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# METU

Circuit Analysis

Circuit Analysis

by
Prof. Dr. Osman SEVAOLU
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 1

Circuit Analysis

METU

Definition

## An electrical circuit is a set of

various system elements connected
in a certain way, through which
electrical current can pass
C1

L1

Vs

R3

R2

C1 R 1

V2

L1

R2

+
V1

N1

N2

R1

Is (t)

C1

R1

L3

R1

C1

V3

R1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 2

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Thevenin Equivalent of an Electrical Circuit

Definition
Thevenin Equivalent of an electrical
circuit is the simplified form of the circuit
consisting of a voltage source in series
with a resistance.
Given Circuit
R1

## Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

IA

Requiv

IA

Vs
R3
R4

R2

Vequiv

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 3

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Calculation of Thevenin Equivalent of a Circuit

Method
1. Open circuit the terminals AB of
the given circuit,
2. Calculate the open circuit voltage
VAB seen at the terminals A and B,
Given Circuit
R1

IA

Vs
R3
R4

R2

Requiv

A
+

## 3. Remove (kill) all the sources in the

circuit,
4. Calculate the equivalent resistance
RAB = Requiv seen at the terminals A
and B

VOC

IA

+
Vequiv

RAB

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 4

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Calculation of the Thevenin Equivalent Voltage Vequiv

1. Open circuit the the terminals A-B,
2. Calculate the open circuit voltage
Voc seen at the terminals A-B
Given Circuit
R1

Simplified Circuit
R1

+
+

Vs
R3

R4

R2

Vs
VOC

R 3 x R4
----------R 3 + R4
R3 // R4

R2

VOC

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 5

METU

Circuit Analysis

## Calculation of the Thevenin Equivalent Voltage Vequiv

Alternative Representation of the Circuit

## 2. Calculate the voltage open circuit

Voc between the terminals A-B

Current I

R2
Voltage Division Ratio = ---------------------------R1 + R2 + ( R3 // R4 )

R2
VOC = -------------------------- Vs
R1 + R2 + ( R3 // R4 )

R1
Vs

Input
Voltage

R2 VOC

Output
Voltage

R3 // R4

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 6

METU

Circuit Analysis

## Determination of Thevenin Equivalent Circuit by Calculation

Circuit with Voltage Source

given circuit

R1

IA A

+
Vs

SC

## A very Important Rule:

Controlled (dependent) sources cannot be
killed.

R3
R4

IA

R1

## If you do, the result will be incorrect !

Hence, a circuit with these types of sources
can NOT be simplified by using the Thevenin
Equivalencing Method

R2

R3

R2

R4

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 7

METU

Circuit Analysis

## Calculation of Thevenin Equivalent Resistance Requiv

A Circuit with Current Source

given circuit

R1

## Meaning of Killing Current Source:

(b) Open Circuit all current sources

Is
OC

An Important Rule:
Controlled (dependent) sources cannot be
killed.
If you do, the result will be incorrect !
Hence, a circuit with these types of sources
can NOT be simplified by using the Thevenin
Equivalencing Method

R3

IA A

R2

R4

## Current Source Killed

IA

R1

R3

R2

R4

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 8

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Calculation of Thevenin Equivalent Resistance Requiv

3. Kill all the sources in the given circuit,
4. Calculate the equivalent resistance
RAB seen from the terminals A and B
Calculate Requiv

Given Circuit
R1

IA

R1

IA

+
Vs

R2

R2

R3

R3

R4

R4

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 9

METU

Circuit Analysis

## 4. Perform simplifications on the

resulting circuit in order to find
Requiv.
R3 x R4
----------R3 + R 4

R1

IA

R2
R3 // R4
B
IA

(R3 // R4) + R1

R2

B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 10

METU

Circuit Analysis

IA A

## 4. Perform simplifications on the

resulting circuit in order to find Requiv.
Requiv = (( R3 // R4 ) + R1 ) // R2

## ((R3 // R4) + R1) // R2

= ( (R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) // R2
((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) x R2
= --------------------------------------------((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) + R2

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 11

METU

Circuit Analysis
Resulting Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) x R2
Requiv = -------------------------------------------((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) + R2
R2
VOC = --------------------------- Vs
R1 + R2 + ( R3 // R4 )

((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) x R2
Requiv = ----------------------------------------------((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) + R2

IA A

R2
VOC = -------------------------- Vs
R1 + R2 + ( R3 // R4 )

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 12

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example
Example
Determine the Thevenin Equivalent of the
circuit shown on the RHS
Calculation of Requiv
Requiv = (R3 // R4 + R1 ) // R2

R1 = 2 Ohm

IA

+
Vs = 100 V

R3 = 5 Ohm

R2 = 4 Ohm

R4 = 4 Ohm

= ((R3 x R4 )/(R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) // R2
((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) x R2
= ----------------------------------------------((R3 x R4 )/( R3 + R4 ) + R1 ) + R2
(2.2222 + 2) x 4
16.8888
= ----------------------- = ------------- = 2.054 Ohm
(2.2222 + 2) + 4
8.22222
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 13

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example

Example
Calculation of Vequiv
VOC

R2
= ---------------------------- Vs
R1 + R2 + ( R3 // R4 )
= 4 / ( 2 + 4 + 2.2222) * 100 = 48.65 Volts

R1 = 2 Ohm

IA

+
Vs = 100 V
R3 = 5 Ohm

R2 = 4 Ohm

R4 = 4 Ohm

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 14

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example
Resulting Thevenin
Equivalent Circuit
Requiv = 2.054 Ohms

IA

+
Vequiv = 48.65 Volts

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 15

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Determination of the Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

by using Open and Short Circuit Tests
R1

Procedure
a)
b)

## Short circuit the terminals A

and B and measure Isc
Open circuit the terminals A and
B and measure VOC
R1

Ammeter

Vs

R3

R2
ISC

R4

IA A

R1
+

Vs
R3
R4

R2

Vs
B

R3
R4

R2

Voltmeter

VOC
B

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 16

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Short Circuit Test

Procedure

Objective
The main objective of Short Circuit Test is to
determine the current Isc flowing when the
terminals A and B are shorted
Ammeter

R1

ISC A

## a) Short circuit the terminals A

and B of the given circuit,
b) Measure the current ISC
flowing through the short
circuit

+
R2

Vs
R3

R4

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 17

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Open Circuit Test

Procedure

Objective
The main objective of Open Circuit Test is to
determine the voltage at the terminals A and B
when these terminals are open circuited
R1

## a) Open circuit the terminals of

the given circuit,
b) Measure the voltage VOC
between the terminals A and
B of the given circuit

+
R2

Vs

R3
R4

Voltmeter
I voltmeter

(negligible)

VOC

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 18

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Determination of the Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

by using Open and Short Circuit Tests
R1

Procedure

+
Vs

R3

a)

R2
ISC

R4

R1

A
+

Vs

R3
R4

R2

b)

## Divide VOC by ISC and find

Requivalent,
Vequivalent = VOC

VOC

Requiv

IA

+
Vequiv
B

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 19

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge

Example
Calculate the value of the
unknown resistance Rx in the
unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
shown on the RHS, if the
current read by the ammeter is
5 Amp.
Since 5 Amp passes through the
ammeter, the bridge is
unbalanced, hence, cross
multiplication of branches are
not equal

## Please note that the bridge is unbalanced,

i.e. current flows in the ammeter

+ Vs = 100 V

Ammeter

50

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 20

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge

Ammeter

Solution
First, take out the ammeter and 50
Ohm resistance connected to
terminals C and D

