advantage of distance protection over directional overcurrent protection is that the distance
first zone reach depends less on system operating conditions than the reach of the
instantaneous overcurrent element. In other words, distance protection provides better
instantaneous line coverage.
Transmission Line Distance Prot 1_r12
32
R
D
33
PLAIN
IMPEDANCE
OFFSET
MHO (2)
R
R
X
LENS
(RESTRICTED MHO 1)
MHO
R
X
TOMATO
(RESTRICTED MHO 2)
OFFSET
MHO (1)
The figure shows several commonly used circular distance relay characteristics. For analog
relays, these characteristics can be obtained with phase and/or magnitude comparators. In
microprocessorbased relays, they are implemented through the use of mathematical
algorithms.
34
DIRECTIONAL
RESTRICTED
DIRECTIONAL
R
R
X
RESTRICTED
REACTANCE
REACTANCE
OHM
QUADRILATERAL
R
35
36
37
POWER SYSTEM
L
d
p
Ia, Ib, Ic
Fault
Va, Vb, Vc
21
So far, the design, operation, and setting of distance relays for threephase bolted faults has
been studied. In this part of the course, it will be shown that the voltage and current
applied to the relay for it to correctly measure the distance to the fault depends on the
type of fault.
Different types of bolted short circuits on a transmission line will be studied to determine
the phase currents and voltages (Ia, Ib, Ic, Va, Vb, Vc) at the distance relay location.
38
Ib
Ic
c
Va
Vb V
c
ThreePhase Fault
Va = m( Z S I a + Z m I b + Z m I c ) + 0 = m( Z S Z m ) I a
Vb = m( Z m I a + Z S I b + Z m I c ) + 0 = m( Z S Z m ) I b
Vc = m( Z m I a + Z m I b + Z S I c ) + 0c = m( Z S Z m ) I c
The threephase, shortcircuit case is repeated here to introduce the procedure to be used.
The line equations correspond to a symmetrical, or transposed, line. The three phases are
set to zero voltage at the fault location. The unit distance, m, is used as the distance to the
fault point.
39
Z L1 = Z S Z m ;
Z L 0 = Z S + 2Z m
Z S = ( Z L 0 + 2 Z L1 ) / 3;
Z m = ( Z L 0 Z L1 ) / 3
Recall the relationships between the self and mutual impedances with the positivesequence and zerosequence impedances.
40
Va
V
V
= mZ L1 ; b = mZ L1 ; c = mZ L1 ;
Ia
Ib
Ic
z
The algebraic development shows that a single distance element is enough to detect
balanced threephase faults. The element should be connected to any phase voltage and
current to properly measure the positivesequence impedance existing between the relay
location and the fault. This impedance is directly proportional to the distance.
41
Ib
Ic
c
Va
Vb
Vc
BC Fault
Va = m( Z S I a + Z m I b + Z m I c ) + V fa
Vb = m( Z m I a + Z S I b + Z m I c ) + V fb
Vc = m( Z m I a + Z m I b + Z S I c ) + V fb
For a bc fault, the relevant border condition is that the voltages of phase b and c are equal
at the fault point.
42
Vb Vc
= mZ L1
Ib Ic
z
43
Voltage
Current
ab
Va Vb
Ia Ib
bc
Vb Vc
Ib Ic
ca
Vc Va
Ic Ia
m Z L1
The table summarizes phase distance element connections. Linetoline voltages and the
difference of the currents of these lines are used as relay input signals. The result is that the
relay element, corresponding to the fault loop, measures the positivesequence impedance
of the faulted line section.
44
Ib
Ic
c
Va
Vb
Vc
AtoGround Fault
Va = m( Z S I a + Z m I b + Z m I c ) + 0
Vb = m( Z m I a + Z S I b + Z m I c ) + V fb
Vc = m( Z m I a + Z m I b + Z S I c ) + V fc
The case of a Phase Atoground fault is studied by making the Phase A voltage equal to
zero at the fault point. The equation for Phase A is then algebraically manipulated as
shown in the next slide.
45
Z Z L1
Z Z L1
= m Z L1 I a + L 0
( I res ) = mZ L1 I a + L 0
I res =
3
3Z L1
Va
= mZ L1
I a + k0 I res
The result of the manipulation is that, for the relay to properly measure the positive
sequence impedance between the relay location and the fault, the relay must receive:
The compensation factor, ko, is called the residual compensation factor, or the zero
sequence compensation factor because the residual current is three times the zerosequence
current.
A similar result is obtained for btoground and ctoground faults.
46
Voltage
AG
Va
BG
Vb
CG
Vc
k0 =
Current
r
I a + k0 I res
r
I b + k0 I res
r
I c + k 0 I res
Z L 0 Z L1
3Z L1
Compensation factor
m Z L1
The table summarizes ground distance element connections. Phase voltages and
compensated line currents are used as relay input signals. The current signal is
compensated by adding a factor derived from the zerosequence current. The multiplying
factor k0 is, in general, a complex number that depends on the line zerosequence and
positivesequence impedances.
There are two basic sources of error in this connection. One of these is line asymmetry. By
using a symmetrical component scope, it is assumed that the line is ideally transposed.
