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Copyright2012byBentleySystems,Inc.Version7.0Revision1

1.0INTRODUCTION
1.1OVERVIEW
TheDynamicResponseprogramisdesignedtocomputethedynamicresponsesofastructuresubjectedtodynamicexcitationduetobasemotionsuchasinan
earthquake,ordynamicforcesduetoperiodicvibrationorimpactloads.Theprogramcananalyzebasedrivensystemswithinputdescribedeitherasaspectralinputoras
atimehistoryinput,andforcedrivensystemswithinputdescribedbyasetofperiodforcesortimehistoryforces.
1.2PROGRAMFEATURES
DynamicResponseanalysisrequiresdynamicmodeshapeandmassfilesinadditiontoaDynamicResponseinputfile.
Somegeneralfeaturesandcapabilitiesoftheprogrammoduleare:
1.AbilitytouseafullstructuralmodelforuseinDynamicResponseanalysis.
2.Nonlinearfluiddampingeffectsincludedautomatically.
1.2.1Earthquake/BaseDrivenAnalysis
Bothspectralearthquakeandtimehistoryearthquakeanalysesaresupported.Someoftheseismicanalysiscapabilitiesfollow:
SpectralEarthquake
1.APIresponsespectraarebuiltintotheprogram.
2.Supportsuserdefinedresponsespectra.
3.Spectralmotioncanbedescribedasacceleration,velocity,ordisplacement.
4.Modalcombinationsusinglinear,SRSS,peakplusSRSS,orCQCmethods.
5.Abilitytouseadifferentresponsespectrumforeachdirection.
6.Combinesseismicresultswithstaticresultsautomatically.
7.Supportsuserdefinedpowerspectraldensities.
8.Abilitytogenerateresponsefunctionforanyjointdegreeoffreedom.
TimeHistoryEarthquake
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1.Includesearthquaketimehistorylibraries.
2.Userdefinedinputtimehistories.
3.Linear,quadratic,orcubicinterpolationavailableforthetimehistoryinput.
4.Variabletimestepintegrationprocedure.
5.Automaticloadcaseselectionbasedonoverturningmoment,baseshear,etc.
6.Graphicalrepresentationofoutputvariables.
1.2.2ForceDrivenAnalysis
Forcetimehistory,PeriodicandEnginevibrationanalysesaresupported.Themaincapabilitiesandfeaturesforforcedrivenanalysisaredetailedbelow:
ForceTimeHistory
1.Linear,quadratic,orcubicinterpolationavailableforthetimehistoryinput.
2.Inputtimehistoriesmaybesavedtoafile.
3.Automaticloadcaseselectionbasedonoverturningmoment,baseshear,jointdisplacement,etc.
4.Variabletimestepintegrationprocedure.
5.Timehistoryplotsincludingmodalresponses,overturningmoments,baseshear,etc.
6.Generationofequivalentstaticloads.
7.GenerationofincrementalloadsforCollapseanalysis
PeriodicVibration
1.Supportsinputforcesandmomentsappliedtoanypointatvariousfrequenciesandphaseangles.
2.Automaticloadcaseselectionbasedonmaximumjointdisplacementataspecificjointoratalljoints.
3.Fullplotcapabilitiesincludingmodalresponses,overturningmoments,baseshear,etc.
Engine/CompressorVibration
1.Supportsmechanicalunbalancedforcesandgastorquesinadditiontoreciprocatingloads.
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2.Linearand/ornonlinearinterpolationofforcesbetweenrunningspeeds.
3.Usercanselectspecificjointstomonitorormonitoralljoints.
4.JointdisplacementscanbecomparedandplottedversusDline,SNAMEand/orMilitarySpecificationallowables.
5.Allowsuserdefinedphasingofforcesandmomentswithinaloadcase.
6.Canautomaticallycombinemaximumresponseofvariousloadcases.
7.Generatesplotsofinputdataversustimeforanyloadcase.
8.Calculatesperiodicforcesamplitudesandperiodsfromforceversustimeinput.
1.2.3SpectralWindAnalysis
Thewindspectralfatigueandextremewindanalysesaresupported.Someofthespectralwindanalysiscapabilitiesareasfollows:
ExtremeWind
1.Determinesdynamicamplificationfactorsautomatically.
2.Generatescommonsolutionfilecontaininginternalloads,stresses,reactionsanddisplacementsmultipliedbyitsowndynamicamplificationfactor.
3.IncludescrosscorrelationofmodalresponsesusingtheCompleteQuadraticCombination(CQC)modalcombinationtechnique.
4.Plotsgeneralizedforcespectrumandresponsespectrumforeachwindspeed.
5.UsesHarrisWindspectrum.
WindFatigue
1.UsesHarrisWindspectrum.
2.OptionallycreatesFatigueinputfileautomatically.
3.DistributeswindspeedutilizingaWeibulldistribution.
4.AssumesRayleighdistributionofRMSstresses.
5.Handlesmultiplewinddirectionsinsameanalysisexecution.
1.2.4IceForceAnalysis
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IceVibration
Theicevibrationanalysiscapabilityincludesthefollowingfeatures:
1.Automaticallyincludesicestiffness.
2.Maximumandminimumpeakselection.
3.Automaticcyclecountforfatigueanalyses.
4.Createsfatigueinputdataautomatically.
5.Fullplotcapabilitiesincludingiceforces,modalresponses,overturningmoments,baseshear,etc.
6.Variabletimestepintegrationprocedure.
1.2.5DynamicImpactAnalysis
Thedynamicimpactanalysiscapabilityincludesthefollowingfeatures:
1.Dynamicshipimpactanddroppedobjectanalysiscapabilities
2.Timehistoryplotsincludingmodalresponses
3.Generationofequivalentstaticloadsforstaticanalysis..
4.GenerationofincrementalloadsforCollapseanalysis

1.3PROGRAMSTRUCTURE
TheDynamicResponseprogramcanbeusedtosolvebasemotiontimehistoryorforcedrivensystems.
1.3.1BaseDrivenSystems
Thebasemotiontimehistorysolutionutilizesavariablestepintegrationprocedurethatdeterminesthelargesttimestepsizeallowedforeachsituationsuchthatresults
arewithinaspecifiedaccuracywhileanalysisexecutiontimeisoptimized.Thisprocedureallowstheprogramtousesmalltimestepsonlywhererequiredsuchasat
pointsofrapidchanges.Theprocesscanalsoaccountforfluiddampingforsubmergedstructuresbyusinganequivalentfluiddampingasanalternativetocalculatingthe
actualfluidforcesateachstepduringtheintegrationprocess.
1.3.2ForceDrivenSystems
Forforcedrivensystems,theDynamicResponseprogramcanpredicttheresponsesduetoasetofperiodicforcesandmomentsappliedtomultiplepointsonthe
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structure.Theseforcescanbeatdifferentfrequenciesandphaseswithrespecttoeachother.Fortimehistoryforceinput,thesamevariablestepintegrationprocedure
utilizedforbasedrivensystemsisusedtocalculatetheresponses.
ImpactAnalysis
TheDynamicResponsemodulecanpredicttheresponseofstructureresultingfromaimpactfromavesseloradroppedobject.Theprocesscanalsoaccountforfluid
dampingforasubmergedportionofthestructurebyusingeitheranequivalentfluiddampingoralternativelytheprogramcancalculatetheactualfluidforcesateach
stepduringtheintegrationprocess.

2.0ANALYSISPROCEDURE
TheDynamicResponseprogramisgenerallyusedtomodalresponsesintheformofvelocity,acceleration,displacementorstress.Thissectiondetailstheanalysis
procedureusedtodeterminethemodalresponsesforthefollowing:
A.BaseDrivenSystems
B.ForceDrivenSystems
C.SpectralWind
D.IceForce
E.DynamicImpactAnalysis
TheDynamicResponseprogramrequiresaDynpacmodeshapefile,DynpacmassfileandaDynamicResponseinputfile.Thefollowingdetailstheinputforthevarious
typesofdynamicanalyses.
2.1BASICANALYSISOPTIONS
Regardlessoftheanalysistype,basicanalysisoptionsmustbespecifiedintheDynamicResponseinputfile.
2.1.1AnalysisType
Theanalysistypeisenteredincolumns710ontheDROPTline.EnterSPEC,TIME,VIBR,WINDorENGVforspectralearthquake,timehistoryearthquake,
forcedrivenperiodicortimehistory,spectralwindorenginevibrationanalysis,respectively.Enter'TCLP'togenerateincrementalloadsforforce/timehistorycollapse
analysis,enter'SHIP'fordynamicshipimpactanalysisorenter'DROP'fordynamicdroppedobjectanalysis.
2.1.2Damping
Dampingfactorscanhaveaprofoundeffectonanalysisresults.Theprogramhastheabilitytoconsiderbothstructuralandfluiddamping.
StructuralDamping
StructuraldampinginputisrequiredforanyresponseanalysisandisinputusingtheSDAMPline.Forsinglepassanalyses,thestructuraldampingvalueinputonthe
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SDAMPlineshouldincludeallsourcesofdampingincludingfluiddampingifapplicable.
Note:FluiddampingmayoptionallybespecifiedormaybecalculatedautomaticallyusingtheFDAMPline.Whenfluiddampingiseitherspecifiedorcalculatedbythe
program,thedampingvaluesontheSDAMPlineshouldnotincludeanydampingduetothefluid.
Ifallmodeshavethesamedamping,theoveralldampingasapercentofcriticalisinputincolumns1115ontheSDAMPlineandcolumns2170shouldbeleftblank.
Thefollowingshowstotalcriticaldampingof3.0%forallmodes:

Ifthedampingvalueisdifferentforvariousmodes,thedampingvalueforeachmodemustbespecifiedintheappropriatecolumns.Dampingvaluesmustbespecifiedfor
eachmodeandmustbeexpressedasanonzeropositivenumber.Thesamplebelowshowsvariousdampingvaluesforthe15modestobeincludedintheanalysis.

FluidDamping
Fluiddampingmaybeoptionallyconsideredduringmostdynamicresponseanalysis.Theprogramhastheabilitytocalculatefluidmodaldampingautomaticallyorto
usedampingvaluesinputbytheuser.FluiddampingoptionsarespecifiedontheFDAMPlinefollowingtheSDAMPline.
CalculatingFluidDampingAutomatically
Whenfluiddampingiscalculatedbytheprogram,thevaluesarebasedonthenonlinearforcesonthestructure.Forspectralanalysis,anequivalentdampingratiois
determinedbasedonaparticularamplitude.
EnterPCincolumns78iftheprogramistocalculatefluiddampingautomatically.Ifnonlineardampingistobeused,enterNLincolumns910.Fortimehistory
analyses,entertheamplitudeincolumns1620ifaspecificamplitudeistobeusedtocalculatefluiddamping.
SpecifyingFluidDampingDirectly
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Fluiddampingvaluesmaybespecifieddirectlybytheuser.Ifallmodeshavethesamefluiddamping,theoveralldampingasapercentofcriticalisinputincolumns11
15ontheFDAMPlineandcolumns2170shouldbeleftblank.Thefollowingshowsfluiddampingof2.0%forallmodes:

Ifthedampingvalueisdifferentforvariousmodes,thedampingvalueforeachmodemustbespecifiedintheappropriatecolumns.Dampingvaluesmustbespecifiedfor
eachmodeandmustbeexpressedasanonzeropositivenumber.
Note:Forsinglepassanalysis,fluiddampingmustbeincludedinthevaluespecifiedforstructuraldampingontheSDAMPline.
2.1.3ModeSelection
Bydefault,theresponseofallmodesisconsideredinthedynamicresponseanalysis.Iftheresponseofsomemodesistobeignored,thenumberofmodestoconsider
shouldbestipulatedincolumns1114ontheDROPTline.Whenthenumberofmodesnisspecified,theprogramassumesthatthefirstnmodesaretobeconsidered
unlessmodenumbersaredesignatedusingtheMODSELinputline.Forexample,thefollowingdesignatesthatmodes110andmodes1620aretobeconsideredinthe
analysis.
Note:ThenumberofmodesspecifiedontheMODSELlinemustbeequaltothenumberofmodesdesignatedontheDROPTline.

2.1.4VerticalCoordinate
Thepositiveverticalcoordinateaxis(X,+X,Y,+Y,Zor+Z)isenteredincolumns1718ontheDROPTline.
2.2BASEDRIVENANALYSIS
TheDynamicResponseprogramcanbeusedtodeterminestresses,jointvelocities,jointaccelerationsandjointdisplacementsforbothspectralandtimehistory
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earthquake.
2.2.1SpectralEarthquake
TheDynamicResponseprogramcanbeusedtodetermineresponseduetoaresponsespectrum.Seismicanalysistype,seismicloaddataandanalysisoutputoptionsare
designatedintheDynamicResponseinputfileinadditiontothebasicanalysisoptions.
AnalysisType
EnterSPECincolumns710ontheDROPTlinetodesignateaspectralearthquakeanalysis.
SeismicLoadData
Forspectralearthquakeanalysis,theseismicloaddataisinputaftertheLOADheaderlineintheformofaresponsespectrumorapowerspectraldensityfunction.The
programcontainsanautomatedAPIspectralanalysisfacilitydesignatedbytheSPLAPIlinealongwithageneralresponsespectralanalysisfacilitydesignatedbythe
SPLOADline.
Note:EachseismicinputloadrequireseitheraSPLAPIoraSPLOADline.
AutomatedAPISpectralAnalysis
TheautomatedfacilitycontainsAPISoilTypeA,BandCresponsespectrainadditiontosupportinguserdefinednormalizedresponsespectra.Eachseismicloadtobe
definedbyoneoftheAPIspectraisinputusingaSPLAPIlineasfollows:
EntertheresponsefactororGfactorwhichdefinestheratioofeffectivehorizontalgroundaccelerationtogravitationalaccelerationincolumns1115.Thesoiltypeor
theIDoftheuserdefinedresponsespectrumandtheDirectionalityfactortobeappliedtotheGfactormustbespecifiedfortheX,YandZdirectionsincolumns16
36.Themethodusedtocombinemodalresultsisdesignatedincolumns3841.EnterSRSS,PEAK,PRMSorCQCforsquarerootofthesumofthesquares,
linearadditionofabsolutevalues,peakplusSRSSorcompletequadraticcombination,respectively.
Note:StructuraldampingonlyisassumedwhenusingtheautomatedAPIspectralanalysis.Also,theIDoftheuserdefinednormalizedresponsespectrummaybeinput
inplaceofthesoiltype.
GeneralSpectralResponseAnalysis
ThegeneralspectralanalysiscapabilitiesallowsseismicloadingtobedefinedusingAPIoruserdefinedinputspectrum.APIspectramaybereferencedorresponse
spectrumorpowerspectraldensityfunctiondatamaybespecified.RegardlessofwhetherAPIspectraoruserdefineddataisused,generalloadoptionsandloaddata
mustbespecifiedontheSPLOADlineasfollows:
SpecifythedampingtypeSDOstructuraldampingonly,FDSequivalentfluiddampingatspecifiedamplitudeorFDAequivalentfluiddampingatactualamplitude
incolumns2123.ForFDSdamping,enterthedampingamplitudeincolumns3944ifdifferentfromthevaluespecifiedontheFDAMPline.
Note:OptionsFDAandFDSrequirethatfluiddampinginputbespecifiedusingtheFDAMPline.
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Themethodusedtocombinemodalresultsisdesignatedincolumns2528.EnterSRSS,PEAK,PRMSorCQCforsquarerootofthesumofthesquares,linear
additionofabsolutevalues,peakplusSRSSorcompletequadraticcombination,respectively.
EntertheresponsefactororGfactorwhichdefinestheratioofeffectivehorizontalgroundaccelerationtogravitationalaccelerationincolumns4550.The
directionalityfactortobeappliedtotheGfactormustbespecifiedfortheX,YandZdirectionsincolumns5156,5762and6368,respectively.
APISpectrum
Enterthespectrumsource,eitherAPI,APIA,APIB,orAPICforAPIspectraincolumns912ontheSPLOADline.Leavecolumns1518blank.
UserDefinedSpectra
Userdefineddatamaybespecifiedintheformofanormalizedresponsespectrum,ageneralresponsespectrumorapowerspectraldensityfunction.
NormalizedresponsespectraareusedinconjunctionwiththeSPLAPIlinebyspecifyingtheIDofthespectruminsteadofasoiltypeincolumns22,29or36.
NormalizeduserdefinedresponsespectrumdatamaybeusedtodefineadditionalsoiltypestobeusedinconjunctionwiththeAPIspectralearthquakeoptions.The
spectrumdataisspecifiedusingRSPU1andRSPU2linesimmediatelyfollowingtheSPLAPIline.ThefirstRSPU1linerequiresthenumberofdampingvalues
(maximumof3)incolumn10alongwiththeIDofthespectrumincolumn8.ThespectrumdataisenteredontheRSPU2lineandincludesthedampingratioasapercent
ofcriticaldampingincolumns914,thentheperiodandnormalizedspectrumvalueofeachpointofthespectrumincolumns2180.
Note:UptofifteenspectrumpointsmaybedefinedbyrepeatingtheRSPU2linewiththesamedampingratiospecifiedoneachline.
ThefollowingdescribesanuserdefinedresponsespectrumtobeusedassoiltypeFintheXdirectionwith5percentcriticaldampingandisdefinedby5setsofperiods
andvalues.

