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Testing & Commissioning

Report of
"66/33KV Olakha Sub-Station"

By:
Cheten Tshering
Olakha Sub-Station, SMD Semtokha.

Transmission Department
Bhutan Power Corporation Limited
Thimphu.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express profound gratitude to the then Officiating General Manager Mr. Nima
Dorji for placing me at the up gradation works at 66/33 KV Olakha substation without which, I
wouldnt have been able to come out with this report. This provided me an opportunity to learn
regarding the testing and commissioning of various switch gears, no sooner I graduated from the
college. The placement was very appropriate and at the right time.
I wish to extend sincere gratitude to Mr. Chandan Kamti Chatterjee, Testing Engineer, IPPL for
teaching me all the practical aspect of the 'Testing and Commissioning' works and also the
theoretical part of the same which are beyond the coverage in the books, which he explained
through his 22 years of field experience in 'Testing and Commissioning'. I am indebted for his
effort in revisiting my report and for making necessary correction and addition.
I would also like to offer sincere appreciation which is due to the staff members of SMD
Semtokha and Olakha Substation. Amongst the various persons who have helped me in this
endeavor, I would like to mention the following: Mr. Sonam Tobgay (Manager), Mr. Tandin
Gyeltshen, Mr. Sonam Norbu and Mr. LB Rai.
I gratefully acknowledge the extensive literature referred during the course of writing this report.
Last but not the least I would like to thank all those who have assisted me directly or indirectly in
coming out with this report.

Cheten Tshering

ABSTRACT
This primary goal of this report is to provide in a simple and more of conventional way of
conducting the testing of various switchgears and the system. This report 'Testing and
Commissioning Report of 66/33KV Olakha Sub Station' describes about the various testing that
are required to be done before commissioning of a substation. It contains in a lucid way, a
concise presentation of various technical data and parameters that were obtained while in field
testing. This report intends to serve as a history of Olakha substation in terms of its technical data
and could be used as future reference while testing however the data may vary with different
instruments used and the way it is conducted.
This report is also equipped with the practical and pictorial circuit diagram of the exact field
testing that was done while in the course of testing. Theories have been provided for every
experiment based on the practical hands on experience.
The materials presented in this report are intended to serve as a platform from where young and
enthusiastic technical people could enhance their learning and explore in the area of testing and
commissioning. However it could be used as reference by the one who already have the
experience.
I would like to solicit the readers' kind suggestions and feedback regarding the report so that I
could come up with better one in future.

ii

List of Figures
Figure 1 Experimental set up for checking the winding resistance ................................................ 3
Figure 2 Experimental set up for CT Ratio check ........................................................................ 14
Figure 3 Experimental setup for ratio test of PT and CVT........................................................... 23
Figure 4 KPV Testing of Current Transformer ............................................................................ 29
Figure 5 Surge Monitor Testing ................................................................................................... 38
Figure 6 SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing SCOT M3K Timer ............................................................ 41
Figure 7 SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing with Circuit Breaker Operational Analyzer .................... 42
Figure 8 Measurement of Transformer's winding resistance ....................................................... 49
Figure 9 Various testing on Transformer ..................................................................................... 57
Figure 10 Conditioning of Transformer Oil ................................................................................. 67
Figure 11 Winding Resistance Check of 33kv CT & PT............................................................... 79
Figure 12 Ratio Check of 33kv CT ............................................................................................... 80
Figure 13 High POT Test (CABLE HV TEST) ............................................................................. 93
Figure 14 Inverse-Time, Very-Inverse Time and Extremely-Inverse Time characteristics. ....... 100
Figure 15 Testing of IDMT Relays ............................................................................................. 101
Figure 16 System Stability Testing ............................................................................................. 114

iii

Table of Contents
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................... i
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... ii
List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ iii
Checking the Winding Resistance of CT, PT & CVT ................................................................ 1
CT Ratio Check ......................................................................................................................... 13
Ratio Test of CVT and PT......................................................................................................... 22
Knee Point Voltage Test (KPV Test) of Current Transformer ................................................. 27
Surge Monitor Testing .............................................................................................................. 38
SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing...................................................................................................... 40
Transformer Winding Resistance .............................................................................................. 48
Transformer Testing .................................................................................................................. 54
Transformer Oil Testing ............................................................................................................ 65
Winding Resistance and Ratio Check of 33kv CT & PT .......................................................... 78
High Pot Test (Cable HV Test) ................................................................................................. 92
Relay Testing (Over Current Protection) ................................................................................ 100
Stability Testing Report .......................................................................................................... 113
Reference .................................................................................................................................... 124

iv

WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

CheckingtheWindingResistanceofCT,PT&CVT
Bus PT#1
Bus PT#2
CVT#1
CVT#2
CT#1
CT#2
CT#3
CT#4
CT#5
Aim

: PT on Tie Line Side


: PT on Jemina Line Side
: CVT on Tie Line Side
: CVT on Jemina Line Side
: CT on Tie Line Side
: CT on Transformer I Side
: CT on Bus Coupler Side
: CT on Jemina Line Side
: CT on Transformer II Side

:
1. To check the Secondary Winding Resistance.
2. Insulation Resistance (IR) checks of primary-earth and secondary-secondary
winding by using Megger (2.5KV-5KV).
3. Secondary insulation resistance value check of secondary-earth and secondarysecondary terminals.

Objectives :
1. To check the resistance of secondary winding (CT, PT and CVT) and compare
with that of name plate rating.
2. To check if there is any short circuit or leakage to ground from primary winding.
To check if there is any short circuit between primary and secondary windings.
3. To check if there is any leakage or short circuit between the secondary winding
and the earth. To check if there is any short circuit between the secondary
windings.
Instruments used
Sl. no

Description

Megger

Megger

Multimeter

Connecting wires

Specification
Quantity
2.5KV-5KV, 0-10000Mohms, Waco,
1
Type 485/08-09, Sl. no. 933090
1KV, 0-200Mohms, Waco,
1
Sl. no. 91611
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
1
Motwane
--------------------------------------------APR

Remarks

NB: Megger uses Ohm's law V=IR. It gives DC voltage and the current which flows through the
winding resistance. The reading shown on the Megger is V/I.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

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WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

Test applied to;

PT

Core 1, Core 2 and Core 3 of PT

Yph

Rph

Bph

Earth Link

Secondary Winding Terminals


A(Primary)
N

Circuit diagram

1a

1n 2a

2n 3a

3n

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

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WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

Experimental Set up :

Multimeter
(Ohm meter)

Earth

Pry-Earth Winding Resistance

Secondary Winding Resistance Check


IR Value check (Meggering)

Earth/Secondary or Secondary-Earth/ Secondary-secondary


Figure 1 Experimental set up for checking the winding resistance

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

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WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

Procedure

1. Secondary Winding Resistance


a. Remove the earth terminal from three phases of PT from the lower side of the
box. Make sure there is no connection from the PT to earth.
b. Use the Multi meter as ohmmeter and measure the winding resistance of the
respective secondary windings and of respective phases.
c. Tabulate the reading and compare with the standard/manufacturer value.
2. Insulation resistances check (Meggering).
a. Connect the Megger terminal to primary winding and earth terminal. Apply 5KV
by Meggering and note down the readings as shown by Megger.
NB: Since primary winding is on HV (66KV) side we need to apply high voltage i.e. 5 KV.
b. Keeping one of the Megger terminals connected to the primary, connect the other
terminal to the various secondary winding one by one. Apply 5KV by Meggering
and note down the subsequent readings.
3. Secondary insulation resistances check (Meggering).
a. Use lower rating Megger (1KV) for testing. This is because output voltage from
the secondary windings is 110V, so we cannot apply very high voltage, otherwise
the windings will get burned.
b. Connect the Megger to secondary 1- earth terminal, followed by secondary 2earth and secondary 3-earth terminals respectively. Apply 1 KV by Meggering
and note down the subsequent readings.
Observations :

If there is any short circuit between the windings or earth, then the Megger will show
zero value.
Else Megger will show some deflections indicating the insulation resistance value.
Megger gives DC output

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

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WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

Results

Bus PT#1, Tie Line PT (Incomer #1)


Date:14 /10/09, Wednesday, 3:45pm, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/7/08, Y-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/3/08, B-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/4/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal
R-Phase (Ohm)
Y-Phase (Ohm)
B-Phase (Ohm)
0.9
0.9
0.9
1a-1n (1&2)
0.9
0.9
0.9
2a-2n (3&4)
0.9
0.8
0.9
3a-3n (5&6)
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal
R-Phase (M-Ohm)
Y-Phase (M-Ohm)
B-Phase (M-Ohm)
3000
3000
3000
Pry-Earth
5000
3000
5000
Pry-Sec1(1a)
5000
5000
5000
Pry-Sec2(2a)
5000
5000
5000
Pry-Sec3(3a)
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal
R-Phase (M-Ohm)
Y-Phase (M-Ohm)
B-Phase (M-Ohm)
200
200
200
Sec1-Earth
200
200
200
Sec2-Earth
200
200
200
Sec3-Earth
200
200
200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a)
200
200
200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a)
200
200
200
Sec3-Sec1 (3a-1a)
Bus PT#2, Jemina Line Bus PT (Incomer#2)
Date:13 /10/09, Tuesday, 5:30pm, Sunset.
R-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/5/08, Y-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/6/08, B-Sl.no. OP 2373/2/8/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal
R-Phase (Ohm)
Y-Phase (Ohm)
B-Phase (Ohm)
0.9
0.8
0.8
1a-1n (1&2)
0.9
0.8
0.9
2a-2n (3&4)
0.9
0.8
0.9
3a-3n (5&6)
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal
R-Phase (M-Ohm)
Y-Phase (M-Ohm)
B-Phase (M-Ohm)
5000
2500
3000
Pry-Earth
4000
5000
5000
Pry-Sec1(1a)
4000
5000
4500
Pry-Sec2(2a)
5000
5000
4500
Pry-Sec3(3a)
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal
R-Phase (M-Ohm)
Y-Phase (M-Ohm)
B-Phase (M-Ohm)
200
200
200
Sec1-Earth
200
200
200
Sec2-Earth
200
200
200
Sec3-Earth
200
200
200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a)
200
200
200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a)
200
200
200
Sec3-Sec1 (3a-1a)

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

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WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

CVT#1, Tie Line (Incomer #1)


Date:9/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no.30309003, Y-Sl.no.30209002, B-Sl.no.30209003
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal
R-Phase (Ohm)
Y-Phase (Ohm)
B-Phase (Ohm)
1.1
0.7
0.7
1a-1n (1&2)
0.8
0.8
0.7
2a-2n (3&4)
0.8
0.8
0.8
3a-3n (5&6)
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal
R-Phase (M-Ohm)
Y-Phase (M-Ohm)
B-Phase (M-Ohm)
2000
3000
3000
Pry-Earth
5000
3000
5000
Pry-Sec1(1a)
5000
3000
3000
Pry-Sec2(2a)
5000
3000
5000
Pry-Sec3(3a)
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal
R-Phase (M-Ohm)
Y-Phase (M-Ohm)
B-Phase (M-Ohm)
200
200
200
Sec1-Earth
200
200
200
Sec2-Earth
200
200
200
Sec3-Earth
200
200
200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a)
200
200
200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a)
200
200
200
Sec3-Sec1 (3a-1a)
CVT#2, Jemina Line (Incomer#2)
Date:10 /10/09, Saturday.
R-Sl.no.30309001, Y-Sl.no.30309002, B-Sl.no.30309004
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal
R-Phase (Ohm)
Y-Phase (Ohm)
B-Phase (Ohm)
0.8
0.8
0.8
1a-1n (1&2)
0.8
0.8
0.8
2a-2n (3&4)
0.8
0.8
0.7
3a-3n (5&6)
IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV
Terminal
R-Phase (M-Ohm)
Y-Phase (M-Ohm)
B-Phase (M-Ohm)
4000
4000
4000
Pry-Earth
10000
10000
10000
Pry-Sec1(1a)
10000
10000
10000
Pry-Sec2(2a)
10000
10000
10000
Pry-Sec3(3a)
Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV
Terminal
R-Phase (M-Ohm)
Y-Phase (M-Ohm)
B-Phase (M-Ohm)
200
200
200
Sec1-Earth
200
200
200
Sec2-Earth
200
200
200
Sec3-Earth
200
200
200
Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a)
200
200
200
Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a)
200
200
200
Sec3-Sec1 (3a-1a)

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page6

WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

CT#1, Tie Line (Incomer #1)


Date:9/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/5/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/12/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/10/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal

R-Phase (Ohm)

Y-Phase (Ohm)

B-Phase (Ohm)

1S1-1S2

3.6

3.6

3.6

1S1-1S3

7.0

6.8

6.8

2S1-2S2

3.1

3.0

3.1

2S1-2S3

5.8

5.6

5.6

3S1-3S2

2.2

2.3

2.1

3S1-3S3

6.1

4.9

6.2

4S1-4S2

2.4

2.2

2.2

4S1-4S3

6.0

5.2

6.2

IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV


Terminal

R-Phase (M-Ohm)

Y-Phase (M-Ohm)

B-Phase (M-Ohm)

Pry-Earth

2000

1500

2000

Pry-Sec1 (1a)

2000

3000

5000

Pry-Sec2 (2a)

2000

3000

3000

Pry-Sec3 (3a)

2000

5000

5000

Pry-Sec4 (4a)

2000

5000

5000

Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV


Terminal

R-Phase (M-Ohm)

Y-Phase (M-Ohm)

B-Phase (M-Ohm)

Sec1-Earth

50

200

200

Sec2-Earth

50

200

200

Sec3-Earth

50

200

200

Sec4-Earth

50

200

200

Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a)

50

200

200

Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a)

50

200

200

Sec3-Sec4 (3a-4a)

50

200

200

Sec4-Sec1 (4a-1a)

50

200

200

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page7

WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

CT#2, Transformer#1 Side


Date:10/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/15/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/9/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/1/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal

R-Phase (Ohm)

Y-Phase (Ohm)

B-Phase (Ohm)

1S1-1S2

3.6

3.6

3.6

1S1-1S3

7.1

7.1

7.0

2S1-2S2

3.1

3.1

3.1

2S1-2S3

5.8

5.9

5.8

3S1-3S2

2.3

2.2

2.3

3S1-3S3

5.2

5.1

5.1

4S1-4S2

2.3

2.3

2.4

4S1-4S3

5.3

5.2

5.3

IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV


Terminal

R-Phase (M-Ohm)

Y-Phase (M-Ohm)

B-Phase (M-Ohm)

Pry-Earth

4000

4000

4000

Pry-Sec1 (1a)

4000

4000

4000

Pry-Sec2 (2a)

4000

4000

4000

Pry-Sec3 (3a)

4000

4000

4000

Pry-Sec4 (4a)

4000

4000

4000

Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV


Terminal

R-Phase (M-Ohm)

Y-Phase (M-Ohm)

B-Phase (M-Ohm)

Sec1-Earth

200

200

200

Sec2-Earth

200

200

200

Sec3-Earth

200

200

200

Sec4-Earth

200

200

200

Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a)

200

200

200

Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a)

200

200

200

Sec3-Sec4 (3a-4a)

200

200

200

Sec4-Sec1 (4a-1a)

200

200

200

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

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WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

CT#3, Bus Coupler Side


Date:10/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/7/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/8/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/6/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal

R-Phase (Ohm)

Y-Phase (Ohm)

B-Phase (Ohm)

1S1-1S2

3.6

3.5

3.4

1S1-1S3

6.5

6.3

5.9

2S1-2S2

3.2

3.2

3.2

2S1-2S3

5.9

6.1

6.1

3S1-3S2

2.4

2.4

2.4

3S1-3S3

6.2

6.0

6.0

4S1-4S2

2.3

2.4

2.4

4S1-4S3

6.0

6.1

6.1

IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV


Terminal

R-Phase (M-Ohm)

Y-Phase (M-Ohm)

B-Phase (M-Ohm)

Pry-Earth

4000

3000

3000

Pry-Sec1 (1a)

3000

3000

3000

Pry-Sec2 (2a)

5000

3000

3000

Pry-Sec3 (3a)

5000

3000

3000

Pry-Sec4 (4a)

5000

3000

3000

Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV


Terminal

R-Phase (M-Ohm)

Y-Phase (M-Ohm)

B-Phase (M-Ohm)

Sec1-Earth

200

200

200

Sec2-Earth

200

200

200

Sec3-Earth

200

200

200

Sec4-Earth

200

200

200

Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a)

200

200

200

Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a)

200

200

200

Sec3-Sec4 (3a-4a)

200

200

200

Sec4-Sec1 (4a-1a)

200

200

200

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page9

WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

CT#4, Jemina Line Side


Date:10/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/14/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/2/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/16/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal

R-Phase (Ohm)

Y-Phase (Ohm)

B-Phase (Ohm)

1S1-1S2

2.2

2.4

2.4

1S1-1S3

5.3

5.1

5.3

2S1-2S2

2.3

2.3

2.2

2S1-2S3

5.0

5.0

5.0

3S1-3S2

2.5

2.5

2.2

3S1-3S3

5.1

5.1

5.1

4S1-4S2

2.2

2.4

2.2

4S1-4S3

5.1

5.0

5.1

IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV


Terminal

R-Phase (M-Ohm)

Y-Phase (M-Ohm)

B-Phase (M-Ohm)

Pry-Earth

4000

4000

4000

Pry-Sec1 (1a)

4000

4000

4000

Pry-Sec2 (2a)

4000

4000

4000

Pry-Sec3 (3a)

4000

4000

4000

Pry-Sec4 (4a)

4000

4000

4000

Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV


Terminal

R-Phase (M-Ohm)

Y-Phase (M-Ohm)

B-Phase (M-Ohm)

Sec1-Earth

200

200

200

Sec2-Earth

200

200

200

Sec3-Earth

200

200

200

Sec4-Earth

200

200

200

Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a)

200

200

200

Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a)

200

200

200

Sec3-Sec4 (3a-4a)

200

200

200

Sec4-Sec1 (4a-1a)

200

200

200

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page10

WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

CT#5, Transformer#2 Side


Date:10/10/09, Friday.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/3/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/18/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/4/08
Secondary Winding Resistance (DM3540A Multimeter)
Terminal

R-Phase (Ohm)

Y-Phase (Ohm)

B-Phase (Ohm)

1S1-1S2

1.9

2.3

2.1

1S1-1S3

4.3

4.1

4.0

2S1-2S2

1.9

2.2

2.0

2S1-2S3

4.8

4.3

4.2

3S1-3S2

2.1

2.1

2.3

3S1-3S3

4.3

4.3

4.1

4S1-4S2

2.0

2.1

2.1

4S1-4S3

4.1

4.1

4.0

IR Value Check (Meggering), 5KV. Megger 2.5KV-5KV


Terminal

R-Phase (M-Ohm)

Y-Phase (M-Ohm)

B-Phase (M-Ohm)

Pry-Earth

5000

5000

5000

Pry-Sec1 (1a)

5000

5000

5000

Pry-Sec2 (2a)

5000

5000

5000

Pry-Sec3 (3a)

5000

5000

5000

Pry-Sec4 (4a)

5000

5000

5000

Secondary IR Value check (Meggering), 1KV. Megger 1KV


Terminal

R-Phase (M-Ohm)

Y-Phase (M-Ohm)

B-Phase (M-Ohm)

Sec1-Earth

200

200

200

Sec2-Earth

200

200

200

Sec3-Earth

200

200

200

Sec4-Earth

200

200

200

Sec1-Sec2 (1a-2a)

200

200

200

Sec2-Sec3 (2a-3a)

200

200

200

Sec3-Sec4 (3a-4a)

200

200

200

Sec4-Sec1 (4a-1a)

200

200

200

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page11

WindingResistanceCheckofCT,PT&CVT

Precaution

Safety of the experimenter, the first preference.


Never start Meggering if both the terminals is being caught by performer
Always discharge by connecting the terminal to earth so that the experimenter is free of
shock.

Conclusion

From this test it is proved that there isn't any leakage or short circuit connection from primary to
earth through the casing. Neither is the secondary windings touching the casing or with each
other nor the primary winding is in contact with the secondary windings. The Potential
transformer is perfectly right.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page12

CTRatioCheck

CTRatioCheck
CT#1
CT#2
CT#3
CT#4
CT#5

: CT on Tie line Side


: CT on Transformer I Side
: CT on Bus Coupler Side
: CT on Jemina Line Side
: CT on Transformer II Side

Aim

: Ratio Test on various Current Transformers.

Objective

To check the ratio of primary to secondary current under loaded condition and compare
with the name plate rating.
Theory

Current transformers (CTs) of all sizes and types find their way into substations to provide the
current replicas for metering, controls, and protective relaying. CT performance is characterized
by ratio correction factor (turns ratio error), saturation voltage, phase angle error, and rated
burden. Bushing CTs are installed in power equipment. They are toroidal, having a single
primary turn (the power conductor), which passes through their center. The current
transformation ratio results from the number of turns wound on the core to make up the
secondary. More than one ratio is often provided by tapping the secondary winding at multiple
turn's ratios. The core cross-sectional area, diameter, and magnetic properties determine the CT's
performance. Metering CTs are designed with core cross-sections chosen to minimize exciting
current effects and are allowed to saturate at fault currents. Larger cores are provided for
protection CTs where high current saturation must be avoided for the CT to faithfully reproduce
high currents for fault sensing. The exciting current of the larger core at low load is not
considered important for protection.

Core#1 : Metering.
Core#2 : Protection (Over Current,
Earth fault, Differential).
Core#3 : Bus bar Protection.
Core#4 : Bus Bar Protection Zone

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page13

CTRatioCheck
Instruments used:
Sl. no

Description

Specification

Quantity

Auto Transformer

0-260V, 50Hz

Loading Transformer

230V,50Hz-7.5KVA, 1V/T

Multimeter

AC/DC, Analog, Multi-range

Clamp leaker

DC-10A, Motwane

Clamp meter

Kyoritsu, DCM, Model 2002

Connecting wires

-----------------------------------------

1- Supply

230V, 50Hz

Remarks

APR
1

Circuit diagram:

Current Transformer

Clamp meter

1- Supply

Auto
Transformer

Loading
Transformer

Junction Box
Figure 2 Experimental set up for CT Ratio check

Clamp Leaker
NB: Never open the secondary terminal of CT when primary is connected.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page14

CTRatioCheck
Procedure

1. Set up the experiment as shown in the circuit diagram.


2. Make the connections in the junction box so as to get the CT ratio 300/1A. Connect the
first terminal and the middle one so that we get the ratio 300/1A i.e. 1S1-1S2, 2S1-2S2,
etc. Never leave any CT secondary open.
3. Load the primary with certain percentage of full load current. Increase the load current in
steps of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of the rated primary current. Observe it on the clamp
meter held on the primary side.
4. With the help of clamp leaker measure the current on the secondary side, on each core
and note down the readings.
5. Put off the power supply and then make the connections in junction box so as to get
600/1A CT ratio. Connect first terminal and the last terminal i.e. 1S1-1S3, 2S1-2S3, etc.
6. Load the primary with 12.5%, 25%, 37.5% and 50% of the rated primary current and
check the values on the clamp meter.
7. With the help of clamp leaker, measure the current in each core i.e. secondary side. For
simplicity note down the readings for half core first and then go for full tap readings.
8. Repeat step 1-7 for other two phases also.
Precaution
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.

Safety the first priority.


Never open the secondary terminal of the Current Transformer while it is on loaded
condition.
Make the connections tight.
To avoid over heating of the primary connections, give 100% primary input for the
lowest tap and 50% primary input for the full tap.

