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TRANSFORMER BASICS

FECA Clearwater FL June 11, 2009

Transformer Applications FECA Agenda


June 11, 2009
08:30-10:00

Transformer Overview
- Basic Construction
- Lightning / LV Surges
- Voltage Regulation / Flicker
- Life Cycle Costing / DOE Efficiency Ruling

10:00-10:15

Break

10:15-12:15

Insulation Life (C57.91) + TAP Simulations


- The Meaning of Lifethe C57.91 Loading Guide
- Over Head Residential + flicker
- Padmount Residential + fusing + Short Circuit
- Padmount 3 + harmonics
- Vault 3 + vault restrictions
- Substation/Power Transformers
- Ratings/Cooling Modes Settings
- Contingency Modeling
1:00 2:45

Power Transformer Maintenance, Monitoring & DGA

2:45 3:00

Exams/Discussions/wrap-up

Revised June 2009 dad

Generation Step Up - GSU

Generation

Transmission

Substation

Distribution - Outdoors

Distribution - Downtown

Distribution - Indoors

Transformer Function

Converts electricity from high voltage and low current


to low voltage and high current or vice versa
Electricity is better generated and used at low voltage,
and better transported at high voltage
Transformers are the basic links of a T&D system
Electricity and Magnetism work together to produce
transformer action
Thin Electrical Grade Steel provides an excellent path
for magnetic flux

Distribution Wound Core

Basic Distribution Transformer Core Loop

Distribution Stacking a Core

Wound Coil - Note LV Crossovers

Core and Coil (LV Side)

Shell Type Note Core Grounding

Core and Coil (HV Side)

Distribution Shell Type - Interlaced LV windings

core & coil

- excellent Short Circuit


strength...

SS

SS

SS

- natural impedance's
typically 1.5-2.0%
for SPS construction...

Interlaced SPS Shell Type C&C Cross-section

SS

Distribution Non-Interlaced LV windings

core & coil

- excellent Short Circuit


strength...

- natural impedance's
typically 1.5-2.0%
for SPS construction...

Non-Interlaced SPS Shell Type C&C Cross-section

Distribution Core Type

core & coil

P S

- good dielectric
strength...

S P P S

- typically good on
thermal performance...
- natural impedance's
typically 2.5-3.5%...
- MUST be interlaced...

Core Type C&C Cross-section

S P

Distribution - 3 5 Legged Construction

3 core & coil

P S

S P P S

S P P S

S P

3 Phase 5-Legged C&C Cross-section

Power Stacked Core Form

Power Stacked Core Form

Stacked Core Core Cutting

Power Disk Windings

Disk Windings

Power Transformer Disk Winding

Power Disk Windings

Power Disk Windings

Power Transformer Clean Room

Power Transformer 667MVA 1

Power Pan-Cake Windings

Pan-Cake Windings

Power Shell Form Construction

Transformer Function

Converts electricity from high current and low voltage


to low current and high voltage or vice versa
Electricity is better generated at low voltage, and
better transported at high voltage
Transformers are the basic links of a T&D system
Electricity and Magnetism work together to produce
transformer action

Transformers Basic Equations


Maxwells Equations
Differential form - General Case

D
x H = J + t

x E = - t

Amperes Law
Faradays Law of Induction

D=

Gausss Law for Electricity

=0

Gausss Law for Magnetism

where,
H = Magnetic Field Strength
E = Electric Field
D = Electric Displacement

J = current density
= Magnetic Field
= Charge Density

Transformers Electric and Magnetic Fields


When a wire is connected to an AC power source, current flows
through it and a magnetic field is created around the wire

Transformer Ratings
Transformers are rated in Volt-Amperes @ a specified Maximum
Average Winding Temperature Rise in degrees Centigrade.
For example, a 25 kVA 65 Deg C rise transformer is rated to transform 25,000 Volt
Amperes from one voltage/current level to another voltage/current level WITHOUT
exceeding an Average Winding Rise of 65 Deg C above the Ambient.

