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Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Table of Contens

Introduction

Curriculum

Planner team & Lecturers

Facilitators

General Time Table

Important Informations

Meeting of the students representative

Self Assessment

Assessment Method

Time Table (Regular Class)

Time Table (English Class)

14

Learning Programs

19

Curriculum Map

50

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

INTRODUCTION
The medical curriculum has become increasingly vertically integrated, with
stronger basic concept and support by clinical examples and cases to help in the
understanding of the relevance of the underlying basic science. Basic science
concepts may help in the understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of
diseases. Respiratory system and disorders block has been written to take account
of this trend, and to integrate core aspects of basic science, pathophysiology and
treatment into a single, easy to use revision aid.
The respiratory system consists of a pair of lungs within the thoracic cage. Its
main function is gas exchange, but other roles include speech, filtration of
microthrombin arriving from systemic veins and metabolic activities such as
conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II and removal or deactivation of
serotonin, bradykinin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine and drugs such as propranolol
and chlorpromazine. So this block will discuss about anatomy, histology, symptom
and signs of lung disease and its pathophysiology, major upper respiratory diseases,
major lung diseases, major pediatric lung disease, and basic principle concept to
education, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation in respiratory system disorder in
patient, family and community.
The learning process will be carried out for 6 weeks (27 working days) starts from
17th of March 2014 as shown in the time table. The final examination will be
conducted on 28th of April 2014 in the form of MCQ. The learning situation include
lecture, individual learning, small group discussion, plenary session, practice, and
clinical skill.
Most of the learning material should be learned independently and discuss in
SGD by the students with the help of facilitator. Lecture is given to emphasize the
most important thing of the material. In small group discussion, the students gave
learning task to lead their discussion.
This simple study guide need more revision in the future, so that the planners
kindly invite readers to give any comments and critics for its completion. Thank you.

Planners
Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

CURRICULUM
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM AND DISORDER
Aims :

Comprehend the structure, physiologic, and pathologic of the respiratory system.


Interpret the laboratory and imaging examination of the respiratory system
disorders
Diagnose and treat the patient with common respiratory system disorders
Plan education, prevention, management and rehabilitation of respiratory system
disorders to patient, family and community.

Learning outcomes:

Concern about the size of problem and diversity of respiratory disease in the
community
Able to describe the structure and function of the respiratory system
Able to interpret the result of examination (physical, laboratory, function test,
blood gas analysis and chest imaging)
Able to explore patients with respiratory problem (runny nose, cough, dyspnea,
non cardiac chest pain, hemoptysis)
Able to manage major upper respiratory diseases (tonsillitis, rhinitis, sinusitis)
Able to manage major lung diseases (TBC, asthma, COPD, lung cancer,
pneumonia, occupational lung disease, pleural disease) on patient, family and
community
Able to manage major pediatric lung disease (bronchiolitis, TB, asthma)
Able to implement DOTS program against TB
Able to implement the strategy of smoking cessation, especially in patient with
respiratory disease

Curriculum contents:

Structural and function of the respiratory system


Physiology of lung in related with oxygen consumption and acid base balance
Symptoms and signs of lung disease
Pathophysiology of respiratory system disorders
Basic physical, laboratory and imaging examination
Interpretation of examination results.
Drugs that commonly used in respiratory system disorders (decongestant, antiasthma & bronchodilators, antitussive, expectorant
Basic principle concept to education, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation in
respiratory system disorders in patient, family and community.

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

PLANNER TEAM

LECTURERS
No

Department

Phone

Prof. Dr.dr.IB Ngr Rai Sp.P (K)

Name

Pulmonology

08123804579

dr.I GN Sri Wiryawan,M.Repro

Histology

08123925104

dr.Gede Wardana, M.Biomed

Anatomy

0361-7864957

dr.Dsk Made Wihandani, M.Kes

Biochemistry

081338776244

dr.Ida Bagus Subanada, Sp.A

Paediatric Dept.

0812399533

dr.Dewa Artika, Sp.P

Pulmonology

08123875075

dr.Ida Bagus Suta, Sp.P

Pulmonology

08123990362

dr. Made Bagiada, Sp.PD-KP

Pulmonology

Prof.dr I Gst.Md.Aman,Sp.FK

Pharmacology

08123607874
8543948
081338770650

10

Dr. dr.Muliarta, M.Kes

Physiology

081338505350

11

dr. IGN Bagus Artana, Sp.PD

Pulmonology

08123994203

12

dr.Ketut Putu Yasa, Sp.BTKV

Thorax surgery

08123843260

13

dr.Elysanti Martadiani,SpRad

Radiology

08123807313

14

dr. Winarti, Sp.PA

Pathology Anatomy

08123997328

15

Prof.Dr.dr. M.Wiryana,Sp.AnKIC

Anaesthesiology

0811392171

16

dr.Putu Siadi Purniti,Sp.A

Paediatric

08123812106

17

dr.DGA Eka Putra,Sp.THT

Otorhinolaryngology

0813387826317

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders


18

dr. Luh Made Ratnawati,


Sp.THT(KL)
dr. Putu Andrika, Sp.PD-KIC

Otorhinolaryngology

08123806108

Pulmonology

08123989192

Pulmonology

085237068670

20

dr. Gede Ketut Sajinadiyasa,


Sp.PD
dr. Winarti, Sp.PA

Pathology Anatomi

087862457438

21

Prof. Suardana, Sp.THT

Otorhinolaryngology

0811385299

18
19

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

~ FACILITATORS ~
Regular Class (Class A)
No

Name

Group

dr. Firman Parulian Sitanggang,


Sp.Rad(K)RI
dr. Tjok. Istri Anom Saturti,
Sp.PD

dr. I Wayan Gede Sutadarma,


M Gizi

A3

dr. Yenny Kandarini, Sp.PDKGH-FINASIM

A4

dr. I Gusti Ngurah


Pramesemara, S.Ked

A5

6
7
8
9
10

dr. I Wayan Weta, MS


dr. I A. Sri Indrayani, Sp.S
dr. Tjokorda Gde Oka, MS,
Sp.PK
dr. Wayan Westa, Sp.KJ (K)
dr. Yuliana, M Biomed

A1
A2

A6
A7
A8
A9
A10

Venue
(2rd floor)
2nd floor:
R.2.09
2nd floor:
R.2.11

Departement

Phone

Radiology

081337165566

Interna

081916253777

Biochemistry

082144071268

2nd floor:
R.2.12

Interna

08123805344

2nd floor:
R.2.13

Andrology

081338605087

2nd floor:
R.2.14

Public Health

081337005360

2nd floor:
R.2.15

Neurology

081246751536

2nd floor:
R.2.16

Clinical
Pathology

081999450045

2nd floor:
R.2.20

Psychiatry

081916157658

2nd floor:
R.2.21

Anatomy

085792652363

2nd floor:
R.2.22

English Class (Class B)


No
1
2

Name
dr. I Wayan Surudarma, MSi
dr. Dudut Rustyadi , Sp.F

Group
B1
B2

Dr.dr. Cokorda Bagus Jaya


Lesmana, Sp.KJ

B3

Dr.dr. Ida Bagus Gede Fajar


Manuaba, Sp.OG,MARS

B4

dr. Made Agus Hendrayana ,


M.Ked

B5

Dr.dr. Ni Nyoman Sri Budayanti,


Sp.MK(K)

B6

Dr.dr. Gde Ngurah Indraguna


Pinatih, M.Sc, Akp.,Sp.GK

B7

Dr.dr. I Wayan Sudhana, Sp.PDKGH-FINASIM

B8

Dr.dr. Susy Purnawati, MKK

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

B9

Venue
(3rd floor)
2nd floor:
R.2.09
2nd floor:
R.2.11

Departement

Phone

Biochemistry

081338486589

Forensic

0818651015

Psychiatry

0816295779

2nd floor:
R.2.12

Obgyn

081558101719

2nd floor:
R.2.13

Microbiology

081339158241

2nd floor:
R.2.14

Microbiology

08553711398

2nd floor:
R.2.15

Public Health

08123816424

2nd floor:
R.2.16

Interna

08123914095

2nd floor:
R.2.20

Fisiology

08123989891

2nd floor:
R.2.21

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders


10

Dr.dr. Tjokorda Gde Bagus


Mahadewa, M.Kes,Sp.BS

Surgery

B10

0818484654

2nd floor:
R.2.22

GENERAL TIME TABLE


FOR A AND B CLESSES
CLASS A
ACTIVITIES

TIME
08.00-09.00
09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00

Lecture
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

TIME
09.00-10.00
10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

CLASS B
ACTIVITIES
Lecture
Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

There are several types of learning activity:

Lecture

independent learning based on the lectures topic

Small group discussion to solve the learning task

Practice

Student project

Clinical skill and demonstration

Self assessment at the end of every topic

Plenary session

Lecture will be held at room 402, while discussion rooms available at 3 rd floor
(room 3.09-3.17&3.19)

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

IMPORTANT INFORMATIONS
Meeting of the students representative
In the middle of block schedule, a meeting is designed among the student
representatives of every small group discussions, facilitators, and resource persons. The
meeting will discuss the ongoing teaching learning process, quality of lecturers and
facilitators as a feedback to improve the next process. The meeting will be taken based on
schedule from Medical Education Unit.

SELF ASSESSMENT
Self assessment of each lecture will be given after each lecture session, and will be
marked. This mark can determine whether the student pass this block or not. Any final mark
between 65 to 69 will be reconsidered with self assessments mark to see the students
status. Any student with self assessments mark more than 70 will pass this block. And for
the lower one will have to attend the remedial examination. It is important to do this self
assessment cautiously, because this activity may be your ticket to pass this block.

ASSESSMENT METHOD
Assessment in this theme consists of:
SGD

: 5%

Final Exam

: 80%

Student Project

: 15%

Final mark more than 70 considered to pass this block. Certain conditions applied for those
with final mark between 65 69. These students will be analyzed using their self
assessments mark. Students with final mark 65 69 and self assessments mark more than
70 will also considered pass this block.

