Such areas are distinct from more intensively settled urban and suburban areas. or tourism. Lifestyles in rural areas are different than those in urban areas. Rural areas can have an agricultural character. oil and gas exploration. on farms and in other isolated houses. and also from unsettled lands such as outback or wilderness. Governmental services like law enforcement. Although millions of rural people have escaped poverty as a result of rural development in many Asian countries. People live in village. tend to highlight the importance of rural development. While some of these countries have achieved impressive results. schools. a large majority of rural people continue to suffer from persistent poverty. among many others. limited in scope. others have failed to make a significant dent in the problem of persistent rural underdevelopment. Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. These factors. mining.5 billion people live in the Asia and Pacific region and some 63% of them in rural areas. throughout the world. Utilities like water. about 69 percent of the country’s total population of 121 crore. or unavailable. though many rural areas are characterized by an economy based on logging. The policy makers in most of the developing economies recognize this importance and have been implementing a host of programs and measures to achieve rural development objectives. where the people are engaged in primary industry in the sense that they produce things directly for the first time in cooperation with nature as stated by Srivastava (1961). A major challenge thus arises is. street . continue to live in rural India. Rural . mainly because limited services are available. rural mass comprise a substantial majority of the population. Over 3.INTRODUCTION The 2011 Census estimates that 83. how to feed India’s growing population with rising incomes with the given land and water resources. The socio-economic disparities between rural and urban areas are widening and creating tremendous pressure on the social and economic fabric of many developing Asian economies. sewer. fire departments. Rural development has always been an important issue in all discussions pertaining to economic development. especially of developing countries. In the developing countries and some formerly communist societies.Is an area. and libraries may be distant.3 crore people.

stage of inducement or progress. by which the efforts of the people themselves are united. those of government authorities to improve their economic. Agriculture would be the major occupation of rural area. community progress and community relation.people use their own vehicles. The United Nations Development as: defines Rural Rural Development is a process of change. This progress or growth is gradual and had sequential phases. which rally upon local communities as units of action. Rural Development is a process of bringing change among rural community from the traditional way of living to progressive way of living. Rural Development (RD) is a process. It also refers to the over all movement towards greater efficiency and complex situations. walk or ride an animal. social and cultural conditions of communities in to the life of the nation and to enable them to contribute fully to national programme. Development: It refers to growth. According to Agarwal (1989). Scope and Importance of Rural Development . rural development is a strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of rural It is also expressed as a movement for progress. Always there is increasing differentiation. slow rate of social change. and garbage collection may not be present. It provides a large umbrella under which all the people engaged in the work of community organizations. evolution. A society or community can be classified as rural based on the criteria of lower population density. Public transport is sometimes absent or very limited. less social differentiation. Rural development designates the utilization of approaches and techniques under one single programme. which aims at improving the well being and self realization of people living outside the urbanized areas through collective process. etc. less social and spatial mobility.

public service and village community. 2. Rural development is a national necessity and has considerable importance in India because of the following reasons. These include agricultural growth. Nearly half of the country's national income is derived from agriculture. education and functional literacy. Bulks of raw materials for industries come from agriculture and rural sector. 2. which is major occupation of rural India. To bring improvement in producing of crops and animals living condition. The Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD) spearheads the country’s efforts to reduce poverty in the rural areas. village planning.Rural development is a dynamic process. 3. Until recently. thus rural development is needed to develop nation as whole. To improve health and education condition etc. its work was divided . About three-fourth of India's population live in rural areas. 4. 3. To develop farm. 5. To improve villagers with their own efforts. Increase in industrial population can be justified only in rural population‟s motivation and increasing the purchasing power to buy industrial goods. Around seventy per cent of Indian population gets employment through agriculture. 1. public health.The main objective of the rural development programme is to raise the economic and social level of the rural people. which is mainly concerned with the rural areas. improvement of the rural people. 4. Growing disparity between the urban elite and the rural poor can lead to political instability. home. 6. putting up of economic and social infrastructure. communication etc. fair wages as also housing and house sites for the landless. The specific objectives are: 1.

