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Application of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

Level of Need

General Rewards

Organizational Factors

Selfactualization

Growth,
Achievement,
Advancement,
Creativity

Challenging Job,
Opportunities for
Creativity,
Achievement in Work,
Promotion

Self-esteem

Self-respect,
Status,
Prestige,

Social Recognition,
Job Title,
High Status of Job,
Feedback from the Job
itself

Social

Love,
Friendship,
Feelings of Belonging,

Work Groups / Teams,


Supervision,
Professional associations

Safety

Security,
Stability,
Protection

Health & Safety,


Job Security,
Contract of Employment

Physiological

food,
water,
sleep,
sex

Pay,
Working Conditions

Herzberg's Two-factor Theory

Hygiene Factors

Motivators

Salary,
Job Security,
Working Conditions,
Level and Quality of
Supervision,
Company Policy and
Administration,
Interpersonal Relations

Nature of Work,
Sense of Achievement,
Recognition,
Responsibility,
Personal Growth and
Advancement

Herzberg and Money


It is often wrongly assumed that Herzberg did not value money, in the sense
that he did not consider it a motivator. This is misleading, as Herzberg argues
that the absence of good hygiene factors including money, will lead to
dissatisfaction and thus potentially block any attempt to motivate the
worker. Herzberg prefers us to think of money as a force which will move an
individual to perform a task, but not generate any internal desire to do the
task well. In fact to get an individual to perform the task again, he argues,
we will need to offer more money.
Although the original studies have been repeated with different types of
workers, and results have proved consistent with the original research,
Herzberg's theory has been criticised. Critics point out that a single factor
may be a satisfier for one person, but cause job dissatisfaction for another.
For example increased responsibility may be welcomed by some, whilst
dreaded by others. Whatever the criticisms, Herzberg has drawn our
attention to the importance of job design in order to bring about job
enrichment, emphasised in the phrase 'Quality of Working Life'.

Alderfer presented a condensed version of Maslows Five levels of need. Here


three core needs are identified, these being outlined below.

Alderfer's Needs

Need

Description

Existence Needs
(E)

These relate to Maslow's Physiological and


Safety needs, i.e. those needs to sustain life.

Relatedness
Needs (R)

The need to feel a sense of belonging,


affiliation, and friendship, closely linked to
Maslow's Safety, Social and Self-Esteem
needs.

These relate to Maslow's Self-esteem and


Growth Needs (G) Self-actualisation needs and are concerned
with the development of one's potential.

As you may have realised there is some overlap of Maslow's hierarchy within the
ERG model. Like Maslow, Alderfer offers us a model in which the individual seeks to
satisfy needs. However, Alderfer suggests these needs are more of a continuum
than a hierarchy, in that more than one need may be activated, sought to be
satisfied by the individual, at the same time. Individuals may also regress down
through this continuum, if satisfaction of one need is frustrated.
For example if a person is continually frustrated in their attempts to satisfy growth
needs (e.g. gain promotion), relatedness needs may assume greater importance
(e.g. social relations at work), this lower level need becoming the focus of the
individuals efforts. Alderfer's research did not however support the idea that lower
level needs decrease in strength as they become more satisfied, as opposed to
Maslow.
In the work situation we might apply ERG to seek alternative satisfiers /
motivators for staff when a primary need cannot be satisfied. If a persons needs

at a particular level are blocked, then attention should be focused on the


satisfaction of needs at other levels. A Subordinates growth needs may be blocked
because the job doesnt allow sufficient opportunity for personal development, then
applying ERG the manager should attempt to provide greater opportunities for the
subordinate to satisfy existence and relatedness needs, which are still genuine
motivators for the individual