15 views

Uploaded by Daniel Riddle

© All Rights Reserved

- Chapter 10 Homework
- AERO1400 Intro to Aircraft Construction
- rotn
- Wolfson Eup3 Ch10 Test Bank
- Center of Mass
- Yearly Scheme of Work Physics 2010
- Physics I Problems (106).pdf
- Lab 2 Physical Pendulum
- 8 Rotational Kinematics
- 282345792 APhO Theoretical Problems 2000 2013
- Aits 1718 Crt II Jeem
- Moment of Inertia related
- Adaptive Control of a Two Axis Gimbal System Using Auxiliary Error Structure
- 1706131 (2)
- Applied Mechanics and Graphic
- Angular Motion
- 71621
- Flexible_Beam_1998.pdf
- EM-model 06
- two mark

You are on page 1of 7

Center of Gravity

and

Moments of Inertia

Christopher Cruz

300805892

Introduction

Center of Gravity is the point through which the resultant of the weight of all the particles of the

body acts. Finding the center of gravity mathematically involves taking the average or mean

distribution of the weight of the object. Note, free rotation of an object is always around its center of

gravity and that an object will tip over when the center of gravity lies outside the supporting base of the

object. Also, the greatest force is applied through the center of gravity. Center of gravity may be

expressed in terms of meters (m) in SI units and feet (ft) in imperial or US units.

The Moment of Inertia of a rigid body gives the torque needed for wanted angular acceleration

around a rotational axis. The body's mass distribution and the axis chosen are what the moment of

inertia depends on. The sum of the moments of inertia of its component subsystems is the moment of

inertia of a composite system. Moment of inertia may be expressed in terms of kilogram-square meters

(kgm2) in SI units and pound-square feet (lbmft2) in imperial or US units.

Center of Gravity

The center of gravity can be found experimentally. Called the plumb line technique, by hanging it at

several points and marking it down with a vertical line, where every vertical line crosses together is

where its center of gravity is. For example:

Although this only works for relatively flat objects. It does not work as well with complicated 3D

objects.

Torque exerted by the weight of a system is the same as if it's total weight were located at the center of

gravity, calculation of the center of gravity is based on this. This point is the average or mean of the

distribution of the moment arms of the object.

The calculation of the center of gravity of an object involves the sums of the weights times their

separations from a starting point divided by the total weight of the object.

In the case of a highly irregular object, the weights can consist of individual particles or even atoms.

Calculus is then used to integrate the product of these weights and the differential separations.

If the object is made up of regular parts, such as squares or circles, you can use the fact that each has a

CG at its geometric center. This is seen in the illustration below:

The center of gravity in the illustration is at the following separation from the arbitrary zero-point:

CG = (aM + bN + cP)/(M + N + P)

For example, if:

a = 2 ft

b = 8 ft

c = 16 ft

M = 2 lb

N = 4 lb

P = 8 lb

CG = (2*2 + 8*4 + 16*8)/(2 + 4+ 8)

CG = 164/14

CG = 11.7 ft

We'll now switch the focus from straight-line motion to rotational motion. Rotational motion is

not so different than linear motion, because a circle is just a straight line that is curled. Four

equations is used to solve rotational kinematics problems.

If you spin a wheel, and look at how fast a point on the wheel is spinning, the answer depends on

how far away the point is from the center. Velocity, displacement, or acceleration, aren't the most

convenient things to use when you're dealing with rotation; their rotational equivalents should be

used. The equivalent variables for rotation are angular displacement ; angular velocity , and

angular acceleration . All the angular variables are related to the straight-line variables by a

factor of r, the distance from the center of rotation to the point you're interested in.

Although points at different distances from the center of a rotating wheel have different velocities, they

all have the same angular velocity, so they all go around the same number of revolutions per minute,

and the same number of radians per second. Angles are generally measured in radians, which is the

most convenient unit to work with.

The straight-line motion kinematics equations apply for constant acceleration, so it follows that the

rotational kinematics equations apply when the angular acceleration is constant. The rotational

equations should look the same as linear equations:

Example:

Imagine a ferris-wheel that is rotating at the rate of 1 revolution every 8 seconds. The operator of the

wheel decides to bring it to a stop, and puts on the brake; the brake produces a constant deceleration of

0.11 radians/s2.

(a) If your seat on the ferris wheel is 4.2 m from the center of the wheel, what is your speed when the

wheel is turning at a constant rate, before the brake is applied?

(b) How long does it take before the ferris wheel comes to a stop?

(c) How many revolutions does the wheel make while it is coming to a stop?

(d) How far do you travel while the wheel is slowing down?

(a) The wheel is rotating at a rate of 1 revolution every 8 seconds, or 0.125 rev/s. This is the initial

angular velocity. It is often most convenient to work with angular velocity in units of radians/s; doing

the conversion gives:

Your speed is simply this angular velocity multiplied by your distance from the center of the wheel:

(b) We've calculated the initial angular velocity, the final angular velocity is zero, and the angular

acceleration is -0.11 rad/s2. This allows the stopping time to be found:

(c) To find the number of revolutions the wheel undergoes in this 7.14 seconds, one way to do it is to

use the equation:

This can be converted to revolutions:

(d) To figure out the distance you traveled while the wheel was slowing down. the angular

displacement (in radians) can be converted to a displacement by multiplying by r:

Moments of Inertia

Moment of inertia I is defined as the ratio of the angular momentum L of a system to its angular

velocity around a principal axis:

If the angular momentum of a system is constant, then as the moment of inertia gets smaller, the

angular velocity must increase.