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

TIME TABLE
REGULAR CLASS
DAY/DATE

TIME
08.00-08.15
08.15-09.00

1
Monday
Feb 16,
2015

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00
08.00-09.00

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00
08.00-09.00

REGULAR
CLASS

Wednesday
Feb 18,
2015

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00
08.00-09.00

Friday
Feb 20, 2015
09.00-15.00

08.00-09.00

Monday
Feb 23, 2015

PIC
Prof.I.B. Rai
dr.Wardana

Disc room

Facilitator

Class room
Class room

dr.Wardana
dr. Sri Wiryawan

Histology of
Respiratory System
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

Disc room

Facilitator

Class room

dr. Sri Wiryawan

Lecture 3

Class room

dr. Muliarta

Disc room

Facilitator

Class room
Class room

dr. Muliarta
dr. Muliarta

Anatomy:
1st floor
Histology:
4th floor
Class room

dr. Wardana

Disc room

Facilitator

Class room

dr. Desak
Wihandani

Lecture 1
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

Lecture2

Physiology of
Respiratory System:
Ventilation
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

Lecture 4
Physiology of
Respiratory System:
Gas Exchange,
diving, altitude
Independent learning

VENUE
Class room
Class room

Anatomy of
Respiratory System

2
Tuesday
Feb 17,
2015

ACTIVITY
Introduction

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Practice : Anatomy,
Histology

Lecture 5
Carriage of oxygen
and Carbon dioxide
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

dr. Sri
Wiryawan
dr. Desak
Wihandani

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders


08.00-09.00

6
Tuesday
Feb 24, 2015

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00
08.00-09.00

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00
08.00-09.00

REGULAR
CLASS

Wednesday
Feb 25, 2015

Tuesday
Feb 26,
2015

Lecture 7
Control of
Respiratory Function
and Blood Gas
Analyzes
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

Lecture 8

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00

Plenary session

9
09.00-15.00

08.00-09.00

10
Monday
March 2,
2015

Control of acid base


balance, Arterial Gas
Analysis (AGA)
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

Pathology of
Respiratory Tract
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project

08.00-09.00

Friday
Feb 27,
2015

Lecture 6

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Lecture 9

Class room

dr. Desak
Wihandani

Disc room

Facilitator

Class room
Class room

dr. Desak
Wihandani
Prof. Wiryana

Disc room

Facilitator

Class room
Class room

Prof. Wiryana
dr. Winarti

Disc room

Facilitator

Hospital
Visit
Class room
Class room

dr. Winarti
dr. Winarti

Lung Defense
Mechanism
Independent learning
Practice : Physiology,
Pathology Anatomy
(PA)

Lecture 10
Pharmacological and
non pharmacological
interventions
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

Physiology:
2nd floor
PA: Joint
Lab (4th
floor)
Class room

dr. Muliarta

Disc room

Facilitator

Class room

Prof. Aman

dr. Winarti
Prof. Aman

10

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders


08.00-09.00

11

12

REGULAR
CLASS

Tuesday
March 3,
2015

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00

Wednesday
March 4,
2015

13
Thursday
March 5,
2015

14
Friday
March 6,
2015

15

14.00-15.00
08.00-09.00
09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00
08.00-09.00

Lecture 11
Pharmacological and
non pharmacological
interventions
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

Lecture 12
Respiratory Imaging
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

Lecture 13

Class room

Prof. Aman

Disc room

Facilitator

Hospital
Visit
Class room
Class room

Prof. Aman
dr. Elysanti

Disc room

Facilitator

Class room
Class room

dr. Elysanti
dr. IB
Subanada

Disc room

Facilitator

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00

Bronchiolitis, asthma
in children,
Pneumonia
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project

14.00-15.00

Plenary session

Hospital
Visit
Class room

08.00-09.00

Lecture 14

Class room

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00
08.00-09.00

Monday
March 9,
2015
09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

TB in children, Difteri,
Pertusis
Independent learning
SGD
Disc room
Break
Student project
Plenary session
Class room

Lecture 15

Class room

Pulmonary TB and
Extrapulmonary TB,
TB in the
Immunocompromised
Host, Abses TB
Independent learning
SGD
Disc room
Break
Student project
Hospital

dr. IB
Subanada
dr. Siadi
Purniti

Facilitator
dr. Siadi
Purniti
dr. Sutha,

dr. Bagiada

Facilitator

11

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

16

17

Plenary session

Visit
Class room

08.00-09.00

Lecture 16

Class room

Wednesday
March 11,
2015

19
Friday
March 13,
2015

20

Prof. IB Rai,
dr. Artana

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00

SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

Disc room

Facilitator

Class room

Prof. IB Rai,
dr. Artana

08.00-09.00

Lecture 17

Class room
dr. Andrika,
dr, Yasa

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00

Pleural effusion,
Pneumothorax,
Hematothorax
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project

14.00-15.00

Plenary session

Hospital
Visit
Class room

08.00-09.00

Lecture 18

Class room

18
Thursday
March 12,
2015

dr. Sutha,
dr. Bagiada

Asthma,
COPD
Independent learning

REGULAR
CLASS

Tuesday
March 10,
2015

14.00-15.00

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00

08.00-08.30
08.30-09.00
09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00

Bronchitis and
Bronchiectasis,
Lung Ca and
Smoking Cessation
Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

Lecture 19
Disorder of nose, sinus

Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project

Disc room

Disc room

Facilitator

Class room

dr.Dewa
Artika, dr. Saji

Class room

dr. Ratna,
Sp.THT

Disc room

Facilitator

14.00-15.00

Plenary session

08.00-09.00

Lecture 20

Class room

Monday
Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

dr. Andrika,
dr, Yasa
dr.Dewa
Artika,
dr. Saji

Hospital
Visit
Class room

Disorder of larynx,
Disorder of Pharynx

Facilitator

dr. Ratna,
Sp.THT

Prof.
Suardana, dr.
Dewa Artha Eka
Putra, Sp.THT
12

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

21

REGULAR
CLASS

March 16,
2015

09.00-10.30
10.30-12.00
12.00-12.30
12.30-14.00
14.00-15.00

Tuesday
March 17,
2015

Prof.
Suardana, dr.
Dewa Artha Eka
Putra, Sp.THT

dr. Muliarta
dr. Yasa
dr. Elysanti

08.00-15.00

BCS: Physical
Diagnostic of Thorax
BCS: Bronchoscopy
BCS: THT
(Pre-test, Lecture,
practice, demo)

Class Room
Physiology Dept.
(2nd floor
Joint Lab (4th
Floor)
Anatomy (1st
floor)

dr. Saji
dr. Sutha
dr. Lely

08.00-15.00

BCS: Spirometry
BCS: Physical
Diagnostic of Thorax
(Pre-test, lecture,
practice, demo)

Class Room
Physiology Dept.
(2nd floor
Joint Lab (4th
Floor)
Anatomy (1st
floor)

dr. Muliarta
dr. Saji

08.00-15.00

BCS: Physical
Diagnostic of Thorax
BCS: Provocation test
BCS: THT
(Pre-test, lecture,
demo)

Class Room
Physiology Dept.
(2nd floor
Joint Lab (4th
Floor)
Anatomy (1st
floor)

08.00-15.00

BCS: Physical
Diagnostic of Thorax,
Provocation test,
Spirometry, WSD,
Bronchoscopy, Radio
Imaging, THT
(Practice, post-test)

25
Monday
March 23,
2015

Class room

08.00-15.00

24
Friday
March 20,
2015

Facilitator

Class Room
Physiology Dept.
(2nd floor
Joint Lab (4th
Floor)
Anatomy (1st
floor)

23
Thursday
March 19,
2015

Disc room

BCS: Spirometry
BCS: WSD, Radio
Imaging
(Pre-test, lecture, demo
Practice, discussion)

22
Wednesday
March 18,
2015

Independent learning
SGD
Break
Student project
Plenary session

26
Tuesday
March 24,
2015
27
Wednesday
March 25, 2015

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Class Room
Physiology Dept.
(2nd floor
Joint Lab (4th
Floor)
Anatomy (1st
floor)

dr. Saji
dr Artana
dr. Lely
dr. Saji
dr Artana
dr. Sutha
dr. Muliarta
dr. Yasa
dr. Elysanti
dr. Lely

Silent Day

Examination

13

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

TIME TABLE
ENGLISH CLASS
DAY/DATE

09.00-09.15
09.15-10.00

1
Monday
Feb 16,
2015

Wednesday
Feb 18,
2015

10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00
09.00-10.00

10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00
09.00-10.00

10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00
09.00-10.00

Class room
Class room

Prof.I.B. Rai
dr.Wardana

Disc room
Class room
Class room

Facilitator
dr.Wardana
dr. Sri Wiryawan

Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Disc room
Class room

Facilitator
dr. Sri Wiryawan

Lecture 3

Class room

dr. Muliarta

Disc room
Class room
Class room

Facilitator
dr. Muliarta
dr. Muliarta

Anatomy:
1st floor
Histology:
4th floor
Class room

dr. Wardana

Disc room
Class room

Facilitator
dr. Desak

Introduction

Lecture 1
Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Lecture2

Physiology of
Respiratory System:
Ventilation
Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Lecture 4
Physiology of
Respiratory System:
Gas Exchange,
diving, altitude
Independent learning

Friday
Feb 20, 2015
10.00-16.00

Monday
Feb 23, 2015

PIC

Histology of
Respiratory System

VENUE

Anatomy of
Respiratory System

ENGLISH
CLASS

Tuesday
Feb 17,
2015

TIME

09.00-10.00

Practice : Anatomy,
Histology

Lecture 5
Carriage of oxygen
and Carbon dioxide

10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

dr. Sri
Wiryawan
dr. Desak
Wihandani

14

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

09.00-10.00

Class room

Control of acid base


balance, Arterial Gas
Analysis (AGA)

6
Tuesday
Feb 24, 2015

10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Disc room
Class room

09.00-10.00

Lecture 7

Class room

Facilitator
dr. Desak
Wihandani
Prof. Wiryana

Disc room
Class room
Class room

Facilitator
Prof. Wiryana
dr. Winarti

Control of
Respiratory Function
and Blood Gas
Analyzes

7
10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00
09.00-10.00

ENGLISH
CLASS

Wednesday
Feb 25, 2015

Lecture 6

Thursday
Feb 26,
2015

Lecture 8
Pathology of
Respiratory Tract
Student project

11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

10.0016.00

Friday
Feb 27,
2015
09.00-10.00

Hospital
Visit
Disc room
Class room

Facilitator
dr. Winarti

Lung Defense
Mechanism
Independent learning

Class room

dr. Winarti

Practice : Physiology,
Pathology Anatomy
(PA)

Physiology:
2nd floor

dr. Muliarta

PA: Joint
Lab (4th
floor)
Class room

dr. Winarti

Lecture 9

Lecture 10

Prof. Aman

Pharmacological and
non pharmacological
interventions

10
Monday
March 2,

Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

10.00-11.30

09.0010.00

Wihandani
dr. Desak
Wihandani

10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Student project
Break

15

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders


12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00
09.00-10.00

2015

Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Lecture 11

Disc room
Class room
Class room

Facilitator
Prof. Aman
Prof. Aman

Pharmacological and
non pharmacological
interventions

11
Tuesday
March 3,
2015

Student project

11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Disc room
Class room

Facilitator
Prof. Aman

09.00-10.00

Lecture 12

Class room

dr. Elysanti

Disc room
Class room
Class room

Facilitator
dr. Elysanti
dr. IB
Subanada

Hospital
Visit

Respiratory Imaging

12

10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00
09.00-10.00

ENGLISH
CLASS

Wednesday
March 4,
2015

13

10.00-11.30

Thursday
March 5,
2015

14
Friday
March 6,
2015

Lecture 13
Bronchiolitis, asthma
in children

10.00-11.30

Student project

11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Disc room
Class room

09.00-10.00

Lecture 14

Class room

Hospital
Visit

TB in children
10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Disc room
Class room