ThegeneralresponsespectrumandthepowerspectraldensityfunctionareusedwiththeSPLOADlinebyenteringthespectrumsourceincolumns912ontheSPLOAD
lineasLINEifthespectrumdataisdefinedonsubsequentinputlines,FILEifthespectrumisdefinedinaexternalfileorPREVifthespectrumistobeusedfrom
thepreviousseismicloadcase.Enterthespectrumtype,RSPforresponsespectrumorPSDforpowerspectraldensityincolumns1517ontheSPLOADline.
AccelerationA,velocityVanddisplacementDspectraaresupported.Specifythespectrumformbyenteringtheappropriateletterincolumn18iftheuserdefined
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dataisintheformofaresponsespectrum.
UserdefinedresponsespectrumdataisspecifiedusingRSPSPClinesimmediatelyfollowingtheSPLOADline.ThefirstRSPSPClinerequiresthenumberofdamping
valuesincolumns710.Enterthenumberofpointsdefinedonthecurveincolumns710onthesecondRSPSPClinealongwiththecriticaldampingforthecurvein
columns1116.Thefirsttwopointsonthecurve,definedbyaperiodandaresponsevalueareenteredincolumns2160.Additionalpointsonthecurvearedefinedin
pairsincolumns2160onsubsequentRSPSPClines.
Forexample,thefollowingdescribesanuserdefinedresponsespectrumdefinedby5setsofperiodsandaccelerations(accelerationform)with5percentcritical
damping.

UserdefinedpowerspectraldensitydataisspecifiedusingPSDSPClinesimmediatelyfollowingtheSPLOADline.ThefirstPSDSPClinerequiresthenumberof
frequencyvaluesincolumns710.Thefirsttwopointsonthecurve,definedbyafrequencyandaspectraldensityvalueareenteredincolumns2160.Additionalpoints
onthecurvearedefinedinpairsincolumns2160onsubsequentPSDSPClines.
Forexample,thefollowingdescribesanuserdefinedpowerspectraldensityfunctiondefinedby5setsoffrequenciesandspectraldensityvalues.

OutputOptions
Bydefault,seismicloadcasesarecreatedwhenperformingaspectralearthquakeanalysis.Theprogramalsohastheabilitytooutputloadcombinationsconsistingof
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seismicandstaticresults,equivalentstaticloadsfornonlinearanalysis,responsefunctionsandjointdataincludingdisplacement,velocityandacceleration.
Static+SeismicCombinations
TheDynamicResponsehastheabilitytooptionallycombineseismicresultswithstaticresultsaspartoftheearthquakeanalysis.Whenusingthisfeature,theprogram
createsfourseismic+staticloadcombinations,twoforelementcheckandtwoforjointcancheck,foreachseismicloadcaseasfollows:

Note:Thisfeaturerequiresthatthestaticsolutionfileexistpriortoexecutionoftheseismicanalysis.Italsoresquiresthatallseismicloadcasesarefullseismicload
casescontainingtheresponsesforalldirections(i.e.X,YandZresponses).Whenusingseismicloadcasescontainingonlypartoftheseismicresponse,theseloadcases
mustbecombined(usingSRSS)bytheuserpriortomanuallycombiningwithstaticsolutions.
TheseismicandstaticcombinationinformationisinputusingtheSTCMBline.Enterthefactortobeappliedtotheseismicloadswhencombinedwiththestaticloadsfor
thepurposeofmemberandplateelementcheckincolumns812.Thefactortobeappliedtoseismicloadswhencombinedwithstaticloadsforjointcheckisinputin
columns1317.Entereachofthestaticloadcasestobecombinedwiththeseismicloadcasesandtheloadfactortobeapplied.Sincespectralearthquakeresultsarevalid
onlyatthejointsofthestructure,itisrecommendedthattheJOoptionisusedincolumns2728oftheOPTIONSlinewhengeneratingthestaticsolutionfile.
Forexample,105%ofloadcases8and9containedinthestaticsolutionfilearetobecombinedwiththeseismicsolution.Forelementcheckandjointcancheck,seismic
stressesaretobefactoredby1.0and2.0,respectively.

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Note:TheSTCMBlineshouldfollowtheSDAMP,FDAMPandMODSELlinesintheinputfile.
EquivalentStaticLoads
EquivalentstaticloadsusedtosimulateearthquakeloadsfornonlinearanalysismaybecreatedusingtheEQKLODline.Theloadcasecanbecreatedtorepresenteither
theactualbaseoractualoverturningmomentbydesignatingSorMincolumn8.
Bydefaultmodalresultsareaddedtogethersuchthatthecorrespondingloadrepresentseitherbaseshearoroverturningmoment.Theloadcasemayalsobegenerated
withthesignreversedtosimulateloadreversalbyspecifyingRincolumn10.Toobtainoneloadcasecorrespondingtothestandardloadingandanadditionalloading
representingthereversal,enterBincolumn10.Toobtainoneloadcasecorrespondingtoloadingin"all"directions,enterAincolumn10.Inthiscasethenumberof
directionsmustbespecifiedincolumns1416,withadefaultvalueof20andamaximumof100.
Theloadcasescreatedmaybeappendedtoanexistingmodelorstructuraldatafile.Iftheexistingfilecontainsloadingtobeusedbythesubsequentnonlinearanalysis,
theloadcasetoassigntothegeneratedloadsmaybeassignedbydesignatingthenumberofexistingloadcasestoskipincolumns1113.
TheprogramprintstheresponseintheX(0.0degree)andY(90.0degree)directions.WhenthestructureisrespondingprimarilyintheXdirection,theseresponsesdo
notoccuratthesametime.Theequivalentstaticloadprocedureassumesthattheprimarystructureresponsemayoccurinanydirectionduringtheearthquakeevent(not
onlyalongtheXorYaxes).Theresponseofthestructureisthereforecalculatedfor20directions(every18degrees).Foreachofthesetwentydirections,thebaseshear
inthatdirectionandthemomentaboutthatdirectionaredetermined.Equivalentstaticloadsarethengeneratedforthehighestbaseshear.
Aseparateloadcasemaybeoutputforeachmodebyentering'M'incolumn17oftheEQKLODinputline.
TheseismicloadcasescreatedhavetheearthquakeEQSloadingplustheloadcasesspecifiedontheSTCMBlineincludedineachloadcasecreated.Theloadcaseson
theSTCMBlinearefactoredbytheappropriateloadfactorindicatedontheSTCMBline.ThejointandmemberloadcasesfactorsontheSTCMBlineareignored.
ResponseFunctions
AfrequencyorperiodresponsefunctionsmaybegeneratedatspecificlocationsonthestructureusingtheRSFUNCline.Uptosixfunctionsmaybegeneratedforeach
RSFUNClinedesignated.Enterthejointname,thedegreeoffreedomandthedampingtobeusedincolumns716.Additionalfunctionsmaybegeneratedbyspecifying
thejoint,DOFanddampingincolumns1766.Thenumberofpointsusedtodefinethefunctionsisdesignatedincolumns6769whilethefunctiontypeisdesignatedby
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P(period)orF(frequency)incolumn70.Plotsoptionsarespecifiedincolumns7377.
AsmanyRSFUNClinesasrequiredtodesignatethedesirednumberoffunctionsmaybeused.
JointResults
Jointresultssuchasvelocity,accelerationanddisplacementmaybereportedforaparticularseismicloadcasebyenteringV,AorDincolumns2931onthe
correspondingSPLOADline.Resultsmayalsobereportedforallseismicloadcasesbyspecifyingtheprintselectionsincolumns2527ontheDROPTline.
LowLevelEarthquakeAnalysis
LowlevelearthquakeanalysisbasedonAPIWSDorAPILRFDmaybeaccomplishedusingthemethodsfromthepreviousparagraphs.Tospecifylowlevelearthquake
analysis,theAPIcoderequiresdescriptionofarare,intenseearthquakeforanalysis.Thefollowingsamplespecifiesconditionsforarare,intenseearthquakeandthe
properloadcombinationsforuseinlowseismicactivityzonesperAPI.

TheSTCMBlinespecifiesanelementloadcasefactorof1.0andapunchingshearfactorof.0001.Thiseffectivelyeliminatesseismicloadsfromloadcases3and4
generatedbytheSPLAPIline.Loadcase3,whichiseffectivelyadeadloadcase,willbeusedsubsequentlyinjointcanlowlevelearthquakeanalysis.SeeJointCan
manualforimplementationoflowlevelearthquakeanalysisinjointstrengthcheck.
CombiningwithStaticResults
Theprogramcreatesacommonsolutionfilecontainingendforces,stresses,reactionsanddisplacementsforeachseismicloadsetspecifiedintheDynamicResponse
inputfile.BecausetheseresultsareobtainedbycombiningmodalresultsusingRMStechniques,endforces,stresses,etc.havenosignassociatedandaretakenasall
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positivevalues.Therefore,whenmanuallycombiningspectralearthquakeresultswithstaticresults,thePRSTandPRSCcombineoptionsmustbeused.
2.2.2TimeHistoryEarthquake
TheDynamicResponseprogramcanbeusedtodetermineresponseduetoabasedriventimehistory.Uptothreeseparatetimehistoriesmaybeusedforanyanalysis.
Analysistype,seismicloaddataandanalysisoutputoptionsaredesignatedintheDynamicResponseinputfileinadditiontothebasicanalysisoptions.
AnalysisType
EnterTIMEincolumns710ontheDROPTlinetodesignateatimehistoryearthquakeanalysis.
LoadOptions
Fortimehistoryearthquakeanalysis,inputloadingandloadoptionsareinputaftertheLOADheaderlineusingtheTHLOAD,THFACT,TIMEandTHBEGINinput
lines.
Note:Eachtimehistoryloadisdefinedbyusingaseparatesetoftheselines.
DampingMethod
GeneraltimehistoryoptionsaredesignatedontheTHLOADlineimmediatelyfollowingtheLOADheader.SpecifythedampingtypeSDOstructuraldampingonly,
LFDlinearizedfluiddampingorNFDfornonlinearfluiddampingincolumns1820.
Note:Fornonlinearfluiddamping,thefluidforcesarecalculatedateverytimestepduringtheintegration.Thisoptionrequirestheprogramcalculatedfluiddamping
optionPContheFDAMPline.
Forlinearizedfluiddamping,thedampingamplitudeusedtocalculatetheequivalentlinearfluiddampingmaybeoverriddenbyspecifyingavalueincolumns2128.
InterpolationScheme
Themethodusedtointerpolatebetweentimehistoryinputvaluesisdesignatedincolumns2930.EnterLN,QDorCUforlinear,quadraticorcubicinterpolation,
respectively.
DirectionalityFactors
ThedirectionalityfactortobeappliedtothetimehistoryvalueisspecifiedfortheX,YandZdirectionsincolumns1115,1620and2125oftheTHFACTline,
respectively.Ifmorethanonetimehistoryistobeused,thedirectionalityfactorsforeachtimehistorymustbespecifiedincolumns2655.
IntegrationParameters
IntegrationparametersarestipulatedontheTIMEline.Enterthestartforthebeginningofthetimehistoryintegrationincolumns1120.Iftheanalysisistoterminate
beforetheendofthetimehistoryinput,entertheendtimeincolumns2130.Theoutputtimeinterval,minimumintegrationstepandthetolerancefactoraredesignated
incolumns3140,4150and5160,respectively.
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Forexample,thefollowingdescribesantimehistoryfunctionspecifiedintheinputfile.Structuraldampingonlyisusedinconjunctionwithlinearinterpolationas
designatedontheTHLOADline.Onetimehistoryfunctionisusedwithdirectionalityfactorsof1.0,1.0and0.5appliedtoitfortheX,YandZdirections,respectively.
Thestarttimeis0secondsandendtime25seconds.Outputisrequestedatevery0.25seconds.

TimeHistoryInput
TimehistorydatamaybespecifiedintheDynamicresponsefileormaybereadfromanexternaldatafile.Thesourceofthetimehistorydataisdesignatedincolumns9
12ontheTHLOADline.EnterLINEifthetimehistorydataisdefinedonsubsequentinputlines,FILEifthedataisdefinedinaexternalfileorPREVifthetime
historydataistobeusedfromthepreviousseismicloadcase.
InputParameters
SpecifyingdataintheinputfilerequiresthatoverallparametersbespecifiedontheTHBEGINline.Upto3separatetimehistoriesmaybedefinedforaparticularinput
load.Enterthenumberoftimehistoriestobedefinedinthefileincolumns810andthenameidentifyingthetimehistoryincolumns2225.Thetype,either
acceleration,velocity,displacementorgravityaccelerationisdesignatedbyA,V,DorGincolumn30,respectively.
TimeHistoryLoadData
Thetimehistorydatamaybeenteredinstandardformat,compressedformatorviaanexternalinputfile.
StandardFormat
SpecifySTDincolumns1420ontheTHBEGINlineforstandardinputformat.
TimehistoryloaddataisspecifiedusingaTHDATAlineforeachtimepoint.Foranytimepoint,enterthetimeincolumns1120andthevalueincolumns2130.If
morethanonetimehistoryistobedefined,enterthevalueforthesecondfunctioncorrespondingtothistimeincolumn3140.Thevalueforthethirdfunctionisinputin
columns4150.Thefollowingillustratesoneaccelerationtimehistoryinputusingstandardformat.

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Note:Thefirsttimepointofthetimehistoryfunctionisassumedtobezero.Thefirsttimepointenteredbytheusermustbegreaterthanzero.Thetimehistoryis
terminatedbyusingaTHDATAlinewithallfieldleftblank.
CompressedFormat
ThetimehistorydatamaybeenteredincompressedformatbyspecifyingCMPincolumns1420ontheTHBEGINline.
TimehistoryloaddataisspecifiedusingaTHCOMPlineforeachtimepoint.Compresseddataisassumedtobespecifiedwiththeconstanttimeintervalspecifiedin
columns1420ontheTHBEGINline.Enterthetimehistoryvalueincolumns1170.TheTHCOMPlinewithENDdesignatedincolumns810signifiestheendofthe
inputdata.
Thefollowingillustratesoneaccelerationtimehistoryinputusingcompressedformat.Theconstanttimeintervalis0.25secondsasdesignatedontheTHBEGINline.