Results

The results are being tabulated for each current transformer. The actual ratio given on the
name plate is 300-600/1A. The ratio replicates the name plate rating when the applied
load current approaches the name plate rating. The errors are more when 12.5% and 25%
of the total load current is applied. However as we apply more and more towards the
actual load value, the ratio is almost near the actual ratio. The accuracy of CT is
expressed in terms of its ratio from its true ratio. This is called ratio error and is expressed
as;
%

100

Is=Secondary current, Ip=Primary current

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page15

CTRatioCheck
1. CT#1, Tie Line Side (Incomer #1)
CT# 1, 1S1-1S2, 300/1A
Date: 22/10/09, Thursday, 4:40pm, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/5/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/12/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/10/08
% of Rated
Applied
Secondary Current (A)
Primary
Primary
R-phase
Y-phase
B-phase
Current
(A)

Current
(A)

(A)

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.49
0.75
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.24
0.36
0.50

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.10
0.23
0.36
0.49

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.10
0.24
0.35
0.49

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.50
0.74
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.49

Ratio

% error

(A)

Ratio

312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09


306.12 2.04% 0.48 312.50
300.00 0.00% 0.74 304.05
300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00
CT# 1, 1S1-1S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17
625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00
600.00 0.00% 0.49 612.24
CT# 1, 2S1-2S2, 300/1A
312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09
300.00 0.00% 0.48 312.50
300.00 0.00% 0.73 308.22
300.00 0.00% 0.99 303.03
CT# 1, 2S1-2S3, 600/1A
750.00 25.00% 0.11 681.82
652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17
625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86
612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00
CT# 1, 3S1-3S2, 300/1A
312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09
300.00 0.00% 0.49 306.12
300.00 0.00% 0.73 308.22
300.00 0.00% 0.98 306.12
CT# 1, 3S1-3S3, 600/1A
750.00 25.00% 0.10 750.00
625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17
642.86 7.14% 0.35 642.86
612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00
CT# 1, 4S1-4S2, 300/1A
312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09
300.00 0.00% 0.48 312.50
304.05 1.35% 0.73 308.22
300.00 0.00% 0.98 306.12
CT# 1, 4S1-4S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.10 750.00
652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17
625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86
612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00

% error

(A)

Ratio

% error

8.70%
4.17%
1.35%
0.00%

0.22
0.49
0.74
1.00

340.91
306.12
304.05
300.00

13.64%
2.04%
1.35%
0.00%

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

0.10
0.23
0.36
0.49

750.00
652.17
625.00
612.24

25.00%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

8.70%
4.17%
2.74%
1.01%

0.23
0.48
0.74
1.00

326.09
312.50
304.05
300.00

8.70%
4.17%
1.35%
0.00%

13.64%
8.70%
7.14%
4.17%

0.10
0.23
0.36
0.49

750.00
652.17
625.00
612.24

25.00%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

8.70%
2.04%
2.74%
2.04%

0.23
0.48
0.74
1.00

326.09
312.50
304.05
300.00

8.70%
4.17%
1.35%
0.00%

25.00%
8.70%
7.14%
4.17%

0.10
0.23
0.36
0.49

750.00
652.17
625.00
612.24

25.00%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

8.70%
4.17%
2.74%
2.04%

0.23
0.49
0.74
0.99

326.09
306.12
304.05
303.03

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
1.01%

25.00%
8.70%
7.14%
4.17%

0.10
0.23
0.36
0.48

750.00
652.17
625.00
625.00

25.00%
8.70%
4.17%
4.17%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page16

CTRatioCheck
2. CT#2, Transformer#1 Side (Incomer #1)
CT# 2, 1S1-1S2, 300/1A
Date: 22/10/09, Thursday, 4:55pm, Sunset.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/15/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/9/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/1/08
% of Rated
Applied
Secondary Current (A)
Primary
Primary
R-phase
Y-phase
B-phase
Current
(A)

Current
(A)

(A)

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.49

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.23
0.35
0.48

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.49

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.49

Ratio

% error

(A)

Ratio

312.50 4.17% 0.25 300.00


300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00
300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00
300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00
CT# 2, 1S1-1S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00
625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00
612.24 2.04% 0.50 600.00
CT# 2, 2S1-2S2, 300/1A
312.50 4.17% 0.25 300.00
300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00
300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00
300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00
CT# 2, 2S1-2S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00
642.86 7.14% 0.36 625.00
625.00 4.17% 0.49 612.24
CT# 2, 3S1-3S2, 300/1A
312.50 4.17% 0.25 300.00
300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00
300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00
300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00
CT# 2, 3S1-3S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00
625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00
612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24
CT# 2, 4S1-4S2, 300/1A
312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50
300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00
300.00 0.00% 0.75 300.00
300.00 0.00% 1.00 300.00
CT# 2, 4S1-4S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00
625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00
612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24

% error

(A)

Ratio

% error

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.00

312.50
300.00
300.00
300.00

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
0.00%

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.49

681.82
652.17
625.00
612.24

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.00

312.50
300.00
300.00
300.00

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

0.11
0.24
0.36
0.49

681.82
625.00
625.00
612.24

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

0.24
0.51
0.75
1.01

312.50
294.12
300.00
297.03

4.17%
-1.96%
0.00%
-0.99%

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

0.11
0.24
0.36
0.49

681.82
625.00
625.00
612.24

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.01

312.50
300.00
300.00
297.03

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%
-0.99%

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

0.11
0.24
0.36
0.49

681.82
625.00
625.00
612.24

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page17

CTRatioCheck
3. CT#3, Bus Coupler Side

% of Rated
Primary
Current
(A)

CT# 3, 1S1-1S2, 300/1A


Date: 23/10/09, Friday, 9:50am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/7/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/8/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/6/08
Applied
Secondary Current (A)
Primary
R-phase
Y-phase
B-phase
Current
(A)

(A)

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.23
0.49
0.75
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.49

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.48
0.74
0.99

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.22
0.36
0.49

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.23
0.49
0.75
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.24
0.36
0.50

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.49
0.73
0.99

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.23
0.35
0.48

Ratio

% error

(A)

Ratio

326.09
8.70%
0.23 326.09
0.49 306.12
306.12
2.04%
0.75 300.00
300.00
0.00%
1.00 300.00
300.00
0.00%
CT# 3, 1S1-1S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
0.24 625.00
652.17
8.70%
0.36 625.00
625.00
4.17%
612.24
2.04%
0.49 612.24
CT# 3, 2S1-2S2, 300/1A
312.50
4.17%
0.23 326.09
0.49 306.12
312.50
4.17%
0.75 300.00
304.05
1.35%
1.00 300.00
303.03
1.01%
CT# 3, 2S1-2S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
681.82 13.64% 0.23 652.17
0.36 625.00
625.00
4.17%
612.24
2.04%
0.49 612.24
CT# 3, 3S1-3S2, 300/1A
326.09
8.70%
0.24 312.50
0.50 300.00
306.12
2.04%
0.75 300.00
300.00
0.00%
1.00 300.00
300.00
0.00%
CT# 3, 3S1-3S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
0.23 652.17
625.00
4.17%
625.00
4.17%
0.36 625.00
0.49 612.24
600.00
0.00%
CT# 3, 4S1-4S2, 300/1A
0.23 326.09
312.50
4.17%
0.49 306.12
306.12
2.04%
0.74 304.05
308.22
2.74%
303.03
1.01%
1.00 300.00
CT# 3, 4S1-4S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
0.23 652.17
652.17
8.70%
0.36 625.00
642.86
7.14%
0.49 612.24
625.00
4.17%

% error

(A)

Ratio

% error

8.70%
2.04%
0.00%
0.00%

0.23
0.49
0.74
0.99

326.09
306.12
304.05
303.03

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
1.01%

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

0.10
0.23
0.35
0.48

750.00
652.17
642.86
625.00

25.00%
8.70%
7.14%
4.17%

8.70%
2.04%
0.00%
0.00%

0.23
0.49
0.74
0.99

326.09
306.12
304.05
303.03

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
1.01%

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

0.11
0.23
0.35
0.48

681.82
652.17
642.86
625.00

13.64%
8.70%
7.14%
4.17%

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

0.23
0.49
0.74
1.00

326.09
306.12
304.05
300.00

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
0.00%

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

0.10
0.23
0.35
0.48

750.00
652.17
642.86
625.00

25.00%
8.70%
7.14%
4.17%

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
0.00%

0.23
0.49
0.74
0.99

326.09
306.12
304.05
303.03

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
1.01%

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

0.10
0.23
0.35
0.48

750.00
652.17
642.86
625.00

25.00%
8.70%
7.14%
4.17%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page18

50%

CTRatioCheck
4. CT#4, Jemina Line Side (Incomer#2)
CT# 4, 1S1-1S2, 300/1A
Date: 22/10/09, Thursday, 6:00pm, Dark.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/14/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/2/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/16/08
% of Rated
Applied
Secondary Current (A)
Primary
Primary
R-phase
Y-phase
B-phase
Current
(A)

Current
(A)

(A)

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.50
0.76
1.01

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.24
0.36
0.49

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.50
0.76
1.01

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.24
0.36
0.50

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.24
0.50
0.76
1.01

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.24
0.36
0.49

25%
50%

75
150

0.24
0.50

Ratio

% error

(A)

Ratio

312.50 4.17% 0.23 326.09


300.00 0.00% 0.49 306.12
296.05 -1.32% 0.74 304.05
297.03 -0.99% 1.00 300.00
CT# 4, 1S1-1S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
625.00 4.17% 0.23 652.17
625.00 4.17% 0.35 642.86
612.24 2.04% 0.50 600.00
CT# 4, 2S1-2S2, 300/1A
312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50
300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00
296.05 -1.32% 0.76 296.05
297.03 -0.99% 1.02 294.12
CT# 4, 2S1-2S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.10 750.00
625.00 4.17% 0.24 625.00
625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00
600.00 0.00% 0.50 600.00
CT# 4, 3S1-3S2, 300/1A
312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50
300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00
296.05 -1.32% 0.75 300.00
297.03 -0.99% 1.01 297.03
CT# 4, 3S1-3S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
625.00 4.17% 0.24 625.00
625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00
612.24 2.04% 0.50 600.00
CT# 4, 4S1-4S2, 300/1A
312.50 4.17% 0.24 312.50
300.00 0.00% 0.50 300.00

% error

(A)

Ratio

% error

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
0.00%

0.23
0.49
0.74
0.99

326.09
306.12
304.05
303.03

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
1.01%

13.64%
8.70%
7.14%
0.00%

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.49

681.82
652.17
625.00
612.24

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

4.17%
0.00%
-1.32%
-1.96%

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.00

312.50
300.00
300.00
300.00

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%

25.00%
4.17%
4.17%
0.00%

0.11
0.24
0.36
0.49

681.82
625.00
625.00
612.24

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.24
0.50
0.75
1.01

312.50
300.00
300.00
297.03

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%
-0.99%

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
0.00%

0.11
0.23
0.35
0.50

681.82
652.17
642.86
600.00

13.64%
8.70%
7.14%
0.00%

4.17%

0.24 312.50 4.17%


0.50 00 0.00%
0.00%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page19

150

0202962.895(050.0008(-1273( )28Tc[(300.)6.7(00)-1377.2.97758.0984 0.0055 TD0.0024 Tc(0.50)Tj2.7377 -0.0055 TD0.0026 Tc[(300.)6.7(00)-11497.4(0.00%)5( )]T758.5082 0.0055 TD0.0024 Tc[(0.50)5.1( )]TJ2.8962 -0.0055 TD0.0026 Tc[300.)6.7(00)f05(7.14%)4.9( )]TJET66.36 2155 32.7 35001 12.72 ref66.36 1855 32.7 35 12.72 ref6128.255 32.7 35 12.72 reff188.455 32.7 35001 12.72 ref88.4 189455 32.7 35001 12.72 ref88.4 189455 32.7 35001 12.72 ref88.4 189455 32.7 35001 12.72 ref88.4 189455 32.7 35001 12.72 reff9.9781455 32.7 35001 12.72 reff33.26 1455 32.7 8001 12.72 ref466.74 1455 32.7 8001 12.72 ref407.84 1455 32.7 8001 12.72 ref553.56 199.8 0.47998 12.78 re.98 196188BT10.98 070 0 103047 Tf9.1.0021-)7(4)4.601 Tm4.1792 Tw[(50.0%)8( 22-1377.2(0.00%)5( )]TJ.919.1.0021.012 0.0020.0050.0038(-1273(.99Tc[(300-1.0021-)7(4)4.601 Tm4.11 124 0.0055 TD0.0024 Tc(0.50)Tj2.7377 -0.0055 TD0.0501 12.78 ref 35 12.72 ref6128.255 32755 TD0.0501 12.72 4ref.4(0.00%278 r12.72 r5f66.36 1655 32.76 Tc[(3002 ref617)]T55 32.7 35 12.72 reff188.65 3.8 0.48 12.78 ref222.54 19965 3.8 0.4001 12.78 ref188.65 3.8 0.4001 12.78 re.72 ref65 3.8 0.48 12.78 ref22.72 ref65 3.8 0.48 12.78 ref223(16128.255-4 18(15 32.7(1reff1.7 8001 189403(16128.255-4 11(15001 1.4 1578.4 189455 32.7 35001 12712.( )]TJ/TT5 1 Tf9.9776 0.( )]TJ/TT5 1 Tf9.9776 0.( )]TJ/TT5 1 Tf9.9776 0.( )]TJ/TT5 1 Tf9.9776 0.( )347 199.8 0.47998 12.78 re.98 13335001 12.

CTRatioCheck
5. CT#5, Transformer#2 Side (Incomer#2)

% of Rated
Primary
Current
(A)

CT# 5, 1S1-1S2, 300/1A


Date: 23/10/09, Friday, 10:20am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/3/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/18/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/4/08
Applied
Secondary Current (A)
Primary
R-phase
Y-phase
B-phase
Current
(A)

(A)

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.23
0.49
0.74
1.00

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.49

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.23
0.48
0.74
0.99

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.10
0.23
0.35
0.49

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.23
0.49
0.74
0.99

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.10
0.23
0.36
0.48

25%
50%
75%
100%

75
150
225
300

0.23
0.49
0.74
0.99

12.5%
25.0%
37.5%
50.0%

75
150
225
300

0.10
0.23
0.36
0.48

Ratio

% error

(A)

Ratio

326.09 8.70% 0.24 312.50


306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12
304.05 1.35% 0.75 300.00
300.00 0.00% 1.01 297.03
CT# 5, 1S1-1S3, 600/1A
681.82 13.64% 0.11 681.82
652.17 8.70% 0.24 625.00
625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00
612.24 2.04% 0.49 612.24
CT# 5, 2S1-2S2, 300/1A
326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09
312.50 4.17% 0.49 306.12
304.05 1.35% 0.74 304.05
303.03 1.01% 0.99 303.03
CT# 5, 2S1-2S3, 600/1A
750.00 25.00% 0.11 681.82
652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17
642.86 7.14% 0.36 625.00
612.24 2.04% 0.48 625.00
CT# 5, 3S1-3S2, 300/1A
326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09
306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12
304.05 1.35% 0.76 296.05
303.03 1.01% 0.99 303.03
CT# 5, 3S1-3S3, 600/1A
750.00 25.00% 0.10 750.00
652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17
625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00
625.00 4.17% 0.49 612.24
CT# 5, 4S1-4S2, 300/1A
326.09 8.70% 0.23 326.09
306.12 2.04% 0.49 306.12
304.05 1.35% 0.74 304.05
303.03 1.01% 0.98 306.12
CT# 5, 4S1-4S3, 600/1A
750.00 25.00% 0.11 681.82
652.17 8.70% 0.23 652.17
625.00 4.17% 0.36 625.00
625.00 4.17% 0.49 612.24

% error

(A)

Ratio

% error

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.23
0.49
0.74
1.00

326.09
306.12
304.05
300.00

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
0.00%

13.64%
4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

0.10
0.23
0.35
0.49

750.00
652.17
642.86
612.24

25.00%
8.70%
7.14%
2.04%

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
1.01%

0.23
0.49
0.74
1.00

326.09
306.12
304.05
300.00

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
0.00%

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
4.17%

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.49

681.82
652.17
625.00
612.24

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

8.70%
2.04%
-1.32%
1.01%

0.23
0.49
0.74
0.99

326.09
306.12
304.05
303.03

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
1.01%

25.00%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.49

681.82
652.17
625.00
612.24

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
2.04%

0.23
0.49
0.74
1.00

326.09
306.12
304.05
300.00

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%
0.00%

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
2.04%

0.11
0.23
0.36
0.50

681.82
652.17
625.00
600.00

13.64%
8.70%
4.17%
0.00%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page20

CTRatioCheck
Conclusion

From this experiment, it is proved that the name plate ratio replicates the field test report.
However the name plate ratio matches the field test ratio at 100% of the actual load current for
lowest tap. For the full tap 50% of the actual load current was provided. The ratio came close to
name plate rating at the 50% of the full load current. From this I conclude had we applied the full
load current we will be getting exact replicate of the name plate rating. We couldn't apply full
load current on 600/1A tap as the primary wire was getting heated up. More or less the obtained
results are correct.
The ratio error of a CT depends on its exciting current. When the primary current increases, the
CT tries to produce corresponding secondary current, and this needs a greater secondary emf,
core flux density and exciting current. A stage comes when any further increase in primary
current is almost wholly absorbed in an increased exciting current and thereby the secondary
current hardly increases at all. At this stage CT becomes saturated. Thus the ratio error depends
on saturation.
An accuracy of 2-3% of the CT is desirable for distance and differential relays, where as for
many other relays, a higher percentage can be tolerated. When the primary current increases, at a
certain value the core commences to saturate and the error increases. The value of current at
which the error reaches a specified error limit is known as its 'Accuracy Limit Primary Current'
or saturation current. The ratio of accuracy limit primary current and the rated primary current is
known as rated accuracy limit factor (ALF) or saturation factor, the standard value of which are
5,10,15,20 & 30.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page21

RatioTestofCVT&PT

RatioTestofCVTandPT
CVT#1
CVT#2
PT#1
PT#2

: Capacitive Voltage Transformer (Tie Line side)


: Capacitive Voltage Transformer (Jemina side)
: Potential Transformer of Bus (Transformer#1 side)
: Potential Transformer of Bus (Transformer#2 side)

Aim

To find the ratio of primary voltage to the subsequent secondary voltage and then
compare with the given ratio in the name plate rating.
Objective

To measure the voltage of three cores of each phase on the secondary winding and check
if the ratio is alright upon doubling the applied voltage on primary side.

Instrument used
Sl. no Description

Specification

Quantity Remarks

Auto Transformer

0-260V, 50Hz

Transformer

230V-3000V, 50Hz

Multimeter

AC/DC, Analog, Multi-range

Multimeter

DM3540A (Motwane)

Connecting wires

---------------------------------------------

1- Supply

230V, 50Hz

APR
1

Theory
: Potential transformers are used to reduce the system voltage level low enough to
suit the ratings of protective relays. The voltage rating of protective relay is usually 110V. The %
error is given by;
%

100

Where K= Nominal voltage ratio, Vs= Secondary voltage and Vp=Primary voltage.
The accuracy of PTs used for meters and instruments is only important at normal system voltage
where as PTs used for protection requires errors to be limited over a wide range of voltages
under faulty conditions. This may be about 5-150% of nominal voltage.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page22

RatioTestofCVT&PT

Test applied to / experimental set up;

Circuit diagram
Capacitive Voltage Transformer

1,230V,50Hz
Supply

Secondary Voltage Measurement

AV Meter

Variac 0-260V, 50Hz

Transformer
230-3000V, 50Hz

Figure 3 Experimental setup for ratio test of PT and CVT

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page23

RatioTestofCVT&PT

Procedure:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Set up the connection as shown below.


Connect one wire from HV side of transformer to the top of CVT.
Connect the other to the earth.
Adjust the voltage from the auto transformer so that 1KV is available on the secondary
side of transformer which is shown on the voltmeter. (In fact we are applying 1KV to the
primary winding of CVT).
5. Connect a multimeter (Voltmeter) to the core 1, core 2 and core 3 of each phase of CVT
upon the application of 1KV to the primary and note down the reading.
6. Repeat the same for other two phases.
7. Repeat step 4 so that we get 2KV on the secondary side of the transformer and follow
step 5 and step 6.
Results:

CVT#1, Tie Line Side

Primary (V)
1000V
Ratio
% Error
2000V
Ratio
% Error

Date:12/10/09, Monday, 11:00am, Sunny.


R-Sl.no.30309003, Y-Sl.no.30209002, B-Sl.no. 30209003
Secondary (V)
R-Phase
Y-Phase
B-Phase
Core1 Core2 Core3 Core1 Core2 Core 3
Core1 Core2 Core 3
1.640
1.648
1.648
1.680
1.640
1.648
1.680
1.650 1.640
610
607
607
595
610
607
595
606
610
1.7%
1.17% 1.17% -0.83% 1.7% 1.17% -0.83% 1.0%
1.7%
3.27
3.30
3.40
3.27
3.13
3.30
3.27
3.13
3.13
612
606
588
612
639
606
612
639
639
2.0%
1.0%
-2.0%
2.0%
6.5%
1.0%
2.0%
6.5%
6.5%

CVT#2, Jemina Line

Primary (V)
1000V
Ratio
% Error
2000V
Ratio
% Error

Date:13/10/09, Tuesday, 10:30am, Sunny.


R-Sl.no.30309001, Y-Sl.no.30309002, B-Sl.no. 30309004
Secondary (V)
R-Phase
Y-Phase
Core1 Core2 Core3 Core1 Core2 Core 3 Core1
1.647
1.647
1.647 1.641
1.642
1.641
1.611
607
607
607
609
609
609
620
1.17%
1.17% 1.17% 1.5%
1.5%
1.5% 3.33%
3.256
3.255
3.258 3.216
3.216
3.218
3.194
614
614
613
622
622
622
626
2.33%
2.33% 2.17% 3.67% 3.67%
3.67% 4.33%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

B-Phase
Core2
1.631
613
2.17%
3.191
626
4.33%

Core 3
1.631
613
2.17%
3.194
626
4.33%

Page24

RatioTestofCVT&PT

Bus PT#1 (Transformer#1 side)


Date:19/10/09, Monday, 11:35am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/7/08, Y-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/3/08, B-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/4/08
Secondary (V)
R-Phase
Y-Phase
B-Phase
Primary (V) Core1 Core2 Core3 Core1 Core2 Core 3 Core1 Core2
1.709
1.706
1.706
1.670
1.670
1.724
1.701
1.682
1000V
585
586
586
599
599
580
588
595
Ratio
-2.5% -2.33% -2.33% -0.17% -0.17% -3.33% -2.0% -0.83%
% Error
3.29
3.29
3.29
3.25
3.26
3.26
3.30
3.30
2000V
608
608
609
615
614
614
606
606
Ratio
1.3%
1.3%
1.5%
2.5%
2.33% 2.33% 1.0%
1.0%
% Error

Core 3
1.681
595
-0.83%
3.30
606
1.0%

Bus PT#2 (Transformer#2 side)


Date:19/10/09, Monday, 11:35am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/5/08, Y-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/6/08, B-Sl.no. OP 2373/1/8/08
Secondary (V)
R-Phase
Y-Phase
B-Phase
Primary (V) Core1
Core2
Core3 Core1 Core2 Core 3 Core1 Core2 Core 3
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.78
1.78
1.78
1.70
1.74
1.74
1000V
571
571
571
562
562
562
588
575
575
Ratio
-4.83% -4.83% -4.83% 6.3% 6.3%
6.3%
2.0% 4.17% 4.17%
% Error
3.30
3.31
3.31
3.37
3.37
3.37
3.38
3.38
3.38
2000V
606
604
604
594
594
594
592
592
592
Ratio
1.0%
0.67%
0.67% -1.0% -1.0% -1.0% -1.3% -1.3%
-1.3%
% Error
Observation:
1. From the result obtained the ratio of primary to secondary voltage is within the range
607-626 where as the actual ratio are 600. The experimented ratio is slightly greater than
the actual value.
66000/3

600
110/3
There is slight error which may be because of the inaccuracy of voltage applied from the
transformer. However the results are fairly correct.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page25

RatioTestofCVT&PT

Precaution:

Safety of the experimenter, the first preference.


