Circuit Analysis
Circuit Analysis
by
Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAOLU
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 1
Circuit Analysis
METU
L1
Vs
R3
R2
C1 R 1
V2
L1
R2
+
V1
N1
N2
R1
Is (t)
C1
R1
L3
R1
C1
V3
R1
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 2
Circuit Analysis
METU
Requiv
IA
Vs
R3
R4
R2
Vequiv
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 3
Circuit Analysis
METU
Method
1. Open circuit the terminals AB of
the given circuit,
2. Calculate the open circuit voltage
VAB seen at the terminals A and B,
Given Circuit
R1
Vs
R3
R4
R2
Requiv
A
+
VOC
IA
+
Vequiv
RAB
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 4
Circuit Analysis
METU
Simplified Circuit
R1
+
+
Vs
R3
R4
R2
Vs
VOC
R 3 x R4
R 3 + R4
R3 // R4
R2
VOC
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 5
METU
Circuit Analysis
Current I
R2
Voltage Division Ratio = R1 + R2 + ( R3 // R4 )
R2
VOC =  Vs
R1 + R2 + ( R3 // R4 )
R1
Vs
Input
Voltage
R2 VOC
Output
Voltage
R3 // R4
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 6
METU
Circuit Analysis
R1
IA A
+
Vs
R3
R4
R1
R2
R3
R2
R4
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 7
METU
Circuit Analysis
R1
Is
OC
An Important Rule:
Controlled (dependent) sources cannot be
killed.
If you do, the result will be incorrect !
Hence, a circuit with these types of sources
can NOT be simplified by using the Thevenin
Equivalencing Method
R3
IA A
R2
R4
R1
R3
R2
R4
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 8
Circuit Analysis
METU
Given Circuit
R1
IA
R1
IA
+
Vs
R2
R2
R3
R3
R4
R4
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 9
METU
Circuit Analysis
R1
IA
R2
R3 // R4
B
IA
(R3 // R4) + R1
R2
B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 10
METU
Circuit Analysis
= ( (R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) // R2
((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) x R2
= ((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) + R2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 11
METU
Circuit Analysis
Resulting Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) x R2
Requiv = ((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) + R2
R2
VOC =  Vs
R1 + R2 + ( R3 // R4 )
((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) x R2
Requiv = ((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) + R2
IA A
R2
VOC =  Vs
R1 + R2 + ( R3 // R4 )
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 12
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example
Example
Determine the Thevenin Equivalent of the
circuit shown on the RHS
Calculation of Requiv
Requiv = (R3 // R4 + R1 ) // R2
R1 = 2 Ohm
IA
+
Vs = 100 V
R3 = 5 Ohm
R2 = 4 Ohm
R4 = 4 Ohm
= ((R3 x R4 )/(R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) // R2
((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) x R2
= ((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) + R2
(2.2222 + 2) x 4
16.8888
=  =  = 2.054 Ohm
(2.2222 + 2) + 4
8.22222
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 13
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example
Example
Calculation of Vequiv
VOC
R2
=  Vs
R1 + R2 + ( R3 // R4 )
= 4 / ( 2 + 4 + 2.2222) * 100 = 48.65 Volts
R1 = 2 Ohm
IA
+
Vs = 100 V
R3 = 5 Ohm
R2 = 4 Ohm
R4 = 4 Ohm
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 14
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example
Resulting Thevenin
Equivalent Circuit
Requiv = 2.054 Ohms
IA
+
Vequiv = 48.65 Volts
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 15
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure
a)
b)
Ammeter
Vs
R3
R2
ISC
R4
IA A
R1
+
Vs
R3
R4
R2
Vs
B
R3
R4
R2
Voltmeter
VOC
B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 16
Circuit Analysis
METU
Objective
The main objective of Short Circuit Test is to
determine the current Isc flowing when the
terminals A and B are shorted
Ammeter
R1
ISC A
+
R2
Vs
R3
R4
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 17
Circuit Analysis
METU
Objective
The main objective of Open Circuit Test is to
determine the voltage at the terminals A and B
when these terminals are open circuited
R1
+
R2
Vs
R3
R4
Voltmeter
I voltmeter
(negligible)
VOC
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 18
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure
+
Vs
R3
a)
R2
ISC
R4
R1
A
+
Vs
R3
R4
R2
b)
VOC
Requiv
IA
+
Vequiv
B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 19
Circuit Analysis
METU
+ Vs = 100 V
Ammeter
50
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 20
Circuit Analysis
METU
Solution
First, take out the ammeter and 50
Ohm resistance connected to
terminals C and D
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 21