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ExternalFileInput
Whenspecifyingtimehistoryloaddatafortimehistoryearthquake,datawhichwouldnormallybespecifiedusingTHDATAlinesisinputinanexternalinputfile
withoutdatalabels.Theexternalfilebeginswithasinglerecord.ThisrecordbeginswithafourcharacternameasspecifiedontheTHLOADdatarecord.Thenextfour
columns,columns58,specifythenumberoftimehistoryfunctionsasspecifiedincolumns810oftheTHBEGINdatarecord.Thetype,eitheracceleration,velocity,
displacementorgravityaccelerationisdesignatedbyA,V,DorGincolumn9,respectively.Theinputunitsinches,feet,centimeters,millimetersandmetersare
inputbyspecifying'IN','FT','CM','MM'and'ME'incolumns1213respectively.
ThefollowingrecordsaretheequivalentofTHDATArecordsinstandardformat,butareinputwithspecificfieldwidthsandnodatalabels.Columns112specifythe
timepointthisisequivalenttocolumns1120oftheTHDATArecord.Columns1324,2536and3748consistofthetimehistoryvaluesforthefirst,secondandthird
function,respectively.Thenumberoftimehistoryfunctionvaluesspecifiedmustcorrespondtothevalueincolumns58ofthefirstrecord.Subsequentrecordsspecify
othertimehistorypoints.Alltimehistorypointsspecifiedmusthavetimepointsgreaterthanzero.Thefinalrecordhasatimepointof0.0.
Thefollowingisanexampleofexternalfileinput.Inorderforthisfiletobeused,thedynamicresponseinputfilemusthaveaTHLOADrecordwithtimehistoryinput
sourcefield(columns912)ofMXCT.Theinputspecifiesthreetimehistoryfunctionvaluesarespecifiedintheforthcomingrecords.Theinputtimevaluesof0.00,
0.02,0.04,0.06,0.08and0.10aredatainthefirsttwelvecolumnsthethreetimehistoryfunctionvaluesarespecifiedincolumns1324,2536and3748.Typicaldata
inputwouldconsistofmanymorerecords.Thelastdatarecordhasatimepointof0.0.

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OutputOptions
Thetimehistoryearthquakeanalysiscreatesloadcases,printsandplotsmodalresponses,baseshearandoverturningmomentinadditiontojointaccelerations,velocities
anddisplacements.Analysisoutputoptionsaredesignatedintheoutputoptionsfieldsincolumns3359ontheTHLOADline.
LoadCaseCreation
TheDynamicResponseprogramhastheabilitytocreatealoadcasecorrespondingtothetimepointhavingmaximumoverturningmomentand/ormaximumbaseshear
byspecifyingMXMorMXSintheoutputoptionsfieldsontheTHLOADline,respectively.EnterALLifloadcasesaretobecreatedatforalltimepoints.
ModalResponseData
Modalresponsesversustimemaybeprintedand/orplottedbyspecifyingPRTandPLT,respectively,intheoutputoptionsfieldsontheTHLOADline.
BaseShearandOverturningMomentPlots
BaseshearandoverturningmomentplotsmaybegeneratedbyenteringPLMandPLSinoneoftheoutputoptionfieldslocatedontheTHLOADline.
JointResults
Jointresultsincludingacceleration,velocityanddisplacementmaybeplottedandlistedforuptosixteenjoints.Jointplotoptionsarespecifiedintheoutputoptions
fieldsontheTHLOADline.
Jointaccelerationoptionsinclude:
JMAPrintsmaximumandminimumvaluesforjointaccelerationforeachdirection.
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JPASameasJMAplusplotsaccelerationtimehistory
JTASameasJPAplusprintsaccelerationtimehistorydata
Note:Jointaccelerationoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybeselected.
Jointvelocityoptionsinclude:
JMVPrintsmaximumandminimumvaluesforjointvelocityforeachdirection.
JPVSameasJMVplusplotsvelocitytimehistory
JTVSameasJPVplusprintsvelocitytimehistorydata
Note:Jointvelocityoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybeselected.
Jointdisplacementoptionsinclude:
JMDPrintsmaximumandminimumvaluesforjointdisplacementforeachdirection.
JPDSameasJMDplusplotsdisplacementtimehistory
JTDSameasJPDplusprintsdisplacementtimehistorydata
Note:Jointdisplacementoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybeselected.
Anynumberofjointsmaybedesignatedforplotsandreports.JointstobeoutputarespecifiedusingJTNUMlinesimmediatelyfollowingtheTHLOADline.
Thefollowinginputillustratessomeoftheoutputoptions.Twoloadcases,onecorrespondingtothetimeofmaximumbaseshearandonecorrespondingtothetimeof
maximumoverturningmoment,arecreated.Baseandoverturningmomenttimehistoriesaretobeplottedinadditiontojointaccelerationanddisplacementplotsfor
joints601,603,605and607.

2.3FORCEDRIVENANALYSIS
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TheDynamicResponseprogramcanbeusedtodeterminestresses,jointvelocities,jointaccelerationsandjointdisplacementsforstructuressubjectedtoperiodicforces,
forcetimehistoryorengine/compressorvibration.
Forperiodic,timehistoryorengine/compressorvibrationanalysis,theanalysistype,loaddataandanalysisoutputoptionsaredesignatedintheDynamicReponseinput
fileinadditiontothebasicanalysisoptions.
2.3.1ForceTimeHistory
AnalysisType
TheanalysislabelVIBRmustbeenteredincolumns710ontheDROPTlineforanyforcedresponseanalysis.Forforcetimehistoryanalysis,enterTHISincolumns
710ontheFVIBline.
LoadOptions
LoadoptionsandinputloadingisspecifiedfollowingtheLOADheaderlineusingtheFVIB,TIME,THFORCEandLOADlines.Basicloadoptionsaredesignatedon
theFVIBlinewhileintegrationparametersarespecifiedontheTIMEline.
Note:EachtimehistoryloadrequiresaseparatesetofFVIB,TIME,THFORCEandLOADlines.
DampingMethod
SpecifythedampingtypeSDOstructuraldampingonly,LFDlinearizedfluiddampingorNFDfornonlinearfluiddampingincolumns1719oftheFVIBline.
Note:Fornonlinearfluiddamping,thefluidforcesarecalculatedateverytimestepduringtheintegration.Thisoptionrequirestheprogramcalculatedfluiddamping
optionPContheFDAMPline.
Forlinearizedfluiddamping,thedampingamplitudeusedtocalculatetheequivalentlinearfluiddampingmaybeoverriddenbyspecifyingavalueincolumns2027.
InterpolationScheme
Themethodusedtointerpolatebetweeninputvaluesisdesignatedincolumns2839ontheFVIBline.EnterLNforlinear,QDforquadraticorCUforcubic.
Note:Ingeneral,linearinterpolationisapplicableforstep,ramporspikefunctions.Thequadraticandcubicinterpolationmethodssmoothsouttheinputfunction.
Forexample,thefollowingdescribesantimehistoryfunctionspecifiedintheinputfile.Structuraldampingonlyisusedinconjunctionwithlinearinterpolationofthe
forcetimehistoryinputasdesignatedontheFVIBline.

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IntegrationParameters
IntegrationparametersarestipulatedontheTIMEline.Enterthestartforthebeginningofthetimehistoryintegrationincolumns1120.Iftheanalysisistoterminate
beforetheendofthetimehistoryinput,entertheendtimeincolumns2130.Theoutputtimeinterval,minimumintegrationstepandthetolerancefactoraredesignated
incolumns3140,4150and5160,respectively.
Forexample,thefollowingdescribesantimehistoryfunctionspecifiedintheinputfile.Structuraldampingonlyisusedinconjunctionwithlinearinterpolationas
designatedontheFVIBline.Thestarttimeis0secondsandendtime25seconds.Outputisrequestedatevery0.25seconds.

TimeHistoryInput
TimehistoryinputdatamaybespecifiedintheDynamicresponsefileormaybereadfromanexternaldatafile.Thesourceofthetimehistorydataisdesignatedin
columns912ontheFVIBline.EnterLINEifthedataisdefinedonsubsequentinputlines,FILEifthetimehistoryisdefinedinaexternalfileorPREVifthedata
istobeusedfromthepreviousloadcase.
InputParameters
Whenspecifyingforcetimehistorydataintheinputfile,timehistoryinputparametersmustbespecifiedontheTHFORCEline.Enterthetotalnumberofjointsthat
forceisappliedincolumns810.Timehistorydatamaybeinputusingauniformtimeintervalbetweenpointsormaybespecifiedforvarioustimepointsspaced
nonuniformly.Theinputformat,eitheruniformornonuniformmustbedesignatedbyUNIorNONincolumns1113respectively.Foruniforminput,specifythetime
intervalincolumns1420.Thetimehistorynameisinputincolumns2225.Thefollowingillustratestheinputrequiredforthenonuniformtimehistoryinputnamed
TESTappliedatonejoint.

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TimeHistoryData
ThetimehistoryinputdataisspecifiedusingLOADlineslocatedaftertheTHFORCEline.Enterthejointtowhichtheloadisappliedincolumns811.Thetimethatthe
loadistobeappliedisenteredincolumns1216.IfseveraltimesarespecifiedinconsecutiveLOADlines,thetimesmustbeinascendingorder.Theforcesandmoments
actingonthejointatthespecifiedtimearedesignatedincolumns1759.
Forexample,aloadof10.0isappliedintheglobalXdirectiontojoint107attime1.0seconds.Theloadremainsconstantfor0.25secondsafterwhichitisremoved.

Note:Noticethatthethirdtimepointisdefinedat1.001secondsinsteadof1.00secondssothattheforceisappliedoverasmalltimeperiodratherthanapplied
instantaneously.
ScalingLoadData
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Loaddatamaybefactoredbyspecifyingaloadfactorincolumns5965ontheFVIBline.
LoadCaseTimeHistoryData
TimehistoryinputdatamayalsobespecifiedusingLOADClines.TheselinesarelocatedaftertheTHFORCEline.Inthiscase,ratherthanspecifyingjointsatwhichthe
loadappliesandsupplyingatimehistory,theloadsfromtheSACSIVloadcasespecifiedincolumns811ontheLOADClinewillbeappliedatthetimespecifiedin
columns1216.IfseveraltimesarespecifiedinconsecutiveLOADClines,thetimesmustbeinascendingorder.Thescalingfactortobeappliedtotheloadsisspecified
incolumns1723.Thismethodisveryusefulforapplyingsimilartimevaryingloadstomanypositions,asinblastloading.Noticealsothatthisloadingisnotlimitedto
jointloadsonlydistributedandpressureloadsmaybeappliedinthismanneraswell.
Forexample,loadcaseB01isappliedwithascalingfactorof0.0attime1.0seconds,afactorof1.0attime1.001seconds,afactorof1.0attime1.25seconds,afactor
of0.0attime1.251secondsandafactorof0.0attime10.0seconds.IfloadcaseB01specifiedaloadatjoint107of10.0intheglobalXdirection,thenthisexample
wouldresultinthesameloadingatjoint107asthepreviousLOADexample.

TimeHistoryCollapseAnalysis
IncrementalloadsforforcetimehistoryCollapseanalysiscanbegeneratedbyspecifyingTCLPincolumns710ontheDROPTinputline.Also,incrementalloadsfrom
adynamicshipimpactCollapseanalysiscanbegeneratedbyspecifying'SHIP'incolumns710ontheDROPTlinetogetherwith'CLP'incolumns3335onthe
THLOADinputline.Alternatively,equivalentstaticloadscanbegeneratedbyspecifying'ESL'incolumns3335ontheTHLOADinputline.
TheexamplebelowreferstoadynamicshipimpactanalysiswithincrementalloadsbeinggeneratedforasubsequentCollapseanalysis.Theweight,speedanddirection
ofimpactisdefinedontheSHIPinputlinetogetherwithimpactedjointname.

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OutputOptions
Theforcetimehistoryanalysiscreatesloadcases,printsandplotsmodalresponses,baseshearandoverturningmomentinadditiontojointaccelerations,velocitiesand
displacements.Analysisoutputoptionsaredesignatedintheoutputoptionsfieldsincolumns3258ontheFVIBline.
LoadCaseCreation
Loadcasescorrespondingtoeachtimepointorthecriticaltimepointsmaybegeneratedbytheforcedresponseanalysis.Loadcasescorrespondingtothetimepoint
havingmaximumoverturningmoment,maximumbaseshearorbothbyspecifyingMXM,MXSorMMSintheoutputoptionsfieldsontheFVIBline,respectively,
maybecreated.EnterALLtohavealoadcasecreatedateachtimepointoftheanalysis.
Note:Loadoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybedesignated.
ModalResponseData
Modalresponsesversustimemaybeprintedand/orplottedbyspecifyingPRTandPLT,respectively,intheoutputoptionsfieldsontheFVIBline.EnterPPTto
havemodalresponsesprintedandplotted.
Note:Modalresponseoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybedesignated.
BaseShearandOverturningMomentPlots
BaseshearandoverturningmomentplotsmaybegeneratedbyenteringPLMandPLS,respectively,inoneoftheoutputoptionfieldslocatedontheFVIBline.
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JointResults
Jointresultsincludingacceleration,velocityanddisplacementmaybeplottedandlistedforuptosixteenjoints.Jointplotoptionsarespecifiedintheoutputoptions
fieldsontheFVIBline.
Jointaccelerationoptionsinclude:
JMAPrintsmaximumandminimumvaluesforjointaccelerationforeachdirection.
JPASameasJMAplusplotsaccelerationtimehistory
JTASameasJPAplusprintsaccelerationtimehistorydata
Note:Jointaccelerationoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybeselected.
Jointvelocityoptionsinclude:
JMVPrintsmaximumandminimumvaluesforjointvelocityforeachdirection.
JPVSameasJMVplusplotsvelocitytimehistory
JTVSameasJPVplusprintsvelocitytimehistorydata
Note:Jointvelocityoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybeselected.
Jointdisplacementoptionsinclude:
JMDPrintsmaximumandminimumvaluesforjointdisplacementforeachdirection.
JPDSameasJMDplusplotsdisplacementtimehistory
JTDSameasJPDplusprintsdisplacementtimehistorydata
Note:Jointdisplacementoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybeselected.
Uptosixteenjointsmaybedesignatedforplotsandreports.JointstobeoutputarespecifiedusingtheJTNUMlineimmediatelyfollowingtheTHLOADline.
Thefollowinginputillustratessomeoftheoutputoptions.Twoloadcases,onecorrespondingtothetimeofmaximumbaseshearandonecorrespondingtothetimeof
maximumoverturningmoment,arecreated.Baseandoverturningmomenttimehistoriesaretobeplottedinadditiontojointaccelerationanddisplacementplotsfor
joints601,603,605and607.

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2.3.2PeriodicVibration
AnalysisType
TheanalysislabelVIBRmustbeenteredincolumns710ontheDROPTlineforanyforcedresponseanalysis.Forperiodicvibrationanalysis,enterPERIincolumns
710ontheFVIBline.
LoadOptions
PeriodicloadingandoptionsforthatloadingisdefinedusingtheFVIBandLOADinputlinesspecifiedaftertheLOADheaderline.Generalloadoptionsarespecified
ontheFVIBline.
Note:EachperiodicloadingdefinedrequiresaseparatesetofFVIBandLOADinputlines.
DampingMethod
SpecifythedampingtypeSDOstructuraldampingonly,LFDlinearizedfluiddampingorNFDfornonlinearfluiddampingincolumns1719ontheFVIBline.
Note:Fornonlinearfluiddamping,thefluidforcesarecalculatedateverytimestepduringtheintegration.Thisoptionrequirestheprogramcalculatedfluiddamping
optionPContheFDAMPline.
Forlinearizedfluiddamping,thedampingamplitudeusedtocalculatetheequivalentlinearfluiddampingmaybeoverriddenbyspecifyingavalueincolumns2027.
TimeParameters
Forperiodicvibrationthetimespanthatthevibrationistobemonitoredisinputincolumns7277ontheFVIBline.Ingeneralthistimespanistheshortesttimethatthe
vibrationisrepeatable.Thenumberoftimepointsthatthetimespanistobedividedisspecifiedincolumns7880.
Note:Thenumberoftimepointsshouldbesufficienttopickupthehighestfrequencyofinterest.
Forexample,thefollowingdescribesanperiodicfunctionspecifiedintheinputfile.Structuraldampingonlyisusedinconjunctionwithquadraticinterpolationofthe
periodicinput.Theanalysistimespanis1.0secondandtheanalysisistobebrokenupinto50timepoints.

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PeriodicInput
PeriodicloaddatamustbespecifiedintheDynamicResponseinputfileusingLOADlineslocatedaftertheFVIBline.Inputloaddatamaybescaledautomaticallyby
enteringaloadscalingfactor.
PeriodicLoadData
Enterthejointtowhichtheloadisappliedincolumns811.Theforcesandmomentsactingonthejointaredesignatedincolumns1759.
Entertheperiodthatthesetofforcesisactingincolumns6974alongwiththephaseangleincolumns7580.
Note:ForcesareappliedasF*cos(2pT/(T+a))whereTistheperiodandaisthephaseangle.
Forexample,aperiodicforceof10.0isappliedintheglobalXdirectiontojoint107.Theperiodis0.20secondsandthephaseangleis90degrees.