09.00-10.00

Lecture 15

Class room

Pulmonary TB and
Extrapulmonary TB,
TB in the
Immunocompromised
Host

15
Monday
March 9,
2015

Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

10.00-11.30

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Student project

Facilitator
dr. IB
Subanada
dr. Siadi
Purniti

Facilitator
dr. Siadi
Purniti
dr. Sutha,

dr. Bagiada
Hospital
Visit
16

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders


11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Disc room
Class room

09.00-10.00

Lecture 16

Class room
Prof. IB Rai,
dr. Artana

Asthma,
COPD

16

17

10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Disc room
Class room

09.00-09.00

Lecture 17

Class room

ENGLISH
CLASS

Tuesday
March 10,
2015

Wednesday
March 11,
2015

Thursday
March 12,
2015

Student project

11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Disc room
Class room

08.00-09.00

Lecture 18

Class room

19
Friday
March 13,
2015

Hospital
Visit

Bronchitis and
Bronchiectasis,
Lung Ca and
Smoking Cessation
10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

09.00-09.30
09.30-10.00
10.00-11.30
11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

Student project
Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Facilitator
Prof. IB Rai,
dr. Artana

dr. Andrika,
dr, Yasa

Pleural effusion,
Pneumothorax

10.00-11.30

18

Facilitator
dr. Sutha,
dr. Bagiada

Facilitator
dr. Andrika,
dr, Yasa
dr.Dewa
Artika,
dr. Saji

Disc room
Class room

Facilitator
dr.Dewa
Artika, dr. Saji

Disorder of nose, sinus

Class room

dr. Ratna,
Sp.THT

Student project

Hospital
Visit

Lecture 19

Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

Disc room
Class room

Facilitator
dr. Ratna,
Sp.THT

17

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders


09.00-10.00

Disorder of larynx,
Disorder of Pharynx

20
10.00-11.30

Student project

11.30-12.00
12.00-13.30
13.30-15.00
15.00-16.00

Break
Independent learning
SGD
Plenary session

ENGLISH
CLASS

Monday
March 16,
2015

21

Class room

Lecture 20

Tuesday
March 17,
2015

Dewa Artha Eka


Putra, Sp.THT

dr. Muliarta
dr. Yasa
dr. Elysanti

08.00-15.00

BCS: Physical
Diagnostic of Thorax
BCS: Bronchoscopy
BCS: THT
(Pre-test, Lecture,
practice, demo)

Class Room
Physiology Dept.
(2nd floor
Joint Lab (4th
Floor)
Anatomy (1st
floor)

dr. Saji
dr. Sutha
dr. Lely

08.00-15.00

BCS: Spirometry
BCS: Physical
Diagnostic of Thorax
(Pre-test, lecture,
practice, demo)

Class Room
Physiology Dept.
(2nd floor
Joint Lab (4th
Floor)
Anatomy (1st
floor)

dr. Muliarta
dr. Saji

BCS: Physical
Diagnostic of Thorax
BCS: Provocation test
BCS: THT
(Pre-test, lecture,
demo)

Class Room
Physiology Dept.
(2nd floor
Joint Lab (4th
Floor)
Anatomy (1st
floor)

08.00-15.00

25
Monday
March 23,
2015

Facilitator
Prof.
Suardana, dr.

08.00-15.00

24
Friday
March 20,
2015

Disc room
Class room

Class Room
Physiology Dept.
(2nd floor
Joint Lab (4th
Floor)
Anatomy (1st
floor)

23
Thursday
March 19,
2015

Dewa Artha Eka


Putra, Sp.THT

BCS: Spirometry
BCS: WSD, Radio
Imaging
(Pre-test, lecture, demo
Practice, discussion)

22
Wednesday
March 18,
2015

Prof.
Suardana, dr.

08.00-15.00

26
Tuesday
March 24,
2015
Faculty of Medicine Udayana University,DME

BCS: Physical
Diagnostic of Thorax,
Provocation test,
Spirometry, WSD,
Bronchoscopy, Radio
Imaging, THT
(Practice, post-test)

Class Room
Physiology Dept.
(2nd floor
Joint Lab (4th
Floor)
Anatomy (1st
floor)

dr. Saji
dr Artana
dr. Lely
dr. Saji
dr Artana
dr. Sutha
dr. Muliarta
dr. Yasa
dr. Elysanti
dr. Lely

Silent Day

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27
Wednesday
March 25, 2015

Examination

LEARNING PROGRAMS
LECTURE 1
ANATOMY OF RESPIRATORY TRACT
Abstract
dr. I Nyoman Gede Wardana, M.Biomed
The respiratory system consists of conducting zone and respiratory zone.
Conducting zone, whose walls are too thick to permit exchange of gases between the air in
the tube and the blood stream. The nostrils (nares), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea,
bronchi, and terminal bronchioles are included in this zone. Respiratory zone, whose walls
are thin enough to permit exchange of gases between tube and blood capillaries
surrounding them. Air travels to the lungs through that zone. The right lung divided into
three lobes: superior, middle, and inferior. The left lung divided into two lobes: superior and
inferior. Each lung cover by a membrane that called pleura. Both lungs are inside the
thoracic cage. The thoracic cage is formed by the vertebral column behind, the ribs, and
intercostal spaces on other side and the sternum and costal cartilages in front. Below it
separated from the abdominal cavity by diaphragm
Learning Task
Vignette 1:
Kesawa, 32 years old, was seen in the clinic ten days ago, was diagnosed with rhinitis and
sent home with instructions for increased fluids, decongestants, and rest. Kesawa presents
today with worsened symptoms of malaise, low-grade temperature, nasal discharge, night
time coughing, mouth breathing, early morning pain over sinuses, and congestion. The
doctor diagnose he is suffering sinusitis.
1. Describe the boundaries of the nasal cavity and its blood supply
2. Describe the paranasal sinuses and its opening at nasal cavity
Vignette 2:
Gotawa, a singer-18 years old came to clinic with complain a hoarse voice for 3 days. She
also suffers sore throat, nose block, and fever. She was diagnosed laryngitis
1. Describe the structure of larynx and location of vocal cord
2. Describe the intrinsic and extrinsic muscle of larynx
Vignette 3:
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Mande, 30 years old male came to clinic with chief complaint difficulty to breath start from
this morning. He also suffers cough, runny nose and fever. He has history bronchial asthma
when he was 2 years old. The doctor diagnose he is suffering bronchial asthma.
1. Describe the structure of trachea
2. Describe the different between right and left main bronchus
3. Describe the principal different between trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles
Vignette 4:
A 57-year-old male is admitted to the hospital with a chief complaint of shortness of breath
for 2 weeks. The radiology examination shows a large left-side pleural effusion.
1. Describe the different between right lung and left lung
2. Describe the structure of pleura
3. Describe the structure of thoracic wall

LECTURE 2
HISTOLOGY OF RESPIRATORY TRACT
dr. Sri Wiryawan, MRepro
Abstract
The lower respiratory tract consists of : the lower part of the trachea, the two main
bronchi, lobar, segmental, and smaller bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchioles, and
last but not least is the end respiratory unit. These structure make up the tracheobronchial
tree. As for the structure distal to the main bronchi along with a tissue known as the lung
parenchyma.
There are several structure we should also understand, when talking about lower
respiratory tract. Several structures such as thorax, mediastinum, pleurae and pleural cavity,
and lung. Thorax especially thoracic cavity and thoracic wall protect our lung and
mediastinum and also play an important role in respiratory process. The mediastinum,
which has a role in protecting our heart , located between the two lungs, and contains the
heart and great vessels, trachea and esophagus, phrenic and vagus nerves, and lymph
nodes.
The pleurae covers the external surface of the lung, and is then reflected to cover
the inner surface of thoracic cavity. Pleurae divided into the visceral (lines the surface of the
lung) and parietal (lines the thoracic wall and diaphragm) one. The space between these
two pleurae called as pleural cavity which contains a thin film fluid to allow the pleurae to
slip over each other during breathing.

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The lungs are placed within the thoracic cavity. The lungs contain airways structure,
vessels, lymphatic and lymph nodes, nerves, and supportive connective tissue. The trachea
divides and form the left and right primary bronchi, which in turn divide to form lobar bronchi.
Each lobar bronchi divide again to give segmental bronchi to supply air to
bronchopulmonary segments. The tracheobronchial tree can also be classified into two
functional zones: the conducting zone (proximal to the respiratory bronchioles) which
involved in air movement, and the respiratory zone (distal to the terminal bronchioles) which
involved in gaseous exchange.
The other term to show functional structure of the lower respiratory tract is the
acinus. The acinus defined as the part of the airway that is involved in gaseous exchange.
The acinus consist of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli as the smallest
functional structure of the lung. The areas of lung containing groups of between three to five
acini surrounded by parenchimal tissue are called lung lobules.
The alveolus is an blind-ending terminal sac of respiratory tract. Most gaseous
exchange occurs in the alveoli. The alveoli are lined with type I (structural) and type II
(produce surfactant) of pneumocytes cell. The understanding about histological pattern of
these functional structures of the lung is important in pathophysiology of lung problems.
Learning Tasks
I.

Structure of The Upper Respiratory tract


Krishna, a man, 25 years old came to doctor Arjuna clinic with fever, sore throat,
sneezing, runny nose and sometimes blocked nose. He also cannot smell well. The
doctor diagnoses Krishna with acut Rhinopharingitis.
1. Describe the histological structure of the upper respiratory tracts
are involved ?
2. Describe the histological structure and function of epiglottis !
3. Compare the histological structure and function between

vestibular fold and

vocal fold !
II. Structure of The Lower Respiratory tract
Radha, a 17 years old beautiful girl, came to doctor Laksmi clinic with shortness of
breath, wheezing and cough with phlegm. The doctor diagnoses Radha with Asthma.

1.Describe the histological structure of the lower respiratory tracts are involved ?
2.Compare the histological structure and function between terminal bronchioles
and respiratory bronchioles !
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3.Describe the histological structure of the interalveolar septum !
4.Describe the histological structure of blood-air barrier ?
5.Describe about the pulmonary surfactant ?

LECTURE 3
PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: VENTILATION
dr. I Made Muliarta, MKes
Abstract

In living cells aerobic metabolism consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide. Gas
exchange requires a large , thin, moist exchange surface, a pump to move air circulatory
system to transport gases to cells. The primary function system are:

Exchange the gases between atmosphere and the blood.

Homeostatic regulation of body pH .