Liquid Filled (Mineral Oil or Natural Esters) Distribution Transformers


are rated in kVA at 65 Deg C. Typically 10-167 kVA 1 or 15-2500 kVA 3.
Power Transformers are usually specified in MVA (million volt
amperes). Multiple ratings can be specified at either or both 55
and/or 65 Degree C Rise.
Power Transformers can have multiple ratings based on optional cooling systems such
as
Fans or Pumps. For example OA/FA/FA (or under the new EIC definitions
ONAN/ONAF/ONAF) for the ratings based on Natural Air/Oil Cooling/Forced Air Cooling/and a
second
stage of Fans.

kVA/MVA is a Thermal Statement!!!

Transformers Turns Relationships

Vpri
Npri

Vsec
Nsec

= volts per turn

N = turns ratio =

Vpri = Vsec x N

and

Npri
Nsec
Isec = Ipri x N

Transformer - Turns/Volts/Current

25 kVA
120

7200

240
120
3240 turns

N =
Isec =
Ipri =

108 turns

3240
108

= 30 : 1

25,000 VA
240 V
25,000 VA
7200 V

= 104.7 Amps
= 3.47 Amps

Transformer - Core Loss & Exciting Current

Iex
A
Vrated

NL Watts

%Iex =

Iex
Irated

x 100

Rated Voltage is put across the LV terminals with the Primary


Open... the No Load Loss and Exciting Current are measured...

Transformer - Core Losses


No Load Loss = Hysteresis Loss + Eddy Current Losses
Hysteresis Loss is caused by the energy used in lining up
the magnetic domains in the core...

flux density = kl/in2

Hysteresis Loss is a function


of the area enclosed by the
Hysteresis Loop...

= magnetic field intensity = mmf = Ampere Turns

Eddy Currents are circulating currents in the core due to


induction. The thicker the core lamination, the more Eddy
Current losses...

Transformer Winding Measurements


Irated
A
VIZ

low impedance
bolted short...

LL Watts

%IZ =

VIZ
Vrated

x 100

Rated Current is put into the HV terminals with the LV Shorted... the
Load Loss and Impedance Voltage (IZ) are measured...

Transformer Winding Measurements


Load Loss = Ip2Rp + Is2Rs + Stray Losses
Stray Losses = Eddy (skin effect) Losses
+ Circulating Current Losses
+ Non-current carrying parts
being influenced by leakage flux
Load Losses produce heating within the windings and
resistance losses increase with temperature...
In order to cool the windings, oil ducts are inserted within the
windings to allow the oil to circulate and transfer the heat to
the tank walls and cooling fins...

Transformer Eddy Current Losses

No-Mag plates (304L) are used in larger kVA transformers to reduce


Eddy Current Losses due to High Current Flow

Transformers - Voltage Regulation


LL
%IR =
kVA x 10
pf = power factor

%Reg = pf x IR + q x IX +

where, K = p.u. load

%IX =

IZ2

q =

IR2

pf2

( pf x IX - q x IR)2
200

xK

Transformers Resistance & Reactance in Ohms


Ft = [ kV2 / kVA ] x 10
Rt = Ft x %IR = ohms resistance
Xt = Ft x %IX = ohms reactance
Ztvector = Rt + j Xt

(vector form)

Ztscalar = Rt2 + Xt 2

then,

ISC AMPS =

kV x 1000
Zt

scalar

tscalar = tan-1(Xt/Rt )

(scalar form)
(scalar form)

which of course is Ohms Law

In addition to the TRANSFORMER, the LV Fault Current is also limited by the Impedances of the
SYSTEM to/from the Transformer, the LV circuit to/from the Fault, and the impedance of the
FAULT complexity is added with Line-Line and/or Line to Neutral Faults and the connections (Y-Y
or Y-D)... And of course the transformation base levels