ScalingLoadData
Loaddatamaybefactoredbyspecifyingaloadfactorincolumns5965ontheFVIBline.
OutputOptions
Theperiodicvibrationanalysiscreatesloadcases,printsandplotsmodalresponses,baseshearandoverturningmomentinadditiontodeterminingmaximumabsolute
displacements.Analysisoutputoptionsaredesignatedintheoutputoptionsfieldsincolumns3258ontheFVIBline.
LoadCaseCreation
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Loadcasescorrespondingtoeachtimepointorthecriticaltimepointsmaybegeneratedbytheperiodicvibrationanalysis.Loadcasescorrespondingtothetimepoint
havingmaximumoverturningmoment,maximumbaseshearorbothbyspecifyingMXM,MXSorMMSintheoutputoptionsfieldsontheFVIBline,respectively,
maybecreated.EnterALLtohavealoadcasecreatedateachtimepointoftheanalysis.
Note:Theaboveloadoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybedesignated.
Theprogramalsohastheabilitytocreatealoadcasecorrespondingtothetimeofmaximumdisplacementorrotationforaparticularjoint.Enterthejointnamein
columns6669andthedegreeoffreedomtomonitorincolumns7071ontheFVIBline.
Note:Whencreatingaloadcaseforamaximumjointdisplacementorrotation,nootherloadcasesarecreated.Therefore,theMXM,MXSandMMSmaynotbe
usedwhenusingthisfeature.
ModalResponseData
Modalresponsesversustimemaybeprintedand/orplottedbyspecifyingPRTandPLT,respectively,intheoutputoptionsfieldsontheFVIBline.EnterPPTto
havemodalresponsesprintedandplotted.
Note:Modalresponseoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybedesignated.
BaseShearandOverturningMomentPlots
BaseshearandoverturningmomentplotsmaybegeneratedbyenteringPLMandPLSinoneoftheoutputoptionfieldslocatedontheFVIBline.
JointDisplacements
Jointmaximumdisplacementresultsmaybeprintedusingoneofthefollowingoptions:
MXDprintsmax.X,YandZdisplacementofeachjointinthestructure
SMDselectsmax.displacementforallperiodicloadcasesforeachjoint.
DSMprintsmax.absolutesumofX,YandZdisplacementforeachperiodicloadcasetoproduceamaximumpossibledisplacement.
Note:Jointdisplacementoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybeselected.
Thefollowinginputillustratessomeoftheoutputoptions.Twoloadcases,onecorrespondingtothetimeofmaximumbaseshearandonecorrespondingtothetimeof
maximumoverturningmoment,arecreated.BaseandoverturningmomenttimehistoriesaretobeplottedinadditiontoreportingthemaximumX,YandZjoint
displacements.

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2.3.3Engine/CompressorVibration
Theengineorcompressorvibrationanalysisdeterminesjointdisplacementduetounbalancedforces.Jointdisplacementscanbecomparedversusvariousallowable
deflectionspecificationsandexpressedasdisplacementunitycheckratios.
AnalysisType
TheanalysislabelENGVmustbeenteredincolumns710ontheDROPTlineforengineorcompressorvibrationanalysis.
LoadOptions
Engineunbalancedloadingisenteredintheformofmechanicalunbalancedforces,gastorquesorgeneralunbalancedforces.Loadingandloadoptionsaredefinedusing
theENGVIB,RSPEEDandUNBALlinesfollowingtheLOADheaderline.
Note:EachsetofloadingrequiresaseparatesetofRSPEEDandUNBALlines.
DampingMethod
OnlystructuraldampinginputontheSDAMPlineisconsideredforenginevibrationanalyis.
Note:Becausefluiddampingisnotsupported,theFDAMPlineshouldnotbeusedforenginevibration.
EngineSpeedParameters
EnginespeedparametersaredesignatedontheENGVIBline.Thebeginningspeed(thelowestspeed)andtheendingspeed(thehighestspeed)arespecifiedincolumns
713and1420,respectively.
Therunningspeedrangeisdefinedbythebeginningandendingspeeds.Theprogramdividesthespeedrangeintoincrementsforthepurposeoftheanalysisusingeither
constantincrementsorvaryingincrementsbasedonmodalfrequencies.Specifyoneofthefollowingincrementationmethodsincolumns2123:
CONConstantincrementation
MODIncrementsvariedsoeachmodalfrequencyisincludedasananlaysisspeed
MAHSameasMODexceptthateachharmonicfrequencyisalsoincluded
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USRAnalysisspeedsdefinedbytheuserusingUSRSPlines
Forconstantincrements,thespeedincrementvalueenteredincolumns2428isthetotalnumberofspeedpointstoanalyze.Forvaryingincrementsontheotherhand,the
valueenteredinthesecolumnsisusedtodeterminethesmallestspeedincrementallowedbetweenmodes.
Thefollowingshowstheinputforabeginspeedof100rpmandendingspeedof500rpmusingconstantspeedincrements.

UserdefinedrunningspeedsarespecifiedusingtheUSRspeedoptionontheENGVIBlineandUSRSPlinesimmediatelyfollowingtheENGVIBline.Forexample,the
followinginputdesignatesanalysisrunningspeedsof120,150,200,300,and400rpm.

NonlinearInterpolationPower
Bydefault,2.0isusedasthenonlinearinterpolationpower.Enterthenonlinearinterpolationpoweroverridetobeusedforanymechanicalunbalancedforces
interpolatednonlinearlybetweenrunningspeedsincolumns2933.Iftheinterpolationpowerisp,thentheinterpolationisaccomplishedasfollows:

whereFaretheforcesandaretherunningspeeds.Thisfieldmaybeleftblankiflinearinterpolationisusedforallunbalancedforces.
CalculationPointsperCycle
Bydefault,10pointsarecalculatedforthehighestharmonicdetermined.Thisvaluemaybeoverriddenbyspecifyingthemaximumnumberofpointscalculatedforthe
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highestharmonicincolumns3739ontheENGVIBline.
Twentypointsarecalculatedforonecycleofthefundamentalfrequencybydefault.Entertheminimumnumberofpointstobecalculatedpercycleincolumns3436if
thisvalueistobeoverridden.
Note:Ifharmonicsareencountered,thenumberofpointscalculatedpercycleisthemaximumofthenumberofpointsperfundamentalandthenumberofpoints
calculatedperharmonic.
AllowableOption
Thedeflectionsdeterminedbytheprogramcanbecomparedtopublishedallowabledeflectionsandexpressedasdisplacementunitycheckratios.Theallowableoptionis
specifiedincolumns4041asfollows:
DLDLineAllowable
SNSNAME
MLUSMilitarySpecification
VEMaximumVelocity
ThefollowingillustratestheinputrequiredfordisplacementunitycheckratiostobedeterminedusingtheDLineallowables.

IftheallowableoptionisVE(maximumvelocity),themaximumvelocityallowedisenteredincolumns4246.
JointSelection
Bydefault,alljointsaremonitoredintheenginevibrationanalysis.JointsmaybeoptionallyselectedtobeincludedusingtheJNTSELline.Forexample,thefollowing
designatesthatonlyjoints101,103,105,107,109and111aretobemonitoredintheanalysis.

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Note:AsmanyJNTSELlinesasrequiredmaybeused.IfJNTSELlinesarespecified,onlyjointsspecifiedaremonitoredduringtheanalysis.
UnbalancedForceInput
Engineunbalancedforcesmaybeexpressedintermsofgastorques,mechanicalunbalancedforcesand/orgeneralunbalancedperiodicforcesatvariousrunningspeeds.
Foraparticularrunningspeed,unbalancedforcescanbeinputasseparateloadconditionswheremaximumresponsefromeachisaddedand/ormaybespecifiedinthe
sameloadconditionifphaseanglesbetweenunbalancedforcesisknown.
EachloadconditionthatunbalancedforcesaretobedefinedisdesignatedbyaRSPEEDlinewiththerunningspeeddesignatedincolumns915.
GasTorqueLoading
Unbalancedforcesduetogastorquemaybeexpressedasmaximumgastorqueatvariousharmonicsorintheformofatotalgastorquecurve.
Whenunbalancedforcesduetogastorqueareknownforvariousharmonics,loadingisspecifiedintheformofaperiodicloadingusingUNBALlinesspecified
immediatelyaftertheRSPEEDline.
Thejointtowhichtheloadisappliedisdesignatedincolumns811.TheforcetypeSINisusedforloaddescribedbyasinglesinewave(amplitudeandphaseangle)
andmustbedesignatedincolumns1214.Theforcesactingonthejointaredesignatedincolumns1758.
Enterthephaseangleincolumns5965,theinterpolationtype,eitherLNorNL,incolumns6667andtheharmonicnumberincolumns6869.
Theprogramallowsloadingtobegroupedandconsiderseachloadgrouptoactindependently.Themaximumdisplacementsresultingfromeachloadgrouparesummed
togethertodeterminethetotaldisplacement.Theloadgrouptowhichthisforceisassignedisstipulatedincolumns7071.
Forexample,agastorqueabouttheglobalXaxisatjoint107isknownforthefirst3harmonicsatarunningspeedof300rpm.Sincephasingisknown,eachvalueisto
beassignedtothesameloadgroup,loadgroup1.Linearinterpolationistobeusedbetweenrunningspeeds.

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AtotalgastorquecurvemaybeinputasaseriesofequallyspacedpointsintimeusinganUNBALlineandLDFACTlinesimmediatelyaftertheRSPEEDline.
Thejointtowhichtheloadisappliedisdesignatedincolumns811.TheforceoptionTIM,designatingforceinputbyaseriesofequallyspacedtimepoints,mustbe
designatedincolumns1214.Theappliedforcesactingonthejointaredesignatedincolumns1758.
Entertheinterpolationtype,eitherLNorNL,incolumns6667andthehighestharmonicnumbertobeusedfromtheFourierseriesincolumns7273.Theloadgroup
towhichthisforceisassignedisstipulatedincolumns7071.
Note:TheharmonicnumberandphaseanglefieldsmustbeleftblankwheninputtingloaddescribedbyequallyspacedtimepointsasdesignatedbytheTIMforce
option.
ThefollowingexampleshowsatotalgastorquecurveformomentabouttheglobalXaxisatjoint107definedat300rpm.Thecurvewillbedefinedat18degree
increments(20points).Eachvalueonthecurveistobeassignedtothesameloadgroup,loadgroup1.Linearinterpolationistobeusedbetweenrunningspeedsandthe
highestharmonicnumbertobeusedis10.

MechanicalUnbalancedForces
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MechanicalunbalancedforcesarespecifiedintheformofaperiodicloadingusingUNBALlinesspecifiedimmediatelyaftertheRSPEEDline.
Thejointtowhichtheforcesareappliedisdesignatedincolumns811.TheforcetypeSINisusedforloaddescribedbyasinglesinewave(amplitudeandphaseangle)
andmustbedesignatedincolumns1214.Theforcesactingonthejointaredesignatedincolumns1758.
Enterthephaseangleincolumns5965,theinterpolationtype,eitherLNorNL,incolumns6667andtheharmonicnumberincolumns6869.
Theprogramallowsloadingtobegroupedandconsiderseachloadgrouptoactindependently.Themaximumdisplacementsresultingfromeachloadgrouparesummed
togethertodeterminethetotaldisplacement.Theloadgrouptowhichthisforceisassignedisstipulatedincolumns7071.
Forexample,acompressorhasprimaryandsecondarymechanicalunbalancedforcesthatcreatemomentsabouttheglobalYandZaxeswhicharephased90degrees
apart.At300rpms,theprimaryandsecondaryunbalancedforcescreate16000inkipand2600inkipmomentsabouttheYaxisand2400inkipand750inkipmoments
abouttheZaxisrespectively,appliedatjoint107.Becausetheunbalancedforcesareassumedtovarywiththesquareoftherunningspeed,nonlinearinterpolationwitha
powerof2istobeused.

GeneralUnbalancedPeriodicForces
Generalunbalancedforcesmaybeinputintheformoftimehistoryorperiodicloading.
Whenunbalancedforcesareknownforvariousharmonics,loadingisspecifiedintheformsinewavesofaknownamplitudeandphaseangleusingUNBALlines
specifiedimmediatelyaftertheRSPEEDline.UnbalancedforcesmayalsobeinputintheformofatimehistorywithequallyspacedtimepointsusinganUNBALline
andLDFACTlines.
Ineithercase,thejointtowhichtheloadisappliedisdesignatedincolumns811.Theforcetype,eitherSINforsinglesinewaveorTIMfortimehistory,mustbe
designatedincolumns1214.Theforcesactingonthejointaredesignatedincolumns1758.
Singlesinewavetypeloadingrequiresthephaseangleincolumns5965andtheharmonicnumberincolumns6869whilethetimehistorytyperequiresonlythehighest
harmonictobeusedfromtheFourierseriesincolumns7273.
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Theinterpolationtype,eitherLNorNL,mustbedesignatedincolumns6667.Theloadgrouptowhichthisforceisassignedisstipulatedincolumns7071.
Note:Theprogramallowsloadingtobegroupedandconsiderseachloadgrouptoactindependently.Themaximumdisplacementsresultingfromeachloadgroupare
summedtogethertodeterminethetotaldisplacement.
ThefollowingillustratesanunbalancedforcealongtheglobalZandabouttheglobalXaxisatjoint107.Theforceisknownforthefirst3harmonicsatarunningspeed
of300rpmandeachvalueistobeassignedtothesameloadgroup,loadgroup1.Linearinterpolationistobeusedbetweenrunningspeeds.

ThefollowingexampleshowsaforcetimehistoryinputformomentabouttheglobalXaxisatjoint107definedat300rpm.Thecurvewillbedefinedat18degree
increments(20points).Eachvalueonthecurveistobeassignedtothesameloadgroup,loadgroup1.Linearinterpolationistobeusedbetweenrunningspeedsandthe
highestharmonicnumbertobeusedis10.

OutputOptions
Theenginevibrationanalysiscalculatesgeneralizedforcesandjointdisplacementsforthevariousconditionsdefined.Jointdisplacementsmaybecomparedtoallowable
displacementcurvesandexpressedintermsofadisplacementunitycheckratio.
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GeneralizedForces
Generalizedforceprintoptionsaredesignatedincolumns5354ontheENGVIBline.EnterPTforthestandardgeneralizedforceprintorFLforafullprint.
JointResults
JointresultsforalljointsthatexceedtheallowabledisplacementatanyrunningspeedmaybeprintedbyspecifyingPTincolumns5758ontheENGVIBline.
JointdisplacementsmayalsobeplottedbyspecifyingPLincolumns5556.Bedefault,alljointsareplottedwhenthejointplotfeatureisinstigated.Jointstobeplotted
maybedesignatedusingtheJNTPLTlinefollowingtheENGVIBline.
Forexample,thefollowingdesignatesthatjointresultsaretobeplottedforjoints101,103,105and107.

PlotOptions
OptionalplotoptionsmaybedesignatedusingthePLTOPTline.Uptothreeallowablecurvesmaybeplottedonthejointdisplacementplots.Designatetheallowable
curvestobeplottedincolumns1116asfollows:
DLDLineAllowable
SNSNAME
MLUSMilitarySpecification
EnterGRincolumns3536ifgridlinesaretobeincludedontheplots.Plotsizeandcharactersizesmayalsobespecifiedincolumns1734.
Thefollowingillustratestheinputtoplotjointresultsforjoints101,103,105and107.DLineandSNAMEallowablecurvesaretobeshownalongwithgridlines.