Protection from inhaled pathogens and irritation substance

Vocalization.

In addition to serving these function, the respiratory system also source of significant
losses of water and heat from the lung.

A single respiratory cycle consists of an inspiration and expiration. Relation with


ventilation had to know about compliance, surfactant, lung volume and capacities

Respiratory control resides in a central pattern generator, a net work of neurons in the
pons and medulla oblongata.

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LEARNING TASK

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dr. Muliarta, MKes


1.

What is the sequence of event during quiet inspiration (muscle involvement,


pressure changes (intrapulmonary and intrapleura), volume changes)

2.

What is pulmonary ventilation and alveolar ventilation means?

3.

Andi, male, 30 years old, has a puncture wound due to car accident in his right chest
and penetrate his pleural cavity. The patient has complained shortness of breathing and
doctor determine that his lung is collapsed.
a. What is this condition called?
b. Describe the mechanism of the lung collapse!
c. What kind respiratory system compensation to anticipate this condition (lung
collapse)
d. How can he still be alive in this condition?

4.

Describe the Boyles Law!

LECTURE 4
PHYSIOLOGY OF RESPIRATORY SYSTEM: GAS EXCHANGE, DIVING,
ALTITUDE
dr. I Made Muliarta, MKes
Abstract
Gas exchange during external respiration occurs in respiratory membrane. Several
factors may influence gas exchange. Daltons law and Henrys law may apply during gas
exchange.
Some physiologic responses on respiratory system at high altitude and during diving.
Some illnesses/injuries related pressure change may occurs

at high altitude and during

diving.

LEARNING TASK
dr. Muliarta, MKes
1.

Describe the Daltons Law!

2.

Describe the factors that influence oxygen diffusion from alveoli into the blood!

3.

Predict the response of the pulmonary arterioles and bronchioles when PO2 increase
and PCO2 decrease!

4.

Describe some illnesses/injuries due to high altitude

5.

Describe some illnesses/injuries due to diving

LECTURE 5
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CARRIAGE OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE


dr. Desak Wihandani
Abstract
Gas Transport
The supply of oxygen to the tissues is our most immediate physical need. We take in about
250 ml of oxygen gas per minute and this is our most pressing physical need. If our oxygen
supply is interrupted for more than a few minutes, irreversible damage is done to some
tissues, notably the brain. Oxygen is abundantly available in the air around us but cannot
diffuse into our tissues at sufficient rate to meet our needs. It must be transported from the
lung, the specialized organ for gas exchange, by the blood to all the other tissue.
While oxygen has to be transported from lungs to tissues, carbon dioxide must be
transported from the tissues for excretion by the lungs. Carbon dioxide has physicochemical
properties that make its transport less difficult then transport of oxygen. Carbon dioxide can
be transported in the blood in three ways: in simple solution, by reversible conversion to
bicarbonate and by reversible combination with haemoglobin to form carbamino
haemoglobin.
LEARNING TASK:
1. Describe the structure and function of hemoglobin
2. Describe the mechanism of oxygen binding to hemoglobin
3. Describe the differences between hemoglobin and myoglobin
4. Describe the mechanism of oxygen binding to myoglobin
5. Describe conformational differences between deoxygenated and oxygenated Hb!
6. Summarize the processes by which carbondioxide is transported from peripheral
tissues to the lungs

LECTURE 6

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Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders

CONTROL OF ACID BASE BALANCE, ARTERIAL GAS ANALYSIS (AGA)


dr. Desak Wihandani
Abstract
Acid-Base Balance
There is large daily flux of oxygen, carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion through the human
body. Carbon dioxide generated in tissues dissolves in H2O to form carbonic acid, which in
turn dissociates releasing hydrogen ion. The blood concentration of hydrogen ion is
constant, it remains between 36 and 46 nmol/L (pH 7,36-7,46). Changes in pH will affect
the activity of many enzyme and tissue oxygenation. Problems with gas exchange and acidbase balance underlie many diseases of respiratory system.
Blood Gases
Blood gas measurement is an important first-line investigation performed whenever there is
a suspicion of respiratory failure or acid-base disorders. In respiratory failure, the results of
such measurements are also an essential guide to oxygen therapy and assisted ventilation.
The key clinically used parameters are pH, pCO 2 and pO2, the bicarbonate concentration is
calculated from pH and pCO2 values.
Learning Task:
1. Describe organs in our body involved in acid-base balance, and how they work
2. Describe acid-base balance disorders! What is mean by : a. Respiratory
alkalosis, b. metabolic alkalosis, c.respiratory acidosis, and d. metabolic
acidosis
3. In which condition respiratory acidosis and respiratory alkalosis occurs ?
4. What is the importance of blood gas measurement. To perform measurement
where are the blood sample taken from? What kind of measurement are done?

LECTURE 7
CONTROL OF RESPIRATORY FUNCTION
Prof. Dr. dr. Wiryana, SpAn
Abstract
When considering contol of breathing, the main control variable is P aCO2 (we try to
control this value near to 40 mmHg). This can be carried out by adjusting the respiratory
rate, the tidal volume, or both. By controlling PaCO2 we are effectively controlling alveolar
ventilation (see Ch.3) and thus PACO2. Although PaCO2 is the main control variable, PaO2 is
also controlled, but normally to a much lesser extent than PaCO2. However, the PaO2
control system can take over and become the main controlling system when the P aO2 drops
below 50 mmHg.

Control can seem to be brought about by :

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1. Metabolic demands of the body (metabolic control)-tissue oxygen demand and acidbase balance.
2. Behavioural demands of the body (behavioral control) singing, coughing, laughing
(i.e.control is voluntary).
These are essentially feedback and feed-forward control systems, respectively. The
behavioural control of breathing overalys the metabolic control.
Its control is derived from higher centres of the brain. The axons of neurons whose cell
bodies are situated in the cerebral cortex bypass the respiratory centres in the brainstem
and synapse directly with lower motor neurons that control respiratory muscles. This system
will not be dealt with in this next;we shall deal only with the the metabolic control of
respiration.
Learning Tasks
1. Discuss the central control of breathing with reference to the pontine respiratory
group and the dorsal-ventral respiratory groups of medulla spinalis
2. List the different types of receptors involved in controlling the respiratory system
3. Describe factors that stimulate central and peripheral chemoreceptor
4. outline the response of the respiratory system to change in carbon dioxide
concentration, oxygen concentration and pH.
5. discuss the mechanism thought to influence the control of ventilation in exercise
6. discuss the changes that occur in response to high altitude

LECTURE 8
PATHOLOGY OF UPPER AND LOWER URINARY TRACT
dr. Ni Wayan Winarti, SpPA
ABSTRACT
The term upper airways is used here to include the nose, pharynx, and larynx and their
related parts. Disorders of these structures are among the most common afflictions of
humans, but fortunately the overwhelming majority are more nuisances than threats.
Inflammatory diseases are the most common disorders of the upper respiratory tract, i.e.
rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis and laryngitis. It may occur as the sole manifestation
of allergic, viral, bacterial or chemical insult. Although most infections are self-limited, they
may at times be serious, especially laryngitis in infancy or childhood, when mucosal
congestion, exudation, or edema may cause laryngeal obstruction. Tumors in these
locations are infrequent but include the entire category of mesenchymal and epithelial

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neoplasms.

Some

distinctive

types

are

nasopharyngeal

angiofibroma,

Sinonasal

(Scheiderian) Papilloma, Olfactory Neuroblastoma and Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.


Classification of lower respiratory tract (lung) diseases can be made based on the result of
lung function test, although some authors prefer etiology and pathogenesis background.
Some important diseases are obstructive lung disease (asthma, COPD, bronchiectasis) and
restrictive lung disease (ARDS), and also infections, diseases of vascular origin and tumors.
Pleura as protective structure of the lungs, are sometimes involved as secondary
complication of some underlying disease, but in rare case, can be primary.
Because of the complexity of respiratory disease, it is important to understand their
pathogenesis, supported by recognizing their morphologic changes.
LEARNING TASK
Case 1
A male patient, 16 year old, came to a doctor with chief complaint difficulties in breathing. It
has occurred since 1 month ago. This patient suffers from rhinitis alergica since he was 3
year old. On physical examination, a pedunculated nodule in right nasal cavity was found. It
was whitish in color, 1.5 cm in diameter occluding the nasal cavity.
1. Based on clinical finding, what is the most possible diagnosis?
2. What are the DDs?
3. Describe the morphological appearance (macroscopy and microscopy) that
supposed to be found to confirm your diagnosis!
4. Explain the pathogenesis of this diasease!
Case 2
A male patient, 65 year old, has suffered from dyspnea and productive cough since 1 year
ago. Lung function test showed increased of FEV1 with normal FVC (confirm an obstructive
lung disease). He is a heavy smoker since he was 25 year old. No history of atopy. No
evidence of cardiac disorders.
A. Mention 4 diseases including in the spectrum of obstructive lung disease!
B. Explain their pathogenesis!
C. Distinguish their morphology!
Case 3
A female patient, 50 year old, has suffered from tumor of right lung with pleural effusion. As
the first step to confirm the diagnosis, doctor asked the patient to do cytology test.
A. Mention some cytology test can be choose for this patient!
B. Among the test mention above (A), which one is the most simple and non-invasive?
And, discuss how to collect the specimen

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LECTURE 9
LUNG DEFENCE MECHANISM
dr. Ni Wayan Winarti, SpPA
Abstract
Respiratory tract is an organ that constantly exposed by contaminated air. It is there
fore a small miracle that the normal lung parenchyma remains sterile. Fortunately, a
plethora of immune and non immune defense mechanisms exist in the respiratory system,
extending from the nasopharynx all the way into alveolar airspaces.
The major categories of defense mechanisms to be discussed include : (1)physical
or anatomic factors related to deposition and clearance of inhaled materials, (2)antimicrobial
peptides, (3) phagocytic and inflammatory cells that interact with inhaled materials,
(4)adaptive immune response, which depends on prior exposure to recognize the foreign
materials. Each components appears to have a distinct role, but a tremendous degree of
redundancy and interaction exists among different components.
Any condition breaks down the lung defense mechanism may result in lung injury
and respiratory tract infections
Learning Tasks
1.

Defense mechanism of the lung and respiratory tract ca be divided into four
major categories. Mention them, their components and explain how each of them
acts against foreign materials.

2.

