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Research No.

3
Date Submitted: 7-23-15
Research Title: Speed Measuring Instruments

Objectives:
1.) To know and discuss various speed measuring instruments and
their specific application in the industry.
2.) To discuss proper usage and maintenance of various speed
measuring instruments

Instrument No.1
Tachometer
Description
Tachometer (Mechanical)
Description
A tachometer (revolution-counter,
tach, rev-counter, RPM gauge) is an
instrument measuring the rotation
speed of a shaft or disk, as in a motor
or other machine.[1] The device
usually displays the revolutions per
minute (RPM) on a calibrated
analogue dial, but digital displays are
increasingly common. The word
comes from Greek (tachos
"speed") and metron ("measure")
Tachometers (Figure 2-13) are measuring instruments that give a direct and
continuous indication of rotary speed in rpm. For submarine diesel engines,
the mechanical tachometers are usually permanently mounted on a gage
board. They are generally driven from the engine camshaft through a gearing
and a flexible shaft. In operation, the force produced by the rotation is
balanced against a calibrated spring or against the force of gravity. Those
used in submarines are usually of the indicator type in which the pointer
registers the rpm at the moment, rising and falling with the fluctuations in
engine speed..
History
The first mechanical tachometers were based on measuring the centrifugal
force, similar to the operation of a centrifugal governor. The inventor is
assumed to be the German engineer Dietrich Uhlhorn; he used it for
measuring the speed of machines in 1817.[citation needed] Since 1840, it
has been used to measure the speed of locomotives.
Components and Parts
Indicator displays rotational speed exerted from the engine camshaft
through the flexible shaft assembly
Flexible Shaft transfers the kinetic energy exerted of the engine shaft to
the mechanical indicator
Engine Camshaft serves as kinetic energy source

Industrial Applications
Tachometers or revolution counters on cars, aircraft, and other vehicles show
the rate of rotation of the engine's crankshaft.
In vehicles such as tractors and trucks, the tachometer often has other
markings, usually a green arc showing the speed range in which the engine
produces maximum torque, which is of prime interest to operators of such
vehicles.
Aircraft tachometers have a green arc showing the engine's designed
cruising speed range.
Tachometers are used to estimate traffic speed and volume (flow). A vehicle
is equipped with the sensor and conducts "tach runs" which record the traffic
data.
In analogue audio recording, a tachometer is a device that measures the
speed of audiotape as it passes across the head. On most audio tape
recorders the tachometer (or simply "tach") is a relatively large spindle near
the ERP head stack, isolated from the feed and take-up spindles by tension
idlers.
On many recorders the tachometer spindle is connected by an axle to a
rotating magnet that induces a changing magnetic field upon a Hall effect
transistor. Other systems connect the spindle to a stroboscope, which
alternates light and dark upon a photodiode.

Usage Instructions
Majority of mechanical tachometers operate in the same principles
which are following;
Principle 1: A Kinetic energy source in the form of rotational
displacements such as engine camshafts serves as the registrants of data
Principle 2: a gear assembly used to transmit the power from the
energy source to the dial
Principle 3: An indicator assembly (dial) registers the actual power
obtained from the source through the gear assembly and displays the
registered data (power) due to the mechanical work performed by the
indicator assembly pushing the dial to move at a scale.
Maintenance and Storage
For Mechanical Tachometers
Maintenance
1.) Proper calibration must be in place
2.) Fasteners properly fastened.
3.) Periodic checking for the presence of destructive and constructive
mechanical and chemical corrosions.
4.) Internal mechanical parts must be periodically properly lubricated.