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Ammeter
Solution
Determine the Thevenin Equivalent of
the source side of the circuit, i.e. the
rest of the circuit after the ammeter
and 50 Ohm resistance are taken out
1. Kill all the sources in the given
circuit
Vs = 100 V
Circuit Analysis
METU
Ammeter
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 23
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Ammeter
Solution
Determine the Thevenin Equivalent of
the source side of the circuit, i.e. the
rest of the circuit after the ammeter
and 50 Ohm resistance are taken out
Req
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 24
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Ammeter
Solution
Determine the Thevenin Equivalent of the
source side of the circuit, i.e. the rest of the
circuit after the ammeter and 50 Ohm
resistance are taken out
Req1
Req2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 25
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Solution
VOC
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 26
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Solution
VOC = VC V D
A
+
Vs
Rx
R1 = 100
C
Rb = 100
VC
VD
R2 = 20
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 27
Circuit Analysis
METU
C I=5 A
50
VOC = 100(100/(100+Rx)  100/6)
Ammeter
Homework
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 28
Circuit Analysis
METU
Ra = 50
Ammeter
50
Rb = 100
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 29
Circuit Analysis
METU
Ra = 50
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 30
Circuit Analysis
METU
Ra = 50
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 31
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example 2. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Solution
Thevenin Ammeter
Equivalent
Resistance
Req
= 50
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 32
Circuit Analysis
METU
Solution
Thevenin Equivalent Resistance
Req
= 50
RThev.
= (Ra // Rb ) + (R1 // R2 )
= (50//100) + (100//20)
= 33.333 + 16.667 = 50
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 33
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example 2. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Solution
VOC
Ra = 50
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 34
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example 2. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Solution
VOC= VC V D
A
Ra
+
Vs
R1
D
C
Input
Voltage
Rb
VC
VD
B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 35
R2
Circuit Analysis
METU
C I=5A
50
+
VThev.= Vs / 2
Ammeter
Vs = 1000 Volts
D
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 36
Circuit Analysis
METU
IA
Vequiv
Iequiv = Requiv
Vequiv
Gequiv = 1 / Requiv
B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 37
Circuit Analysis
METU
IA
Vequiv
Iequiv = Requiv
Vequiv
Gequiv = 1 / Requiv
B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 38
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example
Question
Determine the Norton Equivalent of the
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit shown on the
RHS
IA
+
Vequiv = 120 V
Solution
IA A
Iequiv = 6 Amp
B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 39
Circuit Analysis
METU
Injected Current
A
Vequiv
Iequiv = Requiv
IA
Vequiv
Iequiv = Requiv
gequiv = 1 / Requiv
gequiv = 1 / Requiv
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 40
Circuit Analysis
METU
Given Circuit
R1
IA A Resistance
RL
+
Vs
A Resistance
RL
R2
Vequiv
R3
R4
IA
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 41
METU
Circuit Analysis
Maximum Power Transfer Condition
IA
Resistance
RL
+
Vequiv
RL =
In this case the load power will again tend
to be zero since;
P= xI2
= x (Vequiv /( + Requiv ))2 = 0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 42
METU
Circuit Analysis
Mathematical Fact
Mathematical Fact
Graphical Illustration
120.00
extremum point
100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
10.00
12.00
14.00
16.00
18.00
20.00
22.00
20.00
40.00
60.00
80.00
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 43
24.00
Circuit Analysis
METU
Requiv = 5 Ohm
5
4
A IA
Resistance
RL
Vequiv = 10 V
1
0
10
15
Optimum Value of RL
20
RL (Ohm)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 44
METU
Circuit Analysis
Maximum Power Transfer Condition
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
Req
Resistance
RL
+
Veq
IA
Conclusion:
For maximum power transfer, load
resistance RL must be equal to the
Thevenin Equivalent Resistance of the
simplified circuit
Req = RL
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 45
METU
Circuit Analysis
Maximum Power Transfer Condition
Why do we need
Maximum Power ?
