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History Department

Guide to the IB

Impington Village
College

Welcome to the History Department

This guide is designed to provide you with the necessary tools to succeed in History.
You will find syllabus details, homework topics, mark schemes, reading lists and tips
to aid essay writing and source work.
Use this guide to assist you in revision and to keep track of your studies for each unit.
You will be covering much more in lessons and you will be given homework
assignments not mentioned in this guide as a supplement to assist you in preparing for
the final examinations.
The tackling of essays and source work sheets will be beneficial when it comes to
revision and practising for the examinations. Do not use this guide alone; it is
designed to supplement the course hand-outs, notes and homework given out during
lesson time.
At IB you should expect to study seven periods of History a fortnight regardless of
whether you are standard or higher level. Be prepared to get involved, complete all
homework on time and ask questions whenever you need to.

History Department Contacts:


Mr Philip Arkinstall

Lead Teacher: History


parkinstall@impington.cambs.sch.uk

Ms Suzanne Daley

Progression Coordinator/History Teacher


sdaley@impington.cambs.sch.uk

Miss Katie Moore

History Teacher
kmoore@impington.cambs.sch.uk

Mrs Sarah Black

History Teacher
sblack@impington.cambs.sch.uk

Contents Page
Page 2

Welcome

Page 3

Overview of the course

Page 4-9

Syllabus

Page 10-11

Guide to Paper 1

Pages 12-19

Guide to Paper 2/3

Page 20

Tackling Paper 1

Page 21

Tackling Paper 2

Page 22

Reading List

Page 23

Paper 2 & 3 Mark Scheme

Pages 24-25

Coursework Mark Scheme

Pages 26-27

Exam Style Questions

Page 28

How to write essays

Page 29

How to work with sources

Page 30

Tips

Sixth Form History at Impington


Group 3: Individuals and Society
History is more than the study of the past. It is the process of recording, reconstructing and
interpreting the past through the investigation of a variety of sources. It is a discipline that gives
people an understanding of themselves and others in relation to the world, both past and present
IB Handbook 2009

History Route 2: 20th Century World History


Year 12 IB
4 Units full year in length
1. Peacemaking,
peacekeeping
international relations 191836
2. Russian History 1860s1956
3. Origins of World War One
4. Coursework
Homework: Essays, source work
(paper 1), reading and coursework
Extra-curricular: Battlefield Trip
July,

Year 13 IB
3 Units full year in length
1. Cold War
2. China
3. Mussolini and Hitler

Homework: Essays, source work,


reading and (for some) extended
essay
Extra-curricular: Parliament Trip

Standard Level
Assessment
Breakdown

Paper 1

30%

Paper 1

20%

Paper 2

45%

Paper 2

25%

Paper 3

35%

C/W

20%

C/W
Assessment

Higher Level

25%

Paper 1 SL: a document-based


paper set on the Peacemaking,
peacekeeping international
relations 191836

Paper 1 HL: a document-based


paper set on the Peacemaking,
peacekeeping international
relations 191836

Paper 2 SL/HL: an essay paper


based on answering 2 questions
from a range of topics

Paper 2 SL/HL: an essay paper


based on answering 2 questions
from a range of topics
Paper 3 HL: an essay paper
based on answering 3 questions
from a range of topics

Internal assessment (IA): the


historical investigation

Internal assessment (IA): the


historical investigation

IB History Syllabus SL/HL


Route 2: 20th Century World History
Paper 1
Prescribed subject 1: Peacemaking, peacekeepinginternational relations 1918-36
This prescribed subject addresses international relations from 1918 to 1936 with emphasis on the Paris Peace
Settlementits making, impact and problems of enforcementand attempts during the period to promote collective
security and international cooperation through the League of Nations and multilateral agreements (outside the League
mechanism), arms reduction and the pursuit of foreign policy goals without resort to violence. The prescribed subject also
requires consideration of the extent to which the aims of peacemakers and peacekeepers were realized and the obstacles
to success.
Areas on which the source-based questions will focus are:

aims of the participants and peacemakers: Wilson and the Fourteen Points
terms of the Paris Peace Treaties 1919-20: Versailles, St Germain, Trianon, Neuilly, Svres/Lausanne 1923
the geopolitical and economic impact of the treaties on Europe; the establishment and impact of the mandate
system
enforcement of the provisions of the treaties: US isolationismthe retreat from the AngloAmerican Guarantee;
disarmamentWashington, London, Geneva conferences
the League of Nations: effects of the absence of major powers; the principle of collective security and early
attempts at peacekeeping (1920-5)
the Ruhr Crisis (1923); Locarno and the Locarno Spring (1925)
Depression and threats to international peace and collective security: Manchuria (1931-3) and Abyssinia
(1935-6).

Paper 2
Introduction to route 2 topics
Students are required to study two topics from the following list.

Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of wars


Topic 2: Democratic stateschallenges and responses
Topic 3: Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
Topic 4: Nationalist and independence movements in Africa and Asia and post-1945 Central and Eastern
European states
Topic 5: The Cold War

The topics should be studied through a selection of case studies drawn from different regions. Knowledge of topics
beyond 2000 is not required.
The syllabus specifications for every topic include major themes and material for detailed study. Students should study a
selection from the material for detailed study using the themes to guide them. It is important to ensure that examples
selected for detailed study cover two regions as outlined by the map provided. In the examination that tests this
component (SL/HL paper 2) questions will be set on major themes. Named questions will be confined to the material in
major themes and detailed study. When answering open-ended questions students can use examples from the list and/or
alternative examples.

Figure 1
World map showing regional divisions of the IB history course (map shows borders as at 2000)

Topic 1: Causes, practices and effects of wars

War was a major feature of the 20th century. In this topic the different types of war should be identified, and the causes,
practices and effects of these conflicts should be studied.