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 21

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Ammeter

Solution
Determine the Thevenin Equivalent of
the source side of the circuit, i.e. the
rest of the circuit after the ammeter
and 50 Ohm resistance are taken out
1. Kill all the sources in the given
circuit

Vs = 100 V

## Meaning of the The Term: Killing

Sources
Means Short Circuiting the voltage
source in the circuit on the RHS
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 22

Circuit Analysis

METU

Solution

Ammeter

## Determine the Thevenin Equivalent

of the source side of the circuit, i.e.
rest of the circuit after the ammeter
and 50 Ohm resistance are taken
out
2. Calculate the equivalent
resistance of the rest of the
circuit

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 23

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Ammeter

Solution
Determine the Thevenin Equivalent of
the source side of the circuit, i.e. the
rest of the circuit after the ammeter
and 50 Ohm resistance are taken out

Req

## 2. Calculate the equivalent

resistance of the rest of the
circuit

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 24

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Ammeter

Solution
Determine the Thevenin Equivalent of the
source side of the circuit, i.e. the rest of the
circuit after the ammeter and 50 Ohm
resistance are taken out

Req1

Req2

## Req = Req1 + Req2

= ( RX // Rb ) + ( R1 // R2 )
= (Rx x100)/(Rx+100) +(100 x 20)/(100+20)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 25

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Solution

## Determine the Thevenin Equivalent of

the source side of the circuit, i.e. the
rest of the circuit after the ammeter
and 50 Ohm resistance are taken out

+

VOC

## 2. Restore back the source,

3. Open circuit the terminals C and
D and calculate the Thevenin
Equivalent Voltage

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 26

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Solution

## Determine the Thevenin Equivalent of

the source side of the circuit, i.e. the
rest of the circuit after the ammeter
and 50 Ohm resistance are taken out
2. Restore back the source,
3. Open circuit the terminals C and
D and calculate the Thevenin
Equivalent Voltage
VC = 100 V x 100 /(100 + Rx)
VD = 100 V x 20 / (100 + 20)
VOC = VC VD = 100 (100/(100+Rx)- 100/6)

## Thevenin Equivalent Voltage

Input Voltage

VOC = VC V D
A

+
Vs

Rx

R1 = 100

C
Rb = 100

VC

VD

R2 = 20

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 27

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Example 1. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge

Solution
Draw the Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

## VOC = VC VD = 100(100/(100+Rx )-100/6)

Req = (Rx x100)/(100 + Rx ) + 100/6
I = VOC / ( Req + 50 Ohm )
= (100(100/(100 +Rx) -100/6)) /(Req +50)
= 5 Amp

C I=5 A

50
VOC = 100(100/(100+Rx) - 100/6)
Ammeter

## Solve this equation for Rx

Homework

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 28

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example

## Calculate the source voltage Vs

by using the Thevenin
Equivalent Circuit of the
unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
shown on the RHS
Since the bridge is unbalanced,
cross multiplication of branches
are NOT equal, hence 5 Amp
passes through the ammeter

## Please note that the bridge is unbalanced,

i.e. current flows in the ammmeter

Ra = 50
Ammeter

50

Rb = 100

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 29

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Example 2. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge

Solution
First, find the Thevenin Equivalent
Resistance of the circuit other
than the 50 resistance in the
middle of the Bridge

## Thevenin Equivalent Resistance

Ra = 50

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 30

Circuit Analysis

METU

Solution

## Thevenin Equivalent Resistance

Ra = 50

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 31

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example 2. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge

Solution

Thevenin Ammeter
Equivalent
Resistance

Req
= 50

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 32

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Example 2. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge

Solution
Thevenin Equivalent Resistance

Req
= 50

RThev.

= (Ra // Rb ) + (R1 // R2 )
= (50//100) + (100//20)
= 33.333 + 16.667 = 50

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 33

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example 2. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Solution

## Now, find the Thevenin Equivalent

Voltage at the terminals C and D

## 1. Put back the source,

2. Open circuit the terminals C and D,
3. Calculate the Thevenin Equivalent
Voltage at the terminals C and D

VOC

Ra = 50

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 34

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example 2. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge
Solution

## Now, find the Thevenin Equivalent

Voltage at the terminals C and D

VOC= VC V D
A

## 1. Put back the source,

2. Open circuit the terminals C and D,
3. Calculate the Thevenin Equivalent
Voltage at the terminals C and D
VC = Vs 100 /(100 + 50) = (2/3) Vs
VD = Vs x 20 / (100 + 20) = (2 / 12) Vs =Vs / 6
VOC = VC VD = Vs (2/3 1/6) = Vs / 2 Volts

Ra

+
Vs

R1
D

C
Input
Voltage

Rb

VC

VD

B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 35

R2

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Example 2. Unbalanced Wheatstone Bridge

Solution
Now connect the resulting Thevenin
Equivalent Resistance and Thevenin
Equivalent Voltage Source
I = (Vs / 2) / ( 50 + 50 Ohm )
= (Vs / 2) / 100 = Vs / 200
= 5 Amp
Solve this eq for Vs

## Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

Req= (Ra // Rb ) + (R1 // R2 ) = 50

C I=5A
50

+
VThev.= Vs / 2

Ammeter

Vs = 1000 Volts
D

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 36

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Norton Equivalent Circuit

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit can be
converted to an alternative form with a
current source Iequiv in parallel with an
Equivalent Circuit or simply Norton
Form
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
Requiv

IA

## Norton Equivalent Circuit

IA

Vequiv
Iequiv = --------Requiv

Vequiv

Gequiv = 1 / Requiv

B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 37

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Determination of Norton Equivalent Circuit Parameters

Divide Vequiv by Requiv find Iequiv,
Replace Vequiv by Iequiv,
Calculate Gequiv as the reciprocal of
Requiv,
Connect Gequiv in parallel with Iequiv
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
Requiv

IA

## Norton Equivalent Circuit

IA

Vequiv
Iequiv = --------Requiv

Vequiv

Gequiv = 1 / Requiv

B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 38

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example
Question
Determine the Norton Equivalent of the
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit shown on the
RHS

Requiv = 20 Ohm

IA

+
Vequiv = 120 V

Solution

IA A

Iequiv = 6 Amp

## gequiv = 0.05 Siemens

B
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 39

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Current Injection Model

Norton equivalent current may be regarded
as a current injected from outside, i.e. from
the ground node, to the circuit at node A
Norton Equivalent Circuit

## Current Injection Model

IA

Injected Current
A

Vequiv
Iequiv = --------Requiv
IA

Vequiv
Iequiv = --------Requiv

gequiv = 1 / Requiv

gequiv = 1 / Requiv

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 40

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Maximum Power Transfer Condition

Question:
Determine the value of the resistance in the
following circuit in order to transfer maximum
power from the source side to the load side
Solution: First simplify the circuit to its
Thevenin Equivalent Form as shown on the RHS

Given Circuit
R1

## Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

Requiv

IA A Resistance
RL

+
Vs

A Resistance
RL

R2

Vequiv

R3
R4

IA

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 41

METU

Circuit Analysis
Maximum Power Transfer Condition

## Solution: Two Extreme Cases;

Case 1 (Resistance is short circuited)
RL = 0
In this case the load power will be zero
since;
P = RL x I2
= RL x (Vequiv / (Requiv + 0))2
= 0 x (Vequiv / Requiv )2 = 0
Case 2 (Resistance is open circuited)

## Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

Requiv

IA

Resistance
RL

+
Vequiv

RL =
In this case the load power will again tend
to be zero since;
P= xI2
= x (Vequiv /( + Requiv ))2 = 0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 42

METU

Circuit Analysis
Mathematical Fact

Mathematical Fact

## A function passing through zero

at two distinct points possesses
at least one extremum point in
the region enclosed by these
points

Graphical Illustration
120.00

extremum point

100.00
80.00
60.00
40.00
20.00
0.00
0.00

2.00

4.00

6.00

8.00

10.00

12.00

14.00

16.00

18.00

20.00

22.00

-20.00
-40.00
-60.00
-80.00

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 43

24.00

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Maximum Power Transfer Condition

Graphical Representation

6

Requiv = 5 Ohm

5
4

A IA

Resistance
RL

Vequiv = 10 V

## Maximum Power Pmax

1
0

10

15

Optimum Value of RL

20

RL (Ohm)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 44

METU

Circuit Analysis
Maximum Power Transfer Condition
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit

## Solution: Then maximize; P = RL I 2

P = RL I 2
I2 = ( Veq / Rtotal )2 = ( Veq / ( Req+ RL ))2
Hence,
P = RL ( Veq / ( Req+ RL ))2
= Veq2 RL / ( Req+ RL )2

Req

Resistance
RL

+
Veq

## Now, maximize P wrt RL, by differentiating P with

respect to RL
dP / dRL = 0
d/d (RL Veq2 RL / ( Req+ RL )2 ) = 0
Veq2 [( Req+ RL )2 2 ( Req+ RL ) RL] / denom2 = 0
where, denom = ( Req+ RL )2
or
( Req+ RL )2 2 ( Req+ RL ) RL= 0
Req = RL

IA

Conclusion:
resistance RL must be equal to the
Thevenin Equivalent Resistance of the
simplified circuit
Req = RL

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 45

METU

Circuit Analysis
Maximum Power Transfer Condition

Why do we need
Maximum Power ?

## Shanghai Maglev Train

(Worlds Fastest Train)

## Maximum power means

maximum performance and
maximum benefit by using the
same equipment, and
investment,
in other words, maximum
speed, or maximum force, or
maximum heating, or maximum
illumination or maximum
performance by using the same
equipment, the same weight,
and the same investment
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 46

Circuit Analysis

METU

Node (Junction)
Definition
A node is a point at which two or
more branches are connected
Basic Rule

Current I1
Current In

Current In-1

## Currents entering a node obey

Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL)

## Power System Representation of Node (Junction)

i=n

i =1

Current I2

Current I1

Ii = 0
Current In

Current I2
Current In-1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 47

Circuit Analysis

METU

Definition

V1

+
R1

## Ground Node is the point

(junction) at which the voltage is
assumed to be zero
All other voltages takes their
references with respect to this
ground node
Representation

V2

R2

R3
+
Vs

R4
+
V3

+
V4

Ground Node

V=0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 48

METU

Circuit Analysis
Ground Node (Earth Point)
Definition

## Ground Node is the point (junction) at which the

voltage is assumed to be zero
All other voltages takes their references with
respect to this ground node

Ground Node
(Black Terminal )
Measured Node
(Red Terminal )
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 49

Circuit Analysis

METU

## What do we mean by Solution of an Electrical System?

Solution of an electrical system means calculation of all node voltages

Node

BULGARIA

REN

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GEORGIA

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HABPLE
BABAE
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SKHAMTAB
G.O.PA
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KTEL A
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TEMELL

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TOZKY

KANGAL
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GLB
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GKEKAYA

BORK
A
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BOYABAT

KAYABAI

SNCAN

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ALA
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KARAKAYA

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KHOY

IIKLAR

YELHSAR

DYARBAKIR

KONYA

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ALKUMRUETN
DOANLI

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VARSAK

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KAYRAKTEPE SKENDERUN

G.ANTEP

HAKKAR

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KIZILTEPE

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PS3
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BRECK

KESEK

IRAQ

2002
TPP (PLANNED)
AKKUYU

ALEPPO - HALEP

TPP (EXISTING)
HPP (PLANNED)

MEDITERRANEAN SEA

SYRIA

HPP (EXISTING)
400 kV TL (EXISTING)
400 kV TL (PLANNING)
220 kV TL
154 kVTL

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 50

Circuit Analysis

METU

Procedure
1.
2.

## Select one of the nodes in the system as

the reference (usually the ground node),
where voltage is assumed to be zero,
Convert Thevenin Equivalent circuits into
Norton Equivalent circuits by;
o Converting source resistances in
series with the voltage sources to
current sources (injected currents)
gs = 1 / Rs

## Converting voltage sources to

equivalent current sources, i.e. to
equivalent current sources in parallel
Is = Vs / Rs = Vs gs

Rs

R12
R20 V2

R10 V
1

VS

V0 = 0
Is = Vs / Rs

gs = 1 / R s
R12

Is
gs

R10 V1

R20 V2

V0 = 0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 51

METU

Circuit Analysis
Node Voltage Method

Procedure (Continued)
3.
4.
5.
6.

## Assign number to each node,

Assign zero to ground node, as
node the number,
Assign voltages V1, ... Vn-1 to all
nodes except the ground
(reference),
Set the voltage at the ground node
to zero, i.e. V0 = 0,

## Please note that all these points form a single node

R12

1 V1
Is
gs

R10

1 V1

R12

2 V2

Is

gs

R10

V1

R20 V
2

0
V0 = 0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 52

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Node Voltage Method

Procedure (Continued)
7. Assign current directions in all branches.
(Define the direction of currents in the
branches connected to the ground node
as always flowing towards the ground),
8. Write-down branch currents in terms of
the node numbers at the sending and
receiving ends, where the sending and
receiving ends are defined with respect
to the current directions as defined
above and as shown below,
Sending end

V1 1

I1-2

2 V2

Is

1 V1

I1-0

I1-0s

Is
Rs

I1-2

I1-0 + I1-2

2 V2

R12

R10

I2-0

R20

0
V0 = 0

## I1-2 = (V1 V2 ) / R12 = (V1 V2 ) g12

I1-0 = (V1 V0 ) / R10 = V1 g10
I1-0s = (V1 V0 ) / RS = V1 gs

Receiving end

## I2-0 = (V2 V0 ) / R20 = V2 g20

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 53

METU

Circuit Analysis
Node Voltage Method

Procedure (Continued)
9. Express branch currents in terms of
the voltages at the sending and
receiving ends by using Ohm's Law,
except those flowing in the current

Is

1 V1

I1-0

I1-0s

Is
Rs

I1-2

I1-0 + I1-2

2 V2

R12

R10

I2-0
R20

0
V0 = 0

## I1-2 = (V1 V2 ) / R12 = (V1 V2 ) g12

I1-0 = (V1 V0 ) / R10 = V1 g10
I1-0s = (V1 V0 ) / RS = V1 gs
I2-0 = (V2 V0 ) / R20 = V2 g20
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 54

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Node Voltage Method

Procedure (Continued)
10. Write down KCL at all nodes except
the ground (reference) node.
(Do not write KCL equation for the
ground node !)
Please note that there are only two
unknown voltages, i.e. V1 and V2
Hence, KCL equations must be written
only at these nodes, i.e. at nodes 1 and
node 2
Is = I1-0s + I1-0 + I1-2
I1-2 = I2-0