Circuit Analysis
METU
Node (Junction)
Definition
A node is a point at which two or
more branches are connected
Basic Rule
Current In1
i=n
i =1
Current I2
Current I1
Ii = 0
Current In
Current I2
Current In1
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 47
Circuit Analysis
METU
V1
+
R1
V2
R2
R3
+
Vs
R4
+
V3
+
V4
Ground Node
V=0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 48
METU
Circuit Analysis
Ground Node (Earth Point)
Definition
Ground Node
(Black Terminal )
Measured Node
(Red Terminal )
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 49
Circuit Analysis
METU
Node
BULGARIA
REN
PAAK
Y
ALTINKA
YA
OSMANCA
EREL
ANKIRI
ADAADAPAZA GEBZE
RI
AYIRHAN
BGA
BUR
SA
SEYTMER
TUNBLEK
BALIKE
SR
BATU
AKHALTSIKHE
M
AMASRA
YILDIZT
MRAN
EPE
YE
AMBAR
LI
TEPE
M.ERELS
GEORGIA
BLACK SEA
HABPLE
BABAE
R
SKHAMTAB
G.O.PA
AT
KTEL A
LDAVUTPAA
YDERE
TREBOL
U
H.UURLU
HORASAN
ZLCE
KAYSER
TEMELL
KARS
YUSUFEL
TOZKY
KANGAL
SOMA
GUMRI
OFSOLAKLI
GLB
AI
GKEKAYA
BORK
A
DERNE
R
BOYABAT
KAYABAI
SNCAN
HO
PA
ARAMBA
I
DI
R
D.BEYAZIT
BABEK
ERZURUM
KEBAN
BAZARGAN
Line
ALA
MANSA
A
AFYON
IRAN
ELBSTAN
KARAKAYA
ZM
R
KHOY
IIKLAR
YELHSAR
DYARBAKIR
KONYA
DENZL
ATATRK
GERMENCK
YENK
Y
BATMAN
ALKUMRUETN
DOANLI
SEYDEHR
.URFA
ANDIRIN
YATAAN
KEMERKY
ADANA
OYMAPINAR
VARSAK
ERMENEK
KAYRAKTEPE SKENDERUN
G.ANTEP
HAKKAR
ILISU
KIZILTEPE
CZRE
PS3
ZAKHO
ERZN
BRECK
KESEK
IRAQ
2002
TPP (PLANNED)
AKKUYU
ALEPPO  HALEP
TPP (EXISTING)
HPP (PLANNED)
MEDITERRANEAN SEA
SYRIA
HPP (EXISTING)
400 kV TL (EXISTING)
400 kV TL (PLANNING)
220 kV TL
154 kVTL
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 50
Circuit Analysis
METU
Rs
R12
R20 V2
R10 V
1
VS
V0 = 0
Is = Vs / Rs
gs = 1 / R s
R12
Is
gs
R10 V1
R20 V2
V0 = 0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 51
METU
Circuit Analysis
Node Voltage Method
Procedure (Continued)
3.
4.
5.
6.
1 V1
Is
gs
R10
1 V1
R12
2 V2
Is
gs
R10
V1
R20 V
2
0
V0 = 0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 52
Circuit Analysis
METU
V1 1
I12
2 V2
Is
1 V1
I10
I10s
Is
Rs
I12
I10 + I12
2 V2
R12
R10
I20
R20
0
V0 = 0
Receiving end
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 53
METU
Circuit Analysis
Node Voltage Method
Procedure (Continued)
9. Express branch currents in terms of
the voltages at the sending and
receiving ends by using Ohm's Law,
except those flowing in the current
sources (They are already known)
Is
1 V1
I10
I10s
Is
Rs
I12
I10 + I12
2 V2
R12
R10
I20
R20
0
V0 = 0
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure (Continued)
10. Write down KCL at all nodes except
the ground (reference) node.
(Do not write KCL equation for the
ground node !)
Please note that there are only two
unknown voltages, i.e. V1 and V2
Hence, KCL equations must be written
only at these nodes, i.e. at nodes 1 and
node 2
Is = I10s + I10 + I12
I12 = I20
Is
1 V1
I10
I10s
Is
Rs
I12
I10 + I12
2 V2
R12
R10
I20
R20
0
V0 = 0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 55
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure (Continued)
I10s
Is
Rs
I12
I10 + I12
I10
R10
R12
I20
R20
= Vs / Rs = Vs gs
I10s = ( V1 V0 ) / RS = V1 gs
I10
= ( V1 V0 ) / R10 = V1 g10
I12
I20
= ( V2 V0 ) / R20 = V2 g20
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 56
METU
Circuit Analysis
Node Voltage Method
Procedure (Continued)
Is
I12
I10 + I12
I10s
I10
I20
I12 = I20
VS gs = V1 gs + V1 g10 + ( V1 V2 ) g12
( V1 V2 ) g12 = V2 g20
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 57
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure (Continued)
or, rearranging;
I10s
Is
V1 gs + V1 g10 + ( V1 V2 ) g12 = VS gs
I12
I10 + I12
I10
2
I20
 ( V1 V2 ) g12 + V2 g20 = 0
0
Nodal Equations
or
gs + g10 + g12
g12
V1
=
g12
g12 + g20
V2
VS gs
0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 58
Circuit Analysis
METU
g12
V1
Is
VS gs
=
g12
g12 + g20
V2
Is
I10 + I12
I10s
I12
I10
0
0
I20
Circuit Analysis
METU
Rule
1
g12
g12
g s = 1 / Rs
g12 + g20
g12 = 1 / R12
g10= 1 / R10
Symmetrical
g12 = 1 / R12
g20 = 1 / R20
Circuit Analysis
METU
V1
V2
1 V1
R12
2 V2
Is
gs
R10
V1
R20 V2
0
V0 = 0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 61
Circuit Analysis
METU
I1injected
0
VS gs
0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 62
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure
gs + g10 + g12
g12
V1
=
g12
g12 + g20
V2
VS gs
Is
I12+ I10
I10s
I12
I10
I20
Substitution Method
Matrix Methods
Software Packages
Use computer
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 63
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure (Continued)
gs + g10 + g12
g12
V1
=
g12
g12 + g20
V2