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2.4SPECTRALWINDANALYSIS
TheDynamicResponseprogramhastheabilitytoperformspectralwindanalyses.Theprogramhasspecializedfeaturesthatgeneratesolutionfilesforextremewind
analysisandwindfatigueanalysis.
2.4.1ExtremeWind
TheprogramcanbeusedtoanalyzewinddynamicallyutilizingaHarriswindspectrumandcreateasolutionfilecontainingendforces,stresses,reactionsand
displacementsforeachwindvelocitytobeanalyzed.Theseresultscontaindynamicamplificationandcanbecombinedwiththestaticresultsduetoselfweight,etc.
GeneratingthedynamicresultsrequiresthataerodynamicdataandthewindvelocitiestobeanalyzedbespecifiedintheSeastateinput(orSACSmodelfile)whileall
otherdataincludinganalysis,spectrumandplotoptionsaredesignatedintheDynamicResponseinputfile.
GeneralModelOptions
TheJOoptionwhichdesignatesthatonlystressesatthejointsaretobecontainedinthesolutionfileshouldbedesignatedincolumns2728ontheOPTIONSlinein
theSACSmodelfile.Foreachelement,thedynamicamplificationfactorisbasedonthestressintheelementandisafunctionofthedynamicRMSstressandthestatic
stress.Becauseeachmemberinternalloadwillbefactoredbyauniquedynamicamplificationfactorapplicableonlytothatparticularinternalload,internalloadsarenot
consistentwitheachothernoraretheyconsistentwiththeappliedloadingalongthemember.Therefore,stressesandunitycheckcalculationsareonlyvalidatthe
memberends.
Note:Forextremespectralwindanalysis,theanalysisoptionincolumns1920oftheOPTIONSlineshouldbeleftblank.ThedynamicanalysisoptionDYshouldNOT
bespecified.
AerodynamicandWindData
AerodynamicandwinddatamustbespecifiedintheSeastateinputorSACSmodelfile.
TheWINSeastateoptionmustbespecifiedincolumns5658ontheLDOPTline.WindloaddataisspecifiedaftertheLOADline.Eachloadcasedefinedshould
containonlywindloadingwiththemeanwindvelocityspecifiedasthewindspeed.
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Note:Eachwindshouldbespecifiedasaseparateloadcase.Asmanywindspeedsanddirectionsasdesiredmaybespecified.
Thefollowingsampleinputshowstwowindcaseswithameanvelocityof100forthe0degreeand90degreedirections.

DynamicResponseOptions
DynamicresponseoptionsincludinganalysisandplotoptionsaredesignatesintheDynamicResponseinputfile.
AnalysisType
TheanalysislabelWINDmustbeenteredincolumns710ontheDROPTlineforspectralwindanalysis.
DampingMethod
OnlystructuraldampinginputontheSDAMPlineisconsideredforspectralwindanalyis.
Note:Becausefluiddampingisnotsupported,theFDAMPlineshouldnotbeusedforspectralwindanalysis.
SpectralWindData
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SpectralwinddataisspecifiedontheSPCWINlineimmediatelyfollowingtheLOADheader.DesignatetheextremewindanalysisoptionEXincolumns89.
Bydefault,600secondsisusedasthemeanwindspeedaveragingtimeusedtocalculatethedynamicamplificationfactors.Thisvaluemaybeoverriddenbyenteringan
averagingtimeoverrideincolumns3944.
Foreachwindspeedtobeanalyzed,aHarriswindspectrumiscreatedbasedonthewindvelocityatthereferenceheightalongwiththespectrumreferencelengthand
surfaceroughnessparametersinputbytheuser.TheprogramusesthisgeneratedHarrisspectrumtodeterminemodelresponses.Enterthereferencelengthandsurface
roughnesstobeusedfortheHarrisspectrumincolumns4550and5156,respectively.
Bydefault,theprogramcalculatesthespatialcorrelationconstant,enterSKincolumns3536ifaspatialcorrelationconstantisnottobeused.
Thefollowingshowstheinputforaspectralextremewindanalysis.Defaultvaluesforwindaveragingtime,Harrisspectrumreferencelengthandroughnesscoefficient
aretobeused.

OutputOptions
Bydefaulttheprogramcreatesacommonsolutionfilecontainingendforces,stresses,reactionsanddisplacementsforeachwindloadcasespecifiedintheSeastateinput
file.
Theprogramalsohastheabilitytoplotageneralizedforcespectrumand/oraresponsespectrumforeachwindspeed.EnterPLincolumns1415and1718
respectivelytooutputgeneralizedforceandresponsespectra.
Entertheprintleveldesiredincolumns1112asfollows:
MNMinimumprintcontainingonelineofoutputforeachwindspeedanalyzed
MDModerateprintlevelcontainingonepageofoutputforeachwindanalyzed
MXMaximumprintcontainingdetailedoutputincludingspectrumforeachwindanalyzed.
Static+WindCombinations
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TheDynamicResponsehastheabilitytooptionallycombinespectralwindresultswithstaticresultsaspartoftheextremewindanalysis.Whenusingthisfeature,the
programcreatesawind+staticcombinationforeachwindloadcase.Ifadifferentjointcheckandmembercheckfactorsarespecifiedhowever,twocombinationsare
createdforeachwindloadcase.
Note:Thisfeaturerequiresthatthestaticsolutionfileexistpriortoexecutionofthespectralwindanalysis.
ThewindandstaticcombinationinformationisinputusingtheSTCMBline.Enterthefactortobeappliedtothewindloadswhencombinedwiththestaticloadsforthe
purposeofmemberandplateelementcheckincolumns812.Thefactortobeappliedtowindloadswhencombinedwithstaticloadsforjointcheckisinputincolumns
1317.Entereachofthestaticloadcasestobecombinedwiththeseismicloadcasesandtheloadfactortobeapplied.
Forexample,105%ofloadcases8and9containedinthestaticsolutionfilearetobecombinedwiththewindsolution.Forsamefactorwindloadcasefactorisusedfor
elementcheckandjointcancheck.

Note:TheSTCMBlineshouldfollowtheSDAMP,FDAMPandMODSELlinesintheinputfile.
CombiningwithStaticResultsManually
Theprogramcreatesacommonsolutionfilecontainingendforces,stresses,reactionsanddisplacementsforeachwindloadcasespecifiedintheSeastateinputfile.
BecausetheseresultsareobtainedbycombiningmodalresultsusingRMStechniques,endforces,stresses,etc.havenosignassociatedandaretakenasallpositive
values.Therefore,whencombiningspectralwindresultswithstaticresultsmanually,thePRSTandPRSCcombineoptionsmustbeused.
2.4.2WindFatigue
TheDynamicResponseprogramcanbeusedtoperformspectralwindfatigueanalysisutilizingaHarriswindspectrum.TheprogramcreatesaFatigueinputfile
containingfatigueloaddatainconjunctionwiththemodeparticipationfactorsandexecutestheFatiguemoduleautomatically.
GeneratingthedynamicresultsrequiresthataerodynamicandwindinformationbespecifiedintheSeastateinput(orSACSmodelfile)whileallotherdataincluding
analysis,spectrum,fatigueandplotoptionsaredesignatedintheDynamicResponseinputfile.
AerodynamicandWindData
AerodynamicandwinddatamustbespecifiedintheSeastateinputorSACSmodelfile.
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TheWINSeastateoptionmustbespecifiedincolumns5658ontheLDOPTline.WindloaddataisspecifiedaftertheLOADline.Eachloadcasedefinedshould
containonlywindloadingwiththemeanwindvelocityspecifiedasthewindspeed.Windloadcasesshouldbespecifiedinorderofincreasingwindspeed,withallwind
casesforaparticulardirectionspecifiedfollowedbyallwindloadcasesforthenextdirection.
Thewindloadsspecifiedareusedtodeterminethefatiguedamage.Astressrangeiscalculatedoreachwindspeedspecified.TheHarrisspectrumisthenusedto
determinetheprobabiltyofoccurrenceofthatspeed.
Note:Eachwindshouldbespecifiedasaseparateloadcase.Asmanywindspeedsanddirectionsasdesiredmaybespecified.
Thefollowingsampleinputshowswindloadcaseswithspeedrangingfrom2to20fortwodifferentdirections.

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Note:Allwindcasesarespecifiedinthe0degreedirectionbeforethe90degreewindcasesareinput.
DynamicResponseOptions
Dynamicresponseoptionsincludinganalysis,fatigueandplotoptionsaredesignatedintheDynamicResponseinputfile.
AnalysisType
TheanalysislabelWINDmustbeenteredincolumns710ontheDROPTlineforspectralwindanalysis.
DampingMethod
OnlystructuraldampinginputontheSDAMPlineisconsideredforspectralwindanalyis.
Note:Becausefluiddampingisnotsupported,theFDAMPlineshouldnotbeusedforspectralwindanalysis.
SpectralWindData
SpectralwinddataisspecifiedontheSPCWINlineimmediatelyfollowingtheLOADheader.DesignatethewindfatigueanalysisoptionFTincolumns89.
Bydefault,600secondsisusedasthemeanwindspeedaveragingtimeusedtocalculatethedynamicamplificationfactors.Thisvaluemaybeoverriddenbyenteringan
averagingtimeoverrideincolumns3944.TheprogramusesaHarriswindspectrumtodeterminemodalresponses.Enterthereferencelengthandsurfaceroughnessto
beusedfortheHarrisspectrumincolumns4550and5156,respectively.
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Thefollowingshowstheinputforaspectralwindfatigueanalysis.Defaultvaluesforwindaveragingtime,Harrisspectrumreferencelengthandroughnesscoefficient
aretobeused.

OutputOptions
TheprogramcreatesaFatigueinputfilecontainingfatigueloaddataforeachwinddirectionspecifiedintheSeastateinputfile.
Theprogramalsohastheabilitytoplotageneralizedforcespectrumand/oraresponsespectrumforeachwindspeed.EnterPLincolumns1415and1718
respectivelytooutputgeneralizedforceandresponsespectra.
Entertheprintleveldesiredincolumns1112asfollows:
MNMinimumprintcontainingonelineofoutputforeachwindspeedanalyzed
MDModerateprintlevelcontainingonepageofoutputforeachwindanalyzed
MXMaximumprintcontainingdetailedoutputincludingspectrumforeachwindanalyzed.
FatigueInputData
TheDynamicResponseprogramcreatestheinputfilerequiredbytheFatigueprogrammodule.FatigueinputoptionsarespecifieddirectlyintheDynamicResponse
inputfilefollowingtheSPCWINline.AllFatigueinputissupportedandmaybespecifieduptothepointofdefiningfatigueloadcasedata.Fatigueloadcasedatais
createdbytheprogramautomaticallybasedonwindspectrumoptionsspecifiedbytheuserontheWINSPClines.
Foreachwinddirection,windspectrumdatausedtocreatethemodalparticipationinputandthefatigueloadcaseinputisspecifiedonthecorrespondingWINSPCline.
Thewinddirectionisdesignatedincolumns713alongwiththefractionoftimethatwindfromthisdirectionoccursspecifiedincolumns1420.
TheWeibullspectrumlabelWEIisenteredincolumns2224alongwiththedistrubutionparametersKandAincolumns2632and3339,respectively.
ThefollowingillustratestheinputrequiredtogeneratetheFatigueinputfortwowinddirections,0and90degrees.Windsfrom0degreesoccur45%andwindsfrom90
degreesoccur55%asdesignatedontheWINSPClines.

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Note:EachwinddirectionistreatedasaseparatefatigueloadconditionandmustbedesignatedwithaWINSPCline.
2.5ICEFORCEANALYSIS
IceFatigue
TheDynamicResponseprogramcanbeusedtodeterminefatigueduetovibrationscausedbyiceforces.TheprogramcreatesaFatigueinputfilecontainingfatigueload
datainconjunctionwiththemodeparticipationfactorsandexecutestheFatiguemoduleautomatically.
AnalysisType
TheanalysislabelVIBRmustbeenteredincolumns710ontheDROPT.Foricevibrationanalysis,enterICEincolumns710ontheFVIBline.
LoadOptions
IceloadingandloadoptionsaredefinedusingtheFVIBandICEinputlinesspecifiedaftertheLOADheaderline.Effectivediameteroverridesusedtocalculateice
loadingmaybespecifiedusingGRPMDandMEMMDlines.
DampingMethod
SpecifythedampingtypeSDOstructuraldampingonly,LFDlinearizedfluiddampingorNFDfornonlinearfluiddampingincolumns1719ontheFVIBline.
Note:Fornonlinearfluiddamping,thefluidforcesarecalculatedateverytimestepduringtheintegration.Thisoptionrequirestheprogramcalculatedfluiddamping
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optionPContheFDAMPline.
Forlinearizedfluiddamping,thedampingamplitudeusedtocalculatetheequivalentlinearfluiddampingmaybeoverriddenbyspecifyingavalueincolumns2027.
EffectiveDiameterOverrides
TheeffectivediameterofmembersthatpenetratetheicesheetmaybeoverriddenusingtheMEMMDortheGRPMDlinesfollowingtheFVIBline.
Formembergroups,enterthegroupnameandtheeffectivediameterontheGRPMDline.Formemberstobemodified,enterthestartjoint,endjointandeffective
diameterontheMEMMDline.
Forexample,groupPL1,PL2andPL3representpilesinsideofthejacketlegthatpenetratetheicesheet.Theeffectivediameterismodifiedto0.001sothatnoice
loadingisappliedtomembersassignedtothesegroups.

IntegrationParameters
IntegrationparametersarestipulatedontheTIMEline.Enterthestartforthebeginningofthetimeintegrationincolumns1120andtheendtimeincolumns2130.The
outputtimeinterval,minimumintegrationstepandthetolerancefactoraredesignatedincolumns3140,4150and5160,respectively.
Forexample,thefollowingdescribesanicefunctionspecifiedintheinputfile.Thestarttimeis0secondsandendtime25seconds.Outputisrequestedatevery0.25
seconds.

FatigueInputData
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TheDynamicResponseprogramcreatestheinputfilerequiredbytheFatigueprogrammodule.FatigueinputoptionsarespecifieddirectlyintheDynamicResponse
inputfilefollowingtheFVIBorTIMEline.AllFatigueinputissupportedandmaybespecifieduptothepointofdefiningfatigueloadcasedata.Fatigueloadcasedata
iscreatedbytheprogramautomaticallybasedonicedataspecifiedbytheuserontheICElines.
ThefollowingshowsfatigueinputoptionscopiedintotheFatigueinputfilecreatedbytheprogram.

IceData
Foreachicefloe,theicedatausedtocreatethemodalparticipationinputandthefatigueloadcaseinputisspecifiedonthecorrespondingICEline.Eachicefloeis
treatedasanindividualfatigueloadcase.
Theicethickness,elasticmodulus,staticcrushingstrengthandtopoficeelevationarespecifiedincolumns813,1419,2025and3237,respectively.
Therationoftotallengthtoelasticlengthmustbedesignatedincolumns2631whilethefloedensityisdesignatedincolumns5055.
Theicestiffnessparameterusedtoestimatethestiffnessoftheiceisinputincolumns5661.Thedefaultvalue0.0315representsaninfinitesheetoficeflowingpasta
verticalcylinder.
Entertheicevelocityorthevelocityofthefirststepifusingmultiplesteps,incolumns4449.Ifusingmultiplestepstoobtainavariationofresultswithicevelocity,
enterthevelocitystepsizeincolumns6267.Thenumberofstepsshouldbestipulatedincolumns6870.
Thetimedurationenteredincolumns7176isthedurationofthefloeandisusedtodeterminethenumberofcyclesfordamagecalculations.
Thefollowingexample,shows5.0thickicefloeinthe40.0degreedirectionwithvelocitiesrangingfrom0.10to0.35.
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OutputOptions
TheicevibrationanalysiscreatesaFatigueinputfileinadditiontooptionalmodalresponseoutput.Optionaloutputoptionsaredesignatedincolumns3258ontheFVIB
line.
ModalResponseData
Modalresponsesversustimemaybeprintedand/orplottedbyspecifyingPRTandPLT,respectively,intheoutputoptionsfieldsontheFVIBline.EnterPPTto
havemodalresponsesprintedandplotted.
Note:Modalresponseoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybedesignated.