## Total no. of equations = N - 1

Number of nodes = N = 3
Number of equations = N-1 = 2

Is

1 V1

I1-0

I1-0s

Is
Rs

I1-2

I1-0 + I1-2

2 V2

R12

R10

I2-0
R20

0
V0 = 0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 55

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Node Voltage Method

Is

Procedure (Continued)

## Is = I1-0s + I1-0 + I1-2

I1-2 = I2-0
11. Now, substitute the voltage terms into
the above equations;
Is

I1-0s

Is
Rs

I1-2

I1-0 + I1-2

I1-0
R10

R12

I2-0
R20

= Vs / Rs = Vs gs

I1-0s = ( V1 V0 ) / RS = V1 gs

I1-0

= ( V1 V0 ) / R10 = V1 g10

I1-2

## = ( V1 V2 ) / R12 = (V1 V2 ) g12

I2-0

= ( V2 V0 ) / R20 = V2 g20

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 56

METU

Circuit Analysis
Node Voltage Method

Procedure (Continued)

Is

I1-2

I1-0 + I1-2

Is

## Is = I1-0s + I1-0 + I1-2

I1-0s

I1-0

I2-0

I1-2 = I2-0
VS gs = V1 gs + V1 g10 + ( V1 V2 ) g12
( V1 V2 ) g12 = V2 g20

## Nodal Equations (Two equations vs two

unknowns)
V1 and V2 are unknows, all other are knowns

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 57

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Node Voltage Method

Is

Procedure (Continued)

or, rearranging;

I1-0s

Is

V1 gs + V1 g10 + ( V1 V2 ) g12 = VS gs

I1-2

I1-0 + I1-2

I1-0

2
I2-0

- ( V1 V2 ) g12 + V2 g20 = 0
0

Nodal Equations

or

gs + g10 + g12

g12

V1
=

g12

g12 + g20

V2

VS gs
0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 58

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Node Voltage Method

Procedure (Continued)
gs + g10 + g12

g12

V1

Is

VS gs
=

g12

g12 + g20

V2

Is

I1-0 + I1-2

I1-0s

I1-2

I1-0

0
0

Voltage (Unknown) vector
Injected Current (Known) (RHS) vector

## 9. Solve the resulting nodal equations for

node voltages
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 59

I2-0

Circuit Analysis

METU

Rule
1

g12

g12

g s = 1 / Rs

g12 + g20

g12 = 1 / R12

g10= 1 / R10

Symmetrical

## Find the admittances of the branches in the circuit

by calculating the inverse of resistances;
g12 = 1 / R12
Put the summation of admittances of those
branches connected to the i-th node to the i-th
diagonal element of the nodal admittance matrix

g12 = 1 / R12

g20 = 1 / R20

## Put the negative of the admittance of the branch

connected between the nodes i and j to the i - jth
and j-ith element of the nodal admittance matrix
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 60

Circuit Analysis

METU

Rules
1
2

V1
V2

## Write down the unknown node

voltages in this vector in sequence
starting from 1 to n-1 (i.e. exclude
the voltage of the reference node.
Voltage of the reference node is
assumed to be zero)

1 V1

R12

2 V2

Is
gs

R10

V1

R20 V2

0
V0 = 0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 61

Circuit Analysis

METU

Rules
1

I1-injected
0

VS gs
0

## Write down the injected currents in this vector,

VSVG
if there is an injection
equiv
Sg
s if there is an injection,
Write down =
00 otherwise
otherwise

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 62

Circuit Analysis

METU

Is

Procedure
gs + g10 + g12

g12

V1
=

g12

g12 + g20

V2

VS gs

Is

I1-2+ I1-0
I1-0s

I1-2

I1-0

I2-0

## Methods for finding the node voltages

Substitution Method

Matrix Methods

Software Packages

## Write down the above equations as

a set of linear equations and solve
them by using the known
Substitution and Elimination
Technique seen in the high school

Use computer

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 63

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Solution of Nodal Equations

Is

Procedure (Continued)
gs + g10 + g12

g12

V1
=

g12

g12 + g20

V2

VS gs

Is

I1-2+ I1-0
I1-0s

I1-2

I1-0

Matrix Methods

## Invert the nodal admittance matrix,

Multiply the RHS vector by this inverse
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 64

I2-0

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)

## To find the inverse of a 2 x 2 matrix

1. First calculate the determinant of the
given matrix;

a11
a21

+ -

a12
a22

## Determinant = a11 x a22 a21 x a12

=d

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 65

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)

## To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix

2. Then, calculate the co-factor matrix.
To calculate the a11 element of the
co-factor matrix;
Delete the 1st row and 1st
column of the matrix,
Write down the remaining
element a22 in the diagonal
position: 2,2, where the deleted
row and column intercepts,

a11

a12

a21

a22

and column

## Write down the

remaining element
in this position

a22

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 66

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix

Procedure (Continued)
To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix

## Perform the sam procedure for

the next element a12 in the
matrix
Repeat this procedure for all
elements in A.

a11

a12

a21

a22

## Write down the

remaining
element in this
position with a (-)
sign

## Delete this row

and column

- a21

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 67

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Calculation of Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix

Procedure (Continued)
To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix

## Set the sign of the i-jth element in

the co-factor matrix such that;
sign =

a11

- a21

- a12

a22

+1 when i + j is even,
-1 otherwise

## Transpose the resulting matrix

T

a11

- a21

- a12

a22

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 68

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 2x2 Matrix

Procedure (Continued)
To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix
3. Finally, divide the resulting
transposed co-factor matrix by the
determinant

1
---d

a11

- a12

- a21

a22

Determinant

## RESULT: Inverse of the given matrix

a11 / d

- a12 / d

- a21 / d

a22 / d

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 69

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example

## Find the Inverse of the

Matrix given on the RHS
1. First calculate the determinant of
the given matrix;

Determinant = 1 x 6 2 x 4 = -2

1
2

4
6

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 70

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example (Continued)
Procedure (Continued)

## To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix

2. Then, calculate the co-factor matrix.
To calculate the a11 element of the
co-factor matrix;
Delete the 1st row and 1st
column of the matrix,
Write down the remaining
element a22 in the diagonal
position: 2,2, where the deleted
row and column intercepts,

and column

## Write down the

remaining element
in this position

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 71

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example (Continued)

Procedure (Continued)
To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix

## Perform the sam procedure for

the next element a12 in the
matrix
Repeat this procedure for all
elements in A.

## Write down the

remaining
element in this
position with a (-)
sign

## Delete this row

and column

-2

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 72

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example (Continued)
Procedure (Continued)
To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix

## Set the sign of the i-jth element in

the co-factor matrix such that;
sign =

-2

-4

+1 when i + j is even,
-1 otherwise

## Transpose the resulting matrix

T

-2

-4

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 73

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example (Continued)
Procedure (Continued)

## To find the inverse of 2 x 2 matrix

3. Finally, divide the resulting
transposed co-factor matrix by the
determinant

1
-----2

-4

-2

Determinant

## RESULT: Inverse of the given matrix

-3

-1/2

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 74

Circuit Analysis

METU

Procedure

1 V1

2 V2

3 V2

## Suppose that we want to solve the

three-bus system shown on the
RHS for node voltages
Nodal equations for this system
may be written as follows

G11

G12

G13

V1

G21

G22

G23

V2

G31

G32

G33

V3

V0 = 0

VS1 gs1
=

VS2 gs2
VS3 gs3

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 75

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix

a32
x

a13 x a21

a31

## 1. First calculate the determinant of the

matrix;
For that purpose, first augment
the given matrix by the first two
columns of the same matrix from
the RHS
Then, multiply the terms on the
main diagonal