Always take the reading after it reaches a stable value.
Always avoid parallax error while noting the reading.
Always give proper connection to CVT and to earth.

Conclusion:
From this test it is seen that the ratio of primary to secondary voltage is fairly correct with
maximum of 6.5% error. For Lab test an error of 5% is the accepted while for the field test an
error of 15% is accepted. The error can be eliminated by using more accurate meter, and
applying the accurate voltage. Since the analog meter was used for noting the reading on the
primary side, may be exact voltage wasnt applied, parallax error might have introduced in the
process. However the result doesnt deviate much from the exact value thus the name plate rating
is ok.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page26

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

KneePointVoltageTest(KPVTest)ofCurrentTransformer
CT #1
CT#2
CT#3
CT#4
CT#5

: Incoming line CT (Tie Line)


: CT on Transformer I side
: Bus Coupler CT
: Incoming line #2 CT (Jemina Line)
: CT on Transformer II Side

Aim

: Knee Point Voltage Testing of Current Transformers.

Objective

This test should confirm that at any case the saturation point shouldnt lie before 100% of
KPV. It may occur at 110% or higher, doesnt matter but saturation point shouldn't occur
before 100% of the KPV. If saturation point occurs before 100% of KPV then the relays
will operate before reaching its set value (100%) which is not desirable.
To find the saturation point of CT i.e. at what point of voltage it get saturated.
Compare the obtained saturation point with that of the name plate rating.
Theory

Knee point voltage is the point on the graph obtained between voltage and current beyond which
the current rise is very sharp when voltage in increased slightly. When the applied voltage is
increased in steps the current also rises in certain step. When the knee point voltage is reached
then the current shoots up beyond its normal increasing step. Therefore in this test we see
whether the KPV given on the name plate is correct or not. If the saturation point is reached
before the actual KPV then the relays are going to trip before fault occurs. In fact the relays
should trip upon reaching KPV or later. Therefore for proper coordination and tripping or relays
KPV should be checked accurately. Since minimum KVP at lowest tap is provided for core 3 &4
of CT, so we test KPV for only these cores.
V

KPV

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page27

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

Instrument used:
Sl. no Description

Specification

Quantity

Auto Transformer

0-260V, 50Hz

Transformer

230V-3000V, 50Hz

Multimeter

AC/DC, Analog, Multi-range

Clamp leaker

DC-10A, Motwane

Connecting wires

---------------------------------------------

1- Supply

230V, 50Hz

Remarks

APR
1

Name plate rating

Procedure:
1. Set up the connection as shown below.
2. Apply certain percentage of Knee point Voltage to Core #3 and Core #4 and then note
down the readings as shown by clamp leaker.
3. Repeat the same step for other two phases.
4. Compare the readings.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page28

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

Test applied to/ experimental set up

Current Transformer #1
Sl.No. 2373/1/5/08
Sl.No. 2373/1/12/08
Sl.No. 2373/1/10/08
Current Transformer #3
Sl.No. 2373/1/7/08
Sl.No. 2373/1/8/08
Sl.No. 2373/1/6/08

Clamp leaker

1,230V,50Hz
Supply

Junction box
AV Meter

Variac 0-260V, 50Hz

Transformer
230-3000V, 50Hz

Figure 4 KPV Testing of Current Transformer

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page29

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

Technical terms:
: Minimum Knee Point Voltage at lowest Tap = 325V

Name plate rating

There are two tapping in each core of CT. Therefore in this case lowest tap refers to the tapping
between one end and the middle point. So at full tapping the Knee Point Voltage will be the
double of the KPV of lowest tap.

P1

P2
Primary

1S1

1S2

Lowest Tap
(325V)

1S3 2S1 2S2 2S3 3S1 3S2 3S3 4S1 4S2

4S3

Full Tapping
(650V)

KPV for Core#3 and Core#4


Knee Point Voltage is available for only core #3 and core #4. This is because these cores are
specifically designed for protection class core. For protection class core, saturation of current is
very important and need to protect the equipment from over current. Whenever the current
reaches its saturation point, relay should trip off. Therefore these cores have Knee point Voltage,
before which saturation shouldnt occur.
Accuracy rating for Core#1 and Core#2
However this is not the case with core#1 and core#2. These cores are specifically designed for
metering purposes, where accuracy is of much importance. If saturation point exists for these
cores then when the current increases beyond certain value, the meter will stop reading, in fact
the meter should record whatever the amount of current drawn. Therefore these cores are rated at
0.2 class of accuracy.
For half the winding of each core, the rated KPV is 325V therefore for full winding the rated
KPV is 650V. More the number of turns, greater will be the voltage and lesser will be the
current, thereby the ratings 325V, 60mA and 650V, 30mA.
If the saturation point is reached, CT will make humming sound and must be avoided.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page30

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

Results

1. Incoming Tie line CT, CT#1


CT# 1, 3S1-3S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2
Date: 19/10/09, Monday, 3:30pm, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/5/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/12/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/10/08
% of KPV
Applied Voltage (V)
R-phase (mA)
Y-phase (mA)
B-phase (mA)
7.31
8.22
7.79
25%
81.25
10.99
12.43
12.08
50%
162.50
16.31
20.34
19.45
75%
243.75
100%

325.00

29.98

40.00

36.70

110%

357.50

45.90

71.00

67.80

CT# 1, 3S1-3S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2


25%
50%
75%

162.50
325.00
487.50

3.65
5.55
7.46

3.97
6.31
9.69

3.76
5.91
8.88

100%

650.00

11.93

18.55

15.39

110%

715.00

15.79

25.77

23.10

CT#1, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2


25%
50%
75%
100%
110%

81.25
162.50
243.75
325.00
357.50

7.54
11.95
17.14
31.26
53.90

8.25
12.74
19.55
42.50
70.30

8.34
13.16
20.42
39.50
72.60

For demonstration of saturation current, 400V was being applied to B-phase and the current
was observed to be 215mA. See the graph.
CT#1, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2
25%
50%
75%
100%
110%

162.50
325.00
487.50
650.00
715.00

3.79
5.40
8.00
13.13
18.33

4.06
6.27
8.83
15.67
24.03

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

4.33
6.45
8.70
17.12
24.59

Page31

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

2. CT Transformer 1 side, CT #2
CT# 2, 3S1-3S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2
Date: 19/10/09, Monday, 4:20, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/15/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/9/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/1/08
% of KPV

Applied Voltage (V)

R-phase (mA)

Y-phase (mA)

B-phase (mA)

25%

81.25

7.26

7.60

8.29

50%

162.50

11.36

12.43

13.22

75%

243.75

18.38

18.04

19.90

100%

325.00

35.00

31.84

35.5

110%

357.50

49.90

46.80

50.80

CT# 2, 3S1-3S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2


25%

162.50

3.73

3.91

3.89

50%

325.00

6.42

5.72

6.85

75%

487.50

8.73

8.40

8.72

100%

650.00

15.05

14.47

15.68

110%

715.00

22.05

20.11

22.23

CT#2, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2


25%

81.25

7.43

7.38

8.41

50%

162.50

11.29

11.01

13.96

75%

243.75

17.65

16.43

21.43

100%

325.00

29.39

26.27

39.50

110%

357.50

55.8

49.40

63.30

CT#2, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2


25%

162.50

3.85

3.77

4.20

50%

325.00

5.72

6.54

6.67

75%

487.50

8.88

8.31

10.35

100%

650.00

14.20

13.14

17.72

110%

715.00

20.06

19.46

22.87

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page32

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

3. CT on Bus Coupler, CT #3
CT# 3, 3S1-3S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2
Date: 19/10/09, Monday, 4:45pm, Sunset.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/7/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/8/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/6/08
% of KPV

Applied Voltage (V)

R-phase (mA)

Y-phase (mA)

B-phase (mA)

25%

81.25

7.29

7.09

7.24

50%

162.50

11.83

11.66

11.26

75%

243.75

17.84

17.21

17.14

100%

325.00

32.8

32.9

37.30

110%

357.50

46.2

58.6

54.30

CT# 3, 3S1-3S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2


25%

162.50

3.38

3.29

3.47

50%

325.00

5.53

5.37

5.36

75%

487.50

7.80

7.85

8.03

100%

650.00

13.65

13.53

14.42

110%

715.00

19.66

22.66

20.47

CT#3, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2


25%

81.25

7.84

7.53

8.09

50%

162.50

12.66

11.82

13.23

75%

243.75

19.88

18.50

19.64

100%

325.00

37.50

40.4

36.80

110%

357.50

60.00

64.40

59.60

CT#3, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2


25%

162.50

3.66

3.32

3.79

50%

325.00

5.82

5.44

6.10

75%

487.50

8.86

8.43

8.66

100%

650.00

16.11

15.76

16.73

110%

715.00

23.83

23.75

24.76

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page33

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

4. CT on Jemina Line CT #4
CT# 4, 3S1-3S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2
Date: 22/10/09, Thursday, 10:20am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/14/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/2/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/16/08
% of KPV

Applied Voltage (V)

R-phase (mA)

Y-phase (mA)

B-phase (mA)

25%

81.25

7.53

7.61

7.66

50%

162.50

11.73

12.03

12.20

75%

243.75

17.89

17.89

18.57

100%

325.00

36.3

34.4

33.3

110%

357.50

69.2

55.1

52.0

CT# 4, 3S1-3S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2


25%

162.50

3.25

3.39

3.43

50%

325.00

5.38

5.50

5.51

75%

487.50

8.22

8.26

8.23

100%

650.00

15.33

14.27

14.64

110%

715.00

22.20

19.20

20.25

CT#4, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2


25%

81.25

7.38

7.65

7.30

50%

162.50

11.65

11.88

11.17

75%

243.75

17.18

17.80

15.24

100%

325.00

35.7

37.60

28.35

110%

357.50

55.4

51.30

47.6

CT#4, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2


25%

162.50

3.47

3.49

3.29

50%

325.00

5.33

5.48

5.18

75%

487.50

7.91

8.17

7.43

100%

650.00

14.23

14.81

12.34

110%

715.00

20.36

20.98

17.01

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page34

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

5. CT on Transformer#2 side, CT#5


CT# 5, 3S1-3S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2
Date: 22/10/09, Thursday, 10:50am, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/3/08, Y-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/18/08, B-Sl.no. OC 2373/1/4/08
% of KPV

Applied Voltage (V)

R-phase (mA)

Y-phase (mA)

B-phase (mA)

25%

81.25

6.90

7.76

7.84

50%

162.50

10.92

11.90

11.48

75%

243.75

16.12

18.35

15.54

100%

325.00

29.52

36.5

28.31

110%

357.50

45.2

67.6

40.6

CT# 5, 3S1-3S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2


25%

162.50

3.29

3.59

3.50

50%

325.00

5.36

5.78

5.24

75%

487.50

7.90

8.93

7.64

100%

650.00

13.66

16.17

12.44

110%

715.00

18.49

23.70

16.45

CT#5, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA at Vk/2


25%

81.25

6.82

6.59

7.90

50%

162.50

10.70

10.39

11.55

75%

243.75

15.96

14.82

16.91

100%

325.00

28.41

25.06

31.20

110%

357.50

45.7

38.3

53.4

CT#5, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2


25%

162.50

3.23

3.20

3.44

50%

325.00

5.12

5.06

5.43

75%

487.50

8.03

7.32

7.85

100%

650.00

13.36

11.55

13.62

110%

715.00

18.02

15.27

19.44

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page35

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

Graphical Analysis for CT#1, 4S1-4S2, 325V, 60mA, B-phase

KPV Curve Characteristic


450
400

400
357.5

350

Voltage (V)

325
300
250

243.75

200
KPVCurve

162.5

150
100

81.25

50
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

Current (mA)
CT#4, 4S1-4S3, 650V, 30mA at Vk/2, R-Phase

KPV Curve Characterstics


800
715

700
650

Voltage (V)

600
500

487.5

400
325

300
200

KPVCurve

162.5

100
0
0

10

15

20

25

Current (mA)

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page36

KPVTestofCurrentTransformer

Precaution

Safety of experimenter and the teams the first priority.


Always take the readings after it has settled to a particular value.
Make sure that no heavy equipment like welding machines, are operating from the same
source from which testing is being done.
Always note the name plate reading and then perform the experiment.

Conclusion

From this experiment it is proved that the saturation point of current doesnt occur below 100%
of KPV. In fact it occurs beyond 110% of the rate KPV. Therefore this equipment is safe to use.
If the saturation point occurs before 100% of KPV then the relays connected to it will operate
under normal conditions also. When the saturation point occurs, the current rises to a very high
value, crossing the set point of relays which makes it to trip off, thus protecting the equipments.
This will allow only permissible amount of current to flow through the equipments.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page37

SurgeMonitorTesting

Date
Day
Time
Weather

: 13/10/09
: Tuesday
: 5:45pm
: Sunset

SurgeMonitorTesting
Aim

: To check the deflection in the surge monitor.

Objective

: To find out whether the surge monitor is working or not.

Instrument Used

Sl. no.

Description

Megger

Connecting Wires

Specification
1KV, 0-200Mohms, Waco,
Sl. no. 91611
----------------------------------

Quantity

Remarks

1
APR

Test applied to/ Test set up;

Model :SMT2B3R
Sl.No.5300

Lightening Arrester

Surge Monitor

Megger

Figure 5 Surge Monitor Testing

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page38

SurgeMonitorTesting

Procedure:
1. Connect positive terminal of the Megger to the top portion of the surge monitor as shown
above.
2. Connect the other terminal to the earth terminal.
3. Start Meggering
Observation:

When voltage (1KV) was applied to the surge monitor by Meggering, the pointer inside
the surge monitor started deflecting.
In some case the pointer didnt deflect indicating that the monitor is not working.

Precaution

Safety of the experimenter, the first priority.


Never start Meggering if both the terminals is being caught by performer
Always discharge by connecting the terminal to earth so that the experimenter is free of
shock.

Conclusion

From this test we can know whether the surge monitor is working or not. If there is no deflection
then it is proved that the surge monitor is not working and need to be replaced. If the indicator
inside the surge monitor starts to deflect upon the application of voltage then it is proved that the
surge monitor is working.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page39

SF6CircuitBreakerTesting

SF6CircuitBreakerTesting
CB#1
CB#2
CB#3
CB#4
CB#5

: Circuit Breaker on Incomer#1 (Tie Line)


: Circuit Breaker on Transformer#1 side
: Circuit Breaker on Bus Coupler Side
: Circuit Breaker on Incomer#2 (Jemina Line)
: Circuit Breaker on Transformer#2 side

Aim

: Testing of SF6 Circuit Breaker.

Objective

To find out the Alarm 'Loss of SF6' at 20C.


To find out the General Lock out SF6 at 20C.
To find the closing and opening time of SF6 Circuit Breaker.
Theory

The Nominal pressure of SF6 gas at 20C is 6.0 bars. When the loss of SF6 gas occurs below
certain set value it gives an alarm indicating less SF6 gas. So we need to attend to it by refilling.
If we fail to attend to the alarm, then when the pressure of SF6 gas falls further, then Lock out of
SF6 occurs. At this point the circuit breaker neither opens nor closes i.e. it remains in deadlock
position.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page40

SF6CircuitBreakerTesting

Instruments used
Sl. no
1

Description
SCOT M3K Time
Interval Meter

Multimeter

Refrigerant Leak
Detector

Circuit diagram

Specification
Model no. 2100.02W.166, T&M Pvt.
Ltd., Pune India.
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
Motwane
Model CPS LS790B, Sl.No. 581964,
USA Made

Quantity

Remarks

1 Set
1
1

To Circuit Breaker
Junction Box
Red
: (3, 4, 5)
Yellow : 17
Green : 7 for trip 1 and
12 for trip 2

DC +ive, CB
Coil Source
C +ive, CB
Close Coil
terminal
T +ive, CB
Source
Trip Coil
terminal
Source

Master Earthing
(Double Earthing)

Figure 6 SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing SCOT M3K Timer

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page41

SF6CircuitBreakerTesting

SF6 Breaker Testing with the Testing Equipment of BPC ( Circuit Breaker Operational
Analyzer Model 2406 HISAC, Sl. no. 3290-009).

Master
Earthing
(Double
Earthing)

To Circuit
Breaker
Junction Box

Power Supply

Figure 7 SF6 Circuit Breaker Testing with Circuit Breaker Operational Analyzer

NB: The terminals from the kit are to be connected as given in the earlier diagram and the
wires refer the same definition.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page42

SF6CircuitBreakerTesting

Procedure

PART-I
1. Connect the SF6 gas pipe to the breaker and start filling up the gas.
2. Fill up till the pressure reaches 1.0bar.
3. Check all the pipes and SF6 breaker for any leakage with the help of Refrigerant Leak
Detector. If leakage is there, then it makes continuous beeping sound. To find the exact
leak area, apply shampoo foam over the area. Wherever the pore is, the bubble becomes
big and burst out.
4. Leave the Breaker at 1.0bar for few hours. If leakage is there, the pressure falls down.
5. If there is no leakage then fill up the breaker with SF6 gas at 6.0bars.
6. At certain pressure (5.0 bars approx.) general lock out SF6 will occur. The multimeter
connected across alarm (X1-4, K11-A1) and trip contact (X1-4, K10-A1) will make
continuity sound.
7. Increase the pressure until it reaches certain point (5.3bars approx.) when the multimeter
connected across alarm and trip contact stops making continuity sound. This is the Alarm
Loss of gas pressure.
8. Still fill up the breaker with SF6 gas until the pressure reaches 6.0bars and disconnect it.
PART-II
1. Set up the experiment with SCOT M3K Time Interval Meter.
2. Connect the RYB terminals at the top and middle (make and break) points and plug it to
the SCOT M3K Time Interval Meter.
3. Connect two ground wires so as to have effective earthling. If one fails other will work.
4. Connect the control cable with the Circuit Breaker
a. Red one is DC +ive and it is the CB coil source. DC signals flows from Breaker
to the SCOT M3K Time Interval Meter. Connect it to X1-3, 4, and 5.
b. The command (Close command and Trip command) that we give flows to the CB
through the other two wires.
c. The yellow wire is C +ive and it is the close coil terminal. The close command
that we punch goes through this cable to operate the CB. Connect it to X1-17.
d. Green wire is T +ive and is the Trip coil terminal. The trip command that we
punch passes through this wire to trip the CB. Connect it to X-7.
5. Supply AC power to the motor so that it energizes the spring. When spring compresses to
its set position, the limit switch disconnects the AC supply and the motor stops, thus the
spring is charged.
6. Give the close, open-1 and close/open command consecutively with simultaneous
recording of the time (ms).
7. Change the green terminal to X1-12 and give open-2 command and note down the
readings.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page43

SF6CircuitBreakerTesting

Results

:
25/10/2009, Sunday, Sunny.
66KV Circuit Breaker SF6 gas filling Pressure Density Monitor Status.

Sl. No.

Temperature
(C)

2009/IND/03/6059

20

2009/IND/03/6060

20

2009/IND/03/6061

20

2009/IND/03/6058

20

2009/IND/03/6062

20

Trip Contact
X1-4
K10-A1
X1-4
K10-A1
X1-4
K10-A1
X1-4
K10-A1
X1-4
K10-A1

Lockout gas
pressure
(bar) kg/cm2
5.1

Leakage

5.2

OK

5.0

OK

5.2

OK

5.0

OK

X1-4
K11-A1
X1-4
K11-A1
X1-4
K11-A1
X1-4
K11-A1
X1-4
K11-A1

Loss of SF6
gas pressure
(bar)
5.3

Status found
Leakage

5.4

OK

5.3

OK

5.4

OK

5.3

OK

Sl. No.

Motor Sl. No.

Close Coil ()

Trip Coil 1()

Trip Coil 2()

2009/IND/03/6059

50.0

50.0

50.0

2009/IND/03/6060

289-087

50.4

50.3

50.6

2009/IND/03/6061

289-349

48.5

50.1

50.6

2009/IND/03/6058

289-436

50.9

50.2

50.0

2009/IND/03/6062

289-543

49.7

49.7

50.1

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Status found

Alarm
Contact

Page44

SF6CircuitBreakerTesting

Test Result of SF6 Circuit Breaker


Location
Serial Number
Date of Testing
Feeder Name
Rated Voltage
Rated Current
Phase
R
Y
B

: Bus Coupler Side.


Type
: 3AP1FG
: 2009/IND/03/6061.
Make
: SEIMENS
: 26/10/2009, 9:45am, Sunny.
STC
: 40KA
: CB3
: 145KV
: 3150A
Closing/Opening Time
Close (ms)
Open-1 (ms)
Open-2(ms)
C/O(ms)
59
33
30
29
58
34
31
31
59
33
33
33
Coil Resistance
Coil
Resistance ()
Close coil
48.5
Trip Coil-1
50.1
Trip Coil-2
50.4

Test Result of SF6 Circuit Breaker


Location
Serial Number
Date of Testing
Feeder Name
Rated Voltage
Rated Current
Phase
R
Y
B

: Transformer#2 Side.
Type
: 3AP1FG
: 2009/IND/03/6062.
Make
: SEIMENS
: 26/10/2009, 10:25am, Sunny.
STC
: 40KA
: CB5
: 145KV
: 3150A
Closing/Opening Time
Close (ms)
Open-1 (ms)
Open-2(ms)
C/O(ms)
57
32
30
33
57
32
30
33
57
32
30
33
Coil Resistance
Coil
Resistance ()
Close coil
49.7
Trip Coil-1
49.7
Trip Coil-2
50.1

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page45

SF6CircuitBreakerTesting

Test Result of SF6 Circuit Breaker


Location
Serial Number
Date of Testing
Feeder Name
Rated Voltage
Rated Current
Phase
R
Y
B

: Transformer#1 Side.
Type
: 3AP1FG
: 2009/IND/03/6058.
Make
: SEIMENS
: 26/10/2009, 11:00am, Sunny.
STC
: 40KA
: CB2
: 145KV
: 3150A
Closing/Opening Time
Close (ms)
Open-1 (ms)
Open-2(ms)
C/O(ms)
60
33
33
31
59
34
34
30
62
32
32
30
Coil Resistance
Coil
Resistance ()
Close coil
50.9
Trip Coil-1
50.2
Trip Coil-2
50.0

Test Result of SF6 Circuit Breaker


Location
Serial Number
Date of Testing
Feeder Name
Rated Voltage
Rated Current
Phase
R
Y
B

: Incomer#1 Tie Line Side.