Major themes
Different types and nature of 20th
century warfare

Origins and causes of wars

Nature of 20th century wars

Civil

Guerrilla

Limited war, total war

Long-term, short-term and immediate causes

Economic, ideological, political, religious causes

Technological developments, tactics and strategies, air, land and sea

Effects and results of wars

Home front: economic and social impact (including changes in the


role and status of women)

Resistance and revolutionary movements

Peace settlements and wars ending without treaties

Attempts at collective security pre- and post-Second World War

Political repercussions and territorial changes

Post-war economic problems

Material for detailed study

First World War (1914-8)


Second World War (1939-45)
Africa: Algerian War (1954-62), Nigerian Civil War (1967-70)
Americas: Falklands/Malvinas war (1982), Nicaraguan Revolution (1976-9)
Asia and Oceania: Indo-Pakistan wars (1947-9, 1965, 1971), Chinese Civil War (1927-37 and 1946-9)
Europe and Middle East: Spanish Civil War (1936-9), IranIraq war (1980-88), Gulf War (1991)

Topic 3: Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states


The 20th century produced many authoritarian and single-party states. The origins, ideology, form of government,
organization, nature and impact of these regimes should be studied.

Major themes
Origins and nature of authoritarian and singleparty states

Establishment of authoritarian and single party


states

Domestic policies and impact

Conditions that produced authoritarian and single-party


states
Emergence of leaders: aims, ideology, support
Totalitarianism: the aim and the extent to which it was
achieved

Methods: force, legal

Form of government, (left- and right-wing) ideology

Nature, extent and treatment of opposition

Structure and organization of government and


administration

Political, economic, social and religious policies

Role of education, the arts, the media, propaganda

Status of women, treatment of religious groups and


minorities

Material for detailed study

Africa: KenyaKenyatta; TanzaniaNyerere


Americas: ArgentinaPern; CubaCastro
Asia and Oceania: ChinaMao; IndonesiaSukarno
Europe and the Middle East: GermanyHitler; USSRStalin; EgyptNasser

Topic 5: The Cold War


This topic addresses EastWest relations from 1945. It aims to promote an international perspective and understanding of
the origins, course and effects of the Cold Wara conflict that dominated global affairs from the end of the Second World
War to the early 1990s. It includes superpower rivalry and events in all areas affected by Cold War politics such as
spheres of interest, wars (proxy), alliances and interference in developing countries.

Major themes
Origins of the Cold War

Nature of the Cold War

Development and impact of the Cold


War

End of the Cold War

Ideological differences

Mutual suspicion and fear

From wartime allies to post-war enemies

Ideological opposition

Superpowers and spheres of influence

Alliances and diplomacy in the Cold War

Global spread of the Cold War from its European origins

Cold War policies of containment, brinkmanship, peaceful


coexistence, dtente

Role of the United Nations and the Non-Aligned Movement

Role and significance of leaders

Arms race, proliferation and limitation

Social, cultural and economic impact

Break-up of Soviet Union: internal problems and external pressures

Breakdown of Soviet control over Central and Eastern Europe

Material for detailed study

Wartime conferences: Yalta and Potsdam


US policies and developments in Europe: Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO
Soviet policies, Sovietization of Eastern and Central Europe, COMECON, Warsaw Pact
SinoSoviet relations
USChinese relations
Germany (especially Berlin (1945-61)), Congo (1960-64), Afghanistan (1979-88), Korea, Cuba, Vietnam,
Middle East
Castro, Gorbachev, Kennedy, Mao, Reagan, Stalin, Truman

Higher Level
You will complete Paper 1 and 2, but also a third paper based on knowledge gained in the following syllabus content.

Paper 3
HL option 5: Aspects of the history of Europe and the Middle East
This option covers major trends in Europe and the Middle East in the period from the mid 18th century to the end of the
20th century. Europe and the Middle East are geographically close, and their similarities and differences have resulted in
periods of cooperation and enmity. Major developments included revolutions; the decline of empires and the
establishment of nation states; political, social and economic reforms; and the emergence of dictatorships and the reemergence of democracy. Although the focus is on major countries, developments in other states can be studied through
case studies.
Within the sections there will be, where appropriate, a case study approach in which students will have the opportunity to
study their own or another national history of the region.
Only people and events named in the guide will be named in the examination questions.
In some bullets, suitable examples are shown in brackets. These examples will not be named in the examination
questions as any appropriate examples could be used.
Three sections must be selected for in-depth study.
Please note that this option is available only to students who have studied the route 2 SL/HL core syllabus.

Figure 5
Map of Europe and the Middle East region (borders as at 2000)
5. Imperial Russia, revolutions, emergence of Soviet State 1853 - 1924
This section deals with the decline of imperial power in Tsarist Russia and the emergence of the Soviet State. It requires
examination and consideration of the social, economic and political factors that inaugurated and accelerated the process
of decline. Attempts at domestic reform and the extent to which these hastened or hindered decline should be studied,
together with the impact of war and foreign entanglements.

Alexander II (1855-81): emancipation of the serfs; military, legal, educational, local government reforms; later
reaction
Policies of Alexander III (1881-94) and Nicholas II (1895-1917): backwardness and attempts at modernization;
nature of tsardom; growth of opposition movements
Significance of the Russo-Japanese War; 1905 Revolution; Stolypin and the Duma; the impact of the First
World War (1914-18) on Russia
1917 Revolutions: February/March Revolution; Provisional Government and Dual Power (Soviets);
October/November Bolshevik Revolution; Lenin and Trotsky
Lenins Russia (1917-24): consolidation of new Soviet state; Civil War; War Communism; NEP; terror and
coercion; foreign relations

6. European diplomacy and the First World War 1870 - 1923


This section deals with the longer- and shorter-term origins of the First World War, its course and consequences. The
breakdown of European diplomacy pre-1914 and the crises produced in international relations should be examined. It
covers how the practice of war affected the military and home fronts. The section also investigates reasons for the Allied
victory/Central Powers defeat plus a study of the economic, political and territorial effects of the post-war Paris Peace
Settlement.

European diplomacy and the changing balance of power after 1870


Aims, methods, continuity and change in German foreign policy to 1914; global colonial rivalry
Relative importance of: the Alliance System; decline of the Ottoman Empire; Austria Hungary and Balkan
nationalism; arms race; international and diplomatic crises
Effects on civilian population; impact of war on women socially and politically
Factors leading to the defeat of Germany and the other Central Powers (Austria Hungary, Ottoman Empire and
Bulgaria); strategic errors; economic factors; the entry and role of the United States
Post-war peace treaties and their territorial, political and economic effects on Europe: Versailles (St Germain,
Trianon, Neuilly, Svres/Lausanne)

8. Interwar years: conflict and cooperation 1919 - 39


This section deals with the period between the two World Wars and the attempts to promote international cooperation and
collective security. Obstacles to cooperation, such as post-war revisionism, economic crises and challenges to democracy
and political legitimacy in Italy, Germany and Spain respectively, all require examination and consideration. The policies of
the right-wing regimes and the responses of democratic states are also the focus of this section.