## a11 a12 a13 a11 a12

a21 a22 a23 a21 a22
a31 a32 a33 a31 a32

a12 x a23

## Hence, we must find the inverse of the

coefficient matrix G

## a11 a12 a13 a11 a12

a21 a22 a23 a21 a22
a31 a32 a33 a31 a32

## a11 x a22 x a22

Procedure (Continued)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 76

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)

## a11 a12 a13 a11 a12

a21 a22 a23 a21 a22
a31 a32 a33 a31 a32

## Then, multiply the terms on the

other (cross) diagonal

a12 x a21

a33

a11 x a23

a32

a13 x a22

a31

## a11 a12 a13 a11 a12

a21 a22 a23 a21 a22
a31 a32 a33 a31 a32

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 77

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)

a32
x

a13 x a21

a31
x

a12 x a23

a22
x

a12 x a21

+
---------------------Sum1

a11 x a22

a11 x a23

a33

a13 x a22

a31

## Then, subtract the latter three

multiplications from those found in
the former

a32

## a11 a12 a13 a11 a12

a21 a22 a23 a21 a22
a31 a32 a33 a31 a32

+
--------------------Sum2

## Determinant of A = Sum2 Sum1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 78

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix

Procedure (Continued)
1. Then, calculate the co-factor matrix.
To calculate the ai j -th element of the
co-factor matrix;
Delete the i the row and j the
column of the matrix,
Calculate the determinant ci j
of the remaining 2 x 2
submatrix by using the method
given earlier for 2 x 2 matrices

a11

a12

a13

a21
a31

a22
a32

a23
a33

## Delete this row and

column

Calculate the
determinant of the
resulting 2 x 2
submatrix

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 79

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix

Procedure (Continued)

## Repeat this procedure for all

elements in the matrix

a11

a12

a13

a21
a31

a22
a32

a23
a33

## Delete this row and

column
Calculate the
determinant of the
resulting 2 x 2
submatrix

a21
a31

a23
a33

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 80

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix

Procedure (Continued)

## Write down these determinants in

the corresponding locations,
Set the sign of these elements
such that;
sign =

c11
- c21
c31

- c12

c13

c22 - c23
- c32

c33

+1 when i + j is even,
-1 otherwise

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 81

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix
Procedure (Continued)

## 2. Then, transpose the resulting cofactor matrix

c11

- c12

c13

- c21

c22

- c23

c31

- c32

c33

c11

- c21

c31

- c12

c22

- c32

c13

- c23

c33

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 82

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix

Procedure (Continued)
3. Finally, divide the resulting
transposed co-factor matrix by the
determinant

c11

1
---- - c12
d
c13

- c21

c31

c22

- c32

- c23

c33

Determinant

c11/d

- c21/d

c31/d

- c12/d

c22/d

- c32/d

c13/d

- c23/d

c33/d

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 83

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example
Example

## Find the inverse of the coefficient matrix

given on the RHS
1. First calculate the determinant of the
matrix;
For that purpose, first augment
the given matrix by the first two
columns of the same matrix from
the RHS
Then, multiply the terms on the
main diagonal

1 2
2 8
4 -2

4
-2
2

1 2
2 8
4 -2

1 2
2 8
4 -2

4
-2
2

1 2
2 8
4 -2
16

-16

-16

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 84

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example
Procedure (Continued)

## Then, multiply the terms on the

other (cross) diagonal

128

1 2
2 8
4 -2

4
-2
2

1 2
2 8
4 -2

1 2
2 8
4 -2

4
-2
2

1 2
2 8
4 -2

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 85

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example

Procedure (Continued)

1 2
2 8
4 -2

## Then, subtract the latter three

multiplications from those found
in the former
128

4
-2
2

+
---------------------140

1 2
2 8
4 -2
16

-16

-16

+
----------------------16

## Determinant of A = -16 - 140 = -156

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 86

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example

Procedure (Continued)
1. Then, calculate the co-factor matrix.
To calculate the ai j -th element of the
co-factor matrix;
Delete the i the row and j the
column of the matrix,
Calculate the determinant ci j
of the remaining 2 x 2
submatrix by using the method
given earlier for 2 x 2 matrices

2
4

8
-2

-2
2

## Delete this row and

column

Calculate the
determinant of the
resulting 2 x 2
submatrix:
2 x 8 2 x 2 = 12

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 87

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix

Procedure (Continued)

## Repeat this procedure for all

elements in the matrix

2
4

8
-2

-2
2

## Delete this row and

column
Calculate the
determinant of the
resulting 2 x 2
submatrix:

-2

2 x 2 - 4 x (-2) = 12

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 88

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix

Procedure (Continued)

## Form the co-factor matrix as

shown on the RHS
Transpose the co-factor matrix
(It will not change since it is
symmetrical)

12

- 12

- 36

- 12

- 14

10

- 36

10

12

- 12

- 36

- 12

- 14

10

- 36

10

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 89

METU

Circuit Analysis
Calculation of Inverse of a 3x3 Matrix

Procedure (Continued)
3. Finally, divide the resulting
transposed co-factor matrix by
the determinant

1
= -------156

12

- 12

- 36

- 12

- 14

10

- 36

10

Determinant

-12/156

12/156

36/156

12/156

14/156

-10/156

36/156

-10/156

- 4/156

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 90

Circuit Analysis

METU

Solution Step
Procedure (Continued)
Final step of the solution procedure
is the multiplying the RHS vector
with the inverse of the nodal

## These elements are zero for nodes with no

current injection

-1

G11

G12

G13

VS1 gs1

G21

G22

G23

VS2 gs2

G31

G32

G33

VS3 gs3

-1

V1
=

V2
V3

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 91

METU

Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Pure Voltage Sources

Procedure (Continued)

## Sometimes we may encounter a

voltage source with no series
resistance, called; Pure Voltage
Source
A pure voltage source connecting a
node to ground means that the voltage
is fixed at this node, (i.e. it is no longer
unknown)
A pure voltage source with no series
resistance creates problem in the solution
procedure, since it cannot be converted to
an equivalent Norton Equivalent Circuit, i.e.

1
+

## Please note that there is

no resistance here
+
Vs = Fixed

V0 = 0

Vs / Rs = Vs / 0 =
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 92

METU

Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Pure Voltage Sources

Procedure (Continued)
Sometimes we may encounter a Pure
Voltage Source connecting two
nodes other than ground.
This means that the voltage difference
between these nodes is fixed
A pure voltage source with no series
resistance creates problem in the solution
procedure, since it cannot be converted to
an equivalent Norton Equivalent Circuit, i.e.

