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Annexure Explanatory Note to reply on Bharat Karnad report on Grapevine

in MoD:
What I have been told and subsequently verified from papers available online, is that the
Kalman Filters work best for linear systems - early Prithvis and Agnis - go up come down no
difficult maneuvers. The algorithm, I was told simply estimates the current position by
integrating the new measurement with the old position estimate. While the old position
estimate already is carrying some factor of the old measurement and old estimate.
Extended Kalman for non-linear systems like complex BGVs and longer ranged Akash fired
from static Transporter-Erector-Launchers. But the real difficulty will be with highly
complex problems like placing radars on ships, making cruise missiles that have multiple
waypoint maneuvers with capacity to be launched from ships and aircrafts. Yet these too
have been done by Indian researchers or are being convincingly pursued.
Unscented Kalman filter based algorithms are meant for highly non-linear systems where
even the initial system state and vector may be difficult to pin down. Or for cases where the
costs are a limitations and people do not want to get into developing separate navigation
models to control the large differences in the estimated vs actual initial states of their
Extended Kalman Filters. Like Astra being launched from a highly maneuvering aircrafts
that essentially put the whole system into a reset position with every roll/climb/yaw of the
aircraft and where the aircraft fires their missiles merely in the general direction even
without a true lock on or even in the reverse direction without any lock on. Even systems
like the Dhanush and K-15, would face this problem of a difficult to pin down initial states
though to a much smaller degree with the speculated non-linear Boost-Glide phase.
Probably Dhanush was the start of our missile algorithm development of the more difficult
kind. Thus these systems may not be there in as many numbers of may be there only on
Brahmos with significant limitations but this is still no reason to simply import just for the
heck of it.
Indian Researchers working on the guidance algorithims
Prakash, J.; Patwardhan, S. & Shah, S. Constrained nonlinear state estimation using
ensemble kalman filters, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research 49, 2242 2253. State estimation and nonlinear predictive control of autonomous hybrid
system using derivative free state estimators, Journal of Process Control 20, 787799.
INTERNATIONAL RADAR SYMPOSIUM INDIA - 2001
11-14 December 2001 Bangalore, INDIA
An Efficient Algorithm for Passive DOA Tracking Using Unscented Kalman Filter:
CVijay Kumar, ECE. Dept. R.E.C. Tiruchirapalll -India, C. Chandrasekaran,
Helo SoftInc. Hyderabad-India, R. Rajagopal,
N.RaviKiran, CRL.BEL, Bangalore-India

A Five State Kalman Filter for Tracking Highly Maneuvering Targets


K.V. Ramachandra, C. Ramesh, CRL, BELI, Bangalore-India