Germany 1919-33: political, constitutional, economic, financial and social problems


Italy 1919-39: Mussolinis domestic and foreign policies
The impact of the Great Depression (case study of its effect on one country in Europe)
Spanish Civil War: background to the outbreak of the Civil War; causes and consequences; foreign
involvement; reasons for Nationalist victory
Hitlers domestic and foreign policy (1933-39)
Search for collective security; appeasement in the interwar years; the failure of international diplomacy; the
outbreak of war in 1939

9. The Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 1924 - 2000


This section deals with the consolidation of the Soviet state from 1924 and the methods applied to ensure its survival,
growth and expansion inside and outside the borders of the Soviet Union. The rise and nature of the rule of Stalin,
Khrushchev, Brezhnev and the policies and practice of Sovietization (post-1945) in Central and Eastern Europe are areas
for examination. EastWest relations post-1945 in relation to Soviet aims and leadership should also be considered.

Stalin (1924-53): power struggle; collectivization and industrialization; Five Year Plans; constitution; cult of
personality; purges; impact on society; foreign relations to 1941
The Great Patriotic War: breakdown of wartime alliance; Cold War; policies towards Germany: Berlin;
Eastern European satellite states; Warsaw Pact
Khrushchev (1955-64): struggle for power after Stalins death; destalinization; peaceful coexistence;
domestic policies: economic and agricultural; foreign relations: Hungary, Berlin, Cuba, China
Brezhnev: domestic and foreign policies
Case study of one Sovietized/satellite state: establishment of Soviet control; the nature of the single-party
state; domestic policies; opposition and dissent (suitable examples could be East Germany, Czechoslovakia,
Poland, but all relevant states are valid)
Transformation of Soviet Union: political developments and change (1982-2000)

10

Assessment
Standard Level

Assessment
Breakdown

Paper 1

30%

Paper 1

20%

Paper 2

45%

Paper 2

25%

Paper 3

35%

C/W

20%

C/W
Assessment

Higher Level

25%

Paper 1 SL: a document-based paper set


on the Peacemaking, peacekeeping
international relations 191836

Paper 1 HL: a document-based paper set on


the Peacemaking, peacekeeping
international relations 191836

Paper 2 SL/HL: an essay paper based on


answering 2 questions from a range of
topics

Paper 2 SL/HL: an essay paper based on


answering 2 questions from a range of topics

Paper 3 HL: an essay paper based on


answering 3 questions from a range of topics
Internal assessment (IA): the historical
investigation

Internal assessment (IA): the historical


investigation

11

Paper 1: Topic Guide

Peacemaking, peacekeeping international relations, 1918-36


This prescribed subject addresses international relations from 1918 to 1936 with emphasis on the Paris
Peace Settlementits making, impact and problems of enforcementand attempts during the period to
promote collective security and international cooperation through the League of Nations and multilateral
agreements (outside the League mechanism), arms reduction and the pursuit of foreign policy goals
without resort to violence. The prescribed subject also requires consideration of the extent to which the
aims of peacemakers and peacekeepers were realized and the obstacles to success.
Topic
Background to period
1918-36.

Content
Define peacemaking, peace keeping
and international relations. Look at
end of WW1

Paris Peace Settlement

Wilson and the14 points, Treaty of


Versailles, who were the
Peacemakers?
Terms of the Paris peace treaties; St
Germain and Trianon, Svres,
Neuilly, Riga

How effective were the


other five peace
settlements 1919-20?
Geo-political and
economic impacts of
the treaties on Europe
Enforcement of the
treaties

League of Nations
(1920-25)

Case Study: Germany


1920s Ruhr Crisis and
Locarno
Depression and threats
to international peace
and collective security

Treaty of Rapallo, Polish Corridor,


new states Czechoslovakia,
Yugoslavia and Romania,
introduction of the mandate system
US isolationism, retreat from AngloAmerican agreement, Washington
Naval Conference, London Naval
Conference, Geneva Disarmament
Conference (1932-4)
Effects of the absence of major
powers; the principle of collective
security and
early attempts at peacekeeping
(1920-5), early problems with the
League
Reparations, the Ruhr,
Hyperinflation, Dawes Plan, Young
Plan, the spirit of Locarno, joining
the League of Nations
Manchuria 1931-3, Abyssinia 19356

Homework
Read article and answer questions: Mc
Donough, The Origins of the First
and Second World Wars: Perspectives
in History (Cambridge, 1997).
Chapter, The drift towards alliances.
Cate Brett, The Paris Peace
Conference 1919 Hindsight, April
2001
Dr Ruth Henig How vindictive was
the peace treaty? The Treaty of
Versailles 80 Years On. Modern
History Review, April 2002.
Kerry Ellis, Queen of the Sands
History Today, January 2004
Chapter 7 The Geneva Dream: The
League of Nations and Post-War
Internationalism

League of Nations source analysis


Essay How successful was the
League of Nations?

Preparations for a historiographical


debate on the justification of
reparations Source work
Abyssinia source analysis

12

This part of the course continues to cover the origins of the Second World War, but
WILL NOT be part of the Paper 1 source questions.
How did Hitler
contribute to the failure
of the League?
Case Study: Spanish
Civil War
Appeasement and the
causes of World War
Two (1936-39)

Comparison between
causes of First and
Second World War

German expansion, Rhineland, Saar


Plebiscite, Anti-Comintern Pact
1936, why was 1936 such a
successful year for Hitler?
Origins of Civil War, Guernica,
failure of the League
Hossbach Memorandum, Anschluss,
Munich Conference, appeasement,
Nazi-Soviet Pact, Invasion of
Poland, Why did the Second World
War break out?
Rank factors that caused both and
draw similarities and differences.

Statements challenge: Using evidence


to support or refute the statements
Adam Tooze article Hitlers gamble
Appeasement source analysis

Essay Why did the Second World


War break out?

13

Paper 2: Topic 1 Guide

Causes, practices, and effects of war


War was a major feature of the 20th century. In this topic the different types of war should be identified, and
the causes, practices and effects of these conflicts should be studied.

