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10/15/2014

Two Moose Were Sitting on a Log

Cause-and-Effect Diagram

Two moose are sitting on a log talking


about baseball.
The little moose is the big mooses
son.
But the big moose is not the little
mooses father.
How is this possible?

What is it?
An analysis tool that
provides a systematic way
of looking at effects and
their respective causes
Developed by Dr. Kaoru
Ishikawa of Japan in 1943
and is sometimes referred
to as an Ishikawa Diagram
or a Fishbone Diagram
because of its shape

Why implement this?


It helps determine the root
causes of a problem using
a structured approach.
It uses an orderly, easy-toread format to diagram
cause-and-effect.
relationships
It indicates possible causes
of variation in a process.
> WHY IMPLEMENT THIS? >

Why implement this?


It increases knowledge of the
process by helping everyone
to learn more about the
factors at work and how they
relate.
It identifies areas where data
should be collected for further
study.
> EXAMPLE OF A BUSINESS PROCESS >

Submission of Billing to Client


Receive update of
newly issued billings

Locate included
clients file folders

File folders
Find and update clients
billing statements
Locate included clients
Buyers Information Sheet

Buyers
Information Sheet

Call each client


on update

Send Billing Statements

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 1 >

10/15/2014

STEP 1:

STEP 2:
Draw the SPINE and create
the EFFECT box.

Identify and clearly define the


outcome or EFFECT to be analyzed.
>POSITIVE

on the
effect areas
to be
Decide
pride and ownership
over productive
examined.
upbeat atmosphere that encourages the participation of the
group
> NEGATIVE

An effect may be positive (an


justifying why the problem occurred and placing blame
negative
(a
problem),
objective)
easier for a team toor
focus
on what causes
a problem
than what
causes an excellent outcome
depending
upon
the
issue
that is
concentrate on things that can go wrong may foster a more
relaxed atmosphere
which sometimes enhances group
being
discussed.
participation

Draw a horizontal arrow pointing to the


right. This is the spine.
To the right of the arrow, write a brief
description of the effect or outcome
which results from the process.
Draw a box around the description of the
effect.

> CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM , updated with STEPS 1 & 2 >

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 2 >

STEP 3:
Spine

Inaccurate
Submission of
Billing to Client

Effect Box

Identify the main CAUSES contributing


to the effect being studied.
Establish
causes,
or categories,
under
Write
themain
main
categories
your team
has
which
other
causes
will be box.
listed.
selected
to possible
the left of
the effect
Draw
3Ms some
and P above
Methods,
andMaterials,
below the spine.
Machinery,
and People
Draw
a box around
each category label
4Psuse
Policies,
Procedures,
and
a diagonal
line to People,
form a and
Plant from the box to the spine.
branch
Environment

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 3 >

Methods

STEP 4:

People

Inaccurate
Submission of
Billing to Client

Main Causes

Machinery

> CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM , updated with STEPS 1, 2 & 3 >

Materials

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 4 >

For each major branch, identify other


specific factors which may be the
CAUSES of the EFFECT.
Identify as many factors or causes
possible and attach them as subbranches of the major branches.
Fill in detail for each cause.
> CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM , updated with STEPS 1, 2, 3 & 4 >

10/15/2014

Methods
Erroneous
sorting
of billing
statements

Invalid
list of
updates

STEP 5:

People
People fail to inform
client thru call/e-mail

Ignorance

Erroneous
Information
Unreliable in BIS
mail system
Phone line
disconnected

Machinery

Inaccurate
Submission of
Billing to Client

You can do this by asking a


series of WHY questions.

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 5 >

People
Erroneous
sorting
of billing
Poor
statements
I naccuracy training
I n sorting
data
Mixed
up data
I gnorance

Mixed up
data
I naccuracy
in
sorting
data
I nvalid
Manual file list of
organizationupdates

Erroneous info
in BI S

No
money
Phone line
disconnected

Manual file system

I naccuracy in sorting Manual file


and giv ing out mail organization

Machinery

Materials

Manual file
organization

Inaccurate
Submission of
Billing to Client

Assorted records
of billing
statements
in clients folders
I naccuracy in
sorting data
Mixed
up data

Mixed up
data
I naccuracy
in
sorting
data
I nvalid
Manual
file list of
Manual file
organization
organization updates

Poor
Poor
training

Skipping paying
monthly bills

training

No
money
Phone line
disconnected

People

Erroneous
I nformation in BI S
I naccuracy in
sorting data
Mixed
up data
Unreliable
mail system
Manual
filefile
system
Manual
system

Manual filefile
I naccuracy in sorting Manual
organization
organization
and giv ing out mail

Machinery

I naccuracy in
sorting data

Erroneous
Wrong phone number/
sorting
e-mail information
Erroneous info
Poor
Poor
of billing
in BI S
training
training
People fail to inform
statements
I naccuracy
client thru
I n sorting
call/e-mail
No training
No training
data
Mixed
I gnorance
up data
I gnorance
Manual file
Manual file
organization
organization

Materials

Manual
file
Manual file
organization
organization

Inaccurate
Submission of
Billing to Client

Assorted records
of billing
statements
in clients folders
I naccuracy in
sorting data
Mixed
up data

STEP 6:
thick
items
in that
one repeatedly.
area
may
Look
for cluster
causesofthat
appear
ItAhelps
identify
causes
warrant
indicate
arepresent
need for further
study.
These
may
root causes.
further
investigation.
Use
A main
category
having
only a few
specific
Look
what you
can
in each

aforpareto
chart
to measure
determine
the
causes
may can
indicate
a need
for
furtherof
cause
so
you
quantify
the
effects
cause to focus on first.
identification
of causes.
any
changes
you
make.
See
the balance
of your diagram,
If several major branches have only a few
Most
importantly,
identify and
circle
checking
for
comparable
of the
sub-branches, you may needlevels
to combine
causes
you can
take
action on.
detailthat
for most
of the
categories.
them under a single category.

Manual file
organization

> PUTTING CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM TO TEST: STEP 6 >

Methods

> CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM , updated with STEPS 1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 >

Analyze the diagram.

People fail to inform


client thru
call/e-mail
No training
I gnorance

Manual file
organization

Skipping paying
monthly bills

Poor
training

I naccuracy in
sorting data

Wrong phone number/


e-mail information

Erroneous
I nformation in BI S
I naccuracy in
sorting data
Mixed
up data
Unreliable
mail system

FROM GIVEN EXAMPLE:


Q: Why is there an invalid list of updates?
A: Because the data was mixed up.
Q: Why was the data mixed up?
A: There was a problem with the manual organization of the files.
Q: Why is there a problem with the manual organization
of the files?
A: Because there are no back-up files and since it was
manually prearranged, inaccuracy is inevitable.

No file for
record of billing
statements
in clients
folders

Materials

Methods

Identify more detailed levels of


causes and continue organizing them
under related causes or categories.

Manual
Manual
file file
organization
organization

> CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM

, completed

>

RECOMMENDED
SOLUTIONS:
ANALYSIS

Poor/No Training -> Give tutorials and


seminars
new
and isold
employees alike.
The
leveltoof
detail
well-balanced.
Have people check employees
The
causes poor/no
training
and
performances
every once
in a while.
manual
file
organization/system
are
Manual File System -> Have a computerrepeated
severalsystem
times.to maintain the
based information
organization.
It will
not only
give are
you backThese
causes
stated
above
the
up
filesthat
but make
the
work faster.
ones
should
besystem
attended
to and
Make sure it is maintained and updated at
given action on ASAP.
all times.

> RECOMMENDATIONS from completed CAUSE-AND-EFFECT DIAGRAM >