Type
: 3AP1FG
: 2009/IND/03/6060.
Make
: SEIMENS
: 26/10/2009, 11:20am, Sunny.
STC
: 40KA
: CB1
: 145KV
: 3150A
Closing/Opening Time
Close (ms)
Open-1 (ms)
Open-2(ms)
C/O(ms)
57
33
34
34
58
32
33
31
59
32
33
33
Coil Resistance
Coil
Resistance ()
Close coil
50.4
Trip Coil-1
50.3
Trip Coil-2
50.6

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page46

SF6CircuitBreakerTesting

Test Result of SF6 Circuit Breaker


Location
Serial Number
Date of Testing
Feeder Name
Rated Voltage
Rated Current
Phase
R
Y
B

Result

:
The rated time for closing is 508 ms; therefore the value that we obtained is within the
range.
The rated opening time is 304 ms; therefore the value we obtained is within the
permissible limit.
The rated close-open time is 3010 ms; therefore the value we obtained is within the
normal range.

Precaution

: Incomer#2 Jemina Line Side.


Type
: 3AP1FG
: 2009/IND/03/6059.
Make
: SEIMENS
: 28/12/2009, 4:15pm, Sunny.
STC
: 40KA
: CB4
: 145KV
: 3150A
Closing/Opening Time
Close (ms)
Open-1 (ms)
Open-2(ms)
C/O(ms)
59.0
28.8
60.4
29.8
57.4
30.0
58.0
31.0
58.2
29.6
58.4
30.4
Coil Resistance
Coil
Resistance ()
Close coil
48.9
Trip Coil-1
49.0
Trip Coil-2
49.0

Safety the first priority.


Always take the steady value.
Connect the wires properly and tightly.
Note down the readings properly.

Conclusion

From this field test I came to learn that the results are correct and the SF6 circuit breaker is safe
to use. Of course one SF6 circuit breaker on Jemina side had leakage therefore it was replaced
and tested. Rests of the circuit breaker are working fine. Sometimes the tripping coil gets burned
often as in case of Jemina line circuit breaker, the reason being the flow of continuous current,
low resistance of the coil and appearance of high voltage across its terminal. For resistance
check, apply voltage across the terminals for 15s and then check the current obtained and cross
check with the actual value.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page47

TransformerWindingResistance

TransformerWindingResistance
Aim

: To find out the Winding Resistance of Transformer and of its respective CTs.

Objective

To check the winding resistance of Transformer in R, Y and B phase on HV side.


To check the winding resistance on LV side at Tap # 9.
To check the winding resistance of WTICT, NCT and LV phase CT.

Theory
: There are three current transformers in 20MVA Transformer viz. winding
temperature indicator current transformer (WTICT), Neutral current transformer (NCT) and LV
phase current transformers. WTICT is connected to the bellow heater in the WTI. When
transformer is loaded the current flows through the CT and flows through the heater coil, thereby
the temperature indicated by WTI becomes the winding oil temperature and the winding
temperature. In no load condition the WTI temperature and the OTI temperature are same as
indicated in the dehydration curve. NCT is located below the neutral point in secondary winding
and for each LV phases there is CT. Tap # 9 is normal position with turn's ratio two, so whenever
we do normal test we take tap # 9. For this test we simply use Ohm's law.
Transformer 1 Sl. no. 21067/1
WTICT

: 350/5A, CL-5, 20VA.

NCT

: Core (i), 400/1A, 5P10, 10VA


Core (ii), 400/1A, 5P10, 10VA
Core (iii), 400/1A, CL-PS, Vk 800V.
Imag 100mA at Vk, RCT 1.5
LV Phase CT Core (i), 400/1A, 5P10, 10VA.
Core (ii), 400/1A, 5P10, 10VA
Core (iii), 400/1A, CL-PS, Vk 800V.
Imag 100mA at Vk, RCT 1.5
Connections: WTICT (15, 16). NCT (18, 19, 20). LV R-Ph CT (21, 22, 23), LV Y-Ph CT (24,
25, 26), LV B-Ph CT (27, 28, 29).
15-2WS7,
16-2WS8
17-2WS9

18-2S1, 2S2
19- 2S3, 2S4
20- 2S5, 2S6
21- 2US1, 2US2
22- 2US3, 2US4
23- 2US5, 2US6

24- 2VS1, 2VS2


25- 2VS3, 2VS4
26- 2VS5, 2VS6
27- 2WS1, 2WS2
28- 2WS3, 2WS4
29- 2WS5, 2WS6

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page48

TransformerWindingResistance

Instruments used

Sl. no Description

Specification

AV Meter

Multimeter

Connecting wires

Circuit diagram

Motwane
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
Motwane
---------------------------------------------

Quantity

Remarks

1
1
APR

N.B: Part I and II refers to connections of different experiment.


Figure 8 Measurement of Transformer winding resistance

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page49

TransformerWindingResistance

Procedure

1. Disconnect the earth terminal from the neutral point.


2. Position the tap at 01.
3. Connect a wire to the R-phase (incoming) whose end will be connected to +ive supply
and connect a wire from the other end and connect it to voltmeter.
4. Connect a wire to the Y-phase (incoming) whose end will be connected to -ive supply
and connect a wire from the other end and connect it to voltmeter.
5. Connect an ammeter to the negative wire.
6. Switch on the power supply and note down the readings on voltmeter and ammeter.
7. Calculate the resistance from the values observed.
8. Increase the tap to next level and repeat step 1 to7.
9. Repeat the above step for Y-B and B-R phases.
10. For LV side repeat the above step for R-N, Y-N, B-N and B-Y, however here we need
not change the tapings. Just position at the normal tap.
11. To find the winding resistance of CT connect ohmmeter across respective terminals i.e.
15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,24,25,26,27,28 and 29 in our case.
12. Record the reading.
Result :
Transformer 1, Sl. No. 21067/1
Date: 3/11/09, 11:00am, Sunny.
Tap
Position
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09b
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

R-Y Phase
Current Voltage
(A)
(V)
4.40
4.00
4.48
3.98
4.42
3.96
4.42
3.91
4.50
3.88
4.50
3.88
4.52
3.85
4.59
3.82
4.60
3.79
4.69
3.78
4.70
3.77
4.79
3.75
4.80
3.72
4.85
3.70
4.90
3.68
4.95
3.65
5.00
3.62

Resistance
(m)
909.09
888.39
895.93
884.62
862.22
862.22
851.77
832.24
823.91
805.97
802.13
782.88
775.00
762.89
751.02
737.37
724.00

Tap
Position
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
09b
08
07
06
05
04
03
02
01

Y-B Phase
Current
Voltage
(A)
(V)
4.90
3.57
4.81
3.59
4.79
3.61
4.71
3.63
4.68
3.65
4.61
3.68
4.60
3.71
4.52
3.73
4.50
3.74
4.49
3.77
4.41
3.79
4.40
3.82
4.38
3.84
4.31
3.86
4.29
3.88
4.22
3.90
4.20
3.92

Resistance
(m)
728.57
746.36
753.65
770.70
779.91
798.26
806.52
825.22
831.11
839.64
859.41
868.18
876.71
895.59
904.43
924.17
933.33

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Page50

TransformerWindingResistance

Tap
Position
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09b
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

TB No.
18
19
20
TB No.
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

Transformer 1, Sl. No. 21067/1


Date: 3/11/09, 11:00am, Sunny.
B-R Phase
LV Side Tap # 9
Current Voltage Resistance
Current
Voltage
Resistance
Phase
(A)
(V)
(m)
(A)
(V)
(m)
4.42
3.80
859.73
R-N
3.59
0.2794
77.83
4.49
3.79
844.10
4.53
3.78
834.44
Y-N
7.30
0.5730
78.49
4.49
3.77
839.64
4.61
3.75
813.45
B-N
7.30
0.5730
78.49
4.69
3.73
795.31
4.71
3.71
787.69
B-Y
6.40
0.9960
155.63
4.78
3.69
771.97
4.80
3.66
762.50
4.84
3.65
754.13
4.89
3.64
744.38
4.93
3.62
734.28
In LV side, the Line resistance is double to that of
4.99
3.60
721.44
Phase Resistance.
5.01
3.57
712.57
5.06
3.55
701.58
5.12
3.52
687.50
5.19
3.49
672.45
Transformer 1, Sl. No. 21067/1.
WTICT
Neutral CT (NCT)
Wire Code
2S1-2S2

Resistance ()

2S3-2S4
2S5-2S6
LV Phase CTs
Wire Code
Resistance ()
2US1-2US2
2US3-2US4
2US5-2US6
2VS1-2VS2
2VS3-2VS4
2VS5-2VS6
2WS1-2WS2
2WS3-2WS4
2WS5-2WS6

TB No.
15
16
16
17
15
17

Wire Code Resistance ()


2WS7
2WS8
2WS8
2WS9
2WS7
2WS9

For WTICT we have to do with pair of


wires alternatively.

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Page51

TransformerWindingResistance

Transformer 2, Sl. No. 21067/2


Date: 4/11/09, 12:40pm, Sunny.
Tap
Position
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09b
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Tap
Position
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09b
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

R-Y Phase
Current Voltage
(A)
(V)
3.62
3.150
3.68
3.130
3.70
3.110
3.62
3.090
3.76
3.060
3.79
3.037
3.80
3.018
3.85
2.998
3.90
2.977
3.95
2.974
3.99
2.952
4.00
2.930
4.01
2.905
4.05
2.880
4.10
2.850
4.12
2.030
4.19
2.000

Y-B Phase
Resistance
Tap
Current
Voltage
Resistance
(m)
Position
(A)
(V)
(m)
870.17
01
3.63
3.175
874.66
3.69
3.150
850.54
02
853.66
840.54
03
3.70
3.130
845.95
853.59
04
3.71
3.110
838.27
813.83
05
3.74
3.090
826.20
3.79
3.070
801.32
06
810.03
794.21
07
3.80
3.050
802.63
3.81
3.030
778.70
08
795.28
763.33
09b
3.84
3.000
781.25
752.91
10
3.89
2.990
768.64
739.85
11
3.90
2.960
758.97
3.92
2.940
732.50
12
750.00
724.44
13
3.97
2.915
734.26
3.99
2.892
711.11
14
724.81
695.12
15
4.00
2.869
717.25
4.02
2.844
492.72
16
707.46
4.09
2.813
477.33
17
687.78
Transformer 2, Sl. No. 21067/2
Date: 4/11/09, 12:00am, Sunny.
B-R Phase
LV Side Tap # 9
Current Voltage Resistance
Current
Voltage
Resistance
Phase
(A)
(V)
(m)
(A)
(V)
(m)
3.58
3.190
891.06
R-N
4.32
0.352
81.48
3.60
3.170
880.56
3.62
3.140
867.40
Y-N
4.35
0.353
81.15
3.68
3.110
845.11
3.70
3.110
840.54
B-N
4.32
0.354
81.94
3.78
3.060
809.52
3.79
3.040
802.11
B-Y
4.00
0.644
161.00
3.81
3.008
789.50
3.80
3.004
790.53
3.81
2.982
782.68
3.85
2.957
768.05
3.89
2.934
754.24
In LV side, the Line resistance is double to that of
3.90
2.905
744.87
Phase Resistance.
3.94
2.877
730.20
3.98
2.852
716.58
4.00
2.822
705.50
4.02
2.794
695.02

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Page52

TransformerWindingResistance

Transformer 2, Sl. No. 21067/2.


Neutral CT (NCT)
Wire Code
Resistance ()
2S1-2S2
2.6
2S3-2S4
2.4
2S5-2S6
2.6
LV Phase CTs
Wire Code
Resistance ()
2US1-2US2
3.5
2US3-2US4
2.3
2US5-2US6
2.6
2VS1-2VS2
2.4
2VS3-2VS4
2.5
2VS5-2VS6
2.8
2WS1-2WS2
1.2
2WS3-2WS4
2.4
2WS5-2WS6
2.4

TB No.
18
19
20
TB No.
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29

WTICT
TB No.
15
16
16
17
15
17

Wire Code Resistance ()


2WS7
2.6
2WS8
2WS8
1.7
2WS9
2WS7
1.9
2WS9

For WTICT we have to do with pair of


wires alternatively.

Precautions :

Safety of experimenter the first priority.


Always adjust the DC voltage level as per the ranges of the meters used.
Avoid parallax error.

Conclusion

From this field test, the winding resistances of CTs are below 1.5. As indicated on the name
plate rating. The winding resistance of NCT, LV Phase CTs and WTICT are permissibly correct.

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Page53

TransformerTesting

TransformerTesting
(IR Check, Ratio Check, Magnetizing Balance Check, Magnetizing Current
Check, Vector Group Check)
Aim
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

:
To check the 'Insulation Resistance' of the Transformer.
To check the 'Ratio of HV-LV winding'.
To check the 'Magnetizing Balance' or 'Core Balance'.
To check the 'Magnetizing Current'.
To check the 'Vector Group'.

Objectives

To find out the insulation resistance between HV-Earth, LV-Earth and HV-LV terminals
and to ensure there is no leakage to earth i.e. continuity check.
To ensure that the turns ratio for each tapping is in accordance to the name plate rating.
To ensure that the magnetic balance is not disturbed.
To observe the no load magnetizing current.
To ensure the vector group DYN 11.
Theory

I.

Insulation Resistance Test


Insulation resistance of a two-winding transformer insulation system, HV to ground, LV
to ground, and HV to LV is determined with a Megger type of instrument. Historically,
insulation resistance measurements are also made to assess the amount of moisture in
transformer insulation. However, the measurement of insulation dissipation factor has
shown to be a better indicator of the overall condition of insulation in a power
transformer.

II.

Ratio Test
The purpose of this test is to ensure that all windings have the correct number of turns
according to the design. Since the transformer is equipped with a load tap changer (LTC),
ratio tests is also carried out at the various positions of the tap changer(s). The objective
of ratio tests at different tap positions is to ensure that all winding taps are made at the
correct turns and that the tap connections are properly made to the tap changing devices.
ANSI/IEEE general standard [1] requires that the measured voltage ratio between any
two windings be within 0.5% of the value indicated on the nameplate. To verify this
requirement, ratio tests are performed in which the actual voltage ratio is determined
through measurements. Ratio tests can be made by energizing the transformer with a low
AC test voltage and measuring the voltage induced in other windings at various tap
settings, etc. In each case the voltage ratio is calculated and compared to the voltage ratio

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page54

TransformerTesting

indicated on the transformer's nameplate. More commonly, Transformer Turns Ratio


(TTR) test sets are used for making the tests.
III.

Magnetizing Balance Test


This test is performed to ensure that the HV and LV windings are not displaced from its
original 120 displacement from respective phases.

In this, two phase supply is applied to one of the winding and the induced voltages on the
other two windings are measured. The voltage applied on the windings should be the sum
of the voltage induced on other two windings. If the phase displacements are correct then
the flux distribution on each winding will also be proportionate i.e. upon repeating the
applied voltage to other phases too, the sum of induced voltages should be equal to the
applied voltage. In the readings one will see the maximum value being in the diagonal.
In case of LV side which is star connected, magnetic balance test ensures that the
windings are not displaced with respect to the neutral point. If windings are displaced
from each other then we say neutral is displaced, which means some currents are flowing
in the neutral point (Earth Fault). By KCL, current flowing in the neutral point should be
zero at balanced condition however practically it is not true. Therefore in order to satisfy
this condition neutral point is grounded so that any current flowing through neutral point
goes to earth. Here too the diagonal characteristic is observed.
IV.

Magnetizing Current Check


This test ensures that the magnetizing current under no load condition doesnt exceed 4%
of the rated current. When voltage is applied to the exciting or primary winding of the
transformer, a magnetizing current flows in the primary winding which produces the flux
in the core. The flow of flux in magnetic circuits is analogous to the flow of current in
electrical circuits. The magnetizing current is required to magnetize the winding and the
core.

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Page55

TransformerTesting

Magnetizing Current

V.

Vector Group Check


This test is from the design point of consideration and is required to check the vector
group indicated on the name plate of the transformer. There are various vector groups and
in our case the transformer is Dy11. Some of the typical examples are as follows.

The vector diagram for Dy11 is shown below.

30Lagor+30

Here, RYB forma an equilateral triangle.


R-b=R-y, Y-b=Y-y, R-Y=R-N+Y-N, B-y is the shoot point.

Dy11

This confirms the Dy11 vector group test.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page56

TransformerTesting

Instrument required :
Sl. no

Description

Motorized Megger

Multimeter

Clamp Leaker

Specification
5KV, 0-10000M, Sl. no. 850302,
WACO
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
Motwane
DC-10A, Motwane

Testing Board

MCB C16 attached, handmade

Connecting wires

2.5 sq.mm

Transformer

Sl. no 21067/1, 20MVA

3- Supply

415V, 50Hz

AV Meter

AC/DC Range

Screw Driver

-type

Circuit diagram

Quantity

Remarks

1
1
1
1

See picture

APR

Figure 9 Various testing on Transformer

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Page57

TransformerTesting

Procedure
I.

Insulation Resistance Check


a. Connect wires from HV, LV and Earth terminals.
b. Use 5KV Motorized Megger with external power supply.
c. Connect HV and Earth terminals to the Megger. Switch on the power supply and
note down the readings indicated on the Megger at 15th and 60th seconds.
d. Switch off the Megger and discharge the current in the lines used by shorting the
terminals to avoid risk of shock.
e. Connect LV and Earth terminals to the Megger. Switch on the power supply and
note down the readings indicated on the Megger at 15th and 60th seconds.
f. Repeat step d.
g. Connect HV and LV terminals to the Megger. Switch on the power supply and
note down the readings indicated on the Megger at 15th and 60th seconds.
h. Repeat step d.
i. Calculate R15/R60 and then tabulate the readings.

II.

Ratio Test
a. Connect the circuit diagram as in the figure above.
b. Disconnect the neutral from Earth terminal.
c. Apply 3- power from nearby BMK to the connection board.
d. Since the transformer has 17 taps, begin one by one.
e. Positioning the tap at 01, check the voltage at HV side, LV side (line as well as
phase voltage) and note down the readings.
f. Increase the tap to next level and then repeat step 'e'.
g. Repeat step 'f' till the highest tap.
h. Tabulate the readings for further analysis.

III.

Magnetizing Balance Check (Core Balance), Tap # 9b.


a. The experiment continues from above tests.
b. Make sure that the table for recording data is made sequentially.
c. Switch on the power supply and always work offline.
d. Remove the HV B-phase out and then measure the voltage on HV lines and LV
side (Line as well as phase voltages).
e. Remove the HV R-phase out and then measure the voltage on HV lines and LV
side (Line as well as phase voltages).
f. Remove the HV Y-phase out and then measure the voltage on HV lines and LV
side (Line as well as phase voltages). Switch off the power supply.
g. Record the data sequentially and correctly.
h. Observe the characteristic of the readings on the table.

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TransformerTesting

IV.

V.

Magnetizing Current Check (No load current), Tap # 9b.


a. Reconnect every connection as shown in the circuit diagram.
b. Switch on the power supply but while changing the connections switch it off.
c. Disconnect the R-phase on HV side and then measure the current on R-phase
itself. Record the voltage on R-Y phase too. Use Clamp leaker.
d. Reconnect R-phase and disconnect the Y-phase on HV side. Measure the current
on Y-phase itself. Record the voltage on Y-B phase too. Use Clamp leaker.
e. Reconnect Y-phase and disconnect the B-phase on HV side. Measure the current
on B-phase itself. Record the voltage on Y-B phase too. Use Clamp leaker.
f. Disconnect HV side and give the supply to LV terminals.
g. Use clamp leaker to measure the current in the lines.
h. Disconnect the r-phase on LV side and then measure the current on r-phase itself.
Record the voltage on r-y phase too.
i. Reconnect r-phase and disconnect the y-phase on LV side. Measure the current on
y-phase itself. Record the voltage on y-b phase too.
j. Reconnect y-phase and disconnect the b-phase on LV side. Measure the current
on b-phase itself. Record the voltage on b-r phase too.
k. Observe the readings very carefully such that the magnetizing current is not less
than 4% of the actual rated current in both the cases.
Vector Group Check, Tap # 9b.
a. Reconnect every connection as shown in the circuit diagram.
b. Here we need to check the name plate rating. The vector Group is Dy11 so we
need to prove this. Refer the vector diagram given in theory.
c. Short the R-phase of HV and LV terminals.
d. Apply voltage on HV side.
e. Check the voltage R-Y, Y-B, B-R, R-n, Y-n, R-b, R-y, Y-b, Y-y, B-b and B-y
terminals.
f. Check if the results are matching with that given in theory.