Long-term, short-term and immediate causes


Economic, ideological, political, religious causes

You will study the origins of the First and Second World War for this topic and the peace settlement at the
end of the First World War in detail. You may be able to do the after effect of the Second World War too
after studying the Cold War in Year 13.
Origins of the FWW
Topic
Why do wars begin?

Background to the First World War

Long-term causes

Short-term causes

Immediate causes
Did Germany cause the war?

How did the Allies win the First World


War?
Territorial changes

Summary of the causes of the First


World War

Content
Introduction to the unit,
experience of First World War
(sights, sounds and style of
warfare)
European maps, cartoon
stereotype of Europe in 1914,
Hopes and Fears of Nations,
web of alliances task p210 IB
core book)
Militarism, nationalism and the
Kaiser, Anglo-German naval
rivalry 1900, Decline of the
Ottoman Empire,

War Plans Schlieffen Plan,


Plan 17, Moroccan Crisis,
1905 and 1911, arms race,
Assassination FF, July crisis,
blank cheque
Source activity and discussion
on where the blame lies?
Why wasnt the war over by
Christmas? Why did Germany
surrender in 1918?
Look at the geographical
boundary changes and discuss
the consequences for Europe
Card sort, factors and final
essay prep.

Homework
Research an element of the First
World War a battle, phase of the
conflict, theatre of war or type (air,
sea, land)
Why the World went to war
article to read

IB learner profile link activity (IB


Core book p214)
Panther at Agadir, History
Today article to read
Industry, war and power source
activity (IB Core book p208)
AJP Taylor Origins of the First
World War from the library read
a few key chapters
Source analysis of July Crisis
Essay question To what extent
was Germany responsible for the
start of the First World War?
Use the research task set at the
beginning of the lesson to fuel
student-led teaching here
Outline map show the change in
borders (IB Core book p260)
What caused the First World War
Historians table and questions
(IB Core Textbook p215)

14

Origins of SWW
Topic
How did Hitler contribute to the failure
of the League?

Case Study: Spanish Civil War


Appeasement and the causes of World
War Two (1936-39)

Comparison between causes of First


and Second World War

Content
German expansion, Rhineland,
Saar Plebiscite, AntiComintern Pact 1936, why was
1936 such a successful year for
Hitler?
Origins of Civil War,
Guernica, failure of the League
Hossbach Memorandum,
Anschluss, Munich
Conference, appeasement,
Nazi-Soviet Pact, Invasion of
Poland, Why did the Second
World War break out?
Rank factors that caused both
and draw similarities and
differences.

Homework
Statements challenge: Using
evidence to support or refute the
statements
Adam Tooze article Hitlers
gamble
Appeasement source analysis

Essay Why did the Second


World War break out?

15

Paper 2: Topic 3 Guide

Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states


The 20th century produced many authoritarian and single-party states. The origins, ideology, form of
government, organization, nature and impact of these regimes should be studied.
Russia 1850s-1953
Topic
Background to Russia
Early Tsars

Opposition to Tsardom
Long/Short Term causes of
1905 Revolution
How did the Tsar survive
1905?

Content
Geography, language, religion, difficulty in
rule? Potted Russian History
Alexander II emancipation of the Serfs,
Policies of Alexander III and Nicholas II,
nature of Tsardom,
Liberals, revolutionaries, populists,
Marxists
Russo-Japanese war, peasant unrest,
industrial unrest, political opposition,
Bloody Sunday (trigger)
Duma, October Manifesto, Sergei Witte as
Prime Minister, treaties signed. Was it
doomed to fail? Did it just postpone failure?

Homework
Research the Tsars Judge
success and failures
Reading task on autocracy &
decision on models of democracy
Source work Bloody Sunday
1905 Revolution Timeline
Long/Short term factors
Tsar essay & how to write a good
essay (supply mark scheme)
Read October Manifesto

Short/Long Term causes of


1917 Revolution

Military disaster in FWW, economic


problems, political problems

Why did the regime not survive


grid?
1917 Revolution Timeline
Long/Short term

February Revolution
October Revolution

Riots, war, Tsars role, Duma,


Storming of the Winter Palace and events of
the Revolution (video/storyboard)

Lenin & Trotsky biographies


Lenins role in April 1917
sources

Why were the Bolsheviks


able to seize power?

Role of Lenin, increased Bolshevik support,


July days, Kornilov plot, Trotsky, support
from the Soviets
Civil War, Decrees, Economic policy,
Constituent Assembly, Secret Police
Creation of USSR, Structure of
Government, nature of the party and NEP
Positions, rivals, underestimated,
outmanoeuvre Trotsky, Trotskys health.
Why end NEP, Collectivisation,
Industrialisation. Did he achieve his aims?

Lenins Legacy table and article

Consolidation of Power
Establishment of Single
party rule
How was Stalin able to
secure the Party leadership?
Why did Stalin end NEP?
(Economic Policies)

Consolidation of Power
Society and Culture
Foreign Policy 1918-41

Terror and Purges


Religion, Education, Women and youth,
The Arts
Worldwide Revolution and Isolation,
Permanent Revolution vs Socialism in One
Country, Soviet Policy towards China,
1934-41

NEP source work


Leadership table for debate
Stalins rise essay
Magnitogorsk film & guide to
collective farm
Statistical analysis
Gulag Article & questions
Party that Ate Itself article
Historiography summary
Stalins obituary
16

China
Topic
Introduction to Chinese
History
Early origins of the CCP
and the GMD

How did Mao emerge as


leader by 1949?