Explain about diseases or conditions that break the lung defense mechanism
down which result in increase susceptibility to respiratory tract infections

LECTURE 10
PHARMACOLOGICAL AND NON PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENSION I

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Prof. dr. GM Aman


Abstract
Drugs for cough, rhinitis, asthma bronchiale
Cough is a protective reflex mechanism that removes foreign material and secretions
from the bronchi and bronchioles. It can be inappropriately stimulated by inflammation in the
respiratory system or by neoplasia. In these cases, antitussive (cough suppressant) drugs
are sometimes used. It should be understood that these drugs merely suppress the
symptom without influencing the underlying condition. In cough associated with
bronchiectasis or chronic bronchitis, antitussive drugs can cause harmful sputum thickening
and retention. They should not be for the cough associated with asthma.
Most drugs used in rhinitis are effectively relief the symptom of rhinitis, not affect the
underlying disease. No drug can relief symptom completely. Drugs are more effective for
allergic rhinitis than non allergic rhinitis, and acute form of allergy respond more favorable
than chronic form of allergy. The most common drugs used for rhinitis are antihistamine,
nasal disodium cromoglycate, nasal decongestant, anticholinergic, intranasal corticosteroid.
Bronchial Asthma is a disease characterized by airway inflammation, edema and
reversible bronchospasm. Bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory are the most useful drugs
used in asthma. B2 selective agonists, muscarinic antagonists, aminophylline and
leucotriene receptor blockers are the most effective bronchodilator. Anti-inflamatory drugs
such as corticosteroid, mast cell stabilizers, leucotriene antagonists, and an anti IgE
antibody are widely used. Short acting B2 agonist are the most widely used for acute
asthma attack, by relaxing airway smooth muscle. Theophylline, aminophylline and
antimuscarinic agent are also used for acute asthma attack. Long term control can be
achieved with an anti-inflammatory agent such as corticosteroid (systemic or inhaled), with
leucotriene antagonist, mast cell stabilizers (cromolyn or nedocromil). Long acting B2
agonists such as Salmeterol and Formeterol, are effectively in improving asthma control,
when taken regularly.
Learning Tasks Day 10
The patient complained about a sore throat and a nasty cough. It started two weeks ago
with a cold. The cold was over within a week, but he continued coughing, especially at night.
He is a heavy smoker. After physical examination you diagnosed a dry, tickling cough.
Task 1
1. Differentiate between Antitussive, Expectorant, Mucolytic
2. Differentiate the effects of Codeine, Dextromethorphan and Diphenhydramine
3. List the side effects of Codeine
4. In this patient, what kind of anti cough you give best.
Task 2
If the patient also has sneezing, rhinorrhea and congested nose and then you diagnosed as
rhinitis.
1. List the group of drugs used for Rhinitis
2. List the drugs used as oral nasal decongestant, and describe the important side effects.
3. List the side effects of intranasal decongestant
4. what is the drug of choice for patient suffer from Rhinitis Medicamentosa

LECTURE 11
PHARMACOLOGICAL AND NON PHARMACOLOGICAL INTERVENSION II
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Prof. dr. GM Aman


Task Day 11
If the patient come with cough, breathless, and in your examination, you found
wheezing. After physical examination you diagnosed Acute attack of bronchial
asthma.
1. Chose the drug of first choice for this patient
2. List the side effects of this drug
3. Compare the effect of this drug with Salmeterol
4. Theophyllin is a bronchodilator, but has a narrow safety margin. List the side
effects & toxic effect of Theophyllin.
5. Ipratropium not as effective as Salbutamol in treating bronchial asthma. What is
the main use of Ipratropium
6. Cromolyn and Nedocromil are often used for Asthma bronchial. Describe the
mechanism of action of Cromolyn (Disodium Cromoglycate)
7. To decrease the side effet of Corticosteroid in asthma patient, Corticosteroid
often use as inhaled Corticosteroid. What are the side effect of inhaled
Corticosteroid
1. List the anticough that are contraindicated in acute asthma attack.
2. If you need anticough, what drug you give best

LECTURE 12
RESPIRATORY IMAGING
dr. Elysanti, Sp.Rad
Abstract
The imaging investigations of the chest may be considered under the following heading:
1. Simple X- Ray.(conventional X-ray)
2. Chest screening.
3. Tomography.
4. Bronchography.
5. Pulmonary angiography.
6. Isotope scanning.
7. Computed tomography(CT-scan)
8. MRI.
9. Needle biopsy.
The conventional Chest X Ray has to diagnose the anatomical disorders of the chest for
example:
1. Lungs disease-----pneumonia, mass, atelectasis etc.
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2. Pleural disease----pleural effuse, pneumothorax etc
3. Cardiac disease----cardiomegali
4. Bone disorders ----fracture
5. Soft tissue diseaseemphysema cutis.
Sometimes conventional X-ray diagnostic can not enough for diagnostic of the chest
disorders, for this the CT scan, MRI, bronchography and arteriography can be help.
Learning Tasks
A male patient, 68 years old, with chronic cough and hemoptoe.

What is the imaging choice for establish the diagnosis ?

What kind of diagnosis you will consider if the imaging revealed some consolidation at
the apex of the right lung accompanied by rib destruction?

A 1- month old female patient is suffered from fever and dyspneu

What kind of abnormality you hope to see on the chect X ray film?

What do you thing about the diagnosis of the disease?

LECTURE 13
BRONCHIOLITIS AND
ASTHMA IN CHILD
Dr. IB Subanada, SpA
Abstract
Bronchiolitis is an acute inflammatory disease of the lower respiratory tract
(bronchioles) caused predominantly by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). The inflammation
response characterized by bronchiolar epithelial necrosis, bronchiolar occlusion, and
peribronchiolar collection of lymphocytes. Bronchiolus become edematous and obstructed
with mucus and celluler debris, which may lead to partial or complete collapse of the
bronchioles. By the age 2 years nearly all children have been infected, with severe disease
more common among infants aged 1-3 months.
The clinical manifestation, initially upper respiratory signs and symptoms and
followed by obstructed bronchioles signs and symptoms.
The white blood cell and differential counts are usually normal. Chest x-ray reveals
hyperinflation, peribronchial cuffing, and atelectasis.
The mainstay of therapy is supplemented oxygen with close monitoring and supportive care.

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There are higher incidence of wheezing and asthma in children with history of
bronchiolitis. Pooled hyperimmune RSV intravenous immunoglobulin (RSV-IVIG) and
palivizumab intramuscular are effective to preventing severe RSV disease in high risk
infants. The case fatality rate is less than 1%.
Learning Tasks
A 6-months old male infant came to Outpatient Clinic, Department of Child Health,
Medical School, Udayana University, Sanglah Hospital, Denpasar with the chief complaint of
difficult to breath since yesterday. According to his mother, three days before, he suffered
from coryza, cough, and low grade fever. On physical examination, fast breathing, wheezing
and a prolonged expiratory phase were found.
Please discuss his mother the disease of the infant!
Learning Tasks
1. explain the pathological concept of asthma in child
2. explain the clinical manifestations of asthma in child
3. explain the diagnosis principles of asthma in child
4. determine the severity of asthma and the degree of asthma attack in child
5. construct management plans for asthma attack in child (reliever) and determine the
need for controller management
6. abl to identify the need for referral

LECTURE 14
TB IN CHILD
dr. Ni Putu Siadi Purniti, SpA
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is systemic infection cause by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
complex : M tuberculosis, M. Bovis, M. africanum, M. microti, and M. canetti. Tuberculosis
infection occurs after inhalation of infective droplet nuclei containing M. tuberculosis. A
reactive tuberculin skin test and the absence of clinical and radiographic manifestations are
the hallmark of this stage. Tuberculosis disease occurs when sign and symptoms or
radiographic changes becaome apparent. In the year 2001 prevalens rate of

TB is

5,6/100.000 population, of these, 931 (6 % ) cases occurred in children < 15 year of age
(rate 1,5/100.000 population). Transmission of M tuberculosis is person to person, usually
by airborne mucus droplet nuclei, particles 1-5 m in diameter that contain M tuberculosis.
In the United States, most children are infected with M. tuberculosis in their home by adult

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patient tuberculosis close to them. The tubercle bacilli multiply initially within alveoli and
alveolar duct. Most of bacilli are killed, but some survive within nonactivated macrophages,
which carry them through lymphatic vessels to the regional lymph nodes. When the primary
infection is the lung, the hilar lymph nodes ussualy are involved. The primary complex of
tuberculosis includes local infection at the portal of entry ( primary focus) and the regional
lymph nodes that drain the area. During the development of the primary complex, tubercle
bacilli are carried to most tissues of the the body through the blood and lymphatic
vessels.Pulmonary tuberculosis that occurs more than a year4 after the primary infection is
usually caused by endogenous regrowth of bacilli persisting in partially encapsulated
lesions. The majority of children with tuberculosis infection develop no signs or symptoms at
any time. Occasionally, infection is marked by low grade fever and mild cough, and rarely by
high fever, cough, malaise, and flu like symptoms. Several drugs are used to effect a
relatively rapid cure and prevent the emergence of secondary drug resistance during
therapy. The standard therapy of intrathoracic tuberculosis (pulmonary disease and/or hilar
lymphadenopathy) in children, recommended by the CDC and AAP, is 6 month regiment of
isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RIF) supplemented in the first 2 month of treatment by
pyrazinamide (PZA).
Learning Tasks
In Outpatient Clinic Department of Pediatric, the baby 10 month of age carried by the
mother with the chief complaint is loss of weight since 3 month, suffered low grade fever,
chronic cough,

malaise and flu like symptoms. The grandfather whom was diagnosed

pulmonary tuberculosis and she has been in recent closed contact. In physical examination
found that there were enlargement of neck lymph nodes.
Learning Resources
Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics Ed. 17 th 2004: pp 958-972

LECTURE 15
PULMONARY TB AND EXTRAPULMONARY TB

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TB IN THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST


dr. IB Sutha, SpP and dr. Bagiada, SpPD
PULMONARY TB AND EXTRAPULMONARY TB
dr. IB Sutha, SpP
Abstract
WHO estimates that about 9.27 million new cases in 2007 compared with 2.24
million cases in 2006, with 44% or 4.1 million cases of the infectious cases (sputum
smear new cases with positive). TB problem in Indonesia is a national problem, the case
is increasing and increasingly concerned with the increasing HIV infection and AIDS are
rapidly growing emergence of multi-drug resistance TB problem.
Tuberculosis is an infectious disease directly caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium
tuberculosis that primarily attacks the lungs. TB bacteria are rod-shaped, aerobic with a
complex cell wall structure, it was mainly composed of fatty acids that are acid resistant
and can survive in a dormant form.
TB germs enter through inhalation of the bacteria will reach the alveoli and catched
by alveolar macrophages, the bacteria will die. If the germs stay alive it will proliferate to
form primary apex (Primer Apex) and will limphogen or hematogenous spread. Primary
apex surround by limphogen spreading form the "primary complex of Ghon" and formed
specific cellular immunity is characterized by a positive tuberculin test. If the immunity is
low, complex primary complications, the patient became ill and the symptoms and
clinical signs of disease. M. tuberculosis may attack any organ of the body and most
importantly the lungs.
Clinical symptoms involve respiratory symptoms and prodromal symptoms, whereas
clinical signs obtained at once with the examination depends on the type and extent of
lesions in the lungs and surrounding organs. Radiological examination of the thorax will
get the infiltrates, fibrosis and kaverna. Bacteriological examination by smear and
culture of sputum smear examination.
TB treatment follow national treatment program. Tuberculosis control which refers to
the eradication of TB WHO guideline.