V1 - V2 = 120 V = Fixed

Is

Is

Ix + I1-0
I1-0s

V=120 V

I1-0

Ix

I2-3

I2-0

Vs / Rs = Vs / 0 =

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 93

I3-0

METU

Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Pure Voltage Sources

Procedure (Continued)
In this case, the circuit can be solved
as follows
1. Define the current flowing in this
voltage source as Ix
2. Define this current as a new
variable,
3. Write down KCL at each node,
except the reference node,
4. Write down the equation for the
voltage difference between the
terminals of this pure voltage
source

Is

Is

Ix + I1-0

I1-0s

V=120 V

I1-0

Ix

I2-3

I2-0

n-1 equations

V1 - V2 = 120 V

k equations

+
------------------------n-1 + k equations

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 94

I3-0

Circuit Analysis

METU

Is

## Resulting Nodal Equations

i = n-1

Is

Ix + I1-0 1 V=120 V
2
+
I1-0s

I1-0

Ix

I2-3

I2-0

3
I3-0

Ii ( including IX ) = 0

i=1

Is = I1-0s + I1-0 + Ix

i = n-1

Ii ( including IX ) = 0

i=1

Ix = I2-0 + I2-3

(n 1 + k = n) equations vs n unknowns
k = 1, hence n -1 + k = n

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 95

Circuit Analysis

METU

Is

## Resulting Nodal Equations

i = n-1

Ii = 0

I1-0s

I1-0

Ix

I2-3

I2-0

i=1

I2-3 = I3-0
and finally, writing down the equation for
voltage difference across the pure voltage
source
4

Is

Ix + I1-0 1 V=120 V
2
+

V1 - V2 = 120 V

n = 4, k = 1
n-1+k=4
4 equations vs 4 unknowns

## This equation spoils the symmetry

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 96

I3-0

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Nodal Analysis with Pure Voltage Sources

Resulting Equations
1

V1gs + V1g10 + Ix Is = 0

V2 g20 + ( V2 V3 ) g23 Ix = 0

V3 g30 + ( V3 V2 ) g23 = 0

Extra Equation

I1-0s

Is

I1-0

Ix

I2-0

V1 V2 = 120 Volts

gs + g10

1
g20 + g23
- g23

I2-3

Ix + I1-0 1 V=120 V
2
+

Is

-1

- g23
g23 + g30

-1

V1
V2

IS
=

V3

Ix

120

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 97

I3-0

METU

Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Controlled Sources

## Nodal Analysis with Voltage

Controlled Current Sources

Voltage Controlled
Current Source
Is= A Vx

## Voltage Controlled Current Source: Is = A Vx

Is

Vx

Procedure
Write down the expression for the
current provided by the controlled
current source in terms of the node
voltage depended: Is = A V1
Include this current in the summation
when writing KCL for the node that
controlled current source is connected,
Solve the resulting nodal equations for
node voltages

Is

Is

I1-2 + I1-0

I1-2

I1-0s

I1-0

Rs

R10

2
R12

I2-3

I2-0 R23

I3-0

R20

R30

V1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 98

METU

Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Controlled Sources

## Nodal Analysis with Current

Controlled Current Sources

Current Controlled
Current Source
Is= A Ix

## Current Controlled Current Source: Is = A Ix

Procedure
Write down the expression for the current
provided by the controlled current source
in terms of current depended: Is = A I1-0
Express the depended current, I1-0 and
hence IS in terms of node voltages;
IS = A (V1 - V 0 ) / R1-0 = A V1 g1-0
Include this current in the summation
when writing KCL for node that controlled
current is injected,
Solve the resulting nodal equations for
node voltages

Is

Is

I1-2+ I1-0

Ix

I1-2

R12

I1-0s
Is

Rs

I2-3

R
I2-0 23

I3-0

R20

R30

I1-0
R10

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 99

METU

Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Controlled Sources

## Nodal Analysis with Current

Controlled Voltage Sources

Rs

## Current Controlled Voltage Source: Vs = A Ix

Procedure
Write down the expression for the
controlled voltage in terms of the current
depended: Vs = A I1-0
Express the depended current, I1-0 and
hence VS in terms of the node voltages,
Convert the resulting voltage source VS to
equivalent Norton current source,
+
Include this current in the summation when
writing KCL for node that that controlled
current is injected,
Solve the resulting nodal equations for
node voltages

Current Controlled
Voltage Source
Vs= A Ix
Vs

Is

I1-2+ I1-0

Rs

I1-0s

I1-2
R12

Rs
Vs

Ix

R10

I2-3

R
I2-0 23

I3-0

R20

R30

I1-0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 100

METU

Circuit Analysis
Nodal Analysis with Controlled Sources

## Nodal Analysis with Voltage

Controlled Voltage Sources

Rs

## Voltage Controlled Voltage Source: Vs = A Vx

Vx

Vs

Procedure
Write down the expression for the
controlled voltage in terms of the voltage
depended: Vs = A Vx = A V1
Convert the resulting voltage source Vs to
equivalent Norton current source,
Include this current in the summation
when writing KCL for node that controlled
current is injected,
Solve the resulting nodal equations for
node voltages

Voltage Controlled
Voltage Source
Vs = A V x

Is
Rs

I1-2+ I1-0

Vs

R12

I1-0s
Rs

I1-2

R10

I2-3

I2-0 R23

I3-0

R20

R30

Vx = V 1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 101

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example
Node Voltage Method with
Controlled Current Source
Find the power dissipated in the resistance RL in
the following circuit by using the Node Voltage
Method
Is

I1-2

I1-0+ I1-2
I1-0s

Is=8 I2-3
2

4
I1-0
Dependency
1

I2-3

2
I2-0 2

Is2 = 10 A

3
I3-0

controlled current source
in the circuit can NOT be
killed for finding the
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
If you do, the result will be
INCORRECT !
Hence, simplification by
employing Thevenin
Equivalent Circuit Method
is NOT applicable to this
problem
RL = 1

0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 102

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example (Continued)
Node Voltage Method with
Controlled Current Source
The first step of the solution is to combine the
resistances RL and 1 Ohm yielding a 3 Ohm
resistance, thus eliminating the third node
Is

I1-2

I1-0 + I1-2

I1-0s

I1-0

I2-3

2
I2-0

I3-0

Dependency

Is=8 I2-3

Is2 = 10 A

0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 103

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example (Continued)
Node Voltage Method with
Controlled Current Source
Now write down KCL equation at
Node-1
8 I2-3 I1-0s I1-0 I1-2 = 0
I1-0s = V1 / 2
I1-0 = V1 / 1
I1-2 = ( V1 V2 ) / 4
Equation - 1

8 V2 / 3 V1 / 2 V1 / 1 ( V1 V2 ) / 4 = 0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 104

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example (Continued)
Node Voltage Method
with Controlled Current
Source
Now, write down KCL equation
at Node-2
I1-2 I2-0 I2-3 = 0
I1-2 = ( V1 V2 ) / 4
I2-0 = - Is2 = -10 A
I2-3 = I3-0 = V2 / 3
Equation - 2

I1-2

1
I1-0s

I1-0

I2-3

2
I2-0

Is2 = 10 A

I3-0

(V1 V2 ) / 4 ( 10 Amp) V2 / 3 = 0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 105

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example (Continued)
Node Voltage Method with Controlled
Current Source

8/3 + 1/4

V1

1/4

-( 1/4 + 1/3 )

V2

- 1.75

2.9167

V1

0.25

-0.5833

V2

Reorganizing
eq-1 and eq-2
in matrix form

0
10

0
10

## Solution: V1 = -100 Volts,

V2 = -60 Volts
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 106

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example (Continued)

## Node Voltage Method with

Controlled Current Source

V2 = -60 Volts

## Now, find the power dissipated in RL

I2-3 = 60 V / 3 = 20 A
P = RL I2 = 1 x 202 = 400 W

Is

I1-2

I1-0+ I1-2
I1-0s

I1-0

I2-3

3
I2-0 2

I3-0

Dependency

Is=8 I2-3
2

Is2 = 10 A

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 107

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Mesh Current Method

Loop

Loop -1

Definition
A Loop is a closed path of branches
followed in clockwise direction that
begins from one node and ends
again at the same node

Loop -2

V1

R1

Vs +

V2

R2
R3

R4

V3

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 108

+
V4

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Mesh Current Method

Loop

Loop -1

Basic Rule
Loops obey Kirchoffs Voltage Law
(KVL)