744 billion) 4. (Budgetary allocation in 2012-13: INR 3.among three departments: (i) Department of Rural Development (ii) Department of Land Resources (iii) Department of Drinking Water & Sanitation. big and small.563 billion) 3.000 billion) 2. Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS): This aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wageemployment in a financial year to a rural household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. National Rural Livelihoods Mission (NRLM): The basic objective of the National Rural Livelihood Mission is to create efficient and effective institutional platforms of the rural poor that enable them to increase their household incomes through sustainable livelihood enhancements and improved access to financial services. conserving and developing degraded natural resources such as soil. (Budgetary allocation in 2012-13: INR 33. it sponsors scores of development programmes. the Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation.” Towards this end. The MoRD website states. water and vegetative cover. Integrated Watershed Development Programme (IWDP): The main objectives of the IWDP are to restore ecological balance in a watershed by harnessing.’14 A small number of programmes of the two ministries – MoRD and MDWS. help provide sustainable livelihoods to the local people. however. (Budgetary allocation in 2012-13: INR 2. from income generation to environmental replenishment. and thereby. It plans to cover 70 million households living below the poverty line (BPL) in rural India. In July 2011. “This Ministry’s main objective is to alleviate rural poverty and ensure improved quality of life for the rural population especially those below the poverty line. Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY): This scheme provides financial grants to rural BPL families and the next of-kin of defense personnel killed in action for construction of houses and upgradation of existing unserviceable kutcha houses. the Department of Drinking & Sanitation was converted into a separate ministry. Primarily. influencing ‘various spheres of rural life and activities. account for a substantial share of the expenditure on rural development. these include the following: 1. (Budgetary allocation in 2012-13: INR 9.966 billion) .

assists Gram Panchayats to achieve comprehensive sanitation coverage. RURAL EMPLOYMENT Since independence rural employment has been the prime agenda of debate in the country as 74% of the unemployed population hails from rural India. Government of India had run a number of rural employment program but result were not up to the mark. (Budgetary allocation in 2012-13: INR 3. but the present-day scenario brings with it legislation and rights-based approach for implementing pro-people development policies in the country.500 billion) As from the above discussion we have came to a conclusion that if we have to develop rural areas than we have to increase their purchasing power means we have to provide employment to them who lives in rural areas and have no skills. whereas others have faced technical and implementation snags. Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA): The Total Sanitation Campaign. For the past three decades India has been implementing rural employment generation programmes.500 billion) 6. Different innovative schemes and programmes have been initiated time and again in different five year plans. Some have helped achieve goals.5. the biggest example of this is the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). (Budgetary allocation in 2012-13: INR 10. . National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP): The goal of this scheme is to provide adequate safe water for domestic uses on a sustainable basis. be it short or long-term. In the past. The face of rural employment is not clear yet. a number of schemes have provided temporary employment on public works programmes at the government’s discretion. now renamed as the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan.

in is apparent that most of the schemes were . the existing government merged the two schemes into one. But in the year 1993. By merging the NRE P and RLE P . In 2002. After few years of its initiation . the National Food for Work Programme (NFWP) was launched with an exclusive focus on the 150 identified backward districts. JRY and EAS were merged into Sampoorna Grameen Rozgar Yogana (SGRY ). refurbished the schemes and made Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI ) the medium of implementation and service delivery.political indifference and irregular fund flow created problems of implementation on the ground grassroot level – resulting in a limited impact on rural employment generation. one of the first being the “Maharashtra model” of rural employment which existed since the 1970s. as a result EAS showed its limitation on expansion of rural livelihood opportunities. For the first time funds for implementation of the programme were directly disbursed to the village institutions accounts responsible for planning to create employment opportunities. and overseeing implementation. the centralised fund-disbursement trend was followed. After two years. The National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) and the Rural Landless Employment Programme (RLEP) were the flagship employment generation initiatives which surfaced in the 1970s as a direct replica of the Maharashtra EGS . In 1989. ignoring the essence of bottom-up approach in planning and implementation of rural employment program. From an analytical review of the different strategies and programmes adopted from time to time towards rural employment generation .The Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY ) was launched in 1989.Evolution of Rural Employment Generation Programmes in India The idea of generating employment in public works existed in different state level policies back in time. when Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS) was introduced.

the amount of durable assets created as result of an the program has always been given more importance than the number of days employment generated on long term basis in a sustainable manner among the rural population. MGNREGA . While formulating most of the schemes there is lack of enough information about the existing community resources – which could have been properly utilised during the implementation phase by ensuring an active participation of the target population. There is felt need to adopt a culture bound approach while making the rural poor aware about the introduction of new schemes in terms of availability of proper information. i. in recent years the government has taken a historic move by enacting the MGNREG A. Taking into consideration the limitation of earlier rural employment programs. but they were just allocationbased programmes. usually for a period of hundred days or more. particularly in rural areas. Across all the schemes. These programmes never guaranteed employment to every household in the village. which is perhaps the largest employment generating program in the world ensuring a one-step-ahead move towards guaranteeing the right to work in a country with a population over a billion. This will guarantee an active participation of stakeholders as well as of the beneficiaries Policy-makers should be more informative and sensitive about the pulse of rural unemployment scenario. they are all short term casual jobs. involvement of the local self-Govt.incapable to bring about a desired impact on rural employment growth due a number of factors.e.(a) lack of need based planning (b) lack of active participation of various stakeholders’ in the planning and implantation process(c) irregular fund flow (d) lack of political will and (e) irregular monitoring. While assessing the success of any employment generation program . Social Audit of programmes is nearly absent for plugging the loopholes if there maybe. A typical feature of these schemes is that none of the jobs are permanent in nature. PRI in program-implementation were not satisfactory. Job opportunities created by these schemes and programs acted just as a supplement to the rural house income and in most of the circumstances they failed to ensure the basic amenities of life for a rural family in sustainable manner. Way Forward The schemes launched by the government from time to time have provided relief to the rural population.