Precautions :
1. Safety of experimenter the first priority.
2. While Meggering, always discharge the current to avoid shock.
3. Always switch off the power supply when connecting the circuit to avoid spark.
Insulation Resistance Values of Power Transformers (M)
Class
Winding Temperatures C
33-132KV
20C
30C
40C
50C
60C
70C
R15
450
300
200
140
60
40
R60
900
600
400
280
120
50
R60-Value of IR at 60sec & R15 at 15 sec. after the application of test voltage of Megger
Courtesy: Installation, commissioning and maintenance of electrical equipment, Tarlok Singh

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page59

TransformerTesting

Result

: TRANSFORMER # 1, Sl. no 21067/1

Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/1


Date : 30/10/2009, 12:00pm, Sunny.
Insulation Resistance (IR) Check by 5KV Motorized Megger (M)
Terminals
IR-R60
IR-R15
R15/R60
HV-Earth
10000+
10000
1
HV-LV
10000+
5000
0.5
LV-Earth
10000+
8000
0.8
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/1
Magnetizing Balance Check (Tap #9) or Core Balance
-out
R-Y(V) Y-B(V) B-R(V) r-y(V) y-b(V) b-r(V) r-n(V) y-n(V) b-n(V)
B
416.0
318.0
98.3
213.5
65.4
148.1
120.0
93.1
28.5
R
216.7
417.0
201.6
184.5
180.1
10.19
62.5
121.3
59.9
Y
81.4
335.4
416.0
78.4
219.6
145.2
23.96
97.3
121.4
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/1
Magnetizing Current Check (Tap # 9) or No Load Current
HV Side
LV Side
Applied
Applied
-out
Current (mA)
-out
Current (mA)
Voltage(V)
Voltage (V)
r-y
417.0 r-ph
9.63
R
R-Y
417.0
R-ph
3.50
r
y-b
415.0 y-ph
6.30
Y
Y-B
415.0
Y-ph
2.46
y
B
B-R
416.0
B-ph
2.49
b-r
416.0 b-ph
9.82
b
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/1
Vector Group Check (Tap # 9), Dy11
Terminals
Voltage(V)
R-Y
416.0
Y-B
417.0
B-R
417.0
R-N
121.8
Y-N
300.0
R-b=R-y,
B-b
261.0
Y-b=Y-y,
B-y
475.0
R-Y=R-N+Y-N,
R-b
208.2
B-y is the shoot point.
Dy11
R-y
208.5
These conditions are found correct.
Y-b
259.4
Y-y
259.4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page60

RatioTestofTransformer

Ratio Test of Transformer # 1, Sl. no 21067/1


Tap

HV () Side
(Volts)

LV (Star) Side
(Volts)

Actual
Ratio

Ratio
Rph Yph Bph

VRY

VYB

VBR

v ry

v yb

v br

v rn

v yn

v bn

HV/LV

01

415

415

415

189.6

191.9

189.3

109.4

110.1

110.3

2.20

2.19

2.16

02

413

416

416

190.8

193.3

191.2

110.6

111.2

111.4

2.18

2.16

03

415

415

416

193.3

194.6

193.6

111.9

112.6

112.8

2.15

04

413

417

415

195.3

197.3

196.9

113.4

114.0

114.2

05

415

416

415

198.1

199.5

198.2

114.8

115.4

06

417

415

416

200.3

201.3

200.4

116.1

07

415

416

417

202.9

204.5

203.4

08

415

416

417

205.7

206.6

9b

414

415

416

208.0

10

417

417

418

11

418

416

12

414

13

% Error
Rph

Yph

Bph

2.19

-0.45%

-1.82%

-0.45%

2.15

2.18

-0.92%

-1.38%

0.00%

2.15

2.13

2.15

0.00%

-0.93%

0.00%

2.13

2.11

2.11

2.11

-0.94%

-0.94%

-0.94%

115.6

2.10

2.09

2.09

2.09

-0.48%

-0.48%

-0.48%

116.9

116.9

2.08

2.08

2.06

2.08

-0.00%

-0.96%

0.00%

117.7

118.3

118.3

2.05

2.05

2.03

2.05

-0.00%

-0.98%

0.00%

206.2

119.5

119.6

119.9

2.03

2.02

2.01

2.02

-0.49%

-0.99%

-0.49%

209.2

208.5

120.6

121.2

121.3

2.00

1.99

1.98

2.00

-0.50%

-1.00%

0.00%

210.0

212.3

211.5

122.0

122.5

122.3

1.98

1.99

1.96

1.98

+0.51%

-1.01%

0.00%

417

213.2

215.0

214.3

123.6

124.4

124.5

1.95

1.96

1.93

1.95

+0.51%

-1.03%

0.00%

416

418

215.7

217.3

216.8

125.3

125.5

126.2

1.93

1.92

1.91

1.93

-0.52%

-1.04%

0.00%

414

415

416

218.9

220.3

219.7

126.9

127.4

127.7

1.90

1.89

1.88

1.89

-0.53%

-1.05%

-0.53%

14

417

417

416

221.9

223.3

222.7

129.0

129.2

129.5

1.88

1.88

1.87

1.87

0.00%

-0.53%

-0.53%

15

414

416

417

225.0

227.6

226.0

130.9

131.0

131.40

1.85

1.84

1.83

1.85

-0.54%

-1.08%

0.00%

16

415

416

417

228.4

230.9

228.4

132.7

133.2

133.6

1.83

1.82

1.80

1.83

-0.55%

-1.64%

0.00%

17

414

415

416

232.1

233.6

232.7

134.5

134.8

135.2

1.80

1.78

1.78

1.79

-1.11%

-1.11%

-0.56%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page61

TransformerTesting

TRANSFORMER # 2, SL. No. 21067/2


Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/2
Date : 4/11/2009, 10:00am, Sunny.
Insulation Resistance (IR) Check by 5KV Motorized Megger (M)
Terminals
IR-R60
IR-R15
R15/R60
HV-Earth
6000
10000
1.67
HV-LV
5000
10000
2.00
LV-Earth
9000
10000
1.11
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/2
Magnetizing Balance Check (Tap #9) or Core Balance
-out
R-Y(V) Y-B(V) B-R(V) r-y(V) y-b(V) b-r(V) r-n(V) y-n(V) b-n(V)
B
421.0
349.0
72.60
223.3
81.6
142.0
121.7
101.7
21.03
R
209.0
422.0
213.1
182.5
183.4
477
60.0
121.8 61.40
Y
60.20
356.0
421
85.8
223.9
138.5
17.78
103.2 120.8
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/2
Magnetizing Current Check (Tap # 9) or No Load Current
HV Side
LV Side
Applied
Applied
-out
Current (mA)
-out
Current (mA)
Voltage(V)
Voltage(V)
r-y
422.0 r-ph
11.0
R
R-Y
422.0
R-ph
3.90
r
y-b
421.0 y-ph
6.50
Y
Y-B
423.0
Y-ph
2.00
y
B
B-R
423.0
B-ph
2.20
b-r
423.0 b-ph
11.0
b
Transformer Testing, Sl. No. 21067/1
Vector Group Check (Tap # 9), Dy11
Terminals
Voltage(V)
R-Y
420.0
Y-B
421.0
B-R
423.0
R-N
122.10
Y-N
299.0
R-b=R-y,
B-y
475.0
Y-b=Y-y,
R-Y=R-N+Y-N,
R-b
210.5
B-y is the shoot point.
R-y
211.4
Dy11
These conditions are found correct.
Y-b
261.6
Y-y
261.3

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page62

RatioTestofTransformer

Ratio Test of Transformer # 2, Sl. no 21067/2


Tap

HV () Side
(Volts)

LV (Star) Side
(Volts)

Actual
Ratio

Ratio
Rph Yph Bph

VRY

VYB

VBR

v ry

v yb

v br

v rn

v yn

v bn

HV/LV

01

422

421

422

191.6

190.9

191.0

110.9

111.3

110.7

2.20

2.20

2.21

02

421

423

423

194.1

193.6

193.4

112.2

112.5

112.0

2.18

2.17

03

425

422

422

196.7

195.5

195.6

113.5

113.7

112.5

2.15

04

423

427

423

198.9

198.4

198.3

114.8

115.0

113.6

05

424

421

422

201.2

200.4

200.3

116.1

116.2

06

421

423

422

203.5

202.3

201.6

117.4

07

422

423

420

206.1

205.3

205.3

08

422

422

421

208.3

207.4

9b

422

422

421

210.6

10

423

421

422

11

421

422

12

422

13

% Error
Rph

Yph

Bph

2.21

+0.11%

+0.24%

+0.43%

2.18

2.19

-0.51%

+0.23%

+0.33%

2.16

2.16

2.16

+0.50%

+0.40%

+0.35%

2.13

2.13

2.15

2.13

-0.16%

+1.04%

+0.15%

115.9

2.10

2.11

2.10

2.11

+0.35%

+0.04%

+0.33%

117.8

117.3

2.08

2.07

2.09

2.09

-0.54%

+0.53%

+0.64%

118.9

119.2

118.5

2.05

2.05

2.06

2.05

-0.12%

+0.51%

-0.21%

207.3

120.1

120.4

119.9

2.03

2.03

2.03

2.03

-0.20%

+0.23%

+0.04%

210.1

209.9

121.6

121.8

121.4

2.00

2.00

2.01

2.01

+0.19%

+0.43%

+0.29%

213.2

212.6

212.8

123.3

123.4

123.1

1.98

1.98

1.98

1.98

+0.20%

+0.01%

+0.16%

422

216.2

215.3

215.6

124.9

125.0

124.7

1.95

1.95

1.96

1.96

-0.14%

+0.52%

+0.38%

422

421

219.1

218.2

218.4

126.6

126.7

126.2

1.93

1.93

1.93

1.93

-0.20%

+0.21%

-0.12%

422

422

422

222.2

220.6

220.3

128.3

128.4

128.0

1.90

1.90

1.91

1.92

-0.04%

+0.68%

+0.82%

14

421

423

422

225.0

224.1

223.4

130.0

130.1

129.7

1.88

1.87

1.89

1.89

-0.47%

+0.40%

+0.48%

15

422

422

421

228.4

227.1

227.5

131.9

132.0

131.5

1.85

1.85

1.86

1.85

-0.13%

+0.44%

+0.03%

16

422

422

419

231.7

230.5

230.4

133.6

133.7

133.3

1.83

1.82

1.83

1.82

-0.47%

+0.04%

-0.62%

17

423

422

422

219.1

233.7

234.1

135.5

135.6

135.0

1.80

1.93

1.81

1.80

+7.26%

+0.32%

+0.15%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page63

TransformerTesting

Result:

The field testing of the ratio of HV/LV at various tapings is found correct with slight
errors.
The phase voltage of secondary is also found to be 1/3 times that of line voltage.
The actual ratio at normal tap is 2 i.e. 66/33KV.
It is observed in the magnetizing balance check that the maximum voltage exists across
the diagonal element for HV and LV phase voltage.
NB: If the diagonal characteristics holds true for the phase voltages at LV side then it
is true for HV side. Further Vector Group check will also hold true.
The vector group check for Dy11 also proved the equations or the vector characteristic
given.

Conclusion:
From the above field test it is proved that the results obtained are tallying with the name plate
ratings. Ratios at various taps are correct with some errors. The windings at the core are also
balanced at 120 from each other. The magnetizing current as observed during the field test is far
below 4% of the actual rated current. No load current should not exceed above 4% of the actual
rated current. It is observed that in the Y phase the current is comparatively less. The reason
being, the Y phase winding lies at the middle so the flux gets distributed equally to other
windings too thereby resulting in low currents. Whereas in other case very less flux gets to the
third winding (see the fig. below). The vector group is found to be Dy11. There are a total of
about 63 vector group, some of which are given at the theory portion.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page64

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

TransformerOilTesting
Aim

: Dehydration & filtration of Transformer oil in the Transformer.

Objective

1. To remove the moisture present in the core, windings, tank, radiator and the conservator
tank.
2. To check the insulation resistance (IR Value) of the Transformer using Megger and
observe the reading.
3. Check the Breakdown Voltage value (BDV) of the dehydrated oil.
Theory
: After the erection of Transformer at site, dehydration and filtration of oil is very
important. Here 'Transformer Oil Conditioning Machine' is used. There are two outlets in this
machine; one is used as incoming oil source and the other acts as outgoing source. After
connecting one pipe to the transformer tank and the other to the oil barrel start the machine and
fill the transformer with oil. Dont fill it fully; as transformer oil gets heated its volume expands.
Now connect both pipes to transformer where one draws oil from the transformer and the other
pumps in the dehydrated oil coming from the Transformer oil conditioning machine. There are
moistures present in core and windings. When the oil is heated, by virtue of core and windings
being immersed in the oil, it gets heated. As a result of this the moisture present, in the core and
windings vaporize out and gets mixed with the oil. This oil is then passed into the oil
conditioning machine. The oil passes through 'degassing chamber' in two stages where the oil is
set to flow in the form of fountain. When this process happens the moisture is sent out from the
oil which is then sucked by the vacuum pump. The oil further passes through heater and filter
vessel where the oil gets heated and gets filtered of carbon deposits, dirt, sludge, etc. particles.
The oil is again pumped in the transformer. It heats the core and the process continues. During
the process of Transformer Oil Conditioning, check the IR value of the transformer every after
one hour. Theoretically the Megger value should come down and then rise up until it attains a
stable value. When it attains stable value for multiple Meggering then it shows that the oil is
dehydrated. Then collect sample oil for BDV test. The BDV value shouldnt come below 60KV.
While Meggering we go with checking the insulation resistance value of primary-earth,
secondary-earth and primary-secondary winding (see fig. 1). The theory behind is as follows;
Primary-Earth
: Basically we are observing the change in the characteristics of the
insulation resistance between primary winding and the earth. The IR value of primary to earth
will be high before conditioning. When the conditioning of the oil is started the moisture gets
removed and the value comes down. Upon further conditioning the IR value will go up
indicating that there is no conduction path from primary to earth.
Secondary-Earth
: Here we are checking the insulation resistance between secondary
winding and the earth terminal. The same characteristic should be observed as described above.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page65

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

Primary-Secondary : The insulation resistance of primary-secondary is observed. Upon


heating, dehydrating and filtering, the IR value should come down and the rise up until it attains
a stable value. Thus moisture is indicated, vaporized and removed out.

IR Value Pry-Earth
IR Value Pry-Sec

IR Value Sec-Earth

Fig. 1

IR Value

Sample Graph

Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page66

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

Instruments used:
Sl. no
1

Description
Transformer oil
conditioning machine

Multimeter

Motorized Megger

Connecting wires

Specification
Sl. no. 1043421, Supply 415V,
165.2KW, 238Amperes.
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
Motwane
5KV, 0-10000M, Sl. no. 850302,
WACO
2.5 sq.mm

Quantity

Remarks

1 Set
1
1
APR

Circuit diagram
Transformer Oil Conditioning Machine

HV

LV

Earth

Motorized Megger

Internal diagram

Figure 10 Conditioning of Transformer Oil

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page67

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

Procedure

PART I
1. Connect the pipes at respective inlet and outlet of the Transformer oil conditioning
machine.
2. Connect the other end to the oil drum and the inlet to the 'Top Oil Filter Valve' of the
transformer tank.
3. Start the machine and fill up the transformer to certain level but not fully so that when at
peak temperature of the oil the volume expanded will not overflow the oil from the
transformer.
4. When heating the oil, please observe the source load and the load that the one heater
absorbs. (In our case the source load was 130A whereas each heater consumes 80A.
There are three heaters, so we were bound to switch on only one heater.)
5. Now for dehydration and filtration, connect the pipe connecting the oil drum to the
'Bottom Oil Filter Valve' of the transformer tank.
6. Start the machine with one heater being switched on.
7. Disconnect the earth terminal from the neutral point. Start Meggering with HV-Earth,
LV-Earth and HV-LV and record the reading every one hour until the readings comes
down and rise up to attain a stable value. N.B The process may go on for two to three
days. Then put off the heater and cool the oil with machine under running condition.
8. Take the oil sample (two bottles) for Breakdown Voltage test. The average of six
readings obtained should be above 60KV. This ends the dehydration and filtration test.
PART II (BDV Test)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Arrange the BDV testing kit (Automatic Oil Test Set OTS100AF/Megger)
Wash the oil container thoroughly with oil form one bottle.
Pour the oil sample from other bottle and place it in the testing kit.
Adjust the space between the electrodes to 2.5mm.
Keep it idle for 15minutes so that the oil sample settles down.
Set the standard to IEC 156 1995 and then press the button to apply voltage.

Precaution

Safety of the experimenter the first priority.


Make sure not to fill the transformer tank fully so that the oil will not overflow when
heated at peak temperature.
Drying of a transformer must be done under continuous and competent supervision.
Careful observation of temperature is essential during drying as high temperature can
result in damage to the insulation.
No sparks or smoking should be allowed in the vicinity of a transformer being dried.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page68

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

Results

:
Dehydration and Filtration of Transformer Oil
Transformer #1, 20MVA, 66/33KV, Sl. no. 21067/1.

27/10/2009

26/10/2009

Date

IR by 5KV Motorized Motor


(M)

Temperature (C)

Time

HV-Earth

LV-Earth

HV-LV

Machine oil

OTI

WTI

11:56am
1:25pm

10000
10000

10000
10000

8000
10000

35
38

34
38

31
38

2:30pm

10000

10000

10000

42

39

40

3:30pm

10000

10000

10000

51

46

45

5:18pm

10000

10000

10000

52

48

47

6:20pm

10000

10000

10000

56

51

50

7:25pm

10000

10000

10000

60

54

52

10:30pm

8000

8000

8000

60

56

54

12:30am
2:35am

8000
7000

8000
7000

8000
7000

60
60

57
57

55
55

4:30am

7000

7000

7000

60

57

55

6:30am

7000

7000

7000

60

57

55

8:30am

7000

7000

7000

60

57

55

9:30am

7000

8000

9000

60

58

58

10:30am

8000

10000

10000

60

59

59

11:30am

9000

10000

10000

60

59

59

12:30am

7000

9000

10000

60

59

59

1:30pm

7000

9000

10000

60

60

60

2:30pm

7000

9000

10000

60

60

60

3:30pm

8000

10000

10000

60

60

60

4:30pm

8000

10000

10000

60

60

60

5:30pm

8000

10000

10000

60

59

60

6:30pm

8000

10000

10000

60

59

60

7:30pm

8000

10000

10000

60

59

60

8:30pm

8000

10000

10000

60

59

60

9:30pm

8000

10000

10000

60

59

60

10:30pm

8000

10000

10000

60

59

60

11:30pm

8000

10000

10000

60

59

60

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Remarks

With the help of thermostat the maximum temperature was fixed at 60C.
4:20pm, interruption, oil overflow from breather.
5:12pm, Machine started after draining the oil.

Date/Time

Page69

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

Time

HV-Earth

LV-Earth

HV-LV

Machine oil

OTI

WTI

12:30am
1:30am
2:30am
3:30am
4:30am
5:30am
6:30am
7:30am
8:30am
9:30am
10:30am
11:30am
12:30pm
2:30pm
3:30pm
4:30pm
5:30pm
6:30pm

8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000

10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000

10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
59
56
55
54
54
52

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
59
59
59
56
56
56
55
54

Remarks

1:30pm, interruption, Supply went off.


2:10pm, Machine started.

Date

28/10/2009

Date/Time

Dehydration and Filtration of Transformer Oil


Transformer #1, 20MVA, 66/33KV, Sl. no. 21067/1.
IR by 5KV Motorized Motor
Temperature (C)
(M)

Radiator
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Open (Time)
10:15am
11:00am
12:30pm
1:30pm
2:40pm
3:10pm
3:40pm
4:10pm
5:10pm
6:10pm

Radiators
Close (Time)
Remarks
10:50am
11:40am
All radiators opened on 28/10/2009 at
1:30pm
6:30pm. Heater switched off and cooling
2:40pm
of the oil started with machine under
3:10pm
running condition. Machine stopped at
29/10/2009 at 9:45am. Oil sample taken
3:40pm
for BDV Test at SMD, Semtokha.
4:10pm
OLTC Filtration started at 4:00pm till
4:40pm
6:00pm on 29/10/2009.
5:40pm
6:30pm

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page70

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

Breakdown Voltage Test of the Sample Oil Taken from Transformer#1.


Date: 29/10/2009, 10:55am at Semtokha.
Experimenter: Pema Jampel. Equipment : Automatic Oil Test Set (OTS100AF/Megger)
Readings
1st Reading
2nd Reading
3rd Reading
4th Reading
5th reading
6th Reading

Time (Minutes)
5
2
2
2
2
2
Average = 75.2KV

Graphical Analysis

BDV(KV)
84.8
77.4
69.8
58.1
76.7
84.4

Transformer Oil Characteristic Curve


HV-Earth
12000

10000

IR Value

8000

6000
TransformerOilCharacteristic
Curve

4000

2000

6:30pm

3:30pm

11:30am

8:30am

5:30am

2:30am

11:30pm

8:30pm

5:30pm

2:30pm

11:30am

8:30am

2:35am

7:25pm

3:30pm

11:56am

Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page71

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

TransformerOilCharacteristicCurveLVEarth
12000

IR Value

10000
8000
6000
4000

TransformerOilCharacteristic
CurveLVEarth

2000

11:56am
3:30pm
7:25pm
2:35am
8:30am
11:30am
2:30pm
5:30pm
8:30pm
11:30pm
2:30am
5:30am
8:30am
11:30am
3:30pm
6:30pm

Time

Transformer Oil Characteristic curve


HV-LV
12000
10000

IR Value

8000
6000
TransformerOil
Characteristic curve HV-LV

4000
2000

11:56am
3:30pm
7:25pm
2:35am
8:30am
11:30am
2:30pm
5:30pm
8:30pm
11:30pm
2:30am
5:30am
8:30am
11:30am
3:30pm
6:30pm

Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page72

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

Dehydration and Filtration of Transformer Oil


Transformer #2, 20MVA, 66/33KV, Sl. no. 21067/2.

1/11/2009

31/10/2009

30/10/2009

Date

IR by 5KV Motorized Motor


(M)

Temperature (C)

Time

HV-Earth

LV-Earth

HV-LV

Machine oil

OTI

WTI

1:00pm

10000

10000

10000

38

38

2:00pm

10000

10000

10000

42

40

42

3:00pm

10000

10000

10000

43

40

42

4:00pm

10000

10000

10000

44

43

44

5:00pm

10000

10000

10000

50

48

49

6:00pm

10000

10000

10000

55

53

54

7:00pm

8000

8000

8000

57

54

55

8:00pm

8000

7000

8000

60

55

56

9:00pm

8000

7000

8000

60

56

57

10:00pm

8000

7000

8000

60

56

57

11:00pm

8000

7000

8000

60

56

57

12:00am

7000

7000

7000

60

56

57

1:00am

7000

7000

7000

60

57

58

2:00am

7000

7000

7000

60

57

58

3:00am

7000

7000

7000

60

57

58

4:00am

7000

7000

7000

60

58

58

5:00am

7000

7000

7000

60

59

59

6:00am

7000

7000

7000

60

60

60

7:00am

6000

7000

7000

60

61

61

8:00am

6000

7000

7000

60

62

62

9:00am

6000

7000

7000

60

62

62

10:00am

6000

7000

7000

60

62

62

11:00am

6000

7000

7000

60

62

62

12:00pm

7000

8000

8000

60

63

63

1:00pm

7000

8000

8000

60

63

63

2:00pm

7000

8000

8000

60

63

63

3:00pm

7000

8000

8000

60

63

63

4:00pm

8000

9000

9000

60

63

63

Remarks

1:00pm, Filtration started with all radiators open.


All radiators closed at 3:00pm on 31/10/09.

Date/Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page73

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

Time

HV-Earth

LV-Earth

HV-LV

Machine oil

OTI

WTI

5:00pm
6:00pm
7:00pm
8:00pm
9:00pm
10:00pm
11:00pm
12:00am
1:00am
2:00am
3:00am
4:00am
5:00am
6:00am
7:00am
8:00am
9:00am
10:00am
11:00am
12:00pm
1:00pm
2:00pm
3:00pm
4:00pm
5:00pm
6:00pm

8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
8000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000

9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000

9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
9000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

63
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
61
61
61
60
60
55

63
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
62
61
61
61
60
60
55

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Remarks

All Radiator s opened at 4:30pm, 2/11/09 for cooling. Machine stopped at 4:00pm, 3/11/09

3/11/2009

2/11/2009

1/11/2009

Date

One pair of Radiators opened and closed after every one hour subsequently.
Started at 11:00am till 4:30pm.

Date/Time

Dehydration and Filtration of Transformer Oil


Transformer #2, 20MVA, 66/33KV, Sl. no. 21067/2.
IR by 5KV Motorized Motor
Temperature (C)
(M)

Page74

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

Breakdown Voltage Test of the Sample Oil Taken from Transformer#2.


Date: 3/11/2009, 10:45am at Semtokha.
Experimenter: Pema Jampel. Equipment : Automatic Oil Test Set (OTS100AF/Megger)
Readings
1st Reading
2nd Reading
3rd Reading
4th Reading
5th reading
6th Reading

Time (Minutes)
5
2
2
2
2
2
Average = 77.50KV

BDV(KV)
67.9
71.9
79.8
87.9
72.8
84.7

TransformerOilCurveHVEarth
12000

IR Value (Ms)

10000

8000

6000

TransformerOilCurveHVEarth

4000

2000

1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm
10:00pm
1:00am
4:00am
7:00am
10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm
10:00pm
1:00am
4:00am
7:00am
10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm

Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page75

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

TransformerOilCharacteristicCurveLVEarth
12000

IR Value (Ms)

10000
8000
6000
TransformerOilCharacteristic
CurveLVEarth

4000
2000

1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm
10:00pm
1:00am
4:00am
7:00am
10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm
10:00pm
1:00am
4:00am
7:00am
10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm

Time

TransformerOilCharacteristicCurveHVLV
12000

IR Value (Ms)

10000
8000
6000
4000

TransformerOilCharacteristic
CurveHVLV

2000

1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm
10:00pm
1:00am
4:00am
7:00am
10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm
7:00pm
10:00pm
1:00am
4:00am
7:00am
10:00am
1:00pm
4:00pm

Time

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page76

Dehydration,FiltrationandTestingofTransformerOil

Breakdown values of Transformer Oil with 4mm gap between 13mm diameter spheres.
Oil Temp. C
30
40
50
60
70
BDV KV
35
38
40
45
50
Courtesy: Installation, commissioning and maintenance of electrical equipment, Tarlok Singh.
Conclusion

From the graphical analysis it shows that the IR value decreases, and rise to a stable value thus
indicating that the moisture from the core and the oil is removed. Further the BDV test clearly
shows that the breakdown voltage is very good. Therefore dehydration and filtration of
transformer oil is completed.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page77

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckof33kvCT&PT
Panel 1 CT (Outgoing Feeder)
Panel 2 CT (Outgoing Feeder)
Panel 3 CT & PT (Outgoing Feeder)
Panel 4 CT (Incomer 2)
Panel 5 CT (Bus Coupler)
Panel 6
Panel 7 CT (Incomer 1)
Panel 8 CT (Outgoing Feeder)
Panel 9 CT (Outgoing Feeder)
Panel 10 CT (Outgoing Feeder)
Aim

: 300-150/1-1-1A
: 300-150/1-1-1A
: 300-150/1-1-1A, 33kV/3/110/3.
: P1:-400-200/1-1A & P2:-400-200/1-1A,
33kV/3/110/3
: 400-200/1-1A
: Adapter Feeder has no CT
: P1:-400-200/1-1A & P2:-400-200/1-1A,
33kV/3/110/3
: 300-150/1-1-1A, 33kV/3/110/3
: 300-150/1-1-1A
: 300-150/1-1-1A

: Testing of Current and Potential Transformer of 33KV side Panel.