VS gs
Is
I12+ I10
I10s
I12
I10
Matrix Methods
I20
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)
a11
a21
+ 
a12
a22
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 65
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)
a11
a12
a21
a22
a22
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 66
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)
To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix
a11
a12
a21
a22
 a21
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 67
Circuit Analysis
METU
a11
 a21
 a12
a22
+1 when i + j is even,
1 otherwise
a11
 a21
 a12
a22
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 68
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)
To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix
3. Finally, divide the resulting
transposed cofactor matrix by the
determinant
1
d
a11
 a12
 a21
a22
Determinant
a11 / d
 a12 / d
 a21 / d
a22 / d
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 69
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example
Determinant = 1 x 6 2 x 4 = 2
1
2
4
6
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 70
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example (Continued)
Procedure (Continued)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 71
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example (Continued)
Procedure (Continued)
To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix
2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 72
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example (Continued)
Procedure (Continued)
To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix
2
4
+1 when i + j is even,
1 otherwise
2
4
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 73
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example (Continued)
Procedure (Continued)
1
2
4
2
Determinant
3
1/2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 74
Circuit Analysis
METU
1 V1
2 V2
3 V2
G11
G12
G13
V1
G21
G22
G23
V2
G31
G32
G33
V3
V0 = 0
VS1 gs1
=
VS2 gs2
VS3 gs3
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 75
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix
a32
x
a13 x a21
a31
a12 x a23
Procedure (Continued)
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 76
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)
a12 x a21
a33
a11 x a23
a32
a13 x a22
a31
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 77
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)
a32
x
a13 x a21
a31
x
a12 x a23
a22
x
a12 x a21
+
Sum1
a11 x a22
a11 x a23
a33
a13 x a22
a31
a32
+
Sum2
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)
1. Then, calculate the cofactor matrix.
To calculate the ai j th element of the
cofactor matrix;
Delete the i the row and j the
column of the matrix,
Calculate the determinant ci j
of the remaining 2 x 2
submatrix by using the method
given earlier for 2 x 2 matrices
a11
a12
a13
a21
a31
a22
a32
a23
a33
Calculate the
determinant of the
resulting 2 x 2
submatrix
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 79
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure (Continued)
a11
a12
a13
a21
a31
a22
a32
a23
a33
a21
a31
a23
a33
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 80
Circuit Analysis
METU
c11
 c21
c31
 c12
c13
c22  c23
 c32
c33
+1 when i + j is even,
1 otherwise
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 81
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)
c11
 c12
c13
 c21
c22
 c23
c31
 c32
c33
c11
 c21
c31
 c12
c22
 c32
c13
 c23
c33
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 82
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)
3. Finally, divide the resulting
transposed cofactor matrix by the
determinant
c11
1
  c12
d
c13
 c21
c31
c22
 c32
 c23
c33
Determinant
c11/d
 c21/d
c31/d
 c12/d
c22/d
 c32/d
c13/d
 c23/d
c33/d
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 83
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example
Example
1 2
2 8
4 2
4
2
2
1 2
2 8
4 2
1 2
2 8
4 2
4
2
2
1 2
2 8
4 2
16
16
16
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 84
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example
Procedure (Continued)
128
1 2
2 8
4 2
4
2
2
1 2
2 8
4 2
1 2
2 8
4 2
4
2
2
1 2
2 8
4 2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 85
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example
Procedure (Continued)
1 2
2 8
4 2
4
2
2
+
140
1 2
2 8
4 2
16
16
16
+
16
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 86
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example
Procedure (Continued)
