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http://ltcconline.net/greenl/courses/203/MatrixOnVector...

Denition

We have seen that a linear transformation L from Rn to Rm is a function with domain

Rn, range a subset of Rm satisfying

2) L(cu) = cL(u)

We can use the analogous denition for a linear transformation of vector spaces.

Denition

Let V and W be vector spaces. Then a linear transformation from V to W is

a function with domain V and range a subset of W satisfying

1) L(u + v) = L(u) + L(v)

2) L(cu) = cL(u)

Examples

Example

Let V be the vector space of (innitely) dierentiable functions and dene D to be the

function from V to V given by

D(f(t)) = f '(t)

Then D is a linear transformation since

and

Example

Let V be the space of continuous functions and dene I to be the function from V to V

given by

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Example

Let V be M2x2 and W be P3 then define L to be the function from V to W with

= a1t3 + b1t2 + c1t + d1 + a2t3 + b2t2 + c2t + d2

and

Example

Let V = P2 and let W be the real numbers. Show that the function L from V to W defined by

L(at2 + bt + c) = abc

is not a linear transformation.

Saturday 23 August 2014 07:09 PM

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Solution

We can pick just about any example and show that either the first or second property does not hold. For

example, let

v = 2t2 + 3t + 4

and

c = 5

then

L(cv) = L(10t2 + 15t + 20) = (10)(15)(20) = 3000

and

since these are not equal, L is not a linear transformation.

Properties

When we looked at linear transformations from Rn to Rm, we stated and proved

several properties. A close look at these proofs will show that they only used the

properties of vector spaces and linearity. We now state the properties. For each of

the theorems below, assume that L is a linear transformation from a vector space V to

a vector space W, and u, v, v1, v2, ... ,vn are vectors in V.

Theorem

1. L(0) = 0

2. L(u - v) = L(u) - L(v)

3. L(c1v1 + c2v2 + ... + cnvn) = c1L(v1) + c2L(v2) + ... + cnL(vn)

We will prove statement 3 and leave the rest for you. We prove the statement by

induction.

For n = 1, the statement is just property 2 of a linear transformation.

L(c1v1) = c1L(v1)

Now assume that the statement is true for n = k. Then

We have

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= L((c1v1 + c2v2 + ... + ckvk) + ck+1vk+1)

= L(c1v1 + c2v2 + ... + ckvk) + L(ck+1vk+1)

= c1L(v1) + c2L(v2) + ... + ckL(vk) + ck+1L(vk+1)

So by mathematical induction the theorem is true.

We have seen that general linear transformations behave the same as linear

transformation from Rn to Rm. The next theorem solidies this fact.

Theorem

Let S = {v1, v2, ... ,vn} be a basis for V. And let L be a linear

transformation from V to a vector space W. Then L is completely

determined by the image of the basis S.

This means that if we know L(, L(v2), ... ,L(vn) then we know L(v) for any vector v.

Proof

If v is a vector in V, then since S is a basis, we can write

so that

= c1L(v1) + c2L(v2) + ... + ckL(vk)

Example

Let L be the linear transformation from P1 to M2x2 such that

5 of 5

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Solution

We need to find the coordinates of v = 3 + t with respect to the basis S = {1 + t, 1 - t}. We have

so that

v = 2(1 + t) + 1(1 - t)

and

L(v) = L(2(1 + t) + 1(1 - t)) = 2L(1 + t) + L(1 - t)

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