Objectives
:
To check the secondary winding resistance of CT and PT
To check the ratio of primary to secondary current of various cores under loaded
condition and compare with the name plate rating.
To check the Insulation Resistance value of Potential Transformer.
Theory
: Current transformer and Potential Transformer are used for metering and
protection. The Current Transformer used here have two ratio i.e. 150/1A and 200/1A. Both the
incomers have used the ratio of 200/1A while the outgoing feeders have used 150/1A. The
reason being, since the LV current of each Transformer is 349.91A each phase will be carrying
116.366A therefore keeping the ratio at 400/1A will mar the accuracy that is why 200/1A have
been selected as the CT ratio. There are three outgoing feeder for each Transformer which will
be carrying the total current from the Transformer. Here too, at the maximum, each feeder will
be able to carry a load of 116.366A therefore we set the CT ratio to 150/1A instead of 300/1A.
However there is every possibility that one feeder may be lightly loaded and the other heavily
loaded where by the loading may cross over 150A. For this reason the CT ratio 300/1A should
also be checked so that it can be put to use in the above mentioned case.
The CT of outgoing feeders has three cores of which core 3 is spare core and has been shorted.
CT secondary should never be left open. For the same power when current is stepped down from
300 to 1A, the voltage will rise by that many times. Core 1 has been used for metering while core
2 is used for protection. The incomers have four cores. Core 1 is used for metering, Core 2 for
protection, Core 3(PS) is used for Restricted Earth Fault Protection and Core 4 is used for
differential protection. Incomers have two CT connected in series, each CT containing two cores
thereby four cores in total.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page78

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

Instruments Used
Sl. no

Description

Specification

Quantity

Auto Transformer

0-260V, 50Hz

Loading Transformer

230V,50Hz-7.5KVA, 1V/T

Multimeter

Multimeter

Clamp leaker

AV meter
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
Motwane
DC-10A, Motwane

Clamp meter

Kyoritsu, DCM, Model 2002

Connecting wires

-----------------------------------------

1- Supply

230V, 50Hz

Remarks

1
APR
1

Circuit diagram

P1

1S1

P2

1S3 2S1

2S3

3S1

3S3

DMM
Pictorial View
DMM

PT

Figure 11 Winding Resistance Check of 33kv CT & PT

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page79

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

CT Ratio Check

1- Supply

After giving the supply,


measure the current in the
ammeter wire and the over
current protection panel wire
with the help of Clamp
Leaker.

Figure 12 Ratio Check of 33kv CT

Procedure

PART I (Winding Resistance Test)


1. Remove the earth terminal from three phase of PT from the lower side of the box. Make
sure there is no connection from the PT to earth.
2. Using the Multi meter as ohmmeter and measure the winding resistance of the respective
secondary windings and of respective phases
3. For measuring the winding resistance of CT, connect the multimeter (as ohm meter)
terminal to the respective secondary terminals of the Current Transformer.
4. Tabulate the reading and compare with the standard/manufacturer value.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page80

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

PART II (Ratio Test)


1. Collect the required instrument for performing the test.
2. Connect the secondary end of the loading transformer to the CT terminals.
3. Connect an Auto transformer (Variac) to provide supply to the loading transformer with
varying loading.
4. Connect the Auto Transformer to a single phase supply.
5. Put a Clamp Meter to the wire connecting the CT terminals form the loading
transformer.
6. Increase the current in steps of 25%, 50% and 100% of the actual rated current and
check the value on the secondary terminals respectively.
7. Repeat step 6, for other ratio too.
8. Repeat step 2-7 for other phases also.
Precaution

Safety the first priority.


Never leave the secondary terminal of CT open. Always short it if not in use.
Make the connections tight.
Always remember the approximate value that should come on secondary. If the value
doesnt tally then check the connections.
Take the readings properly and do not manipulate the reading.

Results

The results are being tabulated for each current transformer and potential transformer. The actual
ratio given on the name plate are 300-150/1-1-1A and 400-200/1-1A. The error limits doesnt
cross over 15%. Therefore the results are correct.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page81

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

PT WINDING RESISTANCE
Date:15/10/09, Sunday, Sunny.
Panel 3, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal
R: 09/34228 ()
Y: 09/34224 ()
B: 09/34218 ()
1a-1n
0.9
0.9
0.9
2a-2n
0.9
0.8
0.9
Panel 8, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal
R: 09/34220 ()
Y: 09/34227 ()
B: 09/34229 ()
1a-1n
0.8
0.9
0.8
2a-2n
0.8
0.8
0.9
Panel 7, Incomer 1, Type: IC002 (W003), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal
R: 09/34221 ()
Y: 09/34223 ()
B: 09/34225 ()
1a-1n
0.9
0.8
0.8
2a-2n
0.8
0.9
0.9
Panel 4, Incomer 2, Type: IC001 (W008), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal
R: 09/34226 ()
Y: 09/34219 ()
B: 09/34222 ()
1a-1n
0.8
0.7
0.7
2a-2n
0.8
0.8
0.8

CT WINDING RESISTANCE (400-200/1-1A)


Panel 4, Incomer 2, Type: IC001 (W008), Breaker rating 1250A, 17/11/09.
P2 Terminal
R: 09/24606 ()
Y: 09/24607 ()
B: 09/24609 ()
1S1-1S2
3.6
3.5
3.5
1S1-1S3
6.8
6.6
6.7
2S1-2S2
3.6
3.6
3.7
2S1-2S3
6.7
6.8
6.7
P1 Terminal
R: 09/24602 ()
Y: 09/24603 ()
B: 09/24601 ()
1S1-1S2
3.8
3.8
3.8
1S1-1S3
7.2
7.2
7.2
2S1-2S2
8.3
8.5
8.5
2S1-2S3
16.2
16.8
16.3
Panel 7, Incomer 1, Type: IC002 (W003), Breaker rating 1250A.
P2 Terminal
R: 09/24611()
Y: 09/24608 ()
B: 09/24610 ()
1S1-1S2
3.5
3.5
3.5
1S1-1S3
6.6
6.6
6.5
2S1-2S2
3.6
3.5
3.5
2S1-2S3
6.7
6.7
6.6
P1 Terminal
R: 09/24604()
Y: 09/24605 ()
B: 09/24597 ()
1S1-1S2
3.8
3.8
3.8
1S1-1S3
7.2
7.2
7.2
2S1-2S2
8.3
8.4
8.5
2S1-2S3
15.8
16.4
16.4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page82

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

CT WINDING RESISTANCE (300-150/1-1-1A)


Date: 17/11/2009, Tuesday, Sunny.
Panel 1, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG002 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal
R: 09/24596()
Y: 09/24580 ()
B: 09/24590 ()
1S1-1S2
3.4
3.4
3.3
1S1-1S3
6.4
6.2
6.1
2S1-2S2
6.1
6.1
6.2
2S1-2S3
11.7
11.6
11.5
3S1-3S2
3.3
3.2
3.5
3S1-1S3
6.2
6.0
6.4
Panel 2, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG002 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal
R: 09/24583 ()
Y: 09/24579 ()
B: 09/24585 ()
1S1-1S2
3.3
3.4
3.4
1S1-1S3
6.2
6.2
6.3
2S1-2S2
5.9
6.1
6.0
2S1-2S3
11.3
11.7
11.6
3S1-3S2
3.3
3.4
3.3
3S1-1S3
6.2
6.2
6.1
Panel 3, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal
R: 09/24582 ()
Y: 09/24593 ()
B: 09/24594 ()
1S1-1S2
3.3
3.3
3.4
1S1-1S3
6.1
6.1
6.3
2S1-2S2
6.2
6.1
6.1
2S1-2S3
11.7
11.7
11.6
3S1-3S2
3.3
3.3
3.3
3S1-1S3
6.3
6.2
6.1
Panel 5, Bus Coupler, Type: BC001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Terminal
R: 09/24600 ()
Y: 09/24599 ()
B: 09/24598 ()
1S1-1S2
3.8
3.7
8.1
1S1-1S3
7.2
7.1
15.7
2S1-2S2
8.2
8.1
3.7
2S1-2S3
15.9
15.6
7.1
Panel 8, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.17/11/09.
Terminal
R: 09/24592 ()
Y: 09/24591 ()
B: 09/24586 ()
1S1-1S2
3.2
3.4
3.2
1S1-1S3
6.1
6.2
6.1
2S1-2S2
6.0
6.2
6.1
2S1-2S3
11.7
11.7
11.7
3S1-3S2
3.4
3.3
3.2
3S1-1S3
6.3
6.2
6.1

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page83

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

Panel 9, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG002 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.17/11/09.


Terminal
R: 09/24581 ()
Y: 09/24587 ()
B: 09/24595 ()
1S1-1S2
3.4
3.3
3.4
1S1-1S3
6.3
6.2
6.3
2S1-2S2
6.2
6.1
6.1
2S1-2S3
11.7
11.6
11.7
3S1-3S2
3.3
3.4
3.2
3S1-1S3
6.1
6.2
6.2
Panel 10, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG002 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.17/11/09.
Terminal
R: 09/24589 ()
Y: 09/24584 ()
B: 09/24588 ()
1S1-1S2
3.2
3.2
3.3
1S1-1S3
6.1
6.2
6.2
2S1-2S2
6.1
6.1
6.1
2S1-2S3
11.6
11.5
11.7
3S1-3S2
3.3
3.3
3.3
3S1-1S3
6.2
6.2
6.0

PT RATIO CHECK (33kV/3/110/3)


Date:15/10/09, Sunday, Sunny.
Panel 4, Incomer 2, Type: IC001, Breaker rating 1250A.
Sl. No. R: 09/34228, Y: 09/34224, B: 09/34218
Secondary (V)
Primary (V)
R-Phase
Y-Phase
B-Phase
Core1
Core2
Core1
Core2
Core1
Core2
0.741
0.797
0.741
0.734
0.741
0.744
222.50
300.27
279.17
300.27
303.13
300.27
299.06
Ratio
0.09
-6.94
0.09
1.04
0.09
-0.31
% Error
Panel 3, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001 (W013), Breaker rating 1250A.
Sl. No. R: 09/24582, Y: 09/24593, B: 09/24594
Secondary (V)
Primary (V)
R-Phase
Y-Phase
B-Phase
Core1
Core2
Core1
Core2
Core1
Core2
0.734
0.734
0.737
0.737
0.737
0.737
219.40
298.91
298.91
297.96
297.96
297.96
297.96
Ratio
-0.36
-0.36
-0.68
-0.68
-0.68
-0.68
% Error
Panel 7, Incomer 1, Type: IC002, Breaker rating 1250A.
Sl. No. R: 09/24611, Y: 09/24608, B: 09/24610
Secondary (V)
Primary (V)
R-Phase
Y-Phase
B-Phase
Core1
Core2
Core1
Core2
Core1
Core2
0.737
0.737
0.736
0.737
0.739
0.739
219.60
297.96
297.96
298.37
297.96
297.16
297.16
Ratio
-0.68
-0.68
-0.54
-0.68
-0.95
-0.95
% Error

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page84

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

Panel 8, Outgoing Feeder, Type: OG001, Breaker rating 1250A.


Sl. No. R: 09/24592, Y: 09/24591, B: 09/24586
Secondary (V)
Primary (V)
R-Phase
Y-Phase
B-Phase
Core1
Core2
Core1
Core2
Core1
Core2
0.731
0.733
0.734
0.733
0.733
0.733
218.90
299.45
298.64
298.23
298.64
298.64
298.64
Ratio
-0.18
-0.45
-0.59
-0.45
-0.45
-0.45
% Error

CT RATIO CHECK
Panel 1 CT Station Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.
Date: 24/11/2009, Tuesday, Sunny.
R-Sl.no. 09/24596, Y-Sl.no. 09/24580, B-Sl.no. 09/24590
Applied Primary
Current (A)

R-phase

Secondary Current (A)


Y-phase

B-phase

(A)

Ratio

% error

(A)

Ratio

% error

(A)

Ratio

% error

50
75
150

0.32
0.50
1.01

156.25
150.00
148.51

4.17%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.36
0.49
1.03

138.89
153.06
145.63

-7.41%
2.04%
-2.91%

0.34
0.52
1.00

147.06
144.23
150.00

-1.96%
-3.85%
0.00%

50
75
150

0.32
0.50
1.01

0.36
0.51
1.00

138.89
147.06
150.00

-7.41%
-1.96%
0.00%

0.33
0.50
1.02

151.52
150.00
147.06

1.01%
0.00%
-1.96%

0.15
0.24
0.49

333.33
312.50
306.12

11.11%
4.17%
2.04%

0.33
0.50
1.02

151.52
150.00
147.06

1.01%
0.00%
-1.96%

0.15
0.24
0.49

333.33
312.50
306.12

11.11%
4.17%
2.04%

151.52
147.06
150.00

1.01%
-1.96%
0.00%

Panel 1 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.


156.25
150.00
148.51

4.17%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.34
0.50
1.01

147.06
150.00
148.51

-1.96%
0.00%
-0.99%

Panel 2 CT Outgoing Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.


R-Sl.no. 09/24583, Y-Sl.no. 09/24579, B-Sl.no. 09/24585
50
75
150

0.33
0.50
1.02

50
75
150

0.15
0.23
0.49

50
75
150

0.33
0.51
0.99

50
75
150

0.15
0.23
0.49

151.52
150.00
147.06

1.01%
0.00%
-1.96%

0.34
0.49
1.02

147.06
153.06
147.06

-1.96%
2.04%
-1.96%

Panel 2 CT, 1S1-1S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


333.33
326.09
306.12

11.11%
8.70%
2.04%

0.15
0.24
0.48

333.33
312.50
312.50

11.11%
4.17%
4.17%

Panel 2 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.


151.52
147.06
151.52

1.01%
-1.96%
1.01%

0.32
0.49
1.02

156.25
153.06
147.06

4.17%
2.04%
-1.96%

Panel 2 CT, 2S1-2S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


333.33
326.09
306.12

11.11%
8.70%
2.04%

0.15
0.24
0.49

333.33
312.50
306.12

11.11%
4.17%
2.04%

Panel 3 CT Outgoing Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.


R-Sl.no. 09/24583, Y-Sl.no. 09/24579, B-Sl.no. 09/24585
50
75
150

0.33
0.50
1.14

151.52
150.00
131.58

1.01%
0.00%
-12.28%

0.33
0.50
1.01

151.52
150.00
148.51

1.01%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.33
0.51
1.00

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page85

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

Panel 3 CT, 1S1-1S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


50
75
150

0.15
0.24
0.50

50
75
150

0.33
0.51
1.03

333.33
312.50
300.00

11.11%
4.17%
0.00%

0.16
0.24
0.50

312.50
312.50
300.00

4.17%
4.17%
0.00%

0.14
0.24
0.50

357.14
312.50
300.00

19.05%
4.17%
0.00%

0.33
0.50
1.00

151.52
150.00
150.00

1.01%
0.00%
0.00%

0.15
0.23
0.49

333.33
326.09
306.12

11.11%
8.70%
2.04%

0.50
1.01
-

200.00
198.02
-

0.00%
-0.99%
-

0.24
0.50
0.75

416.67
400.00
400.00

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%

0.50
1.01
-

200.00
198.02
-

0.00%
-0.99%
-

0.24
0.49
0.75

416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

0.49
1.01
-

204.08
198.02
-

2.04%
-0.99%
-

0.23
0.49
0.74

434.78
408.16
405.41

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%

0.50
1.00
-

200.00
200.00
-

0.00%
0.00%
-

0.24
0.50
0.74

416.67
400.00
405.41

4.17%
0.00%
1.35%

Panel 3 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.


151.52
147.06
145.63

1.01%
-1.96%
-2.91%

0.33
0.50
1.01

151.52
150.00
148.51

1.01%
0.00%
-0.99%

Panel 3 CT, 2S1-2S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


50
75
150

0.15
0.24
0.50

333.33
312.50
300.00

11.11%
4.17%
0.00%

0.16
0.24
0.50

312.50
312.50
300.00

4.17%
4.17%
0.00%

Panel 4 CT Incomer 2, 1S1-1S2, 200/1A: Metering.


P1 R-Sl.no. 09/24602, Y-Sl.no. 09/24603, B-Sl.no. 09/24601
P2 R-Sl.no. 09/24606, Y-Sl.no. 09/24607, B-Sl.no. 09/24609
100
200
300

0.49
1.01
-

100
200
300

0.24
0.50
0.75

100
200
300

0.49
1.01
-

100
200
300

0.24
0.49
0.75

100
200
300

0.49
1.01
-

100
200
300

0.24
0.49
0.75

204.08
198.02
-

2.04%
-0.99%
-

0.50
1.02
-

200.00
196.08
-

0.00%
-1.96%
-

Panel 4 CT, 1S1-1S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


416.67
400.00
400.00

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%

0.24
0.50
0.75

416.67
400.00
400.00

4.17%
0.00%
0.00%

Panel 4 CT, 2S1-1S2, 200/1A: Protection.


204.08
198.02
-

2.04%
-0.99%
-

0.49
1.01
-

204.08
198.02
-

2.04%
-0.99%
-

Panel 4 CT, 2S1-2S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

0.24
0.49
0.75

416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

Panel 4 CT, 3S1-3S2, 200/1A: REF.


204.08
198.02
-

2.04%
-0.99%
-

0.49
1.01
-

204.08
198.02
-

2.04%
-0.99%
-

Panel 4 CT, 3S1-3S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

0.23
0.49
0.74

434.78
408.16
405.41

8.70%
2.04%
1.35%

Panel 4 CT, 4S1-4S2, 200/1A: Differential Protection.


100
200
300

0.48
1.01
-

100
200
300

0.24
0.49
0.75

208.33
198.02
-

4.17%
-0.99%
-

0.49
1.01
-

204.08
198.02
-

2.04%
-0.99%
-

Panel 4 CT, 4S1-4S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

0.24
0.50
0.74

416.67
400.00
405.41

4.17%
0.00%
1.35%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page86

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

Panel 5 CT Bus Coupler, 1S1-1S2, 200/1A: Metering.


R-Sl.no. 09/24600, Y-Sl.no. 09/24599, B-Sl.no. 09/24598
100
200
300

0.49
1.00
-

204.08
200.00
-

2.04%
0.00%
-

0.49
1.00
-

204.08
200.00
-

2.04%
0.00%
-

0.49
1.00
-

204.08
200.00
-

2.04%
0.00%
-

0.24
0.50
0.74

416.67
400.00
405.41

4.17%
0.00%
1.35%

0.49
1.00
-

204.08
200.00
-

2.04%
0.00%
-

0.24
0.49
0.74

416.67
408.16
405.41

4.17%
2.04%
1.35%

0.50
1.03
-

200.00
194.17
-

0.00%
-2.91%
-

0.24
0.49
0.75

416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

0.51
1.02
-

196.08
196.08
-

-1.96%
-1.96%
-

0.24
0.49
0.75

416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

0.51
1.02
-

196.08
196.08
-

-1.96%
-1.96%
-

0.23
0.48
0.74

434.78
416.67
405.41

8.70%
4.17%
1.35%

200.00
198.02
-

0.00%
-0.99%
-

Panel 5 CT, 1S1-1S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


100
200
300

0.24
0.50
0.74

100
200
300

0.49
1.00
-

100
200
300

0.23
0.49
0.75

416.67
400.00
405.41

4.17%
0.00%
1.35%

0.24
0.49
0.75

416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

Panel 5 CT, 2S1-1S2, 200/1A: Protection.


204.08
200.00
-

2.04%
0.00%
-

0.49
1.00
-

204.08
200.00
-

2.04%
0.00%
-

Panel 5 CT, 2S1-2S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


434.78
408.16
400.00

8.70%
2.04%
0.00%

0.24
0.49
0.75

416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

Panel 7 CT Incomer 1, 1S1-1S2, 200/1A: Metering.


P1 R-Sl.no. 09/24604, Y-Sl.no. 09/24605, B-Sl.no. 09/24597
P2 R-Sl.no. 09/24611, Y-Sl.no. 09/24608, B-Sl.no. 09/24610
100
200
300

0.50
1.00
-

100
200
300

0.24
0.49
0.75

200.00
200.00
-

0.00%
0.00%
-

0.50
1.00
-

200.00
200.00
-

0.00%
0.00%
-

Panel 7 CT, 1S1-1S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

0.24
0.49
0.75

416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

Panel 7 CT, 2S1-1S2, 200/1A: Protection.


100
200
300

0.49
1.00
-

100
200
300

0.24
0.49
0.75

204.08
200.00
-

2.04%
0.00%
-

0.51
1.02
-

196.08
196.08
-

-1.96%
-1.96%
-

Panel 7 CT, 2S1-2S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


416.67
408.16
400.00

4.17%
2.04%
0.00%

0.24
0.49
0.74

416.67
408.16
405.41

4.17%
2.04%
1.35%

Panel 7 CT, 3S1-3S2, 200/1A: REF.


100
200
300

0.49
1.00
-

100
200
300

0.24
0.48
0.74

204.08
200.00
-

2.04%
0.00%
-

0.50
1.01
-

200.00
198.02
-

0.00%
-0.99%
-

Panel 7 CT, 3S1-3S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


416.67
416.67
405.41

4.17%
4.17%
1.35%

0.23
0.47
0.73

434.78
425.53
410.96

8.70%
6.38%
2.74%

Panel 7 CT, 4S1-4S2, 200/1A: Differential Protection.


100
200
300

0.49
1.00
-

204.08
200.00
-

2.04%
0.00%
-

0.50
1.01
-

200.00
198.02
-

0.00%
-0.99%
-

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

0.50
1.01
-

Page87

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

Panel 7 CT, 4S1-4S3, 400/1A: Not Used.


100
200

0.24
0.49

300

0.79

416.67
408.16
379.75

4.17%
2.04%
5.06%

0.24
0.49
0.75

416.67
408.16

4.17%
2.04%

400.00

0.00%

0.24
0.49

416.67
408.16

4.17%
2.04%

400.00

0.00%

0.33
0.49
1.01

151.52
153.06
148.51

1.01%
2.04%
-0.99%

0.14
0.23
0.48

357.14
326.09
312.50

19.05%
8.70%
4.17%

0.33
0.49
1.00

151.52
153.06
150.00

1.01%
2.04%
0.00%

0.14
0.23
0.48

357.14
326.09
312.50

19.05%
8.70%
4.17%

0.34
0.49
1.01

147.06
153.06
148.51

-1.96%
2.04%
-0.99%

0.15
0.24
0.50

333.33
312.50
300.00

11.11%
4.17%
0.00%

0.34
0.49
1.01

147.06
153.06
148.51

-1.96%
2.04%
-0.99%

0.15
0.24
0.49

333.33
312.50
306.12

11.11%
4.17%
2.04%

0.75

Panel 8 CT Outgoing Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.