1. Then, calculate the cofactor matrix.
To calculate the ai j th element of the
cofactor matrix;
Delete the i the row and j the
column of the matrix,
Calculate the determinant ci j
of the remaining 2 x 2
submatrix by using the method
given earlier for 2 x 2 matrices
2
4
8
2
2
2
Calculate the
determinant of the
resulting 2 x 2
submatrix:
2 x 8 2 x 2 = 12
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 87
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure (Continued)
2
4
8
2
2
2
2
2 x 2  4 x (2) = 12
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 88
Circuit Analysis
METU
12
 12
 36
 12
 14
10
 36
10
12
 12
 36
 12
 14
10
 36
10
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 89
METU
Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)
3. Finally, divide the resulting
transposed cofactor matrix by
the determinant
1
= 156
12
 12
 36
 12
 14
10
 36
10
Determinant
12/156
12/156
36/156
12/156
14/156
10/156
36/156
10/156
 4/156
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 90
Circuit Analysis
METU
Solution Step
Procedure (Continued)
Final step of the solution procedure
is the multiplying the RHS vector
with the inverse of the nodal
admittance matrix
1
G11
G12
G13
VS1 gs1
G21
G22
G23
VS2 gs2
G31
G32
G33
VS3 gs3
1
V1
=
V2
V3
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 91
METU
Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Pure Voltage Sources
Procedure (Continued)
1
+
V0 = 0
Vs / Rs = Vs / 0 =
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 92
METU
Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Pure Voltage Sources
Procedure (Continued)
Sometimes we may encounter a Pure
Voltage Source connecting two
nodes other than ground.
This means that the voltage difference
between these nodes is fixed
A pure voltage source with no series
resistance creates problem in the solution
procedure, since it cannot be converted to
an equivalent Norton Equivalent Circuit, i.e.
V1  V2 = 120 V = Fixed
Is
Is
Ix + I10
I10s
V=120 V
I10
Ix
I23
I20
Vs / Rs = Vs / 0 =
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 93
I30
METU
Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Pure Voltage Sources
Procedure (Continued)
In this case, the circuit can be solved
as follows
1. Define the current flowing in this
voltage source as Ix
2. Define this current as a new
variable,
3. Write down KCL at each node,
except the reference node,
4. Write down the equation for the
voltage difference between the
terminals of this pure voltage
source
Is
Is
Ix + I10
I10s
V=120 V
I10
Ix
I23
I20
n1 equations
V1  V2 = 120 V
k equations
+
n1 + k equations
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 94
I30
Circuit Analysis
METU
Is
Ix + I10 1 V=120 V
2
+
I10s
I10
Ix
I23
I20
3
I30
Ii ( including IX ) = 0
i=1
Is = I10s + I10 + Ix
i = n1
Ii ( including IX ) = 0
i=1
Ix = I20 + I23
(n 1 + k = n) equations vs n unknowns
k = 1, hence n 1 + k = n
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 95
Circuit Analysis
METU
Ii = 0
I10s
I10
Ix
I23
I20
i=1
I23 = I30
and finally, writing down the equation for
voltage difference across the pure voltage
source
4
Is
Ix + I10 1 V=120 V
2
+
V1  V2 = 120 V
n = 4, k = 1
n1+k=4
4 equations vs 4 unknowns
I30
Circuit Analysis
METU
V1gs + V1g10 + Ix Is = 0
V2 g20 + ( V2 V3 ) g23 Ix = 0
V3 g30 + ( V3 V2 ) g23 = 0
Extra Equation
I10s
Is
I10
Ix
I20
V1 V2 = 120 Volts
gs + g10
1
g20 + g23
 g23
I23
Ix + I10 1 V=120 V
2
+
Is
1
 g23
g23 + g30
1
V1
V2
IS
=
V3
Ix
120
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 97
I30
METU
Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Controlled Sources
Voltage Controlled
Current Source
Is= A Vx
Is
Vx
Procedure
Write down the expression for the
current provided by the controlled
current source in terms of the node
voltage depended: Is = A V1
Include this current in the summation
when writing KCL for the node that
controlled current source is connected,
Solve the resulting nodal equations for
node voltages
Is
Is
I12 + I10
I12
I10s
I10
Rs
R10
2
R12
I23
I20 R23
I30
R20
R30
V1
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 98
METU
Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Controlled Sources
Current Controlled
Current Source
Is= A Ix
Procedure
Write down the expression for the current
provided by the controlled current source
in terms of current depended: Is = A I10
Express the depended current, I10 and
hence IS in terms of node voltages;
IS = A (V1  V 0 ) / R10 = A V1 g10
Include this current in the summation
when writing KCL for node that controlled
current is injected,
Solve the resulting nodal equations for
node voltages
Is
Is
I12+ I10
Ix
I12
R12
I10s
Is
Rs
I23
R
I20 23
I30
R20
R30
I10
R10
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 99
METU
Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Controlled Sources
Rs
Procedure