Objectives
1. Knowing the microbiology, epidemiology and pathogenesis of tuberculosis

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2. Knowing the clinical symptoms, clinical and radiological signs of pulmonary TB and
extra-pulmonary TB
3. Able to clasify Tuberculosis
4. able to explain treatment program of tuberculosis and side effect
5. Able to describe the prevention of tuberculosis and MDR TB
Triger
A male patient aged 25 years came to a health center with complaints of bloody cough
every time since one month ago. That was not originally phlegm but since two weeks
ago a yellowish productive cough. The coughing did not disappear with anti-cough
medicine. Shortness of breath and chest pain is absent. Patients feel the slightly fever
and night sweating and also weakness, no appetite. Patients had never been sick
before, enough food, smoking and family sometimes there is no similar illness. Physical
examination has been found: look thin, alert state, blood pressure 110/70 mmHg; pulse
rate 108 x/mnt; Respiration rate

24 breaths/mnt, T.aksila 37 0C. Lymph nodes

enlargement on the right neck. On chest examination: symmetrical right-left chest,


normal heart, vesicular breath sounds in the chest and rhales on the third upright.
Learning Tasks:
1.

What

should

you

do

to

ensure

the

diagnosis

of

this

patient?

2. What should you do for this patient with enlargement of gland in the neck?
3. If the sputum smear examination results - / +2 / -, what is diagnosis?
4.

Explain

the

treatment

program

appropriate

to

this

patient!

5. Explain about patient monitoring and Communication-Information-and Education


for this patient and his family?

TB IN THE IMMUNOCOMPROMISED HOST


dr. Made Bagiada, SpPD-KP
Sebagai seorang dokter yang bekerja di tingkat pelayanan primer, pemahaman tentang
diagnosis dan penatalaksanaan TB pada imunokompromais sangatlah penting. Kejadian TB
lebih tinggi pada imunokompromais dibanding dengan non-imunokompromais. Penyakit
infeksi kronik ini bila tidak ditangani dengan baik menyebabkan morbiditas dan mortalitas
yang tinggi. Di Indonesia dengan beban TB tinggi (nomor 5 di dunia) akan lebih tinggi lagi
dengan meningkatnya prevalensi penderita HIV/AIDS.

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TB adalah penyakit infeksi kronis yang disebabkan oleh M.tuberculosis. Tempat masuk dan
target organ terbanyak adalah paru. Orang yang terinfeksi M.tuberculosis hanya sebagian
kecil yang menjadi sakit TB dan sebagian besar tidak menjadi sakit (latensi). Orang yang
tidak sakit (latensi) akan menjadi sakit (reaktivasi) atau TB aktif bila terjadi penurunan daya
tahan tubuh atau imunitas (imunokompromais). Secara umum klinis TB ditandai dengan
batuk-batuk produktif lebih dari 2 3 minggu disertai dengan gejala-gejala respiratorik
lainnya dan gejala non-respiratorik. Namun, manifestasi klinis dari TB pada individu
imunokompromais terletak pada derajat beratnya penurunan imunitas. Sering tanda dan
gejala TB atipikal, sering terjadi kesalahan diagnosis, sehingga prognosis menjadi lebih buruk.
Imunokompromais adalah suatu kondisi dimana sistem kekebalan tubuh seseorang melemah atau
tidak ada. Individu yang imunokompromais kurang mampu melawan atau memerangi infeksi karena
respon imun yang berfungsi tidak benar. Contoh orang imunokompromais adalah mereka yang
terinfeksi HIV atau AIDS, wanita hamil, atau sedang menjalani kemoterapi atau terapi radiasi untuk
kanker. Kondisi lain dengan imunokompromais, seperti kanker tertentu dan kelainan genetik,
diabetes

mellitus,

dan

penderita

yang

mendapatkan

terapi

TNF-.

Individu

immunocompromised kadang-kadang lebih rentan terhadap infeksi serius dan /atau komplikasi
dibanding orang sehat. Mereka juga lebih rentan untuk mendapatkan infeksi oportunistik, yaitu
infeksi yang biasanya tidak mengenai orang yang sehat.

Dalam keadaan penderita dengan imunokompromais, seorang dokter harus dapat mengenali penyakit
TB aktif. Diagnosis TB pada imunokompromais adalah dengan menemukan kuman BTA pada
sputum baik dengan pemeriksaan langsung BTA maupun kultur. Pengobatan TB penderita
imunokompromais sama dengan pada non-imunokompromais dan pengobatan TB-nya
diutamakan. Dokter harus mampu mengidentifikasi penderita TB pada imunokompromais
yang tidak respon (resisten) dengan obat TB, sehingga dapat melakukan tindakan lebih dini
untuk menurunkan perburukan prognosis (kematian).
Objektif
1. Mampu menjelaskan penegakan diagnosis TB pada imunokompromais
2. Mampu menyusun program pengobatan jangka panjang penderita TB pada
imunokompromais
3. Mampu mengidentifikasi

kemungkinan

gagal

respon

pengobatan

(resisten)

penderita TB pada imunokompromais


4. Mampu menyusun pengobatan utama pada penderita TB dengan imunokompromais
5. Mampu mengidentifikasi penderita TB dengan imunokompromais yang perlu rujukan
lebih lanjut.

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Trigger
Anda sebagai seorang dokter yang bekerja di sebuah Puskemas, datang seorang pasien
laki-laki, usia 28 tahun. Dia mengeluhkan panas badan sejak lebih kurang 2 minggu.
Demam tidak begitu tinggi dan tidak sampai menggigil. Disamping demam juga ada batukbatuk ringan tanpa disertai dahak

yang dialami lebih dari 1 minggu. Penderita sudah

minum obat penurun panas dan obat batuk yang dibeli di warung tapi tidak ada
kesembuhan. Berat badan penderita dirasakan menurun drastis belakangan ini. Napsu
makan berkurang sehingga badan penderita dirasakan semakin kurus. Penderita adalah
seorang sopir pengangkut barang jawa bali, sudah menikah dan mempunyai anak wanita
usia 4 tahun. Sesekali penderita minum bir. Penderita mempunyai tattoo di badannya yang
dibuat sewaktu penderita klas 1 SMA.
Tugas
Diskusikan!
1. Jelaskan bagaimana Sdr memastikan bahwa pasien tersebut memang menderita TB
dan imunokompromais!
2. Mengapa TB laten menjadi reaktivasi (TB aktif)?
3. Bagaimana Sdr mengenali pasien TB imunokompromais mengalami Immune
Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS)?
4. Jika ternyata pasien tersebut menderita TB dengan imunokompromais bagaimana
cara menyusun pengobatan penderita?
5. Bagaimana cara menilai respon pengobatan

TB

pada

pasien

dengan

imunokompromais?
6. Jelaskan kriteria TB pada imunokompromais!

LECTURE 16
ASTHMA
Prof. IB Rai
Abstract

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Airway hyper responsiveness is known as the denominator underlying all


form of asthma. The basis of this abnormal bronchial response is not fully
understood. Most current evidence suggests that bronchial inflammation is the
substrate for this hyper responsiveness, manifested by the presence of inflammatory
cells and by damage of bronchial epithelium. In extrinsic (allergic) asthma, bronchial
inflammation is caused by type I hypersensitivity reactions, but in intrinsic asthma,
the cause is less clear. Incriminated in such cases are viral infections of the
respiratory tract and inhaled air pollutant such as sulfur dioxide, ozone and nitrogen
dioxide.
Objektif:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mampu menjelaskan penegakan diagnosis asma


Mampu menyusun program pengobatan jangka panjang asma
Mampu mengidentifikasi pasien dengan serangan asma akut.
Mampu memberikan pengobatan awal pasien dengan serangan asma akut.
Mampu mengidentifikasi pasien asma akut yang perlu perawatan inap di
rumah sakit, dan merujuknya

Triger:
Anda sebagai seorang dokter yang bekerja di sebuah Puskesmas kota, datang
seorang pasien wanita, usia 36 tahun. Dia menyampaikan bahwa telah menderita
asma sejak usia remaja. Dalam 3 bulan terakhir ini, dia mengalami serangan asma
hampir setiap 3 hari , termasuk serangan di malam hari. Untungnya, kata pasien,
serangan asmanya dapat diatasi dengan obat semprot yang dia miliki. Pasien
menginginkan agar terbebas dari penyakitnya ini.
Tugas:
Diskusikan!
1. Jelaskan bagaimana Sdr. memastikan bahwa pasien tersebut memang
menderita asma!
2. Apakah asma pasien tersebut dalam keadaan terkontrol? Jelaskan!
3. Apakah inhaler yang dipergunakan oleh pasien tersebut termasuk ke dalam
kelompok pelega (reliever)? Jelaskan perbedaan fungsi antara reliever dan
controller, dan sebutkan obat-obat dari kedua kelompok tersebut!
4. Susun rencana penatalaksanaan jangka panjang pasien tersebut!
5. Apabila suatu saat pasien tersebut mengalami suatu serangan asma akut,
terapi apa yang akan Sdr. berikan?

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6. Jelaskan kreteria serangan asma akut berat!

LECTURE 16
CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE
dr. IGN Bagus Artana, SpPD
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a disease state characterized by airflow
limitation that is not fully reversible. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the world
and the number of patients is projected to increase worldwide in the future. Tobacco
accounts for an estimate of 90% to the risk of developing COPD. Patient with COPD first
complaining chronic cough with sputum and followed by dyspnea. This condition worsening
progressively until the patient unable to do his daily activities.
Treatment aim for COPD is to decrease symptom, without stopping the progression
of this disease. Prevention is more important in this condition, such as by smoking cessation
program.
Objektif:
1. Mampu menjelaskan penegakan diagnosis PPOK serta penilaian kombinasi pasien
2. Mampu menyusun rencana pengobatan pada kasus PPOK stabil
3. Mampu menangani factor risiko pasien PPOK
4. Mampu menentukan eksaserbasi akut dari PPOK
5. Mampu

menjelaskan

manajemen

gawat

darurat

pasien

dengan

PPOK

eksaserbasiakut
Kasus:
Seorang pasien laki-laki usia 70 tahun datang bersama anaknya kepoliklinik paru Rumah
Sakit Daerah tempat anda bertugas dengan mengeluh sesak nafas. Sesak nafas dirasakan
sangat berat, berpakaian pun pasien mengaku sesak. Sebelumnya pasien memang
merokok sejak usia 20 tahun sebanyak 2 pak sehari. Pasien juga mengatakan sering
opname di rumah sakit karena serangan sesak nafas yang sangat berat. Pasien dan
keluarganya ingin mengetahui dengan pasti mengenai penyakitnya serta tindak lanjut
penanganannya.
Tugas:
Diskusikanlah mengenai:
1. Jelaskan bagaimana penegakan diagnosis pasien tersebut
2. Bagaimanakan kombinasi penilaian pasien ini? Data apa saja yang saudara
perlukan untuk melengkapi kombinasi penilaian tersebut

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3. Sebutkan dan jelaskan obat-obat yang dapat digunakan untuk menangani kasus
PPOK stabil
4. Bagaimana

anda

menyusun

rencana

penatalaksanaan

pasien

ini

secara

komprehensif?
5. Bagaimana penatalaksanaan pasien ini apabila mengalaami PPOK eksaserbasi
akut?