Vi = 0

i =1

Vs - V1 - V3 = 0

V1

R1

i=n

Loop -2

Vs +

V2

R2
R3

R4

V3

V4

V3 - V2 - V4 = 0

## Define the mesh currents in each mesh flowing

always in clockwise direction
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 109

Circuit Analysis

METU

Mesh

## Define the mesh currents in each mesh flowing

always in clockwise direction

Definition
A Mesh is a loop that does not contain
any other loop inside

V7

V8

R1

R1

+
Mesh 4

+ V1
R1

R2
R3

Vs +
Mesh 1

+ V3

+ V2

R2
R4

Mesh 2

R4

V5 Mesh 3

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 110

V6

Circuit Analysis

METU

Mesh

## Please note that the path shown by dashed line is NOT a

mesh, since it contains some other loops inside

Mesh -4

Vs +

+
Mesh -1

+
Mesh -2

Mesh -3

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 111

METU

Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
R12

Procedure
1. Determine the meshes and mesh
current directions in the circuit by
following the rules;

Mesh -3

R13

R32

VS1 +
R30

Mesh -1

2
+ V
S2

Mesh -2

0
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 112

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Mesh Current Method

R12

Procedure
2. Define mesh currents in each mesh
flowing in the clockwise direction,
3. Convert all current sources with parallel
Thevenin voltage sources with series
Thevenin equivalent resistances,

R13

Requiv

R32

VS1 +

## Norton Equivalent Circuit

Iequiv

I3

I1

R30

I2

+ V
S2

+
gequiv

Vequiv
B

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 113

METU

Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
Procedure

## 4. Write down Kirchoffs Voltage Law (KVL) in

each mesh in terms of the source voltages,
mesh currents and resistances,
5. Solve the resulting equations

R12

I3
-

R13

R32

+
VS2

VS1 +

I1

R30

I2

## - R13 ( I3 - I1 ) - R12 I3 -R32 ( I3 - I2 ) = 0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 114

METU

Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
Example

## R13 x (- I1 ) + R13 x ( + I3 ) = -R13 x (I1- I3)

R12

Mesh -1
Start from a certain point in Mesh-1, if
possible from the ground node A and
follow a closed path in clockwise direction,
When you pass over a resistance, for
instance, over resistance R13;
assign - sign to the current, if it is in
the same direction as your clockwise
direction, i.e. I1,
assign + sign to the current, if it
opposes your clockwise direction, i.e. I3,
sum up the resulting voltage terms in
the mesh

I3
R32

R13

+
VS2

VS1 +

I1

R30

I2

## VS1 - R13 ( I1 - I3 ) - R30 ( I1 - I2 ) = 0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 115

METU

Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
Example

## R30 x (- I2 ) + R30 x ( + I1 ) = -R30 x (I2- I1)

R12

Mesh - 2
Start from a certain point in Mesh-1, for
instance, from point A and follow a path in
clockwise direction,
When you pass over a resistance, for
instance, over resistance R13;
assign - sign to the current, if it is in
the same direction as your clockwise
direction, i.e. I1,
assign + sign to the current, if it
opposes your clockwise direction, i.e. I3,
sum up the resulting voltage terms in
the mesh

I3
R13

R32

+
VS2

VS1 +

I1

R30

I2

## - R30 ( I2 I1 ) - R32 ( I2 - I3 ) VS2 = 0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 116

METU

Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
Example
Mesh - 3

R12

## Start from a certain point in Mesh-3, for

I3
instance, from point B, and follow a path in
clockwise direction,
R32
R13
B
+
When you pass over a resistance, for
instance, over resistance R13;
assign - sign to the current, if it is in
VS2
VS1 +
the same direction as your clockwise
R30 I2
I
1
direction, i.e. I3,
assign + sign to the current, if it
opposes your closckwise direction, i.e. I1,
sum up the resulting voltage terms in the
- R13 ( I3 - I1 ) - R12 I3 -R32 ( I3 - I2 ) = 0
mesh
+

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 117

METU

Circuit Analysis
Mesh Current Method
Procedure

R12

Mesh -1

I3

Mesh -2

Mesh -3

## -R32 ( I3 - I2 ) - R13 ( I3 - I1 ) - R12 I3 = 0

R13

VS1 +

I1

R32

R30

I2

+ V
S2

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 118

Circuit Analysis

METU

R12

Mesh -1

Mesh -2

Mesh -3

I3

VS1 +

- R30

- R13

I1

- R30

R32 + R30

- R32

I2

- R13

- R32

R30

I1

## R32 ( I3 - I2 ) + R13 ( I3 - I1 ) + R12 I3 = 0

R13 + R30

R32

R13

I3

+ VS2

I2

VS1

- VS2
0

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 119

Circuit Analysis

METU

R12

Procedure
Mesh-1

R13 + R30
- R30

- R13

Mesh-2

- R30

R32 + R30
- R32

I3

Mesh-3

- R13

I1

- R32

I2

I3

R13

VS1

- VS2
0

VS1

R32

+ VS2

I1

R30

I2

## Mesh Resistance Matrix

Current (Unknowns) Vector
Voltage (Knowns) (RHS) Vector
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 120

Circuit Analysis

METU

Solution Step
Procedure
Final step is the solution of the nodal
equations by multiplying the Voltage
(RHS) Vector with the inverse of the Mesh
Resistance (coefficient) matrix
R13 + R30

- R30

- R13

- R30

R32 + R30

- R32

- R13

- R32

-1

## These elements are zero for meshes

with no voltage source

-1

VS1

- VS2

I1
=

I3

I2

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 121

Circuit Analysis

METU

R13

Rules
Mesh-1

Mesh-2

R13 + R30

- R30

- R13

- R30

R32 + R30

- R32

- R13

- R32

Mesh-3

## Put the summation of the resistances of

branches in the ith mesh path to the ith diagonal
location in the mesh resistance matrix,
Put the negative of the resistance of branch
which is common to both ith and jth meshes to
the (i j)th location of the mesh resistance
matrix

VS1 +

I1

R30

R12

R13

I1

R32

R30

I2

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 122

Circuit Analysis

METU

R12

Rules
1

I1

I2

I3

## Write down the mesh currents in this vector

in a sequence starting from 1 to n-1 (i.e. for
all meshes in the circuit)

I3
R13

R32

VS1 +

I1

R30

I2

+ V
S2

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 123

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Rules for Forming the known (RHS) Vector

Rules
1

VS1

- VS2

10 kW Turbine

0
Write down the source voltages in meshes in this vector,
i-th element in this vector =

## VSi1 + VSi2 + ... (Sum of the voltage

sources in the mesh)
0
otherwise

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 124

METU

Circuit Analysis
Example - 1
2

Example

I3

## Write down the mesh equations for

the circuit shown on the right hand
side
Mesh -1

6
10 V +

Mesh -2

Mesh -3

Mesh -4

## +80 6 (I4 I3) 7 I4 + 120 = 0

I1

I4

+ 80 V

I2
120 V +

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 125

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example - 1
2

Example

I3

## These equations may then be written

in matrix form as follows

10 V +

1
4

I1

I4

+ 80 V

I2
120 V +

10

-4

-6

-4

-1

-6

-1

15
-6

I1
I2

10
=

-80

-6

I3

13

I4

200

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 126

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example - 2
Mesh Current Method
Find the power dissipated in the load
resistance RL by using the Mesh Current
Method
5