2.6DYNAMICIMPACTANALYSIS
TheDynamicResponseprogramcanbeusedtodeterminethetransientresponseofastructureresultingfromaccidentalimpactloading.Accidentalimpactloading
resultingfromafloatingvesselanddroppedobjectsareconsidered.Theprogramcanoutputequivalentstaticloadsatdiscreettimestepstobeusedforasubsequent
staticanalysisorincrementalloadsforasubsequentCollapseanalysis.AnalysistypeandanalysisoutputoptionsaredesignatedintheDynamicinputfileinadditionto
thebasicanalysisoptions.
2.6.1AnalysisType
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Enter'SHIP'incolumns710ontheDROPTlinetodesignateashipimpactanalysisorenter'DROP'todesignateadroppedobjectanalysis.
2.6.2LoadOptions
ForsshipimpactoradroppedobjectanalysistheinputloadingandloadoptionsareinputfollowingtheLOADheaderlineusingtheSHIP,DRPOBJandTHLOAD
inputlines.
2.6.3ShipImpactAnalysis
Forashipimpactanalysis,entertheshipparametersincludingtheshipweight,initialvelocity,direction,distancebeforeimpact,impactangle,coefficientoffriction
betweentheshipandthestructureandtheimpactjointnumberontheSHIPinputlinetogetherwith'SHIP'incolumns912oftheTHLOADlinetodesignateatime
historyshipimpactanalysis.
2.6.4DroppedObjectAnalysis
Toconductadroppedobjectanalysis,entertheobjectweight,initialvelocity,distancebeforeimpactandtheimpactjointnameontheDRPOBJinputlinetogetherwith
'DROP'incolumns912oftheTHLOADlinetodesignatetimehistorydroppedobjectanalysis.
2.6.5DampingMethod
GeneraltimehistoryoptionsaredesignatedontheTHLOADlineimmediatelyfollowingtheLOADheader.SpecifythedampingtypeSDOstructuraldampingonly,
LFDlinearizedfluiddampingorNFDfornonlinearfluiddampingincolumns1820.
Note:Fornonlinearfluiddamping,thefluidforcesarecalculatedateverytimestepduringtheintegration.Thisoptionrequirestheprogramcalculatedfluiddamping
optionPContheFDAMPline.
Forlinearizedfluiddamping,thedampingamplitudeusedtocalculatetheequivalentlinearfluiddampingmaybeoverriddenbyspecifyingavalueincolumns2128.
2.6.6InterpolationScheme
Themethodusedtointerpolatebetweentimehistoryinputvaluesisdesignatedincolumns2930ontheTHLOADinputline.EnterLN,QDorCUforlinear,
quadraticorcubicinterpolation,respectively.
2.6.7IntegrationParameters
IntegrationparametersarestipulatedontheTIMEline.Enterthestartforthebeginningofthetimehistoryintegrationincolumns1120.Iftheanalysisistoterminate
beforetheendofthetimehistoryinput,entertheendtimeincolumns2130.Theoutputtimeinterval,minimumintegrationstepandthetolerancefactoraredesignated
incolumns3140,4150and5160,respectively.
Forexample,thefollowingdescribesantimehistoryfunctionspecifiedintheinputfile.Structuraldampingonlyisusedinconjunctionwithlinearinterpolationas
designatedontheTHLOADline.Onetimehistoryfunctionisusedwithdirectionalityfactorsof1.0,1.0and0.5appliedtoitfortheX,YandZdirections,respectively.
Thestarttimeis0secondsandendtime25seconds.Outputisrequestedatevery0.25seconds.
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2.6.8OutputOptions
Thetimehistoryearthquakeanalysiscreatesloadcases,printsandplotsmodalresponses,baseshearandoverturningmomentinadditiontojointaccelerations,velocities
anddisplacements.Analysisoutputoptionsaredesignatedintheoutputoptionsfieldsincolumns3359ontheTHLOADline.
2.6.9LoadCaseCreation
TheDynamicResponseprogramhastheabilitytocreatealoadcasecorrespondingtothetimepointhavingmaximumoverturningmomentand/ormaximumbaseshear
byspecifyingMXMorMXSintheoutputoptionsfieldsontheTHLOADline,respectively.EnterALLifloadcasesaretobecreatedatforalltimepoints,enter
'ESL'togenerateequivalentstaticloadsfrasubsequentstaticanalysis,enter'CLP'togenerateincrementalloadsforaCollapseanalysis.
Note:the'ESL'andthe'CLP'optionsaremutuallyexclusive.
2.6.10ModalResponseData
Modalresponsesversustimemaybeprintedand/orplottedbyspecifyingPRTandPLT,respectively,intheoutputoptionsfieldsontheTHLOADline.
2.6.11BaseShearandOverturningMomentPlots
BaseshearandoverturningmomentplotsmaybegeneratedbyenteringPLMandPLSinoneoftheoutputoptionfieldslocatedontheTHLOADline.
2.6.12JointResults
Jointresultsincludingacceleration,velocityanddisplacementmaybeplottedandlistedforuptosixteenjoints.Jointplotoptionsarespecifiedintheoutputoptions
fieldsontheTHLOADline.
Jointaccelerationoptionsinclude:
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JMAPrintsmaximumandminimumvaluesforjointaccelerationforeachdirection.
JPASameasJMAplusplotsaccelerationtimehistory
JTASameasJPAplusprintsaccelerationtimehistorydata
Note:Jointaccelerationoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybeselected.
Jointvelocityoptionsinclude:
JMVPrintsmaximumandminimumvaluesforjointvelocityforeachdirection.
JPVSameasJMVplusplotsvelocitytimehistory
JTVSameasJPVplusprintsvelocitytimehistorydata
Note:Jointvelocityoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybeselected.
Jointdisplacementoptionsinclude:
JMDPrintsmaximumandminimumvaluesforjointdisplacementforeachdirection.
JPDSameasJMDplusplotsdisplacementtimehistory
JTDSameasJPDplusprintsdisplacementtimehistorydata
Note:Jointdisplacementoptionsaremutuallyexclusive.Onlyoneoftheoptionsmaybeselected.
Anynumberofjointsmaybedesignatedforplotsandreports.JointstobeoutputarespecifiedusingJTNUMlinesimmediatelyfollowingtheTHLOADline.
Thefollowingillustratesatypicaldynamicresponseinputforashipimpactanalysis.Theanalysisoptionissetto'SHIP'ontheDROPTline.Structuraldampingof5
percentisassignedontheSDAMPinputline.TheSHIPlinedescribesa1250tonneshipwithaninitialvelocityof6knotstravellingina180degreedirection.The
distancebetweentheshipandthestructureisgivenas1meter.TheoutputloadoptionontheTHLOADlineissettogenerateincrementalloadingforaCollapseanalysis.
Theresultsareoutputforjoints31P7and701ontheJTNUMline.Theanalysisstarttimeissetto0secondsandtheendtimeissetto2.0secondsontheTIMEinput
line.Theresultsareoutputatevery0.01seconds.

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Thefollowingexampleillustratesatypicaldroppedobjectanalysis.Theanalysisoptionissetto'DROP'ontheDROPTline.Structuraldampingof5%isassignedon
theSDAMPinputline.Theweightoftheobjectisdefinedas5tonnesontheDRPOBJline.Theinitialvelocityoftheobjectisdefinedas0meterspersecondsandthe
distancebeforeimpactisassignedas5meters.Theimpactjointisdefinedas3218.
TheoutputloadoptionissettogenerateincrementalloadingforaCollapseanalysisbyentering'CLP'incolumns5153oftheTHLOADline.Resultsareoutputforjoint
3218ontheJTNUMline.

3.0COMMENTARY
3.1BASEDRIVENSYSTEM
Theprimarypurposeofthedeflectiondrivensystemistocalculatethestructuralresponseduetoearthquakes.Forthispurpose,allsupportpointsareassumedtobe
movingwiththeground.Sinceamodalanalysisisbeingused,eachmodecanbeconsideredtoactindependentlyoftheothermodesandcanbeshowntoactasasingle
degreeoffreedomsystemasfollows:
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Theforcedeflectionrelationforanelasticlinearstructurecanbeexpressedas:
(1)
where{F}istheforcevector,[K]islinearstiffnessmatrixand{d}isthedeformationvector.
Separatingthefreeandthereactiondegreesoffreedom,theforcedeflectionrelationcanbeexpressedas:

(2)
wheretheFandRsubscriptsdifferentiatethefreeandreactiondegreesoffreedom.
Forabasedrivensystem,theloadinginthefreedegreesoffreedomisduetotheinertiaandcanbeexpressedas:
(3)
wheredFaretheaccelerationsofthefreedegreesoffreedomandMFFisthemassmatrix.
Fromequation(2),
(4)
whichbecomes:
(5)
Thedeformationofafreedegreeoffreedomcanbeexpressedintermsofdeformationduetoexternalloadsanddeformationduetomovementofthesupports,sothat
(6)
wheredFEisduetoexternalloadsanddFSisduetomovementofthesupports.Equation(4)becomes
(7)
bydefinition
(8)
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sothat
(9)
or
(10)
Substituting(10)into(6)yieldsthefollowing:
(11)
Differentiatingbothsidestwicewithrespecttotime,produces
(12)
Substitutingequation(11)and(12)intoequation(5),
(13)
Thedeformationofthefreedegreesoffreedomwiththebasefixedcanbeexpressedintermsofthenormalvibrationmodesoftherestrainedstructuresuchthat
(14)
whereFFaremodeshapesandrepresentsmodalcoordinates.Substitutingequation(14)intoequation(13)yieldsthefollowing:
(15)
Notingthattheeigenvalues/vectorrelationofthemassmatrix,
(16)
wherenarethenaturalfrequenciesoftherestrainedstructure,substituting(16)into(15)andmultiplyingbythemodeshapes,

(17)
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Notingthatthegeneralizedmassisexpressedas:
(18)
equation(17)becomes:
(19)
or
(20)
DefiningtheparameterRas
(21)
equation(20)maybeexpressedas:
(22)
Modaldampingcanbeaddedsothat
(23)
wherecisthemodalcriticaldampingratio.Equation(23)thenrepresentsthemodalequationofmotionforastructuresubjectedtobasedrivenexcitation.Eachofthe
modesontheleftsideoftheequationareuncoupledsothateachmodecanbeanalyzedasanequivalentsingledegreeoffreedomsystem.
3.1.1ResponsesDuetoSinusoidalInput
Ifthebasemotioncanbedescribedbysinusoidalinputsuchthat
(24)
thentheequationofmotionbecomes
(25)
NotethattheRmatrixisanNMxNRmatrixwhereNMisthenumberofmodesandNRisthenumberofreactiondegreesoffreedom.Ifthereactiondegreesoffreedom
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arenotmovingtogetherasifrigidlyconnected,therewillbestressesinducedduetotherelativesupportpointmotions.Theseeffectscanbeaccountedforbyusing
equation(10)andsubstitutingintotheelementalstressdeformationrelations.Forthepurposeofearthquakeresponse,itisassumedthatthereisnosignificantrelative
motionbetweensupportsandthatthoseresultingstresseswouldbeinsignificant.
Theresponseofthemodaldegreesoffreedominequation(25)canbeobtainedbysimilaritywithsingledegreeoffreedomsystemssuchthatthemaximumsteadystate
responseamplitudecanbeexpressedas:

(26)
3.1.2ResponsesDuetoTimeHistoryBaseMotion
Ifthebasemotionconsistsofahistoryofaccelerationsversustime,thentheequationofmotionbecomes:
(27)
wherethebasemotionisrepresentedbydR(t).
Inthiscase,theresultsareobtainedbyintegratingeachoftheequivalentsingledegreeoffreedommodalequationsinthetimedomaintoobtainthedeflections,
velocities,andaccelerationsversustime.Thisapproachisveryusefulwhenmeasureddataisavailable.
Theeffectivemodaldampingisextremelyimportantincomputingthedynamicresponseofastructure.Inthecaseofastructureimmersedinafluid,theeffectsofthe
fluidonthestructurecanbetoeffectivelyincreasethemodaldampinginadditiontotheeffectiveincreaseinmass.TherearetwooptionsavailableintheDynamic
Responseprogramforthistypeoffluiddampingconsideration.Thefirstistoassumeavalueofeffectivefluiddampingandcomputetheresponsesaccordingly.This
approachrequireslesscomputertime,butrequiresmoreknowledgeabouttheeffectsoffluidonthestructurethanisnormallyavailable.Intheothercase,theprogram
willcalculatethefluidforcesonthestructureateachintegrationtimestepandusetheseforcesintheequationsofmotion.
3.1.3ResponsesDuetoSpectralInput
Theoutputpowerspectraldensity(PSD)isrelatedtotheinputPSDbythemechanicaladmittancefunctionasfollows:
(28)
whereisoutputthepowerspectraldensity,istheinputpowerspectraldensityandHisthemechanicaladmittancefunction.Forasingledegreeoffreedomsystem,
theHfunctionis:

(29)
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Extendingthesingledegreeoffreedomsystemresultstoamultidegreeoffreedomsystem,themechanicaladmittancefunctionbecomes:
(30)
Themeansquaredresponseofasingledegreeoffreedomsystemduetospectralinputis:

(31)
Formoststructuralapplications,thedampingislargeenoughtoresultinanarrowbandedtransferfunction.Inthatcase,theinputPSDcanbeconsideredconstant(white
noise)inthevicinityofthenaturalfrequencyresultinginaresponseof:

(32)
Formultidegreeoffreedomsystems,theresponsebecomes:

(33)
Therefore:
(34)
Insomecases,theinputPSDisnotsupplied,buttheresponseofasingledegreeoffreedomsystemversusfrequency(responsespectrum)issupplied.Inthatcase,theR
matrixcanbeusedasshowninequation(34)tocomputetheresponseofeachmode.
Equation(34)givestheresponseofamodeforbasemotioninputinaparticulardirection.Thenextconsiderationishowtocombinethemodestoobtainthetotal
responseforexcitationinonedirectionandhowtocombinetheresultsformultidirectionaldrivingmotions.Normally,themodesareassumedtohavesufficient
frequencyseparationsuchthattheresponsescanbeconsideredtobeuncorrelated.Ifthatassumptionisvalid,thenthemodescanbecombinedusingtheSRSS(Square
RootoftheSumoftheSquares)method.Inthecasewherethereisinsufficientseparation,itmaybenecessarytoconsidercorrelationbetweenmodalresponses.Inthat
case,themodescanbecombinedusingtheCQC(CompleteQuadraticCombination)method.
Ineithercase,thebasedrivinginputfromdifferentdirectionsareassumeduncorrelatedsothatthecombinationofresponsesforthedifferentdirectionsaredoneusing
theSRSSapproach.
Asinthecaseofthetimehistoryanalysis,dampingeffectsareveryimportantandinthecasewherethestructureisimmersedinafluid,thedampingduetofluidisa
nonlineareffect.Forthespectralanalysis,theDynamicResponseprogramhasthreeapproachestothefluiddampingcalculations.Thefirstandmostsimplisticisto
assumealinearmodaldampingvalueandproceedwiththenormalresponsecalculations.Sincethefluidforcesarenonlinearandthebasisforthespectralapproachis
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linear,theDynamicResponseprogramhastwoadditionaloptionsforcalculatingthenonlineardamping.Thebasicapproachistocalculateanequivalentlineardamping
ratiothatwilldissipatethesameamountofenergyinonecycleastheactualnonlinearfluiddamping.Theamountofenergydissipateddependsontheamplitudeofthe
response.Oneoptionallowstheusertospecifytheresponseamplitudetobeusedintheequivalentlineardampingcalculations.Thenextoptionistoallowtheprogram
tocalculatetheamplitudethroughaniterationtechniqueasfollows:Firsttheresponseiscalculatedusingthefluiddampingbasedonanassumedamplitude.Thenbased
onthatresponse,theequivalentfluiddampingisrecalculatedforthenextresponsecalculation.Thisprocessisrepeateduntiltheresponseamplitudeagreeswiththe
amplitudeusedintheequivalentfluiddampingcalculation.Thisiterationproceduredoesnotusealargeamountofcomputertimesincetheresponsecalculationsonly
involveafewmodaldegreesoffreedom.
3.1.4EquivalentStaticLoadGeneration
Theprogramhastheabilitytogenerateasetofequivalentstaticloadsfortheearthquakeevent.
Theequivalentstaticloadprocedureassumesthattheprimarystructureresponsemayoccurinanydirectionduringtheearthquakeevent(notonlyalongtheXorYaxis).
Theresponseofthestructureisthereforecalculatedfor20directions(every18degrees).Foreachofthethesetwentydirections,thebaseshearinthatdirectionandthe
momentaboutthatdirectionaredetermined.Equivalentstaticloadsarethengeneratedusingthedirectionwithhighestbaseshearoroverturningmoment,basedonthe
outputoptionselected.
Note:TheprogramprintstheresponseintheX(0.0degree)andY(90.0degree)directions.Becausetheseresponsesdonotoccuratthesametime,theequivalentstatic
loadmaybegeneratedforadifferentdirection.
3.2ForceDrivenSystem
Therearemanyapplicationsforforcedrivensystemssuchasvibrationsduetooperatingmachinery,impactloadings,windgustloadings,etc.Theequationtodescribe
theforcedrivensystemissimplerthanthebasedrivensystem.Ingeneralizedcoordinates(modalform),theequationis:
(35)
where[M]isthegeneralizedmass,[C]isgeneralizeddamping,[K]isgeneralizedstiffness,{F}isthegeneralizedforcevectorand{}ismodaldisplacement.
Sincetheseequationsareuncoupled,eachmodecanbeanalyzedseparatelyandtheresultsthencombinedinalinearmannerasrequired.Thecalculationofthe
generalizedforcesconsistsimplyofsummingtheforcemultipliedbythenormalizedmodaldisplacementsforalltheforcesapplied.Thisresultsinananalysisdirectly
comparabletoasingledegreeoffreedomanalysis.
Basically,theforcedrivenapplicationscanbedividedintotwocategories,periodicloadingsandtimehistoryloadings.Inthecaseofperiodicloadings,theequation
describingtheseapplicationscanbeexpressedas:

(36)
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whereisthedrivingfrequency,nisthenaturalfrequencyandcisthedampingratio.
Thesteadystateresponsecanbeexpressedas:
(37)

(Amplitude)

(38)
(PhaseAngle)

(39)

(40)
Theresponsefrequencyisthesameasthedrivingfrequency.
Theprogramallowsanynumberofforcesandmomentstobeappliedatanynumberofjoints.Themodalresponsesarecalculatedforallmodesandforallforcing
functions.Theresultingdeflections,internalloads,stresses,etc.arethenavailableforanysubsequentpostprocessing.
Oneofthemostcommonapplicationsfortheperiodicvibrationanalysiscapabilityistopreventmachineryfromcausingunacceptablevibrationlevelsinlivingquarters.
Inthiscase,thegoverningcriterionisthatdeflectionoraccelerationdoesnotexceedamaximumallowableforanytranslationdegreeoffreedomforthe
engine/compressoroperatingspeedrange.Theprogramsearchesthroughallthetranslationdegreesoffreedomanddeterminethemaximumperiodspecifiedforall
conditions.
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Fortimehistoryanalyses,thegeneralizedforceiscalculatedasafunctionoftimebasedontheinputloadtimehistoriessuppliedbytheuser.Anynumberofloadtime
historiescanbeinputwhichtheprogramwillusetocalculateaccelerations,velocities,anddisplacementsbyintegrationtechniques.Theprogramusesavariablestep
integrationprocedurewhichefficientlychangesstepsizetomaintainerrorcontrolregardlessofhowsloworfastthevariablesarechanginginvalue.
Theinputloadingisdescribedattimepointsthroughoutthecompletetimehistory.Fortheintermediatetimepoints,theprogrammustusesomeformofinterpolation
scheme.Thisisanoptionfortheuserwhichcanbeverysignificant.Theoptionsavailablearelinear,quadratic,andcubicinterpolations.Linearinterpolationallowsthe
usertorepresentsuddenchangesinloadingsuchasstepfunctions,ramps,impulses,etc.withouthavingtheinterpolationfunctionsmoothingoutthedesiredchanges.On
theotherhand,theusercanrepresentasmoothfunctionwithfewerpointsandwithoutintroducinganyroughnessbyusinghigherorderinterpolationschemes.
3.2.1AllowableDisplacementforReciprocatingMachinery
Thefollowingiswhatwehavefoundforallowabledisplacementinmils(mil=onethousandthofaninch):
SNAME(TheSocietyofNavalArchitectsandMarineEngineers):

whereVmax=293mils/sec
Reference:
TechnicalandResearchBulletin225
ShipVibrationandNoiseGuidelines
PreparedbyPanelHS7oftheHullStructureCommittee
PublishedbyTheSocietyofNavalArchitectsandMarineEngineers
OneWorldTradeCenter,Suite1369,NewYork,N.Y.10048
January1980
DLineisfromCDG"D"LinefromShell:

whereVmax=149mils/sec
MilitarySpecisfrom"LExp"MilitaryLongExposureAllowable:
Forf<=1200cpm

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For5400>=f>1200cpm

Forf>5400cpm

3.3IceVibration
Whenasheetoficemovespassastructure,theicebreaksasitencountersthestructuralmembersthatpenetratetheicesheet.Afterbreaking,theicebuildsuptobreaking
loadandbreaksagain.ThisbreakingandbuildupcycleisshowninthefigureonthefollowingpagewhereQisthebuildupdistanceandPistheoverallbreaking
distance.Thedeflectionistherelativedeflectionbetweentheiceandthestructureatthepointofcontact.Theslopeofthebuildupisbasedontheicedeflectionas
analyzedbythemodelofasimulatedinfiniteicesheet.Fromthisanalysis,theicestiffnesshasbeenparameterizedtobeafunctionoficethickness,icemodulusof
elasticity,andthewidthofpenetration.
Sincetheiceforceisafunctionofrelativedisplacement,atimehistoryanalysisisperformed.Therelativedisplacementiscalculatedby:

whereUistherelativedisplacement,Viceistheicevelocity,tistime,dstructisthestructuraldeflectioninicefloedirectionanddcrushisthecrushedicedistancefrom
startofanalysis.
Thetimehistoryanalysisshouldbeconducteduntilthestartuptransientshavedissipated.Forthefatigueanalysis,theprogramusesthemodehavingthelargestresponse
tomonitorthecycles.Itusesthelasthalfofthetimehistoryandcalculatesthemaximumandminimumvalues.Itthencountsthenumberoftimesthatthemodecrosses
theaverageofthemaximumandminimum,anddividesbytwotocalculatethenumberofcycles.Thisvalueisthendividedintoonehalfofthetimespantogetan
effectiveperiod.

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3.4SpectralWind
TheRMSresponseforamodeimaybeexpressedusingthefollowingexpression:

whereSiisthegeneralizedforcespectrumandHiisthemechanicaltransferfunctionforthatmode.
ThegeneralizedforcespectrumusedforwindspectralanalysisisaHarriswindspectrumwithgusteffectsspatialcorrelationandmeanwindvelocityvariation.Forany
mode,thegeneralizedforcespectrumSi(f)istakenas:

whereFiisthegeneralizedforceandSv(f)istheHarrisspectrumgivenby:

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whereLHistheHarrisspectrumreferencelengthandv10isthevelocityatthereferenceheight.ThetermsJaiandJrtarethemeanwindvelocityvariationfunctionand
thegusteffectsspatialcorrelationfunction,respectively.
Themechanicaltransferfunctionforanymode,H(f),definestheratiooftherangeofcyclicstressasafunctionofthewindfrequencyandthemodenaturalfrequencyas
follows:

whereKiisthegeneralizedstiffness,fnisthenaturalfrequencyandcisthepercentdampingtypicallygivenasfractionsofcriticaldamping.
TheresponseforeachmodeiscombinedusingtheCQCmethodtoobtainthetotalresponse.Thetotalresponseisdeterminedfrom:

whereiandkis1numberofmodesandPikisthemodalcorrelationcoefficients.

4.0SAMPLEPROBLEMS
ThestructuresshowninFigurebelowwasusedtoillustratevariouscapabilitiesoftheDynamicResponseprogram.Sevenseparateresponseanalysesareillustrated:
1.Thedynamicresponseofthestructureduetogroundmotionwasdeterminedusingtheresponsespectrumapproach.Theresponsesofeachmodewere
addedusingtheCompleteQuadraticCombination(CQC)method.
2.TheresponseofthestructureduetogroundmotionwasdeterminedusingtheTimeHistoryapproach.
3.Thisproblemisanenginevibrationproblemwherethemotionofthedeckduetoexcitationfromreciprocatingmachinerywasanalyzed.
4.Thedynamicresponseduetoasteploaddefinedusingaforcetimehistorywasanalyzed.
5.Thestructuralresponseduetoextremewindgustsfromfourdirectionswasdetermined.
6.Fatiguedamageduetowindfatiguewasperformedusingthespectralwindcapabilities.
7.Fatiguedamageduetovibrationcausedbyicefloeswascalculatedbytheprogram.
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4.1SAMPLEPROBLEM1
ThefollowingisanexampleofaresponseanalysisforabasedrivensystemusingtheResponseSpectrumapproach.
ThestructureinFigure1standsin82.02feetofwater.Itislocatedinaseismiczonewithrocktypesoilwheretheratioofeffectivegroundaccelerationtogravitational
accelerationis0.20.
Theresponsespectrumwasappliedequallyalongbothprincipalorthogonalhorizontalaxesalongwithanaccelerationspectrumequaltoonehalfofthatappliedinthe
verticaldirection.Allthreespectrawereappliedsimultaneouslyandtheresponseswerecombinedusingthecompletequadraticcombination(CQC)method.Fivepercent
criticaldampingwasassumed.
Thestaticanalysisincludedgravityandbuoyancyloads.Thestressesinducedbyearthquakeloadswerecombinedwiththestaticstressesforthepurposeofmember
strengthcheck.Fortubularjointcheck,theseismicstressesweredoubledthencombinedwiththestaticstresses.Ineithercase,theallowablestresseswereincreasedby
70percent.
Note:Foranydynamicanalysis,afoundationsuperelement,dummypileorequivalentpilestubusedtosimulatethesoil/pileinteractionmustbedevelopedusingthe
PSIorPILEprogram.
Forthissampleproblem,LoadCase1containingthegravityandbuoyancyofthestructurewasgeneratedbySeastatethensolved.Dynpacwasusedtogeneratethe
dynamiccharacteristicsofthestructure.Themassofthestructureincludesthemassassociatedwithgravity,enclosedfluidandaddedmass.
TheDynamicResponseprogramwasusedtopredicttheresponseofthestructureduetothegroundmotioncausedbyanearthquake.Thestructurewasanalyzedusing
theresponsespectrumapproachwithaneffectivehorizontalgroundaccelerationof0.20*G.
ThefollowingistheDynamicResponseinputfileusedinconjunctionwiththegeneralizedmassfileandsolutionfilefromDynpac.

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ThefollowingisadetaileddescriptionoftheDynamicResponseinputfile,theresultsoftheanalysisensue:
A.TheDROPTlinespecifiesanalysisoptions,namely:
a.Abasedrivenspectralearthquakeanalysisistoperformed(SPECincolumns710).
b.Amudlineelevationof82.02isspecifiedincolumns1924.
B.TheSDAMPlinespecifiesthattheoverallstructuraldampingis5.0percent.
C.TheSTCMBlineisusedtohaveseismicandstaticresultscombinedautomatically.TheSTCMBlinedesignatesthefollowing:
a.Seismicloadingistobefactoredby1.0whencombinedwithstaticloadingforelementcheckloadcases.
b.Seismicloadingistobefactoredby2.0whencombinedwithstaticloadingforjointcheckloadcasesasdesignatedby2.0incolumns1317.
c.Loadcase1fromthestaticsolutionfileistobecombinedwiththeseismicloadcases.
D.TheLOADlinespecifiesthatloadingdataistofollow.
E.TheSPLAPIlinedefinesthespectralanalysisparametersasfollows:
a.TheAPIRP2AspectrumforsoiltypeAistobeusedforeachdirectionasspecifiedbyAincolumns22,29and36.
b.ModalresponseswillbecombinedusingtheCQCmethodasdesignatedincolumns3841.
c.Aresponseorgroundaccelerationfactorof0.20*Gisspecifiedincolumns1115.
d.Thepercentofthegroundaccelerationfactortobeappliedineachoftheglobaldirectionsis100.0,100.0and50.0fortheX,YandZglobaldirections
respectivelyasspecifiedby1.0,1.0and0.50incolumns1621,2328and3035,respectively.
F.TheresponsefunctionfortheglobalX,YandZdirectionsforjoint405isrequestedontheRSFUNCline.Theresponsefunctionandpowerspectraldensityfor
5percentdampingplottedversetimewillbegenerated(PG1WOincolumns7074).
BelowaretheresponsefunctionandspectraldensityplotscreatedinDynamicResponsefollowedbyaportionoftheoutputcontainingthedirectionalresponses.

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Note:ThisfilecreatedbytheDynamicResponseprogram,containstheresponsesforeachofthethreedirections.ThemodalresponsesarecombinedusingtheCQC
methodasspecifiedtoobtaindirectionalresponseswhicharethencombinedusingtheRMSorSRSSmethod.Thecombinestepsareexecutedautomaticallyaspartof
theDynamicResponseanalysis.
WhenusingtheSTCMBline,theprogramcreatesfourseismic+staticloadcombinations,twoforelementcheckandtwoforjointcancheck,foreachseismicloadcaseas
follows:
LC

CombineType

Description

PRST

Elementcodecheckcase,seismicaxialtension

PRSC

Elementcodecheckcase,seismicaxialcompression

PRST

Jointcancheckcase,seismicaxialtension

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PRSC

Jointcancheckcase,seismicaxialcompression

WhenusingtheSTCMBfeature,theCombineprogramisexecutedautomaticallytocombinetheseismicresultsandthestaticresults.Twoloadcasesforeachmember
checkandjointcheckwillbecreatedtoaccountforthecyclicnatureoftheseismicloading.
Thefollowingisthecombineinputfilecreatedbytheprogramandusedtocreatethecombinedloadcases.

Note:TheSTCMBfeaturerequiresthatthestaticsolutionfileexistpriortoexecutingtheearthquakeanalysis.IftheSTCMBfeatureisnoteused,theusermustcreatethe
CombineinputfileandexecuteCombineasaseparateanalysisstep.
ThefollowingarethePostandJointCaninputfiles,respectively,usedforpostprocessing:

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Note:Onlyloadcases1and2areselectedinthePostinputfile,whileonlyloadcases3and4areselectedintheJointCaninputfile.NoticealsothattheJOoption
whichdesignatesthatstressesaretobecheckedonlyatthememberendsisspecifiedinthePostinputfile.
4.2SAMPLEPROBLEM2
SampleProblem2issimilartoSampleProblem1exceptthatthedynamicresponseduetogroundmotionwascalculatedusingthetimehistoryapproach.
ThestructureinFigure1islocatedinaseismiczonewheresitespecificstudieshavebeenperformed.Thestudieshaveyieldedgroundaccelerationtimehistoryfunctions
foreachdirection.
Forthisanalysis,thetimehistorieswereappliedintherespectivedirectionsseparately.Fivepercentcriticaldampingwasassumed.
Thestaticanalysisincludedgravityandbuoyancyloads.Thestressesinducedbyearthquakeloadswerecombinedwiththestaticstressesforthepurposeofmember
strengthcheck.Fortubularjointcheck,theseismicstressesweredoubledthencombinedwiththestaticstresses.Ineithercase,theallowablestresseswereincreasedby
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70percent.
Thefollowingcontainsselectedportionsoftheinputandresultsoftheanalysis:
TheDynamicResponseprogramwasusedtopredicttheresponseofthestructureduetothegroundmotioncausedbyanearthquake.Thestructurewasanalyzedusinga
groundaccelerationtimehistoryforeachdirection.ThefollowingistheDynamicResponseinputfileusedinconjunctionwiththegeneralizedmassfileandsolutionfile
fromDynpac.PlotsoftimehistoryfunctionsusedfortheanalysisarelocatedinAppendixI.