Write down the expression for the
controlled voltage in terms of the current
depended: Vs = A I10
Express the depended current, I10 and
hence VS in terms of the node voltages,
Convert the resulting voltage source VS to
equivalent Norton current source,
+
Include this current in the summation when
writing KCL for node that that controlled
current is injected,
Solve the resulting nodal equations for
node voltages
Current Controlled
Voltage Source
Vs= A Ix
Vs
Is
I12+ I10
Rs
I10s
I12
R12
Rs
Vs
Ix
R10
I23
R
I20 23
I30
R20
R30
I10
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 100
METU
Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Controlled Sources
Rs
Vx
Vs
Procedure
Write down the expression for the
controlled voltage in terms of the voltage
depended: Vs = A Vx = A V1
Convert the resulting voltage source Vs to
equivalent Norton current source,
Include this current in the summation
when writing KCL for node that controlled
current is injected,
Solve the resulting nodal equations for
node voltages
Voltage Controlled
Voltage Source
Vs = A V x
Is
Rs
I12+ I10
Vs
R12
I10s
Rs
I12
R10
I23
I20 R23
I30
R20
R30
Vx = V 1
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 101
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example
Node Voltage Method with
Controlled Current Source
Find the power dissipated in the resistance RL in
the following circuit by using the Node Voltage
Method
Is
I12
I10+ I12
I10s
Is=8 I23
2
4
I10
Dependency
1
I23
2
I20 2
Is2 = 10 A
3
I30
0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 102
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example (Continued)
Node Voltage Method with
Controlled Current Source
The first step of the solution is to combine the
resistances RL and 1 Ohm yielding a 3 Ohm
resistance, thus eliminating the third node
Is
I12
I10 + I12
I10s
I10
I23
2
I20
I30
Dependency
Is=8 I23
Is2 = 10 A
0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 103
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example (Continued)
Node Voltage Method with
Controlled Current Source
Now write down KCL equation at
Node1
8 I23 I10s I10 I12 = 0
I10s = V1 / 2
I10 = V1 / 1
I12 = ( V1 V2 ) / 4
Equation  1
8 V2 / 3 V1 / 2 V1 / 1 ( V1 V2 ) / 4 = 0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 104
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example (Continued)
Node Voltage Method
with Controlled Current
Source
Now, write down KCL equation
at Node2
I12 I20 I23 = 0
I12 = ( V1 V2 ) / 4
I20 =  Is2 = 10 A
I23 = I30 = V2 / 3
Equation  2
I12
1
I10s
I10
I23
2
I20
Is2 = 10 A
I30
(V1 V2 ) / 4 ( 10 Amp) V2 / 3 = 0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 105
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example (Continued)
Node Voltage Method with Controlled
Current Source
8/3 + 1/4
V1
1/4
( 1/4 + 1/3 )
V2
 1.75
2.9167
V1
0.25
0.5833
V2
Reorganizing
eq1 and eq2
in matrix form
0
10
0
10
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example (Continued)
Load Resistance: RL = 1
V2 = 60 Volts
Is
I12
I10+ I12
I10s
I10
I23
3
I20 2
I30
Dependency
Is=8 I23
2
Is2 = 10 A
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 107
Circuit Analysis
METU
Loop 1
Definition
A Loop is a closed path of branches
followed in clockwise direction that
begins from one node and ends
again at the same node
Loop 2
V1
R1
Vs +
V2
R2
R3
R4
V3
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 108
+
V4
Circuit Analysis
METU
Loop 1
Basic Rule
Loops obey Kirchoffs Voltage Law
(KVL)
Vi = 0
i =1
Vs  V1  V3 = 0
V1
R1
i=n
Loop 2
Vs +
V2
R2
R3
R4
V3
V4
V3  V2  V4 = 0
Circuit Analysis
METU
Definition
A Mesh is a loop that does not contain
any other loop inside
V7
V8
R1
R1
+
Mesh 4
+ V1
R1
R2
R3
Vs +
Mesh 1
+ V3
+ V2
R2
R4
Mesh 2
R4
V5 Mesh 3
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 110
V6
Circuit Analysis
METU
Mesh 4
Vs +
+
Mesh 1
+
Mesh 2
Mesh 3
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 111
METU
Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
R12
Procedure
1. Determine the meshes and mesh
current directions in the circuit by
following the rules;
Mesh 3
R13
R32
VS1 +
R30
Mesh 1
2
+ V
S2
Mesh 2
0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 112
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure
2. Define mesh currents in each mesh
flowing in the clockwise direction,
3. Convert all current sources with parallel
admittances, if any, to equivalent
Thevenin voltage sources with series
Thevenin equivalent resistances,
R13
Requiv
R32
VS1 +
Iequiv
I3
I1
R30
I2
+ V
S2
+
gequiv
Vequiv
B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 113
METU
Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
Procedure
R12
I3

R13
R32
+
VS2
VS1 +
I1
R30
I2
METU
Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
Example
Mesh 1
Start from a certain point in Mesh1, if