Maos rule of China


(Consolidation of Power)

Foreign Policy

Comparison between Mao


and Stalin

Content
Map, brief history up to 1928
Guomindang control of China, Chiang
Kai Shek, death of Dr Sun Yatsen,
achievements and problems of
Nationalist Party under Chiang Kai
Shek, Jiangxi Soviet 1934, White
Terror, origins of the Chinese
Communist Party
Long March 1935, Extermination
campaigns of the GMD, War with
Japan, Xian incident, Red Army tactics,
Yanan Soviet, Civil War 1945-49
Problems to deal with, reforms of the
1950s, economic and social policies; 5
Year Plans, Hundred Flowers
campaign, Great Leap Forward 1958,
Cultural Revolution 1966,
CCP and the USSR, aims of Chinas
Foreign Policy, Chinas role in the Cold
War (this should tie into work done on
China in that part of the course)

Similarities and differences in


leadership style and aims

Homework
Create a short introduction to
China series of event cards.
Biography of key figures Kai
Shek, Mao, Sun Yatsen
Source analysis of Long March
Long March song lyrics
Essay Analyse the methods
used by Mao to maintain power
Begin summary timeline of the
China topic
Extract from Wild Swans
Read article on Mao and make
comparisons with Stalin
Prepare for a balloon debate
looking at the leaders of single
party states and prepare a
defence for the three topic areas:
rise to power, consolidation and
policies.
Plan past paper questions

17

Mussolini and Hitler


Topic
Introduce/recap single party
states. Introduce Hitler and
Mussolini

Content
Recap nature of a single party state,
the origins, consolidation and policies
as an overview

Problems of Liberal Italy


(Background)

Monarchy and origins of the


problems facing them. Links with
Tsar Nicholas II
Impact of the FWW, rise of the
Fascist movement, Mussolini
becomes Prime Minister, personality
or circumstance?
Comparison work using H/W and
discussions in class. Germany after
WW1, Why did Hitler fail with the
Munich Putsch in 1923? Mussolinis
March on Rome, Nazi tactics 1924-6,
Hitlers trial 1924, Hitler and
Mussolinis tactics.
Mussolini: Murder of Matteotti, steps
to dictatorship
Hitler: Reichstag Fire, Enabling Act,
Night of Long Knives, Hindenburgs
death, Army Oath
Cult of personality, propaganda vs
control, why was Hitlers control
stronger than Mussolinis

Rise to Power

How much did Hitlers Rise to


Power owe much to the example
of Mussolini?

Consolidation of Power

Political control

Social and Economic policies

Women, religion, education of both


states. Did they share the same vision
of society? Economic policies and
strength of each nation

Foreign Policy

Look at the specific aims of each


leaders Foreign Policy. Recap
Hitlers from international relations
course and look at Mussolinis in
more depth
Final comparison diagram of both
leaders complete large A3 table
including the Russian element

Summary of two leaders

Homework
Background to Hitler and the
Nazi Party individual profile,
aims and origins of the Party and
25 Point Programme
Impact of FWW and problems
with the Weimar Republic
Begin a cross-comparison
timeline of Mussolini and
Hitlers rise to power
Article reading

Article reading

Opposition reading and research


Two historians views. Read and
answer questions (IB Core book
p340)
Essay analyse the social and
economic policies of Hitler

Article reading

Complete the table (IB Core


book p366)

18

Paper 2: Topic 5 Guide

The Cold War


This topic addresses EastWest relations from 1945. It aims to promote an international perspective and
understanding of the origins, course and effects of the Cold Wara conflict that dominated global affairs
from the end of the Second World War to the early 1990s. It includes superpower rivalry and events in all
areas affected by Cold War politics such as spheres of interest, wars (proxy), alliances and interference in
developing countries.
Topic
Introduction to Cold
War
Early origins of the
Cold War

Wartime Conferences

Germany after the war

Economic factors
Domino Effect in the
Far East

Post Soviet thaw and


Europe

Arms Race

Sino-Soviet Relations

Dtente 1969-1980

How did the Cold War

Content
Terms, nations, time period coverage

Homework
Reading task

1917 Revolution, Zinoviev letter 1924,


Munich Agreement 1938, Grand
Alliance, differences in ideology during
WW2

Read and annotate the Atlantic Charter


in preparation for discussion in class

Casablanca, Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam.


From wartime allies to post-war
enemies
Consequences of Potsdam and the
division of Germany, Berlin Blockade
1948-49
Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan,
Comecon
China becomes Communist 1949,
Korean War 1950-53, Vietnam War
1965-75

De-Stalinisation and Khrushchev 1956,


Hungarian Uprising 1956, Berlin Wall
1961, Czechoslovakia 1968

A-Bomb to H-Bomb, Bomber gap to


Missile Gap, 1954 McCarthyism,
Brinkmanship to Peaceful coexistence,
MAD to NUTS, Space Race, Cuban
Missile Crisis 1962, effects of Cuba
(Hot Line and Test Ban Treaty)
Role of Communist China in advancing
communism, Soviet Unions Treaty of
Friendship 1950, Sino-Soviet split 1953,
Nixon and Mao 1972 and Sino-US
rapprochement.
Causes of Dtente, SALT I 1972, SALT
II 1979, Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy
Carter, Helsinki Accords 1975,
Margaret Thatcher, 1980 Ronald
Reagans election
Individuals; Pope John Paul II, Thatcher

Analyse the profiles of the Big Three


(IB Core textbook p11)
Historians views of US responsibility
for the development of the Cold War
source task (A2 textbook p51-2)
Set up essay question Ideology
played a small part in the origin of the
Cold War to what extent do you
agree with this assertion?
Marshall Plan and Truman Doctrine
source work
Read and answer questions on NSC 68
document
Source exercise Korean War (A2
textbook p67)
Case Study investigation of the Congo
Crisis, 1960-4 (research for class
presentation)
Mr Man/Little Miss Historiography
poster
TOK linked question about MAD
using IB Core textbook (p484)
Timeline task (A2 textbook p104)
Essay question Evaluate the
impact of the arms race on East-West
relations

Leadership timeline chart to complete


from the IB Core textbook (p491)

Read chapter from John Lewis Gaddis


19

come to end?

Nature of the Cold War

and Reagan, Gorbachev and his reforms.


Economic factors, growing rise in
eastern European activism, Poland and
Solidarity, Fall of the Berlin Wall 1989,
Reunification of Germany 1990, USSR
formally dissolved 1991
Summary timeline, thematic study, after
effect The Cold War today

The Cold War Individuals


Factors judgement exercise (making
links and justifying reasons for the end
of the Cold War)

20

History IB: Tackling Paper 1


What you need to know about the paper:
Paper 1 is a source-based paper set on prescribed subjects drawn from the 20th century world
history topics
Your prescribed topic is Peacemaking, peacekeeping-international relations 1918-36
You must answer all four questions from the section; they are worth a total of 25 marks
The examination lasts one hour and makes up 20% of the assessment for Higher Level History
and 30% of the assessment for Standard Level.
The Type of Sources:
They will either be primary sources (written or created at the time) or a mixture of primary and
secondary sources (produced after the event by someone who was not there at the time the
event occurred)
They may consist of written sources (e.g. letters, the text of a speech or extracts from a book),
visual sources (e.g. paintings, cartoons, photos), diagrams or statistical information
There will be five sources for each prescribed topic
Style of Questions
Question 1 Split into two parts (A and B) it will ask you to explain the message of a source
or define a term or discuss something from a source. E.g. According to Source A, why did?
5 marks