R-Sl.no. 09/24592, Y-Sl.no. 09/24591, B-Sl.no. 09/24586
50
75
150

0.33
0.50
1.01

151.52
150.00
148.51

1.01%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.33
0.50
1.00

151.52
150.00
150.00

1.01%
0.00%
0.00%

Panel 8 CT, 1S1-1S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


50
75
150

0.15
0.24
0.50

333.33
312.50
300.00

11.11%
4.17%
0.00%

0.15
0.23
0.49

333.33
326.09
306.12

11.11%
8.70%
2.04%

Panel 8 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.


50
75
150

0.33
0.49
1.01

151.52
153.06
148.51

1.01%
2.04%
-0.99%

0.33
0.50
0.99

151.52
150.00
151.52

1.01%
0.00%
1.01%

Panel 8 CT, 2S1-2S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


50
75
150

0.16
0.24
0.49

312.50
312.50
306.12

4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

0.16
0.24
0.49

312.50
312.50
306.12

4.17%
4.17%
2.04%

Panel 9 CT Outgoing Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.


R-Sl.no. 09/24581, Y-Sl.no. 09/24587, B-Sl.no. 09/24595
50
75
150

0.33
0.50
1.01

151.52
150.00
148.51

1.01%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.32
0.50
1.01

156.25
150.00
148.51

4.17%
0.00%
-0.99%

Panel 9 CT, 1S1-1S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


50
75
150

0.15
0.24
0.49

50
75
150

0.33
0.50
1.01

333.33
312.50
306.12

11.11%
4.17%
2.04%

0.15
0.23
0.48

333.33
326.09
312.50

11.11%
8.70%
4.17%

Panel 9 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.


151.52
150.00
148.51

1.01%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.32
0.50
1.01

156.25
150.00
148.51

4.17%
0.00%
-0.99%

Panel 9 CT, 2S1-2S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


50
75
150

0.15
0.24
0.49

333.33
312.50
306.12

11.11%
4.17%
2.04%

0.15
0.24
0.49

333.33
312.50
306.12

11.11%
4.17%
2.04%

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page88

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

Panel 10 CT Outgoing Feeder, 1S1-1S2, 150/1A: Metering.


R-Sl.no. 09/24589, Y-Sl.no. 09/24584, B-Sl.no. 09/24588
50
75
150

0.34
0.50
1.01

147.06
150.00
148.51

-1.96%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.33
0.50
1.00

151.52
150.00
150.00

1.01%
0.00%
0.00%

0.33
0.50
1.00

151.52
150.00
150.00

1.01%
0.00%
0.00%

0.15
0.23
0.50

333.33
326.09
300.00

11.11%
8.70%
0.00%

0.32
0.50
1.01

156.25
150.00
148.51

4.17%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.15
0.24
0.49

333.33
312.50
306.12

11.11%
4.17%
2.04%

Panel 10 CT, 1S1-1S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


50
75
150

0.15
0.24
0.50

333.33
312.50
300.00

11.11%
4.17%
0.00%

0.15
0.24
0.50

333.33
312.50
300.00

11.11%
4.17%
0.00%

Panel 10 CT, 2S1-1S2, 150/1A: Protection.


50
75
150

0.33
0.50
1.01

151.52
150.00
148.51

1.01%
0.00%
-0.99%

0.33
0.50
1.00

151.52
150.00
150.00

1.01%
0.00%
0.00%

Panel 10 CT, 2S1-2S3, 300/1A: Not Used.


50
75
150

0.15
0.24
0.49

333.33
312.50
306.12

11.11%
4.17%
2.04%

0.15
0.24
0.49

333.33
312.50
306.12

11.11%
4.17%
2.04%

INSULATION RESISTANCE CHECK OF PT


Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B

IR Check of Incomer 2 PT, Panel 4 (1kV Megger), M


Pry-Earth
Pry-Sec1
Pry-Sec2
Sec1-Sec2 Sec1-Earth
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
IR Check of Incomer 1 PT, Panel 7 (1kV Megger), M
Pry-Earth
Pry-Sec1
Pry-Sec2
Sec1-Sec2 Sec1-Earth
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
IR Check of Outgoing Feeder, Panel 8 (1kV Megger), M
Pry-Earth
Pry-Sec1
Pry-Sec2
Sec1-Sec2 Sec1-Earth
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
IR Check of Outgoing Feeder, Panel 3 (1kV Megger), M
Pry-Earth
Pry-Sec1
Pry-Sec2
Sec1-Sec2 Sec1-Earth
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Sec2-Earth
200
200
200
Sec2-Earth
200
200
200
Sec2-Earth
200
200
200
Sec2-Earth
200
200
200

Page89

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B
Phase
R
Y
B

IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 1 (Motorized 5kV Megger), M


Upper arm - Earth
Lower arm - Earth
Upper arm - Lower arm
10000
10000
3000
10000
10000
5000
10000
10000
5000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 2 (Motorized 5kV Megger), M
Upper arm - Earth
Lower arm - Earth
Upper arm - Lower arm
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 3 (Motorized 5kV Megger), M
Upper arm - Earth
Lower arm - Earth
Upper arm - Lower arm
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 4 (Motorized 5kV Megger), M
Upper arm - Earth
Lower arm - Earth
Upper arm - Lower arm
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 5 (Motorized 5kV Megger), M
Upper arm - Earth
Lower arm - Earth
Upper arm - Lower arm
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 7 (Motorized 5kV Megger), M
Upper arm - Earth
Lower arm - Earth
Upper arm - Lower arm
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 8 (Motorized 5kV Megger), M
Upper arm - Earth
Lower arm - Earth
Upper arm - Lower arm
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 9 (Motorized 5kV Megger), M
Upper arm - Earth
Lower arm - Earth
Upper arm - Lower arm
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
IR Check of 33kV Circuit Breaker, Panel 2 (Motorized 5kV Megger), M
Upper arm - Earth
Lower arm - Earth
Upper arm - Lower arm
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000
10000

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page90

WindingResistanceandRatioCheckofCT&PT

Conclusion
: From this field test, it confirms that the secondary winding resistances are
within its permissible value. The CT and PT Ratio also match with the name plate rating. The
Insulation Resistance value also shows good insulation. The CT ratios have been checked for
every core and for both the ratio. Thus we hereby conclude that the equipment has no defect and
can be put to use.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page91

TestingofXLPECables(HighPOTTest)

HIGHPOTTEST(CABLEHVTEST)
Aim

: Testing of XLPE Cables.

Objective

To check the Insulation Resistance Value of the cables.


To check the withstand voltage of the cable.
To check the value of leakage current flowing out from the cable to ground.

Theory
: High POT Test or Cable HV Test or High Pressurized Test, anyone one
may say but all these are same. Such tests are performed to know the IR value of the insulation
and the leakage current flowing into the ground. This test can be done with AC as well as DC. In
fact this test should be done with AC but wherever possibility doesnt exist we go for DC supply.
This test will also confirm whether the cable will be able to withstand the desired voltage. Cables
have a capacitive effect so when we apply AC voltage, it will allow the current the pass through
without any hindrance but blocks the DC therefore the current will be quite high (in terms of
amperes), so such current will trip. But the testing kit is meant to measure current in terms of
miliamperes. If we go for DC then the current required for charging the capacitor will be very
less which tallies with our testing kit. Therefore we convert the AC supply to DC supply with the
help of Rectifier and the current limiting resistor and supply the voltage. DC voltage is root 2
times the AC voltage. Since the capacitor remains charged once the voltage is applied it is
necessary to discharge the capacitor after finishing the experiment in order to avoid shock.
Discharge it to ground with discharge rod. While doing for Bus Section we use AC voltage since
here we do not have capacitive effect. The conductors are rectangular copper plates. If dust and
moisture is present then the spark will occur before actual withstand voltage is applied. In such
case we will have to clean and heat the surrounding of the conductor and then do the test. While
doing the experiment one may notice that the pointer of the AV meter keeps on fluctuating
indicating the presence of dust. As we increase the voltage beyond 30KV, hissing sound occurs
indicating the inception of Corona. While increasing the voltage the air around the conductor
also gets ionized and if moisture is present around then the voltage gets discharged through the
conducting medium (moisture) to the ground.
While discharging the cable after the test, if the discharge is high then it indicates the capacitive
effect is more indicating longer cables thereby more leakage and weaker insulation. Better the
insulation and shorter the length of the cable, lesser will be the discharge (spark). The leakage
current should be within 10-15mA.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page92

TestingofXLPECables(HighPOTTest)

Instruments Used

Sl. No.

Description

HV Testing Transformer

2
3

Rectifier
Current limiting Resistor

High Voltage Tester

5
6

Motorized Megger
AV Meter

Experimental diagram
B

Specification
I/p: 0-250V, O/p: 0-36KV,
1-, 50Hz, Sl. no. H-2640.
Sl. no. H-2638.

Remarks
Prayog Electricals
Pvt. Ltd. Bombay

I/p: 220/250V, O/p: 0-36KV,


1-, 50Hz, Sl. no. H-2640.
5kV, AC input.
A and mA range

Prayog Electricals
Pvt. Ltd. Bombay

Current Limiting Resistor

Rectifier

1Supply

High Voltage Transformer

1Supply
High Voltage Tester

AV
Meter

Figure 13 High POT Test (CABLE HV TEST)

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page93

TestingofXLPECables(HighPOTTest)

Procedure
:
PART I (Before HV Test)
1. Collect the required testing instrument as per the requisition table.
2. Clean thoroughly the dust and dirt from the conductors to be tested and heat the area so
that the place is moisture free.
3. Connect Megger to R-earth phase and supply the power. Note the value of resistance
after reaching a steady value.
4. Repeat step 2 for Y phase and B phase.
5. Check the Megger value for phase to phase.
PART II
1. Short any two phases (say Y & B) with earth terminal. Leave the other phase (say R)
unconnected.
2. Connect the terminal from the HV Transformer to R phase.
3. Switch on the power supply.
4. Gradually increase the voltage up to 40kV DC and keep it for 5 minutes.
5. Check the leakage current in the ammeter connected to the HV Transformer.
6. Note down the reading.
7. Repeat step 1-6 Y and B phase too.
8. For Bus section where bare conductors is there, use AC voltage for 1 minute.
PART III
1. After completing Part I & II, then Connect Megger to R-earth phase and supply the
power.
2. Observe the IR value after the meter pointer attains a steady value.
3. Connect Megger to Y-Earth and supply the power.
4. Repeat step 3 for B-Earth terminals.
5. Check the Megger value for phase to phase i.e. R-Y, Y-B & B-R.
6. Note down the readings carefully.
Precautions :
1. Safety the first priority.
2. When high voltage is being injected dont allow anyone to stand nearby the testing kit.
3. Make sure no one is there on the equipment on which test is being carried out.
4. Forget not, to keep one person guarding the other end of cable so that no one comes
nearby the cable under test.
5. Always increase the voltage gradually. If sparking occurs, it is due to moisture and dust,
so make the area clean and dry.
6. After completing the test always discharge the charge from the cable with the help of
discharge rod before touching it with bare hand.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page94

TestingofXLPECables(HighPOTTest)

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Cable between Transformer 1 and 33kV Panel 7.
Date: 26/11/2009, 10:40am, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 12C
IR Check of Cable ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals

Before HV Test (M)

After HV Test (M)

R-Earth

10000

10000

Y-Earth

10000

10000

B-Earth

10000

10000

R-Y Phase

10000

10000

Y-B Phase

10000

10000

B-R Phase

10000

10000

40 KV DC applied to the Cable under Test for 5 minutes


Terminals

Leakage Current (A)

R- Y+B+Earth

10

Y- R+B+Earth

10

B- Y+R+Earth

10

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Cable between Transformer 2 and 33kV Panel 4.
Date: 26/11/2009, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 12C
IR Check of Cable ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals

Before HV Test (M)

After HV Test (M)

R-Earth

10000

10000

Y-Earth

10000

10000

B-Earth

10000

10000

R-Y Phase

10000

4500

Y-B Phase

10000

5000

B-R Phase

10000

4000

40 KV DC applied to the Cable under Test for 5 minutes


Terminals

Leakage Current (A)

R- Y+B+Earth

10

Y- R+B+Earth

B- Y+R+Earth

37

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page95

TestingofXLPECables(HighPOTTest)

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Outgoing Cable from Panel 1.


Date: 26/11/2009, 11:30am, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 13C
IR Check of Cable ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals

Before HV Test (M)

After HV Test (M)

R-Earth

10000

10000

Y-Earth

10000

10000

B-Earth

10000

10000

R-Y Phase

10000

10000

Y-B Phase

10000

10000

B-R Phase

10000

10000

40 KV DC applied to the Cable under Test for 5 minutes


Terminals

Leakage Current (A)

R- Y+B+Earth

10

Y- R+B+Earth

10

B- Y+R+Earth

10

BUS TEST (100X10 SQ.MM) SECTION 2


Date: 26/11/2009, Location: Inside the room.
IR Check of Bus, Section 2 ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals

Before HV Test (M)

After HV Test (M)

R-Earth

10000

10000

Y-Earth

10000

10000

B-Earth

10000

10000

R-Y Phase

10000

10000

Y-B Phase

10000

10000

B-R Phase

10000

10000

40 KV AC applied to the Bus under Test for 1 minute.


Terminals

Leakage Current (mA)

R- Y+B+Earth

Y- R+B+Earth

B- Y+R+Earth

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page96

TestingofXLPECables(HighPOTTest)

BUS TEST (100X10 SQ.MM) SECTION 1


Date: 26/11/2009, Location: Inside the room.
IR Check of Bus, Section 1 ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals

Before HV Test (M)

After HV Test (M)

R-Earth

10000

10000

Y-Earth

10000

10000

B-Earth

10000

10000

R-Y Phase

10000

10000

Y-B Phase

10000

10000

B-R Phase

10000

10000

40 KV AC applied to the Bus under Test for 1 minute.


Terminals

Leakage Current (mA)

R- Y+B+Earth

Y- R+B+Earth

B- Y+R+Earth

4 (Trip at 30kV)

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Outgoing Cable from Panel 9.


Date: 16/12/2009, 4:45pm, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 13C
IR Check of Cable, 3x150sq.mm. ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals

Before HV Test (M)

After HV Test (M)

R-Earth

10000

10000

Y-Earth

10000

10000

B-Earth

10000

10000

R-Y Phase

10000

10000

Y-B Phase

10000

10000

B-R Phase

10000

10000

40 KV DC applied to the Cable under Test for 5 minutes


Terminals

Leakage Current (A)

R- Y+B+Earth

Y- R+B+Earth

B- Y+R+Earth

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page97

TestingofXLPECables(HighPOTTest)

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Outgoing Cable from Panel 8.


Date: 16/12/2009, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 13C
IR Check of Cable, 3x150sq.mm. ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals

Before HV Test (M)

After HV Test (M)

R-Earth

10000

10000

Y-Earth

10000

10000

B-Earth

10000

10000

R-Y Phase

10000

10000

Y-B Phase

10000

10000

B-R Phase

10000

10000

40 KV DC applied to the Bus under Test for 5 minutes.


Terminals

Leakage Current (A)

R- Y+B+Earth

Y- R+B+Earth

15

B- Y+R+Earth

15

HIGH POT TEST (CABLE HV TEST): Outgoing Cable from Panel 2.


Date: 16/12/2009, Location: Inside the room. Temperature : 13C
IR Check of Cable, 3x150sq.mm. ( 5KV Motorized Megger)
Terminals

Before HV Test (M)

After HV Test (M)

R-Earth

10000

10000

Y-Earth

10000

10000

B-Earth

10000

10000

R-Y Phase

10000

10000

Y-B Phase

10000

10000

B-R Phase

10000

10000

40 KV DC applied to the Bus under Test for 1 minute.


Terminals

Leakage Current (A)

R- Y+B+Earth

Y- R+B+Earth

B- Y+R+Earth

10

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page98

TestingofXLPECables(HighPOTTest)

Observation

While the experiment is under test, one will observe the inception of corona above 30kV/cm2.
Hissing sound will be noticed indicating the inception of corona. Some sparking sound may be
heard indicating the presence of dust particles. If moisture is present then the voltage trips off
through spark before reaching the set voltage as it happened for B-phase of Bus Section 1. So we
heated the area with halogen lamp, cleaned the conductor thoroughly and performed the test
which gave better result.
While Meggering, initially the pointer moves towards zero indicating the capacitance of the
cable being charged i.e. the current is drawn to charge the capacitance of the cable so no current
flows through the cable. However after the capacitive effect of the cable, the current passes
through cable thus indicating the IR value. For Long cables the pointer may stick at zero for
longer time indicating greater capacitance however the pointer will rise slowly.
Conclusion

The result shows very good IR value of the cable and bus section. The leakage current found is
very less ranging in micro amperes while the normal leakage current comes in 10-15mA. For
better result the conductors should be free from dust particles and moisture free. However our
results have good IR values and lesser leakage current indicating the stability of cable under the
desired voltage. Therefore the cables are good and healthy.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page99

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

RelayTesting(OverCurrentProtection)
Aim

: Testing of Inverse Definite Minimum Time (IDMT) and Earth Fault Relay of
33KV Vacuum Circuit Breaker.

Objective

Find out the trip time of IDMT Relay under Normal condition.
Find out the trip time of IDMT Relay under High Set condition.
Find out the trip time of Earth Fault IDMT under Normal Condition.
Find out the trip time of Earth Fault IDMT under High Set Condition.

Theory
: An over current protection device protects the circuit by opening the
device when the current reaches a value that will cause an excessive or dangerous temperature
rise in conductors. The time it takes for an over current protection device (OCPD) to open is
inversely proportional to the magnitude of the fault current. Thus, the higher the ground-fault
current, the less time it takes for the OCPD to open and clear the fault.
Inverse Definite Minimum Time Over current (IDMT) relay gives inverse-time current
characteristics at lower values of the fault current and definite-time characteristics at higher
values of the fault current (Used in distribution line).
Here we set the current and Trip time at a particular value and then injects higher current and
note the Trip time obtained. The field test should
confirm that the trip time obtained should not be
greater than the set time. According to British
standards, the following are the important
characteristics of over current relays.

Figure 14 Inverse-Time, Very-Inverse Time and Extremely-Inverse Time characteristics.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page100

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Instruments Used
Sl. no

Description

Relay Test Set

Clamp Leaker

Specification
230V, 50Hz, 0-1-5-10-25-100A,
0-99.99S,0-9.999S
DC-10A, Motwane

Connecting Wires

APR

Power Supply

230V, 50Hz

Quantity
1

Remarks
Shruti Electronics
Kolkata

1
1

Circuit Diagram:

Back View of the Relay.


Connected in order to
check the time from the
relay test set as well as

X1 TB
R=15, Y=19,
B=23, N=27

Power
Supply

Figure 15 Testing of IDMT Relays

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page101

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Procedure :
1. Set up the experiment as given above with the relay test set.
2. Set the 'Time Setting' of the relay as per the desired value and find out the calculated trip
time.
3. Set the 'Current Setting' of the relay as per the desired value.
4. Connect the wires from the relay test set to the 'Terminal Box' so as to obtain R-Y or Y-B
or B-R respectively.
5. To compare the time noted by the relay and the relay test set, connect the terminals from
the relay test set to the relay as shown in the figure above.
6. Now inject a bit higher current through the relay test set so as to provide fault and see the
trip time obtained.
7. After the fault has been injected note the tripping time and the LED indication.
8. Follow this procedure for O/C IDMT, O/C High Set, Earth Fault IDMT and Earth Fault
High Set conditions.
9. Repeat the same for other relays too.
Results

The result shows that the 'Trip Time Obtained' is always lesser than the 'Calculated Trip Time'
indicating that the relays will operate faster. At the most the tripping time of the relay should not
be greater than that of the calculated trip time. In case of high set conditions the relay should trip
instantaneously, therefore we set the time to zero. The term 'High Set' is used for very fast relays
with operating time less than 0.1s. IDMT Over current relays gives inverse-time current
characteristics at lower values of fault current and definite time characteristics at higher values of
fault current. Generally, an inverse-time characteristic is obtained if the value of PSM is below
10. For the value of PSM between 10 and 20, the characteristics tend to become a straight line
i.e. towards a definite time characteristics.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page102

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: Station Feeder (Panel 1).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106790. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)
Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.15

1500

1300

1,2

Y-B

0.15

1500

1300

1,2

B-R

0.15

1500

1310

1,2

2. Over current High Set (I >>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

30

Y-B

30

B-R

30

3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1190

1,3

Y-B

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1190

1,3

B-R

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1000

1,3

4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

60

1,4

Y-B

50

1,4

B-R

60

1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page103

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: OG002 (Panel 2).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106791. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)
Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.15

1500

1260

1,2

Y-B

0.15

1500

1360

1,2

B-R

0.15

1500

1200

1,2

2. Over current High Set (I >>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

20

Y-B

30

B-R

30

3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1200

1,3

Y-B

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1200

1,3

B-R

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1200

1,3

4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

20

1,4

Y-B

20

1,4

B-R

20

1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page104

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: OG001 (Panel 3).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106785. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)
Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.15

1500

1270

1,2

Y-B

0.15

1500

1300

1,2

B-R

0.15

1500

1250

1,2

2. Over current High Set (I >>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

30

Y-B

50

B-R

50

3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1230

1,3

Y-B

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1220

1,3

B-R

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1230

1,3

4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

60

1,4

Y-B

60

1,4

B-R

60

1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page105

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: IC001 (Panel 4).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106789. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)
Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

2000

1830

1,2

Y-B

0.2

2000

1850

1,2

B-R

0.2

2000

1910

1,2

2. Over current High Set (I >>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.03

300

60

1,4

Y-B

0.03

300

50

1,4

B-R

0.03

300

60

1,4

3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

0.4

0.2

2000

1680

1,3

Y-B

0.2

0.4

0.2

2000

1700

1,3

B-R

0.2

0.4

0.2

2000

1780

1,3

4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.03

300

70

1,4

Y-B

0.03

300

60

1,4

B-R

0.03

300

30

1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page106

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: BC001 (Panel 5).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106792. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)
Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

2000

1880

1,2

Y-B

0.2

2000

1900

1,2

B-R

0.2

2000

1980

1,2

2. Over current High Set (I >>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

60

1,4

Y-B

50

1,4

B-R

60

1,4

3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

0.4

0.2

2000

1700

1,3

Y-B

0.2

0.4

0.2

2000

1700

1,3

B-R

0.2

0.4

0.2

2000

1700

1,3

4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

60

1,4

Y-B

50

1,4

B-R

60

1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page107

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: IC002 (Panel 7).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106787. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)
Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

2000

1790

1,2

Y-B

0.2

2000

1840

1,2

B-R

0.2

2000

1830

1,2

2. Over current High Set (I >>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.03

300

60

1,4

Y-B

0.03

300

50

1,4

B-R

0.03

300

50

1,4

3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

0.4

0.2

2000

1900

1,3

Y-B

0.2

0.4

0.2

2000

1940

1,3

B-R

0.2

0.4

0.2

2000

1920

1,3

4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.03

300

60

1,4

Y-B

0.03

300

50

1,4

B-R

0.03

300

60

1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page108

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: OG001 (Panel 8).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106788. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)
Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.15

1500

1490

1,2

Y-B

0.15

1500

1400

1,2

B-R

0.15

1500

1450

1,2

2. Over current High Set (I >>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

20

1,4

Y-B

30

1,4

B-R

20

1,4

3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1320

1,3

Y-B

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1300

1,3

B-R

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1300

1,3

4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

60

1,4

Y-B

60

1,4

B-R

60

1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page109

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: OG002 (Panel 9).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106793. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)
Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.15

1500

1380

1,2

Y-B

0.15

1500

1470

1,2

B-R

0.15

1500

1440

1,2

2. Over current High Set (I >>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

30

1,4

Y-B

30

1,4

B-R

20

1,4

3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1260

1,3

Y-B

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1300

1,3

B-R

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1320

1,3

4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

30

1,4

Y-B

30

1,4

B-R

20

1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page110

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Over Current Protection (Inverse Definite Minimum Time, IDMT) Relay


Date: 22/11/2009, Feeder Name: OG002 (Panel 10).
Type: 7SJ600, Sl. No. BF0904106786. Rated Voltage: 60, 110,125 V DC.
1. Over current IDMT (Ip)
Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.15

1500

1300

1,2

Y-B

0.15

1500

1340

1,2

B-R

0.15

1500

1370

1,2

2. Over current High Set (I >>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

20

1,4

Y-B

30

1,4

B-R

30

1,4

3. Earth Fault IDMT (Iep)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1300

1,3

Y-B

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1320

1,3

B-R

0.2

0.4

0.15

1500

1300

1,3

4. Earth Fault High Set(Ie>>)


Phase

Current
Setting(A)

Injected
Current(A)

Time
Setting(s)

Calculated
Trip Time(ms)

Trip Time
Obtained(ms)

LED
Indication

R-Y

20

1,4

Y-B

30

1,4

B-R

20

1,4

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page111

InverseDefiniteMinimumTime(IDMT)RelayTest

Precautions :
I.
II.
III.