possible from the ground node A and
follow a closed path in clockwise direction,
When you pass over a resistance, for
instance, over resistance R13;
assign  sign to the current, if it is in
the same direction as your clockwise
direction, i.e. I1,
assign + sign to the current, if it
opposes your clockwise direction, i.e. I3,
sum up the resulting voltage terms in
the mesh
I3
R32
R13
+
VS2
VS1 +
I1
R30
I2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 115
METU
Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
Example
Mesh  2
Start from a certain point in Mesh1, for
instance, from point A and follow a path in
clockwise direction,
When you pass over a resistance, for
instance, over resistance R13;
assign  sign to the current, if it is in
the same direction as your clockwise
direction, i.e. I1,
assign + sign to the current, if it
opposes your clockwise direction, i.e. I3,
sum up the resulting voltage terms in
the mesh
I3
R13
R32
+
VS2
VS1 +
I1
R30
I2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 116
METU
Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
Example
Mesh  3
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 117
METU
Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
Procedure
R12
I3
Mesh 2
Mesh 3
R13
VS1 +
I1
R32
R30
I2
+ V
S2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 118
Circuit Analysis
METU
Mesh 2
Mesh 3
I3
VS1 +
 R30
 R13
I1
 R30
R32 + R30
 R32
I2
 R13
 R32
R30
I1
R13 + R30
R32
R13
I3
+ VS2
I2
VS1
 VS2
0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 119
Circuit Analysis
METU
Procedure
Mesh1
R13 + R30
 R30
 R13
Mesh2
 R30
R32 + R30
 R32
I3
Mesh3
 R13
I1
 R32
I2
I3
R13
VS1
 VS2
0
VS1
R32
+ VS2
I1
R30
I2
Circuit Analysis
METU
Solution Step
Procedure
Final step is the solution of the nodal
equations by multiplying the Voltage
(RHS) Vector with the inverse of the Mesh
Resistance (coefficient) matrix
R13 + R30
 R30
 R13
 R30
R32 + R30
 R32
 R13
 R32
1
1
VS1
 VS2
I1
=
I3
I2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 121
Circuit Analysis
METU
Rules
Mesh1
Mesh2
R13 + R30
 R30
 R13
 R30
R32 + R30
 R32
 R13
 R32
Mesh3
VS1 +
I1
R30
R12
R13
I1
R32
R30
I2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 122
Circuit Analysis
METU
Rules
1
I1
I2
I3
I3
R13
R32
VS1 +
I1
R30
I2
+ V
S2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 123
Circuit Analysis
METU
Rules
1
VS1
 VS2
10 kW Turbine
0
Write down the source voltages in meshes in this vector,
ith element in this vector =
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 124
METU
Circuit Analysis
Example  1
2
Example
I3
6
10 V +
Mesh 2
Mesh 3
Mesh 4
I1
I4
+ 80 V
I2
120 V +
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 125
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example  1
2
Example
I3
10 V +
1
4
I1
I4
+ 80 V
I2
120 V +
10
4
6
4
1
6
1
15
6
I1
I2
10
=
80
6
I3
13
I4
200
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 126
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example  2
Mesh Current Method
Find the power dissipated in the load
resistance RL by using the Mesh Current
Method
5
2 Amp
5 Volts
2
5
4 V1 +
V1
Load Resistance: RL = 1
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 127
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example  2 (Continued)
Load Resistance: 1
5 Volts
2 Amp
+
5
4 V1
V1
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 128
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example  2 (Continued)
Load Resistance: 1
5 Volts
2
4 V1
10 Volts
V1
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 129
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example  2 (Continued)
Mesh Current
Method
Load Resistance: 1
2
4 V1 +
+
Please note that 10  5 = 5 Volts
voltage source remains here
V1
5 Volts
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example  2 (Continued)
Mesh Current Method
Mesh1
Mesh2
2
5 10 I1 2 ( I1 I2 ) 4 V1 = 0
4V1 2 ( I2  I1 )  (2 +1) I2 = 0
V1 = (2 +1) I2 = 3 I2
10
I1
+
+
+
5 Volts
4 V1
I2
V1
Load Resistance: 1
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 131
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example  2 (Continued)
Mesh Current Method
Mesh1
Mesh2
5 12 I1 10 I2 = 0
7 I2 + 2 I1 = 0
10
I1
+
+
4 V1
5 Volts
I2
V1
I2 = 0.15625 Amp
Pload
= 1 x I22 = 0.15625 2
= 0.02441 W = 24.41 mWatt
Load Resistance: 1
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 132
METU
Circuit Analysis
Mesh Analysis with Pure Current Sources
R12
Procedure
Sometimes we may encounter a current
source with no parallel admittance, called
Pure Current Source
A pure current source connecting two
nodes without any shunt admittance means
that there is fixed difference between the
mesh currents involving this current source
A pure current source with no shunt
admittance creates problem, since it
cannot be converted into an equivalent
Thevenin form, i.e.