Question 2 Asks you to compare and contrast the views expressed by two sources, e.g.
Compare and contrast the views expressed in Source A and C about the reasons for
6 marks

Question 3 Looking at two sources students are to assess the origin, purpose, value and
limitation to a historian studying X, Y or Z. E.g. With reference to their origins and purpose
assess the value and limitations of Source B and D to an historian studying the Locarno Treaty.
6 marks

Question 4 Use your own knowledge and the sources to construct an argument in answer to a
question about the prescribed topic, e.g. Using the sources and your own knowledge, analyse
the results of the Ruhr Crisis.
8 marks

Answering the questions


Write in complete sentences
Ensure you have enough time to complete the whole paper. A rough guide would be: 5 minutes
on question 1, 15 minutes on question 2, 15 minutes for question 3 and 20 minutes for
question 4. (leaving 5 minutes for reading time)

21

History IB: Tackling Paper 2


What you need to know about the paper:
The examination lasts one and a half hours
It is divided into six sections The Rise and rule of single party states is topic 3
Five essay questions will be set on each topic
Candidates must choose two questions each from different topics
The maximum mark for each question is 20
In the case of the topics two questions will be open (use your own examples)
- two will refer to people or events from the syllabus
- one will be on social, cultural, economic or gender issues.
- At least one will demand examples from two regions
The essays:
Spend a few minutes to decide which question to select from the topic areas.

Look closely at the wording of the questions and make sure you understand what you need to
address in your answer.

Always plan your answer, spending at least 2 or 3 minutes per question.

Give equal time to both essays.

Keep your approach analytical; do not drift into describing what happened. Focus tightly on the
question.

Check that your first sentence is making a statement that directly answers the question

Pay attention to command terms:


1. to what extent was Nazi Germany a totalitarian state? = weigh up the ways it was
and was not a totalitarian state, reaching a conclusion about whether it was totally,
largely, partly, or not at all, totalitarian.
2. compare and contrast the methods by which Hitler and Mussolini came to power =
examine the similarities and differences between their methods.
3. analyse the conditions which gave rise to the single party state in China = This means
examine or scrutinise the circumstances which made it possible for the Communist
Party to be successful, explaining which conditions (social, economic, political or
military) benefitted the CCP and evaluate which were most important.

Use the formula; Point, Evidence, Explanation to ensure that you focus directly on the
question.

Identify the key features of the question in your introduction. Outline your thesis, the line of
argument that your answer will take, and use some context to illustrate the scope of your
argument.
Make sure you leave time for a proper conclusion. The main purpose is to restate your key
arguments

Whatever information you put into your answer, whether it is a quote, fact or statistic, make
sure you explain its significance in relation to the question.

Do not feel that you have to pack your answer with references to differing schools of historical
interpretation and named historians. You will get credit when it is used appropriately, but you
could reach the top mark band without any such references.

22

IB HISTORY
In the first year, students will be studying Russian History from Tsar Alex II to 1953,
The Origins of World War One, the Interwar Years and the Rise of Fascism. An
excellent course companion to assist introductions, note taking and revision for Year
13 would be the Oxford IB Course Companion: 20th Century World History by Martin
Cannon. Other highly recommended books are marked with an *.
Suggested reading
For first time studiers of History try:
Tony Dawney Oxford History for GCSE: Russia and the USSR 1900-95
Stewart Ross Causes and Consequences of the First World War, Assassination in
Sarajevo
Martin Blinkhorn Mussolini and Fascist Italy (a nice introduction)
Russia:
Robert Service Stalin: A Biography and A History of Modern Russia
Simon Sebag-Montefiore Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar and Young Stalin *
Orlando Figes The Whisperers
Michael Gibson, Russia under Stalin, the Documentary History Series (IB specific)
Good novels include: A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovitch, a short novel; Animal Farm
by George Orwell *, a short parable about dictatorship.
WWI and Peace Treaties:
Margaret MacMillan Peacemakers Sixth Months that Changed the World
Giles Pope The Origins of the FWW (Specific IB book)
AJP Taylor Origins of the First World War
Good novels: Robert Graves, Goodbye To All That, Sebastian Faulks, Birdsong *,
Erich Maria Remarque, All Quiet on the Western Front
Rise of Fascism:
RJB Bosworth, Mussolini.
Mark Blinkhorn Mussolini and Fascist Italy
Ian Kershaw Hitler
Michael Burleigh The Third Reich: A New History
Cold War:
John Lewis Gaddis The Cold War
Jeremy Isaacs, Cold War: For Forty-five Years the World Held Its Breath
Robert J. McMahon, The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction
Mike Sewell, The Cold War Cambridge Perspectives in History series
Good novels: Ian Flemings James Bond series, John Le Carrs spy series.
Any of the Teach Yourself series offer a good, broad overview of any of the above
topics.

23

Paper 2/3 Mark Scheme


The following bands provide a prcis of the full mark bands for Paper 2 published in the
History guide on pages 7174. They are intended to assist marking but must be used in
conjunction with the full mark bands found in the guide.
0: Answers not meeting the requirements of descriptors should be awarded no marks.
13: Answers do not meet the demands of the question and show little or no evidence
of appropriate structure. There are no more than vague, unsupported assertions.
45: There is little understanding of the question. Historical details are present but are
mainly inaccurate and/or of marginal relevance. Historical context or processes are
barely understood and there is minimal focus on the task.
67: Answers indicate some understanding of the question but historical knowledge is
limited in quality and quantity. Historical context may be present as will
understanding of historical processes but underdeveloped. The question is only
partially addressed.
89: The demands of the question are generally understood. Historical knowledge is
present but is not fully or accurately detailed. Knowledge is narrative or descriptive in
nature. There may be limited argument that requires further substantiation. Critical
commentary may be present. There is an attempt to place events in historical context
and show an understanding of historical processes. An attempt at a structured
approach, either chronological or thematic has been made.
1012: Answers indicate that the question is understood but not all implications are
considered. Knowledge is largely accurate. Critical commentary may be present.
Events are generally placed in context and understanding of historical processes, such
as comparison and contrast are present. There may be awareness of different
approaches and interpretations but they are not based on relevant historical
knowledge. There is a clear attempt at a structured approach.
1315: Answers are clearly focused on the demands of the question. Specific
knowledge is applied as evidence, and analysis or critical commentary are used
appropriately to produce a specific argument. Events are placed in context and there is
sound understanding of historical processes and comparison and contrast. Evaluation
of different approaches may be used to substantiate arguments presented.
1620: Answers are clearly structured and focused, have full awareness of the
demands of the question, and if appropriate may challenge it. Detailed specific
knowledge is used as evidence to support assertions and arguments. Historical
processes such as comparison and contrast, placing events in context and evaluating
different interpretations are used appropriately and effectively.