2 Amp

5 Volts

controlled voltage source in
the following figure can NOT
be killed for finding the
Thevenin Equivalent Circuit.
If you do, the result will be
INCORRECT !
Hence, Thevenin
Equivalencing Method is NOT
applicable

2
5

4 V1 +

V1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 127

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example - 2 (Continued)

## Mesh Current Method

Northon Equivalent Circuit
5

5 Volts

## To simplify the circuit, first

convert the Northon
Equivalent Circuit shown in
Equivalent Circuit

2 Amp

+
5

4 V1

V1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 128

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example - 2 (Continued)

## Mesh Current Method

Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
5

5 Volts

2
4 V1

10 Volts

## To simplify the circuit,

further, combine the
voltage sources and the 5
Ohm resistances

V1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 129

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example - 2 (Continued)
Mesh Current
Method

2

## Now, write down the Mesh

Equations
10

4 V1 +

+
Please note that 10 - 5 = 5 Volts
voltage source remains here

V1

5 Volts

## This part can not be further simplified, by employing Thevenin

Equivalencing Method, since it contains a controlled voltage source
EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 130

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example - 2 (Continued)
Mesh Current Method

Mesh-1

Mesh-2
2

## Further simplifying the circuit

Mesh -1
Mesh -2
Extra

5 -10 I1 -2 ( I1- I2 ) 4 V1 = 0
4V1 2 ( I2 - I1 ) - (2 +1) I2 = 0
V1 = (2 +1) I2 = 3 I2

10

I1

+
+

+
5 Volts

4 V1

I2

V1

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 131

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example - 2 (Continued)
Mesh Current Method

Mesh-1

Mesh-2

## Substituting the Extra Equation

into Mesh-1 and Mesh-2 Equations;
Mesh -1
Mesh -2

5 -12 I1 -10 I2 = 0

7 I2 + 2 I1 = 0

10

I1

+
+

4 V1
5 Volts

I2

V1

I2 = 0.15625 Amp

= 1 x I22 = 0.15625 2
= 0.02441 W = 24.41 mWatt

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 132

METU

Circuit Analysis
Mesh Analysis with Pure Current Sources
R12

Procedure
Sometimes we may encounter a current
source with no parallel admittance, called
Pure Current Source
A pure current source connecting two
nodes without any shunt admittance means
that there is fixed difference between the
mesh currents involving this current source
A pure current source with no shunt
cannot be converted into an equivalent
Thevenin form, i.e.
Is / gequiv= Is / 0 =

I3
R13

R32

+ VS2

IS = 2 A

VS1 +

I1

I2

I2 I1 = 2 A

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 133

METU

Circuit Analysis
Mesh Analysis with Pure Current Sources
R12

Procedure
The circuit is solved as follows
1. Define the voltage across the pure
current source as Vx
2. Define this voltage (Vx) as a new
variable,
3. Write down KVL for each mesh,
4. Write down the equation for the
current difference between the
meshes by using this pure current
source

I3
R13

R32

VS1 +

I1

IS = 2 A

I2

VX

I2 I1 = 2 A

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 134

VS2

Circuit Analysis

METU

R12

## Resulting Mesh Equations

I3
R13

i=n

Vi ( including VX ) = 0

i=1

VS1 +

I1

i=n

R32

VX

IS = 2 A

+ VS2
I2

Vi ( including VX ) = 0

i=1

I2 I1 = 2 A

i=n

Vi = 0

i=1

(n + 1) Equations vs (n + 1) unknowns

I2 I1 = 2 Amp

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 135

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Mesh Analysis with Pure Current Sources

R12

Resulting Equations
Mesh -1

VS1 - R13 ( I1 - I3 ) - Vx = 0

Mesh -2

-VS2 + Vx - R32 ( I2 I3 ) = 0

Mesh -3

R13

## R32 ( I3 - I2 ) + R13 ( I3 - I1 ) + R12 I3 = 0

Extra Equation

R32

VS1 +

+
I1

IS = 2 A

+ VS2
I2

VX

I2 I1 = 2 Amp
- R13

R13
R32

- R13
-1

I3

- R32

- R32
R32 + R13 + R12

1
-1

I1
I2

VS1
- VS2

I3

Vx

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 136

Circuit Analysis

METU

Supernode
This part (Part-2) may be regarded as a
node; supernode

## Net current flowing through any crosssection in a circuit is zero

I1 + IS + I4 I6 = 0
or

I1
i=n

IS

Ii = 0

Part-1

i =1

I1
I5

I2

IS

Vs1 +

I4
I6

I3

I7

Part-2

I6

Vs2 +

I1

I4

I2

## This cross-section line may be drawn

arbitrarily passing through in any path
The above rule is actually nothing, but
Kirchoffs Current Law (KCL)

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 137

Circuit Analysis

METU

Method

I1

I1

SC
IS

I5

## Kill all the sources except one,

Solve the resulting circuit,
Restore back the killed source,
Kill another source,
Repeate this procedure for all sources,
Sum up all the solutions found

SC

I6

I4

I1

I2

I3

I7
I1

I2

SC

I5

I2

Vs1 +
I1

+ Vs2

I1

I5

I2

IS

Vs1 +

I4
I6

I1
I3

I7

I6

I4 OC
I7

SC

IS

I6

I4 OC

I7

I2

+ Vs2

I1

I5
I2

I3

I2
I3

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 138

I2

Circuit Analysis

METU

Example
Find the current I2 flowing in resistance
R2 in the following circuit by using the
Principle of Superposition

+
Vs

Ia

R1

R2

OC

## Kill the current source and solve the resulting cct

Ia = Vs / ( R1 + R2 )
Kill the voltage source and solve the resulting cct

Ib

R1
+
Vs

R1

I2

Is

Is

SC

R2

R2

## Ib = IS x g2 /(g1 + g2 ) g1=1/R1, g2=1/R2

Sum up the resulting currents algebraically

I2 = Ia + Ib

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 139

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Star - Delta Conversion

Formulation

Rba = ( Ra Rb + Rb Rc + Rc Ra ) / Rc

## A set of star connected resistances can

be converted to a delta connection as
shown on the RHS

Rac = ( Ra Rb + Rb Rc + Rc Ra ) / Rb
Rcb = ( Ra Rb + Rb Rc + Rc Ra ) / Ra

## Please note that the neutral

node bis eliminated by the bconversion

Rb

Rcb

Rba

n
Rc

Ra

c
c

a
c

Rac
c

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 140

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Star - Delta Conversion

In case that the resistances are identical,
the delta connection can further be
simplified as shown on the RHS

Simplification
R = ( RY2 + RY2 + RY2 ) / RY = 3 RY

## Please note that the neutral

node is eliminated by the conversion
b

RY

3RY
RY
c

3RY

RY

c
a

a
c

3RY
c

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 141

Circuit Analysis

METU

Formulation

## A set of delta connected resistances

can be converted to a star connection
as shown on the RHS
b

Rcb

## Rb = Rcb Rba / ( Rba + Rac + Rcb )

Rc = Rac Rcb / ( Rba + Rac + Rcb )
b

Rb

Rba

n
Rc
a

Ra

a
c

Rac
c

a
c

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 142

Circuit Analysis

METU

## Delta - Star Conversion

In case that the resistances are
identical, the equivalent star connection
can further be simplified to the form
shown on the RHS
b

Simplification
RY = R2 / ( R + R + R ) = R / 3
b

R /3

R /3

R /3

a
c

R
c

a
c

EE 209 Fundamentals of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Prof. Dr. O. SEVAOLU, Page 143

METU

Circuit Analysis