which has been the main thrust behind the promulgation of the MGNREGS . the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (MGNREGS ) launched in 2005 has yielded the best results and is now the largest employment generation scheme in the world. 40. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act was approved by the Indian Parliament in September 2005. The government had initiated a number of rural development policies. . Initially it was introduced in 200 districts of the country and later extended to another 130 districts in 2007-08. The government is committed to address the issue of employment generation in rural areas.Bulk of India’s unemployed live in the rural areas and providing employment to them has been the recurring theme of all major five year plans. The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA) has been a subject of lively debate. 49. The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) aims at enhancing the livelihood security of people in rural areas by guaranteeing hundred days of wage-employment in a financial year to a rural household who volunteer to do unskilled manual work. it was further extended to 593 districts covering 4. Despite decades of planned development and poverty eradication programs at the national and state levels. including rural employment generation schemes since the 80’s. By 1st April 2008. poverty continues to persist in India. With GDP in agriculture falling in the last two decades more and more people in the rural areas need employment opportunities. This Act started functioning from 2ndFeb. However.2006. 870 rural households. Rural employment in India has been synonymous with employment in the agriculture sector.

The different categories of permissible works are as follows: l Water Conservation and water harvesting l Drought Proofing (including plantation and afforestation) l Irrigation canals including micro and minor irrigation works l Flood Control and Protection Works l Minor irrigation. b) Such a household will have to apply for registration to the local Gram Panchayat. g) If employment is not provided within 15 days. Institutions have a principal rolein planning and k) E ach district has to prepare a shelf of projects. horticulture and land development on the land of SC /ST /BPL/ IAY and land reform beneficiaries l Renovation of traditional water bodies including desilting of tanks l Land Development . Liability of payment of unemployment allowance is of the States. h) At least one-third of persons to whom work is allotted have to be women. The selected works to provide employment are to be selected from the list of permissible works. The Job Card will bear the photograph of all adult members of the household willing to work under NREGA.NREGA is renamed as ‘Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act’ on 2-10-2009.daily unemployment allowance in cash has to be paid. j) Panchayat Raj implementation. The main aim of this Act is to enhance the purchasing power of rural people. At least 100 days work will be provided per household per annum. e) Employment will be provided within 15 days of application for work. c) The Gram Panchayat after due verification will issue a Job Card to the household. f) Men and women will be paid equal wages and preference will be given to women in each work. in writing or orally. D d) All adults who have completed 18 years of age are eligible to work. i) Disbursement of wages has to be done on weekly basis and not beyond a fortnight and wages are credited directly to their bank/post office account. The salient features of MGNREGA are: a) Adult members of a rural household may apply for employment if they are willing to do unskilled manual work.

At least 50% of works have to be allotted to Gram Panchayats for execution. which will include. wages of skilled and semi-skilled workers. work site facilities. l) Work should ordinarily be provided within 5 km radius of the village or else extra wages of 10% are payable m) Work site facilities such as crèche. shade have to be provided. . q) Those who violates the MGNREG A Act will be penalized with a penalty of rupees up to 1000/ Funding: The Central Government bears the costs on the following items: a) The entire cost of wages of unskilled manual workers. b) 75% of the cost of material. o) Grievance redressal mechanisms have to be put in place for ensuring a responsive implementation process. inter alia. d) Expenses of the Central Employment Guarantee Council. c) Administrative expenses as may be determined by the Central Government. A 60:40 wage and material ratio has to be maintained.l Rural Connectivity The shelf of projects has to be prepared on the basis of priority assigned by Gram Sabha. Contractors and use of labour displacing machinery are prohibited. n) Social Audit has to be done by the Gram Sabha at least once in every six months. on demand and after paying a specified fee. p) All accounts and records relating to the Scheme are to be made available for public scrutiny and to any person desirous of obtaining a copy of such records. the salary and the allowances of the Programme Officer and his supporting staff. drinking water.