Untransposed lines, however, are becoming common. Line asymmetry could produce
errors on the order of 5 percent in distance estimation. This error must be accomodated by
pulling back the relay first zone reach.
Another source of error is the typical assumption that angles ZL1 and ZL0 are equal. Under
this assumption, k0 is a real number. In analog relays, it is much easier to create a real
number than a complex multiplying factor.
There are other connections for ground distance elements. One of these uses the phase
voltage and a compensated line current as input signals. The connection uses the currents
of the other two lines (instead of the zerosequence current) for compensation.
Asymmetrical lines are not a source of error for this connection. A drawback is
complexity: you must set two multiplying factors (instead of only k0).
47
AB
VaVb
IaIb
PHASE
BC
VbVc
IbIc
RELAYS
CA
VcVa
IcIb
Va
Ia + k0 Ires
Vb
Ib + k0 Ires
Vc
Ic + k0 Ires
GROUND
RELAYS
48
Distance Protection
Summary
z
In summary, distance protection uses current and voltage information to make a direct, or
indirect, estimate of the distance to the fault. Phase distance elements (21) are more
sensitive than phase directional overcurrent elements (67). On the other hand, ground
distance elements (21N) are less sensitive than ground directional overcurrent elements
(67N). A widely used combination for transmission line protection uses 21 elements for
phase fault protection and 67N elements for ground fault protection.
49
Infeed
Fault Resistance
Evolving Faults
Load Encroachment
Transmission line protection is complex. Problems such as infeed, fault resistance, unequal
measured impedances during faults, load encroachment, and mutual coupling affect the
apparent impedance of distance relays. Fault resistance and mutual coupling also affect
ground directional overcurrent relays. These problems may be complicated by the evolving
character of many faults.
50
Mutual Coupling
Simultaneous Faults
CrossCountry Faults
Power Swings
SeriesCompensated Lines
All these problems may affect distance and directional overcurrent relays. Crosscountry
faults, simultaneous faults, and CT saturation may also present a problem for differential
schemes.
Seriescompensated lines are extremely difficult to protect. All protection principles may
have problems, because of the possibility of voltage and current inversions. If the series
compensation capacitors are carefully selected, the possibility of current inversions can be
eliminated. In this case, a differential protection scheme may be the best option.
51
ThreeTerminal Lines
Short Lines
CT Saturation
CCVT Transients
Threeterminal lines and short lines also have special protection requirements. The
ringdown at subharmonic frequency resulting from compensation reactors may also create
protection problems.
52
Infeed Effect
V
ZL'
ZL
I'
Fault
21
V = I ZL + I ' ZL'
Z = V I = ZL +
I'
I
A generation source connected between the relay location and the fault point affects the
value of the impedance a distance relay estimates. This is called the infeed effect. The
intermediate generation source causes the relay to see an impedance that is equal to the
adjacent line multiplied by a factor. This factor is the ratio of the current in the adjacent
line to the relay current. The infeedeffect factor is, in general, a complex number with a
magnitude greater than unity. The infeed effect results in the relay estimating an
impedance value greater than the real impedance between the relay and the fault, ZL + ZL.
This inaccurate impedance value estimation produces distance relay underreach.
53
ZAB
IAB
ZBC
IBC
Fault
21
Z = ZAB + ZBC
Without Infeed:
With Infeed:
Z = Z AB +
IBC
IAB
ZBC
The infeed effect needs to be taken into account when distance relay settings are
calculated. For example, the third zone at A (see figure) will measure ZAB + ZBC for a fault
at C without infeed. When the intermediate source is present, the impedance estimate is
greater because of the IBC/IAB factor. The third zone needs to completely cover the adjacent
line BC for all system operating conditions. Thus, the third zone reach needs to be set
considering the possible infeed. As a result, the third zone may reach far beyond
substation C when the intermediate source is out of service. This factor needs to be
considered when checking adjacent third zones for possible overlap.
Infeed effect does not affect first zones, except in threeterminal lines. In this case, the first
zone needs to be set without infeed to make sure that the zone will not overreach the
remote line end. Setting a first zone in this manner results in the presence of the
intermediate source reducing the first zone reach, thus limiting the highspeed coverage of
the protected line.
The infeed effect also needs to be considered for second zone reach settings. In threeterminal lines, the second zone should be set with maximum infeed at the third terminal to
ensure full coverage of the protected line. On the other hand, in twoterminal lines, the
second zone should be set for minimum infeed at the remoteend substation to avoid
overlapping with the beginning of the adjacent second zone.
54
Outfeed
ZL
Z L'
I
I'
21
ZL
Z L'
I'
21
Z = ZL +
I'
I
'
'
ZL < ZL + ZL
Outfeed is the result of having two paths of current flow after the relay has monitored the
current. An outfeed condition may exist when two or more adjacent lines are connected in
parallel. In threeterminal lines, outfeed may exist if there is a strong external tie between
two line terminals. The magnitude of the outfeed effect factor, I / I, is smaller than unity,
which produces a reduced impedance estimate. The result is relay overreach. The outfeed
effect also needs consideration when calculating settings for a distance relay.
55
Any Questions?
56