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DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.1744.1442

Jose Antonio Santelli

Available from: Jose Antonio Santelli

Retrieved on: 22 August 2015


Jos A. Santelli, Daniel Manzano
The ASME recommendations for Pressure Vessels establish the common failure
modes that must be verified by stress analysis. The typical failure modes are collapse
and fatigue.
But there are other failure modes, like ratcheting (a static collapse due to excessive
time-independent deformation) in which the Code establishes a specific material
model for verification by-analysis.
This specific material model is (elasto-perfectly plastic) is used for a verification in
the Bree Diagram. This verification is conservative and assures that the phenomena
will not occur.
But when running a Static FE analysis with a cyclic loading, this model cannot
capture the phenomena of ratcheting.
The Ratcheting failure mode is also referred to as cyclic creep, or static collapse
of metals cyclically loaded in the plastic range (ratcheting describes the cyclic
accumulation of deformation).

Elastic material model

The Elastic material model is used in ASME to determine the stress distribution in
Design and Service Condition, in order to verify stresses against Plastic Collapse,
Local Failure and Fatigue.
Each of these failure modes has specific stress limits which are established based
on simple but conservative hypothesis in the ASME Code, like the material perfectly
plastic behavior and the shell theory with its typical membrane and bending stresses
with linear distribution along the thickness.

Elastic-perfectly plastic (BISO) material model

This material model is Non Linear, and is used to predict Collapse loads on the
structure, as well as ratcheting.
Depending on the failure mode studied, the ASME Code recommends different
For example, in 5.5.7 Ratcheting Assessment Elastic-Plastic Stress Analysis

1, the code establishes that An elastic-perfectly plastic material model shall be

used in the analysis. The von Mises yield function and associated flow rule should be
utilized. The yield strength defining the plastic limit shall be the minimum specified
yield strength at temperature from Annex 3.D. The effects of non-linear geometry
shall be considered in the analysis.

Multilinear Kinematic Hardening (MKIN) material model

This model is not mentioned in the ASME Code.

But the Multilinear formulation models the true behavior of metals with more
precision than bilinear models.
It can also predict the Baushinger effect in the material.
Other effects, like elastic shakedown and plastic shakedown, can be modelled
using this material model.
The MKIN Material Model formulation is described as follows:
The model formulation is the sublayer or overlay model of Besselling and Owen,
Prakash and Zienkiewicz in which the material is assumed to be composed of a
number of sublayers or subvolumes, all subjected to the same total strain.
The behavior of each subvolume is elastic-perfectly plastic.
The default yield surface is the von Mises surface, and each subvolume yields at an
equivalent stress equal to the subvolume uniaxial yield stress.
The subvolumes undergo kinematic hardening with an associated flow rule and the
plastic strain increment for each subvolume is the same as that for bilinear kinematic

Chaboche Model for modeling of Ratcheting

This model is not mentioned in the ASME Code.

When the Pressure Vessel analysis shows that the stress exceeds the limits shown
by the Bree Diagram, therefore the stress condition is ratcheting; Finite Elements
analyses can be run in order to determine:

Collapse by excessive deformation

Residual plastic deformation and evolution of deformation after a limited
number of overloading in the structure

Estimation of plastic deformation after an unusual condition

The Chaboche model is described as follows:

The nonlinear kinematic hardening model is a rate-independent version of the
kinematic hardening model proposed by Chaboche 2 . The model allows the
superposition of several independent backstress tensors and can be combined with any
of the available isotropic hardening models. It can be useful in modeling cyclic plastic
behavior such as cyclic hardening or softening and ratcheting or shakedown.
The model uses an associated flow rule with either the default von Mises yield
criterion or the Hill yield criterion if it is defined.

1 ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code SECTION VIII, DIVISION 2 2010
Edition, July 1, 2010
2 Chaboche Nonlinear Kinematic Hardening Model, Sheldon Imaoka, Memo
Number STI0805A, May 4, 2008