If the shape of the body does not change, then its moment of inertia appears in Newton's law of motion

as the ratio of an applied torque on a body to the angular acceleration around a principal axis:

For a simple pendulum, the formula for the moment of inertia I in terms of the mass m of the pendulum

and its distance r from the pivot point:

The moment of inertia all depends on the mass m of the body and its geometric shape defined by the

distance r to the axis or rotation.

For a compound pendulum:

The moment of inertia of two objects rotating about the same axis, the combined moment of inertia is

the sum of the two individual moments of inertia.

By suspending a complex system from three points to make a trifilar pendulum, around its vertical axis,

the moment of inertia of a complex system can be measured. A trifilar pendulum is a platform

supported by three wires designed to oscillate in torsion around its vertical centroidal axis.

Conclusion

Where all the weight of an object appears to be concentrated is the center of gravity. The

average distribution of the weight of the object is this point. Through experiments, the center of gravity

of an object can be found. At the center of gravity is where free rotation is found. If the center of

gravity lies outside the object's support, the object will tip over. Also, through the center of gravity is

where the greatest force is applied.

The moment of inertia is a calculation of the required force to rotate an object. The value can be

manipulated to either increase or decrease inertia. By increasing the radius from the axis of rotation, the

moment of inertia increases thus slowing down the speed of rotation. Alternatively, by decreasing the

radius of rotation, the moment of inertia decreases thus speeding up the speed of rotation.

References

http://www.school-for-champions.com/science/gravity_center.htm#.VSr7d2jF_Is

http://physics.bu.edu/~duffy/py105/Rotationalkin.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moment_of_inertia

https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/moment-of-inertia-compound-object.145476/

http://www.dummies.com/how-to/content/how-to-calculate-the-momentum-of-inertia-for-diffe.html

- Chapter 10 HomeworkUploaded byFatboy91
- AERO1400 Intro to Aircraft ConstructionUploaded byRamon Silvério
- rotnUploaded byDeepanshu Lulla
- Wolfson Eup3 Ch10 Test BankUploaded byifghelpdesk
- Center of MassUploaded byNikhil Mehta
- Yearly Scheme of Work Physics 2010Uploaded bymasyati
- Physics I Problems (106).pdfUploaded byBOSS BOSS
- Lab 2 Physical PendulumUploaded byneenoonaa
- 8 Rotational KinematicsUploaded byW
- 282345792 APhO Theoretical Problems 2000 2013Uploaded byAnonymous iYU9pd
- Aits 1718 Crt II JeemUploaded byKrishn Koshle
- Moment of Inertia relatedUploaded byNagaraj Muniyandi
- Adaptive Control of a Two Axis Gimbal System Using Auxiliary Error StructureUploaded byreza
- 1706131 (2)Uploaded byRoland Pongrácz
- Applied Mechanics and GraphicUploaded bySantosh Rai
- Angular MotionUploaded byAyu Arianti
- 71621Uploaded byAben Kumar
- Flexible_Beam_1998.pdfUploaded byAmir Hooshiar
- EM-model 06Uploaded bymanivelc
- two markUploaded bypvnandha
- MEE202-syllabusUploaded byHarshal A Shah
- Jackson_Intevariant.pdfUploaded byKuntal Das
- 3640-16904-1-PB.pdfUploaded byJuan José Expósito González
- capitulo 13Uploaded byJeanette Vidal
- Hct-Vii Main PaperUploaded byAvik Das
- IA 1Uploaded byraffiq.mech
- Unit 4 Balancingofrotatingmasses 131127012048 Phpapp01Uploaded byadarsh pushpan
- kkkUploaded byHarishRachuri
- Inverse Dynamic Analysis of the Francis Turbine DirectorUploaded byrmalciu311
- NSEP0708Uploaded bysvasanth1

- 0_Dualitas_PartikelUploaded byDicky Suwanto
- Capacitor Charge OscillatorUploaded bysunny
- Ferroresonance Vt Gis v002Uploaded byqais652002
- 9702_s14_ms_22.pdfUploaded byMCH
- Gutor UPS System GlossaryUploaded bybookbum
- SedimentationUploaded byYugandher Badana
- Chapter 2 - Fluid Pressure Concept & Measurement - CopyUploaded byfarismuizz
- Sd101 [ECMTuning - Wiki]Uploaded bypmarcelof
- VC2182-001-C-001 2 Cable Data SheetUploaded byOoi Wei Sheng
- BIG BANGUploaded byRenor Sagun
- FerritesUploaded byMohamed Whb
- SRL-200-to-6000Uploaded byAnonymous nJtfRiog
- Enclosure_6150_20kW_HEX_AIRCON.pdfUploaded byJesus Moreno
- Itc Icml , Trichy.vc0-ReportUploaded byAnonymous orpSYlP
- Selection of Main CB and Branch CB(22.8.12)Uploaded byarun
- Dynamics HWUploaded bythebigdick619
- Zero EMIUploaded bythanna9783
- Power AmplifierUploaded byralinejad
- BoosterUploaded bydaygo21
- 4451__4986 Manual de Diagnostico y Reparacion Gracias DiosUploaded byJorge Gonzalez
- [Stephen T. Thornton, Andrew Rex] Modern Physics f(BookFi)Uploaded bySarman David
- GSJD10200SUploaded byricardobarort
- 2 Report on Pem Nit ManipurUploaded byArnob Phukan
- Physics Reference TablesUploaded bydbranetension
- Generator SizingUploaded byAlfie Butad Dumaguing
- Asweredie Lab 1 ScrUploaded byMcAlvin Bernardo
- Voltage Drop Calculator - Albany.xlsUploaded byWonbae Choi
- A New Technique for Detection of High Impedance Faults in Power ...Uploaded bybubo28
- DC motorUploaded byAhmad Azizudin
- EDC Lab ManualUploaded byPradeep Kumar S