LECTURE 17
PLEURAL EFFUSION
dr. Putu Andrika, SpPD-KIC
PNEUMOTHORAX
dr. Yasa, SpBTKV
PLEURAL EFFUSION
dr. Putu Andrika, SpPD-KIC
Membran tipis pleura terdiri dari dua lapisan yaitu pleura visceralis dan pleura
parietalis. Penumpukan cairan melebihi jumlah fisiologis 10-20 ml disebut efusi pleura,
akibat dari peningkatan produksi yaang melebihi kemampuan absorpsi.
Penting untuk menegakkan diagnosis berdasarkan anamnesis yang baik dan pemeriksaan
fisik yang teliti, pemeriksaan radiologi torak serta melakukan pungsi pleura. Analisis cairan
pleura akan sangat berguna untuk menuntun kearah penyebab efusi pleura. Dibedakan
cairan efusi yang transudat dan eksudat.
Volume efusi pleura yang banyak akan menimbulkan

gangguan fungsi respirasi yang

memerlukan pengeluaran cairan efusi melalui aspirasi cairan pleura (torako sentesis) atau
melalui pemasangan chest cube (Water Seal Drainage).
Dalam mengelola pasien dengan efusi selain menangani keluhan akibat menumpuknya
cairan efusi juga harus menangani penyebab terjadinya efusi tersebut.

Objektif:
1. Mampu menjelaskan penegakan diagnosis efusi pleura
2. Mampu menilai analisis cairan pleura
3. Mampu merencanakan pemeriksaan penunjang untuk mendapatkan penyebab
terjadinya efusi pleura.
4. Mampu mengidentifikasi kasus yang memerlukan penanganan segara dan
kasus yang harus dirujuk ke rumah sakit.
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Triger:
Seorang wanita muda datang dengan keluhan sesak nafas yang semakin memberat sejak
seminggu. Pada pemeriksaan fisik didapatkan frekwensi nafas 24x/mnt, suhu tubuh 37,5

C, pemeriksaan torak asimetris, kanan tertinggal, perkusi redup dan suara nafas melemah
di bagian kanan bawah. Penderita juga mengeluh batuk batuk sejak 3 bulan yang lalu dan
pernah batuk berisi darah segar sedikit, juga nampak semakin kurus.
Tugas:
Diskusikan
1. Apakah kemungkinan penyebab keluhan pasien tersebut?
2. Pemeriksaan penunjang apa yang diperlukan?
3. Perlukah melakukan parasentesis? (jelaskan)
4. Perlukah pemasangan WSD, apa alasannya?

PNEUMOTORAKS
dr. Yasa, SpBTKV
Pneumotoraks merupakan salah satu kegawatdaruratan di bidang paru yang berarti
terisinya rongga pleura oleh udara. Pneumotoraks ini perlu mendapatkan perhatian serius,
karena dengan penanganan yang cepat dan tepat akan sangat mengurangi angka
kematiannya. Sebagai seorang dokter yang ada di fasilitas kesehatan primer, sangat
diperlukan pengetahuan mengenai keadaan ini.
Diagnosis pneumotoraks dapat ditegakkan dari anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik dan foto
polos dada. Pneumotoraks dapat dibagi berdasarkan berbagai kriteria, tetapi yang paling
sering adalah dibagi menurut terjadinya (pneumotoraks artifisial, traumatic, serta spontan)
serta berdasarkan jenis fistelnya (pneumotoraks terbuka, tertutup, dan ventil).
Beberapa kondisi pneumotoraks akan sangat mengancam nyawa, sehingga memerlukan
penanganan yang tepat dan segera. Penatalaksanaan pneumotoraks pada prinsipnya
adalah mengeluarkan udara yang ada di rongga pleura tersebut, terapi penyebabnya, serta
edukasi untuk mencegah berulangnya pneumotoraks pada pasien yang memiliki risiko.
Objektif:
1. Mampu menjelaskan penegakan diagnosis pneumotoraks
2. Mampu menyebutkan beberapa penyebab pneumotoraks yang sering dijumpai
3. Mampu menjelaskan beberapa pembagian jenis pneumotoraks
4. Mampu menyusun rencana penatalaksanaan pasien dengan pneumotoraks
Kasus:

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Seorang pasien laki-laki usia 30 tahun datang kePuskesmas tempat anda bertugas dengan
mengeluh sesak nafas tiba-tiba dan sangat berat. Pasien sebelumnya dengan riwayat
menderita penyakit TB paru dan sudah berobat dengan lengkap. Sebelumnya pasien
sempat terbatuk-batuk, kemudian tiba-tiba sesak nafas. Pasien ini tampak sesak dan
sianosis.
Tugas:
Diskusikan mengenai
1. Jelaskan temuan fisik dan foto polos dada yang kemungkinan ditemukan pada
pasien pneumotoraks tersebut
2. Sebutkan beberapa penyebab pneumotoraks yang anda ketahui
3. Bagaimana penatalaksanaan kasus dengan pneumotoraks tersebut ?

LECTURE 18
BRONCHITIS AND BRONCHIECTASIS
dr.Dewa Artika, SpP
LUNG CA AND SMOKING CESSATION
dr. Gede Ketut Sajinadiyasa, SpPD
BRONKITIS dan BRONKIEKTASIS
dr. Dewa Made Artika, SpP
Untuk menentukan suatu Bronkitis dan Bronkiektasis tidaklah terlalu sulit, tapi diperlukan
suatu pemahaman untuk mendiagnosis dan penatalaksanaan Bronkitis dan Bronkiektasis
dengan baik dan benar. Disamping prevalensinya cukup tinggi, penyakit ini bila tidak
ditangani dengan baik, akan berlanjut menjadi lebih parah.
Bronkitis adalah inflamasi saluran napas sentral yang mengenai mukosa ditandai oleh batuk
dengan dahak, sering disertai dengan panas dan sesak.Bronkiektasis adalah kelainan pada
dinding bronkus besar dan sedang berupa kelemahan otot sehingga terjadi pelebaran
lumen, karena proses infeksi transmural dan pelepasan mediator.
Diagnosis Bronkitis berdasarkan pada anamnesa, pemeriksaan fisik dan foto toraks,
sedang bronkiektasis ditegakkan dengan anamnesa, pemeriksaan fisik, foto toraks, CT
Scan, dan kultur sputum.
Prinsip penatalaksanaan Bronkitis dan Bronkiektasis adalah dengan menghilangkan batuk
dan produksi dahak. Bila disertai tanda infeksi dapat ditambahkan antibiotika. Pada

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Bronkiektasis perlu dilakukan Chest Fisioterapi atau bronkoskopi untuk mempermudah
pengeluaran sputum. Pada keadaan eksaserbasi sering disebabkan oleh infeksi apakah
viral atau bakteri.
Obyektif
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mampu menjelaskan penegakan diagnosis bronkitis dan bronkiektasis


Mampu menyususn program pengobatan jangka panjang
Mampu mengidentifikasi pasien dengan keadaan eksaserbasi
Mampu memberikan pengobatan awal pasien dengan serangan akut
Mampu mengidentifikasi pasien eksaserbasi yang perlu rawat inap dan merujuknya.

Kasus
Seorang penderita laki umur 35 th datang dengan keluhan : batuk berdahak sejak 3 bulan
dan memberat sejak 5 hari yang lalu dan disertai dengan panas badan. Bila diperhatikan
dahaknya ada 3 lapis yaitu dari atas sampai bawah mulai dari yang bening sampai keruh
dan batuknya terutama pagi hari. Dikatakan pula setahun lalu pernah menderita sakit
seperti ini dan kadang disertai sesak napas, bila dahaknya sulit dikeluarkan.
Tugas
Diskusikan
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Jelaskan bagaimana sdr. Memastikan bahwa pasien tsb. menderita bronkitis


Bagaimana sdr membedakan dengan bronkiektasis.
Apakah penderita tsb dalam keadaan eksaserbasi, jelaskan
Jelaskan prinsip pengobatan pasien dg bronkitis dan bronkiektasis
Obat-obat apa saja yang diperlukan pada pasien tsb diatas
Apa yang dikerjakan bila sputum pasien tsb diatas sulit dikeluarkan

KANKER PARU (LUNG CANCER)


dr. Gede Ketut Sajinadiyasa, SpPD
Kanker Paru merupakan penyebab kematian tersering diantara kematian oleh karena
kanker di seluruh dunia baik pada laki-laki ataupun perempuan. Insiden kanker paru di
dunia diperkirakan 1,3 juta kasus per tahunnya. Kanker paru terjadi sebagai akibat proses
yang komplek antara paparan karsinogen dan kerentanan genetik. Faktor kebiasaan dan
lingkungan berhubungan dengan terjadinya kanker paru dan merokok merupakan faktor
risiko utama. Jenis histologi kanker paru sebagian besar adalah Small Cell Lung Cancer
(SCLC) dan Non Small Cell Lung Cancer(NSCLC) . NSCLC terdiri atas squamus cell
carcinoma, adeno carcinoma dan large cell carcinoma. Manifestasi klinis dari kanker paru
dapat asimtomatik pada stadium awal dan baru bergejal pada stadium lanjut. Pasien
biasanya datang dengan keluhan batuk, batuk darah, sesak, nyeri dada dan suar serak.
Sering juga dijumpai tanda-tanda syndrome paraneoplastik dan gejala umum seperti
anoreksia, asthenia dan berat badan yang menurun.