Is / gequiv= Is / 0 =
I3
R13
R32
+ VS2
IS = 2 A
VS1 +
I1
I2
I2 I1 = 2 A
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 133
METU
Circuit Analysis
Mesh Analysis with Pure Current Sources
R12
Procedure
The circuit is solved as follows
1. Define the voltage across the pure
current source as Vx
2. Define this voltage (Vx) as a new
variable,
3. Write down KVL for each mesh,
4. Write down the equation for the
current difference between the
meshes by using this pure current
source
I3
R13
R32
VS1 +
I1
IS = 2 A
I2
VX
I2 I1 = 2 A
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 134
VS2
Circuit Analysis
METU
i=n
Vi ( including VX ) = 0
i=1
VS1 +
I1
i=n
R32
VX
IS = 2 A
+ VS2
I2
Vi ( including VX ) = 0
i=1
I2 I1 = 2 A
i=n
Vi = 0
i=1
(n + 1) Equations vs (n + 1) unknowns
I2 I1 = 2 Amp
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 135
Circuit Analysis
METU
Resulting Equations
Mesh 1
VS1  R13 ( I1  I3 )  Vx = 0
Mesh 2
VS2 + Vx  R32 ( I2 I3 ) = 0
Mesh 3
R13
Extra Equation
R32
VS1 +
+
I1
IS = 2 A
+ VS2
I2
VX
I2 I1 = 2 Amp
 R13
R13
R32
 R13
1
I3
 R32
 R32
R32 + R13 + R12
1
1
I1
I2
VS1
 VS2
I3
Vx
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 136
Circuit Analysis
METU
Supernode
This part (Part2) may be regarded as a
node; supernode
I1 + IS + I4 I6 = 0
or
I1
i=n
IS
Ii = 0
Part1
i =1
I1
I5
I2
IS
Vs1 +
I4
I6
I3
I7
Part2
I6
Vs2 +
I1
I4
I2
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 137
Circuit Analysis
METU
I1
I1
SC
IS
I5
SC
I6
I4
I1
I2
I3
I7
I1
I2
SC
I5
I2
Vs1 +
I1
+ Vs2
I1
I5
I2
IS
Vs1 +
I4
I6
I1
I3
I7
I6
I4 OC
I7
SC
IS
I6
I4 OC
I7
I2
+ Vs2
I1
I5
I2
I3
I2
I3
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 138
I2
Circuit Analysis
METU
Example
Find the current I2 flowing in resistance
R2 in the following circuit by using the
Principle of Superposition
+
Vs
Ia
R1
R2
OC
Ia = Vs / ( R1 + R2 )
Kill the voltage source and solve the resulting cct
Ib
R1
+
Vs
R1
I2
Is
Is
SC
R2
R2
I2 = Ia + Ib
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 139
Circuit Analysis
METU
Rba = ( Ra Rb + Rb Rc + Rc Ra ) / Rc
Rac = ( Ra Rb + Rb Rc + Rc Ra ) / Rb
Rcb = ( Ra Rb + Rb Rc + Rc Ra ) / Ra
Rb
Rcb
Rba
n
Rc
Ra
c
c
a
c
Rac
c
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 140
Circuit Analysis
METU
Simplification
R = ( RY2 + RY2 + RY2 ) / RY = 3 RY
RY
3RY
RY
c
3RY
RY
c
a
a
c
3RY
c
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 141
Circuit Analysis
METU
Rcb
Rb
Rba
n
Rc
a
Ra
a
c
Rac
c
a
c
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 142
Circuit Analysis
METU
Simplification
RY = R2 / ( R + R + R ) = R / 3
b
R /3
R /3
R /3
a
c
R
c
a
c
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 143
METU
Circuit Analysis
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 144