Storage:
1.) Must not be exposed to direct sunlight unnecessarily.
2.) Must be stored in the prescribed humid environment.
3.) Must be stored in the prescribed vibrational environment.
Reference
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tachometer
Erjavec, Jack (2005). Automotive Technology. ISBN 1-4018-4831-1.
http://maritime.org/doc/fleetsub/diesel/chap2.htm

Instrument No.2
Speedometer
Figure 2.1 Construction of a Speedometer
Description
A Speedometer or a speed
meter is a gauge that
measures and displays the
instantaneous speed of a
vehicle. Now universally
fitted to motor vehicles,
they started to be available
as options in the 1900s,
and as standard equipment
from about 1910
onwards.[1] Speedometers
for other vehicles have
specific names and use
other means of sensing
speed. For a boat, this is a pit log. For an aircraft, this is an airspeed
indicator.
Charles Babbage is credited with creating an early type of a speedometer,
which were usually fitted to locomotives.[2][3]
The electric speedometer was invented by the Croatian Josip Belui[4] in
1888, and was originally called a velocimeter.
Typical speedometers are readily integrated in the system (land and air
vehicles)

Components and Parts


See figure 2.1
Industrial Applications
In Land-craft and Aircraft Machineries -> used to measure actual speed
transferred (done on the medium of actuation like engine camshaft etc.)
Maintenance and Storage
For Speedometers
Maintenance
1.) Proper calibration must be in place
2.) Fasteners properly fastened.
3.) Periodic checking for the presence of destructive and constructive
mechanical and chemical corrosions.

4.) Internal mechanical and electrical parts (since it is an


mechanically and electrically integrated system) must be periodically
for proper lubrication if necessary
Storage:
1.) Must not be exposed to direct sunlight unnecessarily.
2.) Must be stored in the prescribed humid environment.
3.) Must be stored in the prescribed vibrational environment.

Reference:
Harris, William (10 July 2007). "How Speedometers Work". How stuff works.
Retrieved 30 January 2015.
"Charles Babbage and the Difference Engine - NewMyths.com".
google.com. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
"Udini Flow". proquest.com. Retrieved 30 January 2015.

Instrument No.3
Disdrometer
Description
A disdrometer is an instrument used to measure the drop size distribution
and velocity of falling hydrometeors. Some disdrometers can distinguish
between rain, graupel, and hail.
The uses for disdrometers are numerous. They can be used for traffic
control, scientific examination, airport observation systems, and hydrology.
The latest disdrometers employ microwave or laser technologies. 2D video
disdrometers can be used to analyze individual snowflakes.
Components and Parts
Due to unconventional constraints regarding the gathering
of necessary data to fill-in the Component and Parts & Usage
Instructions, Usage Instructions, & Maintenance and Storage Sections
of disdrometers, the author is unable to provide such information. That the
author primarily believes the factors of constraints are far more likely derived
from propertartial rights and information security
Industrial Applications
In the Fields of:
Meteorological Research, Weather Forecasting, Agricultural
Research, Traffic control, Airport observation systems, & Hydrology.
Reference:
https://www.arm.gov/instruments/disdrometer
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disdrometer
Further Research Recommendation:
Additional supporting publications about distrometer usage and
calibration manuals are released by the US Department of Energy ARM
Research Facility (2009)
https://www.arm.gov/publications/tech_reports/handbooks/disdrometer_hand
book.pdf

Illustration 3:
Distrometer RD-80
by US Department of Energy
ARM

Instrument No.4 and 5


Components and Parts
Anemometers
See figure 4.1
Description
An anemometer is a device used for measuring wind speed, and is a
common weather station instrument. The term is derived from the Greek
word anemos, which means wind, and is used to describe any wind speed
measurement instrument used in meteorology. The first known description of
an anemometer given by Leon Battista Alberti in 1450.

Applications
Meteorological Research,
Weather Forecasting, Agricultural
Research
Usage Instructions

The anemometer has changed little since its development in the 15th
century. Leon Battista Alberti is said to have invented the first mechanical
anemometer around 1450. In following centuries, numerous others, including
Robert Hooke and the Mayans, developed their own versions, with some
being mistakenly credited as the inventor. In 1846, John Thomas Romney
Robinson improved upon the design by using four hemispherical cups and
mechanical wheels. Later, in 1926, John Patterson developed a three cup
anemometer, which was improved by Brevoort and Joiner in 1935. In 1991,
Derek Weston added the ability to detect wind direction. Most recently, in
1994, Dr. Andrews Pflitsch developed the sonic anemometer.
Two of the Different Types of Velocity Anemometers by Differentiated
by Mechanical Configuration
Instrument No. 4: Cup anemometers
A simple type of anemometer was
invented in 1845 by Dr. John Thomas
Romney Robinson, of Armagh
Observatory. It consisted of four
hemispherical cups, each mounted on one
end of four horizontal arms, which in turn
were mounted at equal angles to each
other on a vertical shaft. The air flow past
the cups in any horizontal direction turned
the shaft in a manner that was proportional
to the wind speed. Therefore, counting the
turns of the shaft over a set time period
produced the average wind speed for a
wide range of speeds. On an anemometer
with four cups, it is easy to see that since
the cups are arranged symmetrically on
the end of the arms, the wind always has
the hollow of one cup presented to it and is blowing on the back of the cup on
the opposite end of the cross.