The State Government bears the costs on the following items: a) 25% of the cost of material. Women participation for FY 2008--09 was 48%. Now lets see what comes after the expedition of outside.06 crores. Supplementing Income: Post-NREG A there has been a revision of minimum wages across the country. 39100 crores. 37397. . 2795 in FY 2006-07 to Rs. b) Unemployment allowance payable in case the State Government cannot provide wage employment on time. In 15 states it was higher than the national average.79387 were allotted during this financial year to rural development. Average household earning have increased from Rs. wages of skilled and semi-skilled workers. To clearly understand the working of MNREGA our team go out for field work to get the real situation and condition of MNREGA. c) Administrative expenses of the State Employment Guarantee Council. A major share of NREGA expenditure is as unskilled wage Allocation of Funds to MGNREGA: During the financial year 2006-07 Rs. and during 2010-11 Rs. 11000 crores. during 2009-10 Rs. In terms of implementation it mandates that a minimum of one-third of the beneficiaries are women who have registered and have requested for work. 40100 crores (while Rs. Share of SC/ST Households in Employment: In terms of providing employment to members of SC & ST households in 2008-09 the figure stood at nearly 54. more than 50% of this were allotted to MGNREGA) were allotted.09 was reported in Tamil Nadu (80%) and Kerala (84%) respectively. during 2008-09 Rs.72%. Share of women in work force: The Act stipulates that priority shall be given to women. 4060 in FY 2008-09. The highest women participation for FY 2008.

36%) Women.1 Total Job Card Issued.05%) Total Number of SC.36%) Total Number of OBC.5139(49.2169(20.65%) SC.UTTAR PRADESH Total Population of Village.18%) Total Number of Women in Village.GAUNAR BLOCK.GORAKHPUR STATE.213(29.76%) Total Number of ST.5052(48.10448 Total Number of General.3139(30.63%) .SARDARNAGAR DISTRICT.369(51.720 General.249(34.RESEARCH AREA – VILLAGE.102(14.16%) OBC.

. As we know if we have to show the working of MNREGA then we have to study the fund received and the total expenditure on man and material.We have collected some data of MNREGA related to that particular research area. So statics related to that is enclosed here. Gramin Rojgar Sevak and Pradhan of the panchayat. Our team have also talked to many of workers .

In Purvanchal Gramin Bank INTERVIEW WITH WORKER-2 Question 1.How many members are there in your family? Answer.Does this program help you? Answer.125Rs.15 days Question 9.Food Question 7. Question 6.How many members are there in your family? Answer.In how many days does your money comes in your accont? Answer.SEVEN .Do you have a job card? Answer.On which do you spend your money? Answer.How much you is given for one day? Answer.What is your name? Answer – Gopal Question 2.INTERVIEW WITH WORKER-1 Question 1.Yes Question 8.100 days Question 5.How many working days are provided to you? Answer.SEVEN Question 3.Do you have a bank account? Answer.Yes Question 4.What is your name? Answer – Dayasagar Question 2.

Question 6.How much you is given for one day? Answer.75-80 days Question 5.Do you have a job card? Answer.Question 3.What is your name? Answer – Harishchandra Question 2.Yes Question 4. .How many working days are provided to you? Answer.Yes Question 8.In Purvanchal Gramin Bank INTERVIEW WITH WORKER-3 Question 1.Do you have a bank account? Answer.Yes Question 4.How many members are there in your family? Answer.Does this program help you? Answer.In how many days does your money comes in your accont? Answer.125Rs.SEVEN Question 3.On which do you spend your money? Answer.Do you have a job card? Answer.15 days Question 9.How much you is given for one day? Answer.80-90 days Question 5.How many working days are provided to you? Answer.125Rs.Food Question 7.

70 days Question 5.On which do you spend your money? Answer.Question 6.Food and education Question 7.In how many days does your money comes in your accont? Answer.125Rs.Yes .Do you have a bank account? Answer.On which do you spend your money? Answer. Question 6.Do you have a job card? Answer.In Purvanchal Gramin Bank INTERVIEW WITH WORKER-4 Question 1.What is your name? Answer – Nand Kishore Question 2.How many working days are provided to you? Answer.Eight Question 3.Yes Question 8.How many members are there in your family? Answer.Yes Question 4.Does this program help you? Answer.How much you is given for one day? Answer.Does this program help you? Answer.Food and medicine Question 7.20 days Question 9.