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ThefollowingisadetaileddescriptionoftheDynamicResponseinputfile,theresultsoftheanalysisensue:
A.TheDROPTlinespecifiesanalysisoptions,namely:
a.Abasedriventimehistoryanalysisistoperformed(TIMEincolumns710).
b.Amudlineelevationof82.02isspecifiedincolumns1924.
B.TheSDAMPlinespecifiesthattheoverallstructuraldampingis5.0percent.
C.TheLOADlinespecifiesthatloadingdataistofollow.
D.TheTHLOADlinedefinesthespectralanalysisparametersasfollows:
a.ThetimehistoryfunctionsaredefinedinthisinputfilebyTHDATAlinesasspecifiedbyLINEincolumns912.
b.Onlystructuraldampingistobeused(SDOincolumns2123).
c.Thetimepointhavingthemaximumoverturningmomentistosavedasaloadcaseasdesignatedincolumns3335byMXM.
d.ThetimepointcorrespondingtothemaximumbaseshearistobesavedasaloadcaseasspecifiedbyMXSincolumns3638.
e.Plotsshowingthemodalresponses,oveturningmomentandbaseshearversustimearerequestedbyPLT,PLMandPLSrespectivelyincolumns39
47.
E.Thefirsttimehistoryisdefinedasconsistingonlyoffunctionone,thesecondtimehistoryconsistsofonlyfunctiontwoandthethirdtimehistoryconsistsonly
of50%offunctionthreeasshownontheTHFACTline.
F.TheTIMElinedesignatesthetimehistorystartandendtimesas0.0secondsand5.0secondsrespectively.
G.Threetimehistoryfunctionswillbespecifiedasdesignatedby3incolumn10.Thetimehistoryisanaccelerationvs.time(Aincolumn30)andislabeled
ELCM.
H.ThetimehistorydataforthethreefunctionsarespecifiedontheTHDATAline.Thetimepointisspecifiedincolumns1120followedbytheaccelerationvalue
forfunctionsone,twoandthreeincolumns2130,3140and4150respectively.
Theplotscreatedbytheanalysisfollowedbyaportionoftheoutputcontainingtheresponsesareonthefollowingpages.

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Note:ThisfilecreatedbytheDynamicResponseprogram,containstheresponsesforeachofthetimepositionyieldingmaximumoverturningmomentandmaximum
baseshear.ThemodalresponsesarecombinedbytheCombineprogramusingtheprincipalofsuperposition.Thecombinestepsareexecutedautomaticallyaspartof
theDynamicResponseanalysis.
Theresultoftheresponseanalysisisasolutionfileconsistingoftwoloadcases(maximumOTMandmaximumbaseshear)containinginternalloadsanddeflectionsfor
theseismiccondition.Theseresultswhichhavenosenseofdirection,mustbeaddedtothestaticanalysisresultsforthepurposeofjointandmembercodecheck.
TheCombineprogramwasusedtocombinetheseismicandstaticresults.Fourloadcasesforeachmembercheckandjointcheck(eighttotal)willbecreatedtoaccount
forthecyclicnatureoftheseismicloading.
Thefollowingisthecombineinputfileusedtocreatethecombinedloadcases.

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4.3SAMPLEPROBLEM3
SampleProblem3isanenginevibrationproblemwherethemotionofadeckstructureduetoreciprocatingmachineryisanalyzed.
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Thestructureinfigurebelowcontainsthedeckstructureinconjunctionwithaskidcontainingrepresentationoftheengineandcompressor.

Forthisanalysis,theDynpacprogramwasusedtoextract60modes.TheDynamicResponseprogramwasusedtopredicttheresponseofthestructureduetothe
machinery.Runningspeedsof600rpmand1200rpmwereanalyzed.Gastorqueandunbalancedforceswereinputwith2%structuraldampingconsideredformodes
throughthetoprunningspeedand5%dampingforhigherfrequencymodes.
ThefollowingistheDynamicResponseinputfileusedinconjunctionwiththegeneralizedmassfileandsolutionfilefromDynpac.
Note:Thegastorquecurvefor1200rpmrunningspeedisnotshownforclarity.

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ThefollowingisadetaileddescriptionoftheDynamicResponseinputfile,theresultsoftheanalysisensue:
A.TheDROPTlinespecifiesanalysisoptions,namely:
a.Aenginevibrationanalysisistoperformed(ENGVincolumns710).
b.60modesaretobeusedasspecifiedincolumns1314.
c.Theinputfileistobeechoed.
B.ThefirsttwoSDAMPlinesspecifythatthestructuraldampingis2.0percentformodes1through20.
C.ThenextthreeSDAMPlinesspecifythatthestructuraldampingis5.0percentformodes21through60.
D.TheLOADlinespecifiesthatloadingdataistofollow.
E.TheENGVIBlinedefinesthevibrationanalysisparametersasfollows:
a.Theanalysiswillbeperformedforalowestrunningspeedof480rpmandahighestspeedof1440rpmasdefinedincolumns711and1419,respectively.
b.Runningspeedscorrespondingtoeachmodalfrequencywillbeanalyzed(MODincolumns2123).
c.60speedincrementswillbeusedasdesignatedincolumns2728.
d.Thenonlinearinterpolationpoweris2.0
e.Aminimumof20pointsaretobedeterminedinonecycleofthefundamentalfrequencywhilea10pointsaretobecalculatedinthehighestharmonic
f.AnormalizedforcesummaryalongwithajointexceedanceprintarerequestedbyPTincolumns5354and5758,respectively.
F.TheSNAME,DLineandMilitaryallowablecurvesaretobeplottedasindicatedonthePLTOPTline.
G.ThejointstobeplottedareinputontheJNTPLTline.
H.Thefirstinputsetofinputdatacorrespondstoarunningspeedof600rpmasdesignatedby600.incolumns1215ontheRSPEEDline.
I.ThefirstunbalancedforceisagastorquecurveabouttheglobalYaxisappliedatthecompressorjoint1001asdefinedbytheUNBALlineandthesubsequent
LDFACTlines.
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a.Atimehistorycurvetobeistobeappliedatjoint1001asspecifiedby1001incolumns811andTIMincolumns1214.
b.ThemomentfactorabouttheYaxisis0.01.Toobtainthemomentatanypoint,thisvaluewillbefactoredbythevaluesdefinedusingsubsequent
LDFACTlines.
c.Theharmonicnumberforthisforceis0and5harmonicsaretobeusedfromtheFourierseries.
d.Thisunbalancedloadisassignedtoloadgroup1asspecifiedincolumn71.
J.TheLDFACTlinesdesignateloadfactorsforeachpointonthecurve.Seventytwopointsrepresentingevery5degreesareusedtodefinethecurve.
K.Anequalbutoppositegastorqueisappliedattheenginejoint1002asdefinedbytheUNBALlineandthesubsequentLDFACTlines.Noticethatthis
unbalancedloadisappliedtoloadgroup1.
L.TheLDFACTlinesdesignateloadfactorsforeachpointonthecurveforjoint1002.
M.TheprimaryunbalancedforceisdefinedasamomentabouttheXaxisasfollows:
a.Amomentwithmagnitude4.44isappliedabouttheXaxisasdesignatedincolumns4144.
b.Becausethephaserelationshipbetweenthisforceandthegastorgueisunknown,theforceisassignedtoloadgroup2.
c.Theharmonicnumberforthisforceis0.
N.ThesecondaryunbalancedforcesaredefinedasamomentabouttheZaxis.
O.Thesecondrunningforwhichdataistobeinputisdefinedas1200rpmontheRSPEEDline.
Someplotscreatedbytheanalysisfollowedbyaportionoftheoutputareonthefollowingpages.

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4.4SAMPLEPROBLEM4
SampleProblem4isaforcetimehistoryanalysiswhereastepfunctionisappliedtothestructure.
ThestepfunctionFwasappliedatjoint257asshowninthefigurebelow:

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TheDynamicResponseprogramwasusedtopredicttheresponseofthestructure.ThefollowingistheDynamicResponseinputfileusedinconjunctionwiththe
generalizedmassfileandsolutionfilefromDynpac.

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ThefollowingisadetaileddescriptionoftheDynamicResponseinputfile,theresultsoftheanalysisensue:
A.TheDROPTlinespecifiesanalysisoptions,namely:
a.Aperiodicvibrationanalysisistoperformed(VIBRincolumns710).
b.10modesaretobeusedasspecifiedincolumns1314.
c.Theverticalaxisis+Z..
B.TheSDAMPlinespecifiesthattheoverallstructuraldampingis2.0percentforallmodes.
C.TheLOADlinespecifiesthatloadingdataistofollow.
D.TheFVIBlinedefinestheanalysisparametersasfollows:
a.TheanalysistypeisatimehistoryanalysisasdesignatedbyTHISwithtimehistoryinputspecifiedoninputlinestofollow(LINEincolumns1215).
b.Onlystructuraldampingistobeused(SDOincolumns1719).
c.Linearinterpolationistoused.
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d.BaseshearandoverturningmomentsaretobeplottedversustimeasindicatedbyPLSandPLM.
e.MMSincolumns4143specifiesthatloadcasesaretobecreatedforthetimepointscorrespondingtotimeofmaximumbaseshearandtimeof
maximumoverturningmoment.
f.Timehistoryplotsofjointaccelerationanddisplacementarerequested.
E.Joints257,301and307aretobeplottedasspecifiedontheJNTNUMline.
F.Theanalysisistorunfrom0.0to10.0secondsasdesignatedontheTIMEline.
G.ThetimehistoryforceoptionsarespecifiedontheTHFORCEline.Forceistobeappliedtoonejointatnonuniformtimeincrements.
H.ThestepfunctionisdefinedusingtheLOADlinesasfollows:
a.Fromtime0.0to0.5seconds,noforceisapplied.
b.Attime0.51seconds,a10.0forceintheXdirectionisapplied.Thisforceremainsconstantthrough10.0seconds.
Someplotscreatedbytheanalysisfollowedbyaportionoftheoutputareonthefollowingpages.

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4.5SAMPLEPROBLEM5
SampleProblem5isanextremespectralwindanalysis.
Anextreme150knotwindwasappliedtothestructurealongboththeglobalXandYdirections.ThewindloadingwasdefinedusingtheSeastateinputfilebelow:

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TheDynamicResponseprogramwasusedtopredicttheresponseofthestructure.ThefollowingistheDynamicResponseinputfileusedinconjunctionwiththe
generalizedmassfileandsolutionfilefromDynpac.

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ThefollowingisadetaileddescriptionoftheDynamicResponseinputfile,theresultsoftheanalysisensue:
A.TheDROPTlinespecifiesanalysisoptions,namely:
a.Aspectralwindanalysisistoperformed(WINDincolumns710).
b.10modesaretobeusedasspecifiedincolumns1314.
c.Theverticalaxisis+Z..
B.TheSDAMPlinespecifiesthattheoverallstructuraldampingis2.0percentforallmodes.
C.TheLOADlinespecifiesthatloadingdataistofollow.
D.TheSPCWINlinedefinestheanalysisparametersasfollows:
a.TheanalysistypeisanextremewindanalysisasdesignatedbyEXincolumns89.
b.Minimumprintisrequestedalongwithageneralizedforceplot(MNandPLincolumns1112and1415,respectively).
c.Thewindaveragingtimeis600seconds.
Someplotscreatedbytheanalysisfollowedbyaportionoftheoutputareonthefollowingpages.

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4.6SAMPLEPROBLEM6
SampleProblem6illustratesthespectralwindfatiguecapabilitiesoftheDynamicResponseprogram.Thestructurecontainsaflareboomandwascheckedforfatigue
damageduetowindsapproachingfromthe45and90degreedirections.
Inordertodeterminefatiguedamage,aerodynamicdatainadditiontoreferencewindspeedsforeachapproachdirectionmustbespecifiedbytheuser.Foreachwind
specified,aHarrisspectrumisusedtodeterminethedamagecausedbythatwindspeed.TheaerodynamicdataandwindloaddatawasdefinedusingtheSeastateinput
filebelow:

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TheDynamicResponseprogramwasusedtopredicttheresponseofthestructure.ThefollowingistheDynamicResponseinputfileusedinconjunctionwiththe
generalizedmassfileandmodalsolutionfilefromDynpac.

ThefollowingisadetaileddescriptionoftheDynamicResponseinputfile,theresultsoftheanalysisensue:
A.TheDROPTlinespecifiesanalysisoptions,namely:
a.Aspectralwindanalysisistoperformed(WINDincolumns710).
b.15modesaretobeusedasspecifiedincolumns1314.
c.Theverticalaxisis+Z..
B.TheSDAMPlinespecifiesthattheoverallstructuraldampingis2.0percentforallmodes.
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C.TheLOADlinespecifiesthatloadingdataistofollow.
D.TheSPCWINlinedefinestheanalysisparametersasfollows:
a.TheanalysistypeisafatiguewindanalysisasdesignatedbyFTincolumns89.
b.Minimumprintisrequestedalongwithageneralizedforceplot(MNandPLincolumns1112and1415,respectively).
E.Fatigueinputdataisspecifiedinthefileincludingoptions,jointselection,scfoverridesetc.
F.WindHarrisspectrumdataisspecifiedforthe45degreedirectiononthefirstWINSPClineasfollows:
a.Theapproachdirectionisdesignatedas45degreesincolumns912.
b.Thefractionofoccurrenceforwindsofthisdirectionis40%asindicatedby0.40incolumns1520.
cThemeanwinddistributiontypeisdesignatedasaWeibullbyWEIincolumns2224.
d.TheWeibullKandAparametersarespecifiedincolumns2632and3339,respectively.
G.WindHarrisspectrumdataisspecifiedforthe90degreedirectiononthesecondWINSPClineasfollows:
a.Theapproachdirectionisdesignatedas90degreesincolumns912.
b.Thefractionofoccurrenceforwindsofthisdirectionis60%asindicatedby0.60incolumns1520.
cThemeanwinddistributiontypeisdesignatedasaWeibullbyWEIincolumns2224.
d.TheWeibullKandAparametersarespecifiedincolumns2632and3339,respectively.
Someplotscreatedbytheanalysisfollowedbyaportionoftheoutputareonthefollowingpages.

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4.7SAMPLEPROBLEM7
SampleProblem7calculatesthefatiguedamageduetoicevibration.
Whenicebuildsupandcracks,thestructuretendstovibratethuscausingcyclicstresses.Thefatiguedamagecausedbyateninchthickicesheetflowingalongtheglobal
Xaxisatthewatersurfacewasdetermined.
TheDynamicResponseprogramwasusedtopredicttheresponseofthestructure.ThefollowingistheDynamicResponseinputfileusedinconjunctionwiththe
generalizedmassfileandmodalsolutionfilefromDynpac.

ThefollowingisadetaileddescriptionoftheDynamicResponseinputfile,theresultsoftheanalysisensue:
A.TheDROPTlinespecifiesanalysisoptions,namely:
a.Avibrationstudyistoperformed(VIBRincolumns710).
b.15modesaretobeusedasspecifiedincolumns1314.
c.Thewaterdepthis89.0.
B.TheSDAMPlinespecifiesthattheoverallstructuraldampingis5.0percentforallmodes.
C.TheLOADlinespecifiesthatloadingdataistofollow.
D.TheFVIBlinedefinestheanalysisparametersasfollows:
a.TheanalysistypeisanicefatigueanalysisasdesignatedbyICEincolumns79.
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b.Stucturaldampingonlyisused.
c.Baseshearandoverturningmomentaretobeplottedversustime.
d.Iceforcesanddisplacementsplotsarerequested.
E.Joints401,403,405and407aretobemonitoredasdesignatedontheJNTNUMline.
F.Theanalysisstartandendtimeareinputas0.0and20.0ontheTIMEline.
G.FatigueoptiondataisspecifiedinthefileusingtheFTOPTline.
H.TheeffectivediameterforgroupsPL1,PL2,PL3andW.Bissetto0.0usingtheGRPMDline.
I.IcefloedataintheXdirectionisspecifiedusingtheICElineasfollows:
a.Theicethicknessis10.0asspecifiedincolumns813.
b.Theelasticmodulus,staticcrushingstrengthandbreakinglengthratioarespecifiedas0.50,0.4and5.0,respectively.
cTheelevationoftheicefloeis0.0andtheflowdirectionisalongtheglobalXaxisasindicatedby0.0incolumns3237and3843,respectively.
d.Thefloevelocityis0.02andtheanalysisvelocitystepincrementis0.05.
e.Thedurationoftheicemovementis240secondsasinputincolumns7176.
Someplotscreatedbytheanalysisfollowedbyaportionoftheoutputfollow.

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