Figure 4.1 Modern Anemometer (WAA151


Anemometer)

Maintenance and Storage


Maintenance
1.) Proper calibration must be in place
2.) Fasteners properly fastened.
3.) Periodic checking for the presence of destructive and constructive
mechanical and chemical corrosions.
4.) Internal mechanical parts must be properly checked for lubrication
periodically.
Storage:
1.) Must not be exposed to direct sunlight unnecessarily.
2.) Must be stored in the prescribed humid environment.
3.) Must be stored in the prescribed vibrational environment.

Instrument No. 5: Vane Anemometers


One of the other forms of mechanical
velocity anemometer is the vane
anemometer. It may be described as
a windmill or a propeller anemometer.
Contrary to the Robinson
anemometer, where the axis of
rotation is vertical, the axis on the
vane anemometer must be parallel to
the direction of the wind and therefore
horizontal. Furthermore, since the
wind varies in direction and the axis has to follow its changes, a wind vane or
some other contrivance to fulfill the same purpose must be employed.
An vane anemometer thus combines a propeller and a tail on the same axis
to obtain accurate and precise wind speed and direction measurements from
the same instrument. The speed of the fan is measured by a rev counter and
converted to a wind speed by an electronic chip. Hence, volumetric flow rate
may be calculated if the cross-sectional area is known.
In cases where the direction of the air motion is always the same, as in the
ventilating shafts of mines and buildings for instance, wind vanes, known as
air meters are employed, and give most satisfactory results.

Components and Parts


Applications
Meteorological Research, Weather Forecasting, Agricultural Research
Ventilation Shafts in Mining Operations, Ventilation Shafts in Commercial and
Industrial Infrastructures
Usage Instructions
Majority of mechanical tachometers operate in the same principles
which are following;
Principle 1: A Kinetic energy source in the form of gaseous flow
such as ventilation chambers etc, as the registrants of data
Principle 2: Vane Anemometers are used to register the direction of
flow of the gas
Thus usage instructions for vane anemometers such as physical construction
and installation of various mechanical vane anemometer will adhere (not
violate) the principles as indicated above.

Consequently more complex vane anemometers currently exist in the


industry further giving more complex working principles and installation
instructions.
Disclaimer: The Instrument No. 5: Vane Anemometers section will not
display such complex vane anemometers but exhibit simple vane
anemometer construction and working principle only.

Maintenance and Storage


Maintenance
1.) Proper calibration must be
in place
2.) Fasteners properly
fastened.
3.) Periodic checking for the
presence of destructive and
constructive mechanical and chemical corrosions.
4.) Internal mechanical parts must be properly checked for lubrication
periodically.
Storage:
1.) Must not be exposed to direct sunlight unnecessarily.
2.) Must be stored in the prescribed humid environment.
3.) Must be stored in the prescribed vibrational environment.
Reference for Instruments 4 and 5
"History of the Anemometer". Logic Energy. Retrieved 14 April 2013.
World Meteorological Organization. "Vane anemometer". Eumetcal.
Retrieved April 6, 2014.
http://www.vaisala.com/Vaisala%20Documents/User%20Guides%20and%20
Quick%20Ref%20Guides/WAA151_User_Guide_in_English.pdf

Submitted To: Engr. Adrian C. Flores, RME. MME


Registered Mechanical Engineer
Master of Mechanical Engineering
Mechanical Engineering Department
Bulacan State University College of Engineering
Submitted By: Joseph Joshua C. Garcia
Mechanical Engineering Student
ME 4A
Class 2012-2017