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Aluminium Pressure Die Casting

In pressure
die casting, die temperature, molten metal pouring temperature, injection pressure and speed
are optimised for a special casting.
Metal for a single shot is loaded into a cylindrical chamber through a pouring aperture. A
piston then forces the metal into the die, the entire operation being completed in a few
seconds, so that iron contamination is virtually eliminated. Using this technique much higher
injection pressure in the range of 70–140 Mpa is feasible, enabling lower metal to be
employed and greater intricacy achieved. The castings are less prone to entrapped air and a
higher standard of soundness ensures from the smaller amount of liquid and solidification
shrinkage occurring within the die.
In cold chamber operations the molten metals is usually maintained at constant temperature
in an adjacent holding furnace, where transfer of successive shots to the machine chambers
can be accomplished manually. Holding furnaces may be electrically heated types or the one
using immersion heating types or the one using immersion heating device, which has a close
control over the molten metal.
The molten metal is degassed by chlorine or hexachloroethane followed by modification
with suitable modifier. For thinner sections the working temperature of the molten metal
should be 680 deg. C to 690 deg C and for thicker sections this should be between 650 deg. C
to 680 deg C.
 The die temperature should be maintained so that castings of good quality are produced.

Structure of the EN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe) aluminium alloy. light microscope structure of theEN AC-AlSi12(b) alloy. high pressure cast alloy. sand cast alloy. high pressure cast alloy. light microscope Oxide cross-sections of anodic layer generated on theENAC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy. light microscopeFig .

Structure of theEN AC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy. light microscope . sand cast alloy.

sand cast alloy.Oxide cross-sections of anodic layer generated on theENAC-AlSi12(b) alloy. light microscopeFig .

high pressure cast alloy. sand cast alloy Structure of theEN AC-AlSi12(b) alloy. light microscope .Oxide cross-sections of anodic layer generated on theENAC-AlSi9Cu3(Fe) alloy.

and maximum temperature should be controlled. at temperature above 9500 C. Zinc chloride / Ammonium Chloride is useful for cleaning.Oxide cross-sections of anodic layer generated on the EN AC-AlSi12(b) alloy. light microscope furnace atmosphere should be slightly reducing. Temperature control is essential in aluminium alloy melting. Reworking of coating at regular interval and prior drying is a must. high pressure cast alloy. as loose oxide pieces or moisture may affect the melt. a strong . SiC crucibles or Cast Iron pots (coated with a thin layer of refractory powder with sodium silicate mixed with water as a binder) are used for melting. It separates the metal from the dross by changing the interfacial energy. but efficient lining is needed to avoid excessive contamination of the melt with Fe. If the dross formed by adding flux is allowed to come in contact with air. Fuel economy is good with Cast Iron pots. Melting crucible Graphite.

without excessively disturbing the surface. Fluxing at low temperature is desirable to form oxide layer. Sr. Li) of rare earth elements like Ce or Be reduces oxidation tendency even at higher temperature (if sufficient content in the melt). it would be very difficult to decompose it and recover base elements. Therefore to homogenize the melt stirring from bottom upwards. Foundries operating fast-melting crucible furnaces rarely use fluxes to minimize the danger from contamination. exposing new melt surface to further oxidation losses and hydrogen pick-up. C2Cl6 not only degasses the melt. It is better than earlier practice as it does not cause damage to environment. At present use of SF6 (Sulfur hexafluoride) with carrier gas has become popular. This is because high temperature leads to loss of these elements. Presence of Alkali (Na.crystalline aggregate of corundum is formed. making viscous slag and protecting the melt from further oxidation attack. Ca. Its specific gravity of 3. should be followed. Dross formation (combination of Al2O3 &other oxides is beneficial to some extent as it prevents diffusion of hydrogen into the melt during melting. In melting Aluminium alloys C2 Cl6 (Hexachloroethane) tablets were preferred over chlorine gas. hence it settle down. As once corundum (crystalline aggregate) is formed at high temperature. Deoxidation & degassing Fluxes are used to combine with oxygen and oxides on melt surface. enabling recovery of base metal with alloying elements. it indicates loss of alloying elements. but also refines the grains (heterogeneous .9 gm/ cc is higher than that of Al. Fluxes are a must when excessive proportion of foundry scrap is used in the charge. which necessitates remelting with flux to recover the same. On the other hand. Proper degassing will eliminate the chances for occurrence of defects due to gaseous elements.

graphite flakes or borides introduced by grain refiners) are dangerous in aluminium castings. Gas flushing is more effective than salt addition for degassing since chloride salts need time to decompose. if it is not properly dried. These inclusions affect surface appearance and also act as nucleating site for cracks. especially under fatigue load. use of strainer core.nucleation). carbides. propagation and failure are steps involved in fatigue failure which is favoured by surface irregularities or cracks. use of tea-spout ladle for pouring. liberate Chlorine and then remove hydrogen. Proper skimming action before pouring. Inclusions (oxides. Crack initiation. It may introduce gas rather than removing it. skim bob gating or filter usuage are followed. .