24

Internal assessment criteriaSL and HL


The historical investigation (SL and HL) is assessed against six criteria that are related to the objectives for
the Diploma Programme history course.
Criterion A

Plan of the investigation

3 marks

Criterion B

Summary of evidence

6 marks

Criterion C

Evaluation of sources

5 marks

Criterion D

Analysis

6 marks

Criterion E

Conclusion

2 marks

Criterion F

Sources and word limit

3 marks

Total

25 marks

A Plan of the investigation


Marks
0
1
2
3

Level descriptor
There is no plan of the investigation, or it is inappropriate.
The research question, method and scope of the investigation are not clearly stated.
The research question is clearly stated. The method and scope of the investigation are
outlined and related to the research question.
The research question is clearly stated. The method and scope of the investigation are
fully developed and closely focused on the research question.

B Summary of evidence
Marks
0
12
34
56

Level descriptor
There is no relevant factual material.
There is some relevant factual material but it has not been referenced.
There is relevant factual material that shows evidence of research, organization and
referencing.
The factual material is all relevant to the investigation and it has been well researched,
organized and correctly referenced.

C Evaluation of sources
Marks
0
1
23
45

Level descriptor
There is no description or evaluation of the sources.
The sources are described but there is no reference to their origin, purpose, value and
limitation.
There is some evaluation of the sources but reference to their origin, purpose, value
and limitation may be limited.
There is evaluation of the sources and explicit reference to their origin, purpose, value
and limitation.

D Analysis
Marks
0
12
34

56

Level descriptor
There is no analysis.
There is some attempt at analysing the evidence presented in section B.
There is analysis of the evidence presented in section B and references are included.
There may be some awareness of the significance to the investigation of the sources
evaluated in section C. Where appropriate, different interpretations are considered.
There is critical analysis of the evidence presented in section B, accurate referencing,
and an awareness of the significance to the investigation of the sources evaluated in
section C. Where appropriate, different interpretations are analysed.

25

E Conclusion
Marks
0
1
2

Level descriptor
There is no conclusion, or the conclusion is not relevant.
The conclusion is stated but is not entirely consistent with the evidence presented.
The conclusion is clearly stated and consistent with the evidence presented.

F Sources and word limit


Marks
0
1
2
3

Level descriptor
A list of sources is not included or the investigation is not within the word limit.
A list of sources is included but these are limited or one standard method is not used
consistently or the word count is not clearly and accurately stated on the title page.
A list of sources using one standard method is included and the investigation is within
the word limit.
An appropriate list of sources, using one standard method, is included. The investigation
is within the word limit.

26

Exam Style Questions:


Paper 1
1a) Why, according to Source A, had the Allied statesmen been unwise in their treatment of
Germany?
[3 marks]
1b) What message is conveyed by Source E?

[2 marks]

2) Compare and contrast the views expressed about the Treaty of Versailles in Sources B and
D
[6 marks]
3. With reference to their origin and purpose, discuss the value and limitations of Source C and
Source E for historians studying the Paris Peace Conference of 1919-20
[6 marks]
4. Using these sources and your own knowledge, analyse the reasons for German resentment of
the Treaty of Versailles of 1919

Paper 2
Causes, practices and effects of wars
1. Select two causes of the Second World War and show (a) how, and (b) why, they led to
the outbreak of war in 1939.
2. Those who can win a war well can rarely make a good peace. Select one peace treaty
and, by examining its clauses, explain how the winners treated the losers, and if you
agree with the quotation.
Origins and development of authoritarian and single-party states
1. Select two leaders of single-party states, each chosen from a different region, and
explain how and why the conditions of their state helped them to rise to power.
2. Analyse the ideology of (a) one right-wing ruler, and (b) one left-wing ruler.
3. To what extent were the social and economic policies of one of the following
successful: Mao, Nasser, Stalin?
4. Select one leader of a single-party state, and explain why there was opposition to his
rule, and why the opposition succeeded or failed.
The Cold War
1. Why did the end of the Second World War lead to the development of two superpowers
and how did this development help to cause the Cold War?
2. What do you understand by the term spheres of influence? In what ways did spheres
of influence affect the development of the Cold War?

3. In what ways, and with what results, was Berlin the centre of Cold War crises between
1946 and 1961?
4. For what reasons, and in what ways, did either Korea or the Congo become part of the
Cold War?
27

5. Compare and contrast the parts played by Cuba and Vietnam in the Cold War.
6. Examine the ways in which the arms race (a) caused tension in the Cold War, and (b)
helped to end the Cold War.

Paper 3
1. To what extent did Alexander II succeed in his attempts to modernize Russia?
2. The outbreak of war in 1914 postponed the downfall of Nicholas II but also
contributed to his overthrow in the first 1917 Russian Revolution. To what extent do
you agree with this statement?
3. Wars frequently begin ten years before the first shot is fired. To what extent does this
statement explain the outbreak of the First World War?
4. Why was the Weimar Republic in Germany able to survive the crisis years between
1919 and 1923 but not those between 1929 and 1933?
5. Evaluate the relative success of Mussolinis economic, religious and social policies
between 1922 and 1939.
6. To what extent was Stalin responsible for the break-up of the Second World War
alliance and the early stages of the Cold War?
7. Discuss the ways in which post-war economic recovery programmes contributed to the
economic and political integration of Western Europe between 1945 and 1973.
8. Discuss the social and economic policies of either one European or one Middle
Eastern state in the second half of the twentieth century, and indicate to what extent the
inhabitants of the state benefited.