Safety, the first priority.


Refer the drawings correctly.
Avoid loose connections.

Conclusion : From this test it is proved that the operating time of the relay is within its range.
The operating time doesnt exceed the set time. For the entire outgoing feeder, the high set
condition the time set is zero so that the relay acts as instantaneous relay and trips off as soon as
the fault occurs. While in case of incomers, the time has been set to 0.03 so that this relays acts
only after the relays of the outgoing feeder trips off. In any case the trip time obtained is lesser
than the time set, thus indicating that the relays will clear the fault within the set time.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page112

SystemStabilityTesting

StabilityTestingReport
Aim

: To confirm the stability of the total system.

Objective

To check if the ratio of CT on primary and secondary are correct.


To check if there is any connections left out.
To check if the connections are done correctly.
To check if the line is continuous.
To check if the relay scheme is functioning or not.

Theory
: This test is the last test done before charging the transformer. This test ensures
that every work done till now is stable. By applying certain amount of current on the primary of
the CT we check the current on the secondary side. By knowing the ratio of CT, we can find out
the secondary currents, which have to be traced till the relay panel and control panel. If the same
current exists then the system is stable. However sometimes we dont get it. We may get
different secondary current, and then the connections have to be checked as the wire may be
connected mistakenly to other device. If there is any open circuit then we won't get current at the
end of the circuit. While performing this test one has to be thorough with the CT ratio of various
equipments so that when we get different values we will be able to know by calculation whose
secondary current is flowing. And also before checking one should know by calculation what
value of current should we get at that point. In fact this is the final test, here we know every
result but we are assuring that result by practically performing the test. Often there will be wrong
connections and open circuit.
For this we apply known value of current in the primary side of CT. We trace the secondary
current through CT junction box, Control panel (Metering circuit) and relay panel (distance
protection and bus bar protection). We also check the secondary CT current at Transformer
Junction box and follow up till its control panel where we check currents in MW, MVAR, MWT,
MVART, ATY, TVM, ASS, IC TB (Incoming TB) and O/C and E/F relay. We also trace it in
Relay panel where differential and bus bar protection are done.
After the system is found good then for the functioning of the relay we knowingly apply some
fault to the system such as changing the polarity of the connections and restricted earth fault.
Then we observe whether the relay are working and check the currents in the relay panel. The
panel should show abnormal current in the line of fault.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page113

SystemStabilityTesting

Instruments used

Sl. no Description

Specification

Quantity

Clamp Meter

Kyoritsu, DCM, Model 2002

Clamp Leaker

Multimeter

3- D Supply

DC-10A, Motwane
Digital Multimeter DM3540A,
Motwane
415V, 50 Hz

Connecting wires

---------------------------------------------

Circuit diagram

Remarks

1
1
APR

Figure 16 System Stability Testing

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page114

SystemStabilityTesting

Procedure

PART I- System Check


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Set up connection as given in the diagram above.


Short the LV winding of the transformer.
Close all the isolator. All the line should be connected so that loading can be done.
Supply 3- currents to the current transformer as given in the figure.
With the help of clamp meter check the current in the primary side of CT.
With the help of clamp leaker observe the current on the secondary terminal at the
transformer. Check whether the current observed is as per the ratio or not. If the current
doesnt match then find out by calculation whose secondary current it is and accordingly
change the connection.
7. Then follow the line terminals at Control panel and check the current at metering core
(MW, MVAR, MWT, MVART, TVM, and ASS). Check the value for correctness at the
spot.
8. Follow the line at relay panel for O/C, E/F and differential protection.
9. If everything is ok then apply earth fault at R-phase, Y-phase and B-phase and observe
the readings at the panel. The current will abnormal wherever the fault is.
10. Check all the panel readings by applying fault at each phase. Compare the result obtained
with the CT ratio.

PART II - NCT Test by applying Restricted Earth Fault.


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Open circuit the LV winding and remove the earth connection from the neutral point.
Dont load the CT.
Short any two HV phases say R-Y.
Connect a wire to r-phase at LV side and bring out the terminal.
Connect an auto transformer to r-n at LV side and further connect the auto transformer to
1- source.
6. Clutch the neutral wire with clamp meter and supply 10A current from the auto
transformer.
7. With the help of Clamp leaker check the current on Transformer Junction box (NCT). It
should reflect almost 25mA.
8. Trace this current till control and relay panel.
NB: - Shorting means we are applying fault current purposefully so that neutral gets
displaced. Actually neutral should have zero current but here we are supplying current in
neutral so that restricted earth fault occurs. We trace this fault current at transformer junction
box till the relay panel.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page115

SystemStabilityTesting

Results

CTJB
X1-1
X1-2
X1-3
X1-7,8,9

:
System Stability Check, Incomer 1, Tie Line side (Tie Line-Transformer 1-RP & CP)
Date: 1/11/2009, Sunday, Sunny.
Primary Current: R=14.37A, Y=14.65A, B=14.71A.
CT Secondary Current Check. CT Ratio 600/1A.
Core 1(mA)
Core 2(mA)
Core 3(mA)
Core 4(mA)
CTJB
CTJB
CTJB
600/1A
600/1A
600/1A
600/1A
R= 24.21
X2-1
R= 24.21
X3-7
R= 24.21
X4-7
R= 24.29
Y= 24.12
X2-2
Y= 24.21
X3-8
Y= 24.43
X4-8
Y= 24.29
B= 24.25
X2-3
B= 24.21
X3-9
B= 24.41
X4-9
B= 24.29
N=0.00
X2-7,8,9
N=0.00
X3-1,2,3
N=0.00
X4-1,2,3
N=0.00

Actual current
(mA)
23.95
24.42
24.52
0.00

INC TB
X1-5-D11= 24.34
X1-6-D31=24.38
X1-7-D51=24.33
X1-8-D71=00.00

MW(mA)
(600-300)/1A
D13=24.36
D33=24.43
D53=24.47
D71=00.00

Control Panel 1 (CP1), Metering, Core # 1


MVAR(mA) MWT(mA) MVART(mA) ATY(mA)
(600-300)/1A
(300)/1A
(300)/1A
(300)/1A
D15=24.36
D17=24.39 D19=24.33
D35=24.47
D37=24.36 D37A=24.36
D39=24.33
D55=24.51
D57=24.19 D57=24.30
D71=00.00
D71=00.00 D71=00.00
-

TVM(mA)

ASS(mA)

D21=24.31
D41=24.36
D61=24.36
D71=00.00

D23=24.15
D43=24.17
D63=24.19
D71=00.00

Ammeter
(mA)
24.49
24.41
24.52
00.00

INC TB (mA)
X1-5=A111=24.41
X1-6=A131=24.49
X1-7=A151=24.48
X1-8=A171=00.00

Relay Panel 1 (RP1). Distance (Core # 4), O/C & E/F Protection (Core # 2).
21 Distance Relay(mA)
INC CT TB(mA)
67 Relay(mA) HV Side
A112=Q1=24.41
X1-9=A211=24.41
A213(R)=24.45
A132=Q3=24.49
X1-10=A231=24.49
A283(Y)=24.45
A152=Q5=24.48
X1-11=A251=24.48
A253(B)=24.47
A172=Q7=00.00
X1-12=A271=00.00
A273(N)=00.00

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page116

SystemStabilityTesting

Relay Panel 3 (RP3), Bus Bar Protection, Core # 3


I/C TB (Incoming Terminal Box) (mA)
Bus Bar Summation CT 1T1 (mA)
X1-1-2=1B111=24.39
1B113=24.39
X1-1-3=1B131=24.54
1B133=24.54
X1-1-4=1B151=24.51
1B153=24.31
X1-1-1=1B171=00.00
1B173=00.00

CTJB
X1-1
X1-2
X1-3
X1-4,5,6

Core 1(mA)
300/1A
R= 48.38
Y= 48.35
B= 48.41
N=0.00

System Stability Check, Transformer 1 side


Date: 1/11/2009, Sunday, Sunny.
Primary Current: R=14.37A, Y=14.65A, B=14.71A.
CT Secondary Current Check.
Core 2(mA)
Core 3(mA)
CTJB
CTJB
CTJB
300/1A
600/1A
X2-1
R= 48.33
X3-7
R= 24.22
X4-1
X2-2
Y= 48.36
X3-8
Y= 24.21
X4-2
X2-3
B= 48.36
X3-9
B= 24.25
X4-3
X2-4,5,6
N=0.00
X3-1,2,3
N=0.00
X4-4,5,6

Core 4(mA)
300/1A
R= 48.35
Y= 48.33
B= 48.34
N=0.00

Actual current
(mA) (300/1A)
47.90
48.33
49.03
0.00

INC TB
X1-5-D11= 48.37
X1-6-D31= 48.87
X1-7-D51= 48.61
X1-8-D71= 00.00

MW(mA)
(600-300)/1A
D13= 48.37
D33= 48.60
D53= 48.80
D71= 00.00

Control Panel 2 (CP2), Metering, Core # 1


MVAR(mA) MWT(mA)
MVART(mA)
ATY(mA)
(600-300)/1A
(300)/1A
(300)/1A
(300)/1A
D15= 48.70
D17= 48.33 D19= 48.51
D35= 48.70
D37= 48.70 D37= 48.33
D39 = 48.30
D55= 48.70
D57= 48.73 D57= 48.33
D71= 00.00
D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00
-

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

TVM(mA)

ASS(mA)

D21= 48.56
D41= 48.55
D61= 48.55
D71= 00.00

D23= 48.90
D43= 48.80
D63= 48.00
D71=00.00

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SystemStabilityTesting

Relay Panel 2 (RP2). Differential Protection (Core # 4), 300/1A.


INC TB (mA)
Differential Relay 87(mA) HV Side
X1-1=A311= 48.43
A312= 47.90
X1-2=A331= 48.44
A332= 47.80
X1-3=A351= 48.44
A352= 47.70
X1-4=A371= 00.00
A372= 00.00
Relay Panel 3 (RP3), Bus Bar Protection, Core # 3
I/C TB (Incoming Terminal Box) (mA)
Bus Bar Summation CT 2T1 (mA)
X1-2-2=2B111=24.31
2B111=24.45
X1-2-3=2B131=24.96
2B133=24.40
X1-2-4=2B151=24.36
2B153=24.42
X1-2-1=2B171=00.00
2B173= 00.00
TVM : Tri Vector Meter
ASS

: Ampere Selector Switch

MW

: Megawatt

MVAR: Megavars
ATY : Refers to Transducer in Ammeter

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SystemStabilityTesting

CTJB
X1-1
X1-2
X1-3
X1-4,5,6

System Stability Check, Transformer 2 side ( Tie Line- Bus coupler- Transformer 2-RP & CP)
Date: 6/11/2009, Friday, Sunny.
Primary Current: R=13.33A, Y=13.33A, B=13.28A. Sec. current : r=26.55mA, y= 26.44mA, b=26.44mA
CT Secondary Current Check (Transformer 2 Side). CT Ratio 600-300/1-1A.
Actual current
Core 1(mA)
Core 2(mA)
Core 3(mA)
Core 4(mA)
CTJB
CTJB
CTJB
(mA)
300/1A
300/1A
600/1A
300/1A
600/1A 300/1A
1S1R= 44.41 X2-1
2S1R= 44.40
X3-7
3S3R= 22.20 X4-1
4S1R= 44.41
22.22
44.43
1S1Y= 44.42 X2-2
2S1Y= 44.31
X3-8
3S3Y= 22.22 X4-2
4S1Y= 44.43
22.22
44.43
1S1B= 44.42 X2-3
2S1B= 44.33
X3-9
3S3B= 22.19 X4-3
4S1B= 44.31
22.13
44.27
1S2N= 00.00 X2-4,5,6
2S1N= 00.00
X3-1,2,3
3S1N= 00.00 X4-4,5,6
4S2N= 00.00
0.00
0.00

INC TB
X1-5 D11= 43.71
X1-6 D31= 43.41
X1-7 D51= 44.11
X1-8 D71= 00.00

MW(mA)
(600-300)/1A
D13= 43.31
D33= 44.33
D53= 44.26
D71= 00.00

Control Panel 5 (CP5), Metering, Core # 1 (300/1A)


MVAR(mA) MWT(mA) MVART(mA)
TVM(mA)
(600-300)/1A
(300)/1A
(300)/1A
D15= 44.41 D17= 44.13 D19= 44.1
D21= 44.33
D35= 43.23 D37= 44.26 D37= 44.31
D41= 44.31
D55= 44.31 D57= 44.29 D57= 44.33
D61= 44.36
D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00 D71= 00.00
D71= 00.00

ASS(mA)
D23= 44.40
D43= 44.36
D63= 44.32
D71= 00.00

Ammeter
(mA)
Ammeter check found
ok.
Selector switches
operating properly.

Relay Panel 5 (RP5). Differential Protection (Core # 4), O/C & E/F Protection (Core # 2).
O/C & E/F Protection
Differential Protection
INC TB (mA)
HV Terminal, Relay 87(mA)
INC CT TB(mA)
HV Terminal, Relay67(mA)
X1-1=A311= 44.31
A312= 24.41
X1-9=A313= 44.30
A315(R)= 44.30
X1-2=A331= 44.31
A332= 24.49
X1-10=A333= 44.40
A335(Y)= 44.40
X1-3=A351= 44.31
A352= 24.48
X1-11=A353= 44.30
A355(B)= 44.30
X1-4=A371= 00.00
A372= 00.00
X1-12=A373= 00.00
A375(N)= 00.00

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

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SystemStabilityTesting

Relay Panel 3 (RP3). Bus Bar Differential Protection (Core # 3), 600/1A.
INC TB (mA)
Bus Bar Summation CT 5T1 (mA)
X1-5-2=5B111= 22.33
5B113= 47.90
X1-5-3=5B131= 22.26
5B133= 47.80
X1-5-4=5B151= 22.36
5B153= 47.70
X1-5-1=5B71= 00.00
5B73= 00.00
Relay Display check ok. BB differential ICT o/p check by polarity reverse of anyone CT found ok.

CTJB
X1-1
X1-2
X1-3
X1-4,5,6

System Stability Check, Bus Coupler side ( Tie Line- Bus coupler-RP & CP)
Date: 6/11/2009, Friday, Sunny.
Primary Current: R=13.33A, Y=13.33A, B=13.28A. Sec. current : r=26.55mA, y= 26.44mA, b=26.44mA
CT Secondary Current Check (Bus Coupler). CT Ratio 600-300/1-1A.
Actual current
Core 1(mA)
Core 2(mA)
Core 3(mA)
Core 4(mA)
CTJB
CTJB
CTJB
(mA)
600/1A
600/1A
600/1A
600/1A
1S1R= 22.21 X2-1
2S1R= 22.13
X3-7
3S3R= 22.33 X4-7
4S3R= 22.21
22.22
1S1Y= 22.00 X2-2
2S1Y= 22.16
X3-8
3S3Y= 22.26 X4-8
4S3Y= 22.30
22.22
1S1B= 22.31 X2-3
2S1B= 22.19
X3-9
3S3B= 22.21 X4-9
4S3B= 22.26
22.13
1S3N= 00.00 X2-4,5,6
2S3N= 00.00
X3-1,2,3
3S1N= 00.00 X4-1,2,3
4S1N= 00.00
0.00

Relay Panel 3 (RP3). Bus Bar Protection, 600/1A


Bus Bar Protection Zone A, Core 3, 600/1A
Bus Bar Protection Zone B, Core 4, 600/1A
INC TB (mA)
Bus Bar Summation CT 3T1 (mA)
INC CT TB(mA)
Bus Bar Summation CT 1T2 (mA)
X1-3-2=3B111B= 22.26
3B113= 22.21
X1-3-6=3B111A= 22.31
3B113A= 22.26
X1-3-3=3B131B = 22.21
3B133= 22.22
X1-3-7=3B131A = 22.83
3B133A= 22.25
X1-3-4=3B151B = 22.27
3B153= 22.21
X1-3-8=3B151A = 22.30
3B153A= 22.26
X1-3-1=3B71B = 00.00
3B73= 00.00
X1-3-5=3B71A = 00.00
3B73A= 00.00
Core 1 is spare, shorted secondary cores at CTJB.
Primary current check as relay displayed found ok. O/p current from ICT found developed when CT polarity was reversed=ok.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

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SystemStabilityTesting

Relay Panel 3 (RP3). O/C & E/F Protection, 600/1A.


INC TB (mA)
Relay 50/51 (mA)
X11-1=A111= 22.33
A113= 22.19
X11-2=A131= 22.31
A133= 22.23
X11-3=A151= 22.36
A153= 22.24
X11-4=A171= 00.00
A173= 00.00

All inbuilt CT secondary output check of Transformer 1 & 2 found ok.


Neutral CT secondary output check up to panel REF Relay end found ok.
WTICT secondary output check found ok.
Stability Testing, 27/11/09, Differential Relay 87. Transformer 1, RP2.
NORMAL CONDITION
Primary Current: R=10.30A, Y=10.30A, B=10.30A
HV Side Relay 87(mA)

LV Side Relay 87(mA)

A312(R)=36.90

A212(R)=59.60

A332(Y)=37.00

A232(Y)=60.20

A352(B)=37.20

A252(B)=59.80

A372(N)=00.00

A283(N)=00.07

Connect Phase-Earth fault to any of the HV line, so that fault gets injected and check the
differential current.
Differential Relay 87. FAULT CONDITION (B-phase on HV side shorted to earth)
HV Side Relay 87(mA)

LV Side Relay 87(mA)

A312(R)=36.60

A212(R)= 59.40

A332(Y)=37.10

A232(Y)= 59.80

A352(B)=37.10

A252(B)= 59.20

A372(N)= 39.80

A283(N)= 00.05

Differential Relay 87. FAULT CONDITION (Y-phase on LV side shorted to earth)


HV Side Relay 87(mA)

LV Side Relay 87(mA)

A312(R)= 36.80

A212(R)= 59.40

A332(Y)= 37.00

A232(Y)= 59.90

A352(B)= 37.10

A252(B)= 59.60

A372(N)= 00.02

A283(N)= 00.15

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

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SystemStabilityTesting

Stability Testing, 27/11/09, Differential Relay 87. Transformer 2, RP5.


NORMAL CONDITION
Primary Current: R=10.50A, Y=7.30A, B=8.20A
HV Side Relay 87(mA)

LV Side Relay 87(mA)

A312(R)= 36.40

A212(R)= 58.80

A332(Y)= 36.40

A232(Y)= 59.10

A352(B)= 36.70

A252(B)= 59.20

A372(N)= 00.02

A283(N)= 00.07

Connect Phase-Earth fault to any of the HV line, so that fault gets injected and check the
differential current.
Differential Relay 87. FAULT CONDITION (B-phase on HV side shorted to earth)
HV Side Relay 87(mA)

LV Side Relay 87(mA)

A312(R)= 36.40

A212(R)= 58.80

A332(Y)= 36.50

A232(Y)= 59.00

A352(B)= 54.90

A252(B)= 59.00

A372(N)= 39.70

A283(N)= 00.07

Differential Relay 87. FAULT CONDITION (Y-phase on LV side shorted to earth)


HV Side Relay 87(mA)

LV Side Relay 87(mA)

A312(R)= 36.50

A212(R)= 58.80

A332(Y)= 36.40

A232(Y)= 59.10

A352(B)= 36.80

A252(B)= 59.20

A372(N)= 00.02

A283(N)= 00.11

Restricted Earth Fault (REF) Test


NCT Ratio 400/1A, Transformer 1
NCT Ratio 400/1A, Transformer 2
Applied current in primary
:- 10A
Applied current in primary
:- 9.91A
I/C 1 33KV Side (Neutral Current) :- 24.83mA I/C 2 33KV Side (Neutral Current) :- 21.70mA
HV side RP2 (Neutral Current)
:- 20.84mA HV side RP5 (Neutral Current)
:- 29.70mA
HV Terminal NCT
:- 25.56mA
LV Terminal NCT
:- 25.69mA

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page122

SystemStabilityTesting

Precaution
1.
2.
3.
4.

Safety, the first priority.


While taking reading, make sure the reading is the correct one.
If the reading doesnt tally the CT ratio then check the connections.
Always note the steady value of the meter.

Conclusion

From the result obtained above it is confirmed that the pre commissioning test for the
substation is completed and the substation is ready for Test Charge. The result tallies with the
CT ratio and the connections have been checked. This is the last Pre-Commissioning Check
done on the system. The System Stability has been found healthy and wherever necessary the
connections have been checked.

66KV/33KV, Olakha Sub Station, Thimphu. Chering6875@msn.com

Page123

Reference
Ram, Badri & Vishwakarma, D.N. (2008). Power System Protection and Switchgear. New Delhi
: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Limited.
Singh, Tarlok (2007). Installation, Commissioning and Maintenance of Electrical equipment.
Myers S.D, Kelly J.J & Parrish R.H (1981).A Guide to Transformer Maintenance. Akron, Ohio.
Transformer Maintenance Institute.
Dorf, Richard C (2000). The Electrical Engineering Handbook. Boca Raton. CRC Press LLC.
Laughton M.A & Warne D.J (2003).Electrical Engineer's Reference Book. Jordan Hill, Oxford,
Burlington. Reed Educational and Professional Publishing Limited.
Grigsby L.L (2001). The Electrical Power Engineering Handbook. Boca Raton, Washington.
CRC Press LLC.
Whitaker, Jerry C (1999). AC Power System Handbook. Boca Raton, Washington. CRC Press
LLC.

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