Not fixed.Making of drainage system in village(nali) Making of bricks road(kharanja) Leveling Pond digging Question 4.Yes.Does any inspection is done by the upper level? Answer. once in 4-6 months Question 5. Question 6.In how many period does your salary comes in your account? Answer.Do you have a bank account? Answer.What is your name? Answer. Question 7.In village MNREGA comes in which year? Answer.From when you are at this post? Answer.How much is given to you as salary? Answer.2006 Question 8.In Purvanchal Gramin Bank INTERVIEW WITH GRAMIN ROJGAR SEVAK Question 1.25-30 days Question 9.Ramashish Question 2.It is clearly visible that corruption is vested in working of MNREGA also.In how many days does your money comes in your accont? Answer. since last 13 months not a single coin has come in the account.Since 2007 Question 3. so what are your suggestions to stop this corruption? .3300Rs.Question 8.What are the main works done under your supervision? Answer.

Answer.Does any guidelines comes from upper level? Answer. people are not fully aware of it we have to take the workers from their home to provide work. Question 6.Into those projects. INTERVIEW WITH PRADHAN Question 1.There are many policies but the main.Do you think that all the needful people know about this program or fully aware of this program? Answer. they never came and ask for work.40-45 are finished and 10-5 are in line Question 5.No.How many of total people came regularly? Answer.How many policies are currently running in the village for rural development? Answer.From 2010 to till now Question 2.To avoid corruption. hardly 150 came regularly.How much job cards have been issued till now? Answer.At least 720.Out of 750. which comes under panchayat are: (a) Lohaiya Awas Yojana (b)Indira Awas Yojna (c) MNREGA Question 3. there is a lady social coordinator Meera Pal . Question 10. out of which 30% are women and 200-250 came regularly.Upto 50 Question 4.How many projects have started in your period? Answer. how much are finished? Answer.Since when you are Gram Pradhan? Answer.Yes. Question 9. the transfer of Gramin Rojgar Sevak is to be done from one village to another village so that Sarpanch of a village cannot make connection with GRS and he cannot do any corruption without any help of GRS.

the power can be entertained by us only if we have money for work.50/.Does anyone come for inspection? Answer. Question 13. (c) It is seen that their was no women workers were there when we gone to the working site and total enrolled women are only 30% of all workers. everyone is corrupt from lower level to upper level.Do you want more power under MNREGA at panchayat level? Answer. thats why we can’t do anything. but after SP government came in power money doesn’t comes.Corruption cannot be stopped by a individual. (b)It is also noticed that most of the works are confined to papers only and quality is not being maintained.Is MNREGA really prove as a factor for rural development? Answer.Question 7.Averagely how many working days are providing by you? Answer-100 days.Any suggestion to stop corruption? Answer.Yes Question 11-Does there is any discrimination on the basis of caste on working site? Answer. . Question bribe for their job card.Peoples are aware and they want job also. nothing like that. we want money not power.Yes Question 8. Some Problems Came Out During Research (a)It is observed that the workers and Gramin Rojgar Sevak have to wait months together for their wages and they have to pay up to Rs.According to you does people are fully aware of MNREGA or not? Answer. Question 12. Question 10.

Suggestion Of Above Said Problems (a)There is a need of awareness program through which all peoples can get aware of policy and its functioning. (i) Above of all corruption is the major problem at that level. (e)Peoples are less aware of the policy running for them . (f)Worker should get aware of how much work he/she have to do in a single day. crèche. (h)The data given by all are not matching with each other GRS is saying something else and Pradhan is saying something else. shed etc. Conclusion .(d)After questioning with workers we came to know that their was no facility available for them at working site like drinking water. (e)Transfer of Gramin Rojgar Sevak in regular period of time in nearby villages should be done. (b)There has to be inspection of working at regularly at least twice a month so that quality of the work can be controlled. there is always a lack of money. (g)Budgeting for the program is not properly done. (d)There is a need of proper budgeting so that there is never lack of money to run a program efficiently. (c)Women should get aware of the programs and its significance for them and their family. awareness program should also include the implementing body of lower level also like Pradhan. (f) Time interval in between inspection is very much.

Independent studies and research indicates that NREGA has aided in enhancement of agricultural productivity (through water harvesting. 80%-90% of rural households were economically benefited through this Act. stemming of distress migration. the target of this Act is to provide employment for 1/3 (33%) of women in the country. Out of this. check in soil erosion and micro-irrigation). . and the regeneration of natural resources.4% SC . While. and 24. So far (11July 2010) it created 90. check dams. improve moisture content. it exceeded this target and it is close to 50%. 29. supplementing household incomes. increased access to markets and services through rural connectivity works. ground water recharging. increase in women workforce participation ratios. MGNREG A is yielding better results compared to earlier poverty eradication programs.1% ST .51man days of work (man day means the average work turn out by a worker per day).