28

How to write an essay


Imagine writing an essay like eating a good burger.
Firstly, you have the introduction (Top Bun), which is your first taste of the flavour. It is
designed to whet your appetite as to what the main argument is going to be about.
Next comes the first layer of meat (or vegetable substitute) which will be your first major point
relating to the essay title. This paragraph should contain examples to support that first key
point.
The following layers represent separate paragraphs and examples. You may have more than
three layers depending upon the length of argument or amount of points that can be made.
At the end, to support the whole thing you will need a conclusion (Bottom Bun), which
summarises the various points you have made and contain a decisive answer to the question.
The very best essays will contain extra relish, onions and sauce and these represent connections
between ideas that link across your essay.

With the analogy of food firmly placed in your minds we can now move on to a more detailed
explanation of what should go into each component of an essay.

Essay Structure
An essay is designed to get across an argument and is NOT for the delivery of facts. There
needs to be a logical sequence of points, which relate to the title and offer links from one point
to the other.
Always explain and justify ideas that you write about (this is where your lesson notes come in
as evidence). An academic essay should not be emotional, so do not talk about stray thoughts;
keep to the question, for the sake of your time limit. Treat the essay as a formal piece of
writing and never use the first person (I think that)
29

Introduction
It is here that you set the scene for what you are about to write. Do NOT list the various
factors; try to weave them into sentences to show that you understand what the focus of the
question is about. Define key words from the title in the introduction to show the reader you
know what the question is asking you. Finally, give some contextual knowledge (background
to the question this does not mean a story though), this will show that you understand the
time period and details of the topic.

Body of the Essay


This will contain paragraphs, each with a different point that you are trying to make. Each
paragraph should contain Points, Evidence, Explanation (PEE) and if you can an Extension
(where you may challenge an issue or the title itself). If you follow the simple formula of PEE
it will mean that your paragraphs are succinct and directly answering the title.
KEY TIP: Treat each paragraph in the main part of your essay as a mini essay. The first
sentence is your introduction, the bulk of the paragraph is presenting your evidence to support
what youve said in the opening sentence and the final sentence or two is your conclusion,
which should lead into your next point.

Conclusion
This is possibly the most important part of the essay. It is here that you will sum up everything
that you have said and try to answer the question directly. Do NOT sit on the fence; if the
questions asks for an opinion or a decision make one. Do NOT introduce new material here.

30

How to work with sources


1. What is a source?
A source is something that provides clues to help an historian write or talk about the past.
Sources can come in a variety of forms:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Written
Oral
Visual
Material form (objects)

Sources can include letters, diaries, documents, books, newspapers, photographs, drawings and
paintings, buildings, statues, monuments, speeches, skulls and bones, fossils, maps, poems,
tables and graphs, novels, songs, electronic media (television, internet sites) etc.
2. Questions you might be asked about sources at A-Level:
A. Using the information about and in the sources to write your own history
E.g. Use Sources 1, 2 and 3 and your own knowledge. How far do these sources suggest
that British Rule was accepted in India at the beginning of the Twentieth Century?
B. Using the sources and own knowledge to challenge a controversial statement
E.g. How far do you agree with the view that the Cold War came to an end because of
popular protests in Eastern Europe which the USSR was powerless to resist?
2a. Questions you might be asked about sources for IB:
A. Obtaining information from a source
E.g. Why according to Source A, did [event] happen?
B. Interpretation of a source/sources what is the originators opinion, what are his views
concerning a given event.
E.g. Compare and contrast the views expressed about the Treaty of Versailles in Sources
B and D
C. Detailed interpretation of the source from the authors point of view
E.g. Questions focusing on the origins, purpose, value and limitation of a source/s
D. Using sources and own knowledge to answer a statement on a time period or event.
E.g. Analyse the reasons for German resentment of the Treaty of Versailles of 1919
3. Questions to ask sources:
Is the source reliable?
A source may be reliable for some purposes, but unreliable for others. There are a number of
questions which should be asked of the source:

Who produced the source and when was it produced?

Was the person who created the source an eyewitness?

31

Remember that an eyewitness account does not necessarily mean that the source is
reliable or accurate. Eyewitness accounts are not necessarily always true, accurate or
unbiased.

What is the perspective/attitude of the creator of the source to the subject matter/topic?

Is there an alternative point of view to the one in the source?

Was the source created a long time after the event?

Why was the source produced?

How accurate is the information in the source? (This requires you to compare the source
with others and with your own content knowledge.)

Does the issue of accuracy tell us anything further about the intention of the person who
created the source?
Remember: A cartoon may be unreliable in telling you the facts about an event, but could
be reliable for showing the way people thought about an event at the time it happened.

Is the source useful?


This is similar to asking about reliability, as the questions you will need to ask are similar. If a
source is, for example, biased, it may not be useful if you are trying to find out about an event;
however that same source might be useful in showing how people felt at the time.
For example, a historical map of the world is useful for the time we might be investigating, but it
may be full of intentional biases or unintentional mistakes and is therefore not reliable.
4: Tips:
For both A-Level and IB remember the following four words:
Purpose, Origin, Value and Limitation
The key to writing history using sources is to weave the evidence from the source into your writing
using quotation marks (word). Always consider the reason why the source was created (Purpose),
what time it was written, whether it was during the event or many years later (Origin), as this can
have an effect, as well as what makes the source useful to you as a historian writing about the past.

32

Tips for Sixth Formers


Below is a list of top tips that should help you through your first few weeks and
help you to organise your lives over the coming two years.
1. Be Organised
Buy folders and sub-dividers to file away your notes after each lesson
2. Use your diary
Keep note of work and assignments and when they are due in. Tick them
off when completed
3. Find the library before the second week!
Nobody will be there in the first few weeks of term so check out the books
or History Magazines
4. Talk to your classmates
You will feel more at home sooner and they will be in the same boat as
you (nervous and worried)
5. Read around your subject area
This will expand your knowledge and make the content easier to follow
6. Be on time to lessons and tutorials
If this is difficult set more than one alarm. Remember, the early bird gets
the worm!
7. Use the syllabus
Buff up on what topics you are studying to feel more confident in lessons
8. Keep note of key words
Have a separate sheet of paper at the front or back of your note pad for a
glossary
9. Ask questions
If youre stuck, you might not be alone, so ask questions
10. Make time for yourself in your schedule
Work is important, but so is rest.
Welcome and Good Luck with your studies

33