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Diagnosis kanker paru dapat ditegaknya dengan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik dan
pemeriksaan penunjang. Pemeriksaan penunjang yang umum dikerjakan seperti sitologi
sputum, rontgen dada, ct scan toraks, Biopsi(FNAB/TTB), bronkoskopi, PET scan dan
lainnya. Setelah diagnosis ditegakkan dan sebelum memulai pengobatan ditentukan
stadium penyakit dan status performan. Dengan diketahuinya jenis histology dan stadium
penyakit kemudian ditentukan modalitas terapi. Modalitas terapi pada pasien kanker paru
diantaranya adalah pembedahan, kemoterapi, radiasi dan target terapi
Objektif
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Mengetahui pathogenesis , faktor risiko dan usaha preventif kanker paru


Dapat mengetahui klasifikasi kanker paru
Mengetahui proses penegakan diagnosis dan stadium kanker paru
Mengetahui modalitas penunjang dalam penegakan diagnosis
Mengetahui modalitas terapi kanker paru dan merujuk

Triger
Seorang pasien laki-laki umur 65 tahun datang ketempat pratek saudara sendirian dengan
keluhan batuk berdarah. Satu minggu yang lalu pasien sempat menjalani cek up didapatkan
pada foto rontgen dada, tumor dengan ukuran diameter 2,5 cm pada hilus kiri menempel di
pinggang jantung kiri. Pada pemeriksaan USG abdomen didapatkan tumor multiple ukuran
diameter sekitar 1-1,5 cm pada hati, sedang pemeriksaan yang lain dalam batas normal.
Pasien memiliki kebiasaan merokok sejak umur 20 tahun dengan jumlah 1-2 bungkus per
harinya.
Tugas
1. Apa yang saudara lakukan untuk memastikan diagnosis pasien ini?
2. Kalau diperlukan tindakan invasive, prioritas tindakan yang saudara usulkan?
Jelaskan alasannya!
3. Bila ini kanker paru, apa kemungkinan klasifikasi histologinya?
4. Tentukan stadium pasien ini dan status performannya serta alasannya!
5. Tentukan modalitas terapinya!

LECTURE 19
DISORDERS OF NOSE AND SINUS
dr. Ratna, SpTHT
Abstract
The anatomy of the larynx consist of cart.Haginous framework bound together by
ligaments and covered with muscle and mucous membrane. The most important cartilage is
the arytenoid cartilages which is can rotate and slide on the cricoid cartilage and thus play
an important role in the movement of the vocal cords. The epiglottis is a leaf-shape cartilage

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of the larynx which is attached to the base of the tongue by the glossoepiglottic ligament
and inner part of thyroid cartilage. The thyroid cartilage is that which makes the prominence
upon the front of the neck known as Adams apple, particularly visible in man. Interior of the
larynx can looking down by laryngoscopy indirect or direct. The function of the larynx
includes protection of lower respiratory tract and phonation. The protection of respiratory
tract acting by the epiglottis, sensory nerve supply which is produce cough and vocal cords.
Voices or phonation is produce by vocal cords function consist adduction and abduction
movement and vibration of the vocal cords.

Throat

Normal Vocal cord and disorders


The symptoms of laryngeal disorders are hoarseness, dysphonia and stridor.
Hoarseness is caused by an abnormal flow of air past the vocal cords. The voice is
harsh when turbulence is created by the irregularity of the vocal cords. The
irregularity of the vocal cord caused by vocal nodule, edema of the vocal cord and
laryngitis. Dysphonia is weakness of the voice caused by paresis or paralysis of the
vocal cords. And aphonia is loss of voice. Stridor is a high pitch sound, is produce by
lesion that narrowing the airway. If narrowing of the airway upper the vocal cord
produce inspiratory stidor, and if narrowing the airway below the vocal cord will
produce inspiratory and expiratory stridor.
Some lesion will be discussed are vocal cord nodule, vocal cord paralysis,
laryngeal palillomas and gastrolaryngopharyngeal reflux disease. Vocal nodule or
Singers nodes is benign lesion in the vocal cord particularly at the site of the
junction of the anterior third and posterior two-thirds of the cord (halfway along the
membranous cord). This condition is caused by misuse of the voice or overuse as
well as singers, teachers, priest, actors who have not undergone formal voice

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training. Misuse of the voice also happen in the schoolchildren, sometime call by
screamers node.
Vocal cord paralysis causes of dysphonia symptom, define as weakness or
even though temporary loss of the voice (aphonia). A vocal cord may paralysed by
mechanical fixation of the arytenoids or vocalis muscle or by nerve paralysis.
Paralysis may be unilateral or bilateral and the cords paralysed in abduction or
adduction. Abduction paralysis causes loss of the voice because the cord can not
move to the midline position and adduction paralysis, the cords can not move to the
lateral position and cause severe stridor.
Larengeal papilloma is a benign lesion single or multiple, non keratinizing
papilloma in characteristic is due by infection of human papilloma virus type 6 and
11. Papillomatosis present more frequently in children than in adult, the peak
incidence occurring between 2 and 5 years of age, and very common of high
recurrent. Relaps or recurrent may be precipitated by trauma or immunosuppressive
condition.
Gastrolaryngeal reflux is very common condition to causes hoarseness. The
pathology of gastro-esophageal-laryngeal reflux disease may be a result of direct
effect of gastric acid, bile salts or enzymes on mucosa of the larynx.
Learning Tasks
1. Describe and discuss of specific symptoms of the larynx disease & disorders.
2. Describe and discuss etiology and patophysiology of hoarseness, dysphonia and
stridor with its clinical implication
3. Manage and provide initial management or refer patient with certain larynx
disease and disordes
References
1. Textbook Diseases of the Ear, Nose and Throat edited by Martin Burton
CHURCHILL LIVINGSTQNE 15TH ED 2000: Section 5 The Larynx, Pharynx
and Oesophagus. Pp 165-206
2. Textbook Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment Edited by Lawrence
M.Tierney,Jr. Stephen J.Mc Phee, Maxine A.Papadakis 45 Ed 2006: Diseases
of the Larynx p209-213

LECTURE 20
DISORDERS OF PHARYNX AND LARYNX
Prof. Suardana, SpTHT, dr. Dewa Artha Eka Putra, SpTHT
Abstract
The Adenoids (pharyngeal tonsils) are a triangular mass of lymphoid tissue located
on the posterior aspect of the boxlike nasopharynx. The nasopharynx serves as a conduit

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for Inspired air and Sinonasal Sections that drain from the nasal cavity into the oropharynx.
a resonance box for for speech and a drainage area for the Eustachian tube middle ear
mastoid complex.
Adenoid have three types of Surface epithelium ciliated pseudostratified squamous, and
transitional.
The Adenoids and tonsils, like all lymphoid tissue, enlarge when infected. Although
lymphoid tissue does act to fight infection. Some time bacteria and viruses can lodge within
it and survive. Group A Bhemolytic streptococcus (GABHS) is classically described as the
only bacterium implicated frequently in acute Adenoiditis or tonsilitis.
Chronic infection, either viral or bacterial, can keep the pad of adenoids enlarged for
years, even into adulthood. Some viruses, Such as the Epstein Barr virus, can cause
dramatic enlargement of lymphoid tissue.
Clinical classification of the adenoid : Acute adenoiditis, recurrent Acute Adenoiditis,
chronic adenoiditis and obstructive Adenoid Hyperplasia. Clinical classification of the tonsils:
acute tonsillitis, recurrent acute tonsillitis, chronic tonsillitis, and obstructive tonsilar
hyperplasia.
The main symptoms of adenoid diseases is Rhinorhea, chronic nasal obstruction
(associated with Snoring and obligate mouth breathing), malodorous, cough, post nasal
drip, sinusitis, otitis media and a hyponasal voice. The main symptomsof tonsils diseases
are: sore throat, dysphagia, fever, halithosis, muffled voices, snoring, and other symptomsof
sleep disturbance and tender cervical adenopathy.
Adenoiditis

is

best

diagnosed

by

clinical

history,

physical

examination.

nasopharyngoscopy and Radiography. The physical examination should include both


anterior and posterior rhinoscopy. A lateral neck Radiograph and Sinus Radiography taken
to show soft tissue density, can show the adenoids and sinus. Tonsilitis is diagnosed by
clinical history, physical examination, throat culture, and flexible laryngoscope.
Management of diseases of the adenoids and tonsils: antimicrobial, intranasal
steroids and adenoidectomy. Indications for tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy are
obstruction, infection and Neoplasia.
Learning Tasks
1. Describe and discuss of etiology of adenoid diseases.
2. Explain pathogenesis of adenoid diseases.
3. Describe and discuss of clinical classification of diseases in the adenoids
4. Describe clinical evaluation to support diagnosis of the adenoid diseases.
5. Manage and provide initial management or refer patient with certain adenoid
diseases.
6. Explain indications for adenoidectomy.
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7. Describe complications of adenoid diseases and adenoidectomv.
Learning Resources
1. Linda Brodsky. Christhopher Poje. Tonsilitis, Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy. In BaiIe
BJ Editor. Head and Neck Surgery-Otolaryngologv 3 ed. Philadelphia Lippincort Williams
and Willkins; 2001 p 979 991.

~ CURRICULUM MAP ~
Smstr

Program or curriculum blocks

10

Senior Clerkship

Senior Clerkship

Senior clerksh
ip

Medical
Emergency

Special Topic:
-Travel medicine

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(6 weeks)

Clinic Orientation
(Clerkship)

49

Study Guide The Respiratory System and Disorders


(3 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
The Respiratory
System and
Disorders
(4 weeks)

(2 weeks)

(6 weeks)

The
Cardiovascular
System and
Disorders
(4 weeks)

The Urinary
System and
Disorders
(3 weeks)

The Reproductive
System and
Disorders
(3 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
Alimentary
& hepatobiliary systems
& disorders
(4 Weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
The Endocrine
System,
Metabolism and
Disorders
(4 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
Clinical Nutrition
and Disorders
(2 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)

Musculoskeletal
system &
connective
tissue disorders
(4 weeks)

Neuroscience
and
neurological
disorders
(4 weeks)

Behavior Change
and disorders
(4 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
Hematologic
system & disorders & clinical
oncology
(4 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
Immune
system &
disorders
(2 weeks)

BCS(1 weeks)
Infection
& infectious
diseases
(5 weeks)

BCS
(1 weeks)
The skin & hearing
system
& disorders
(3 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
Medical
Professionalism
(2 weeks)

BCS(1 weeks)
Evidence-based
Medical Practice
(2 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
Health Systembased Practice
(3 weeks)

BCS(1 weeks)
Community-based
practice
(4 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
Studium
Generale and
Humaniora
(3 weeks)

Medical
communication
(3 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
The cell
as biochemical machinery
(3 weeks)

Growth
&
development
(4 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)

BCS(1 weeks)

BCS: (1 weeks)

BCS (1 weeks)
Elective Study
II
(1 weeks)
5

BCS (1 weeks)

Special Topic :
- Palliative
medicine
-Compleme
ntary &
Alternative
Medicine
- Forensic
(3 weeks)

Elective
Study II
(1 weeks)

Special Topic
- Ergonomi
- Geriatri
(2 weeks)

Elective
Study I
(2 weeks)

The Visual
system &
disorders
(2 weeks)

Pendidikan Pancasila & Kewarganegaraan (3 weeks)

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