Transformers - Efficiency

Efficiency =

Power OUT
Power IN

OR

% Eff = 100 x K x kVA / (kVA x K + (NL + LL x K2))


where K = per unit Load

Transformers Distribution Polarity


H1

H2

H1

H2

> 200kVA
> 8,660kV

X3

X2
ADDITIVE

X1

X1
X2
X3
SUBTRACTIVE

Transformer Polarity indicates the direction of current flow through the HV windings
with respect to the direction of the current flow through the LV windings
Polarity is either ADDITIVE or SUBTRACTIVE

Lightning Surges and Protection

40

Lightning Stroke Density Map

Lightning Stroke Current Magnitude

Lightning Stroke Current Magnitude

Probability < Abcissa

1.2
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1

10

100

1000

Stroke Curre nt (KA)

Lightning Stroke Current magnitude is a probability distribution.

Lightning - Transformer Failures

16.00%
14.00%
12.00%
10.00%
8.00%
6.00%
4.00%
2.00%
0.00%

120.00%
80.00%
60.00%
40.00%
20.00%

Cumulative Pct

100.00%

R/W

Emerg FPC

Const Equip

Emerg- Cust

Dig-In

Human Error- FPC

Vehicle

Misc

Human Error- Pub

UG PRI

UG Sec

OH Sec

Overload

Connector

Storm

Unknown

Tree

Lightning

Defective Equip

0.00%
Animal

Pct

Transformer Outages
1995-1996

Cause Code

Lightning is the most common cause of Transformer Failures...


Wildlife is the most common
cause of Transformer Outages...

Lightning
Lightning acts as a current source which deposits a large charge of electrons on the
power line. This charge appears as a current wave propagating along the power
line.

The current wave has a very steep wave front, i.e., high di/dt. The power system is
highly inductive. The voltage produced is V=L di/dt. This can result in voltages
approaching 1 million volts.
Such voltages will fail the insulation system of transformers and other equipment.

Lightning Arrester Discharge Voltage

Lightning Arresters act to limit the voltage between conductors. This is


accomplished by transferring charge (current) between conductors. The arrester is
modeled electrically as a non-linear resistor.

MOV Arrester
Typical MOV Arrester characteristics 10 kA = 30 kV

Voltage

Silicon Carbide Arrester

ar
e
in

to
s
i
s
Re

Current

Lightning Arrester Lead Lengths

kV
Voltage
Arrester Voltage
Across
=
+
Transformer Lead Voltage

Transformer Voltage = 30 kV + 48 kV = 78 kV
for a 10 kA stroke with a 20 kA/usec rise time.
The Transformer BIL for 12470 GRDY/7200 is 95 kV...
The probability of a stroke > 10 kA is 95%...

30kV

MOV
Arrester
#6 Copper
Lead Length +/- 6 feet

Current

- The Lead Inductance of #6 Copper is typically 4


microhenerys per foot (uh/ft)...
- The di/dt for Florida Lightning averages 20 kA per
microsecond...
- Lead Length voltage is V = L di/dt
= 4 uh x 20 kA/usec
= 8 kV per Foot.
Lead Length Voltage = 6 feet x 8 kV/ft = 48 kV

Arrester Lead Length Reduction


Reduction of lead length voltage is accomplished by use of either Tank Mounted
or Internal Under Oil Arresters.

Voltage
= Arrester Voltage
Across
Transformer

MOV Arrester

Tank mounted or under oil arresters cannot be used on wye-delta banks due to
single phase switching over voltages. Under Oil arresters are used only on
single bushing transformers.

Low Side / Secondary Surges

48

Lightning Transformer Winding Failures


Lightning on the High Voltage winding can produce 2 failure
modes
- Layer to Ground (anywhere in the winding)
- Layer to Layer at the H1 end of winding

Lightning on the Low Voltage winding can produce layer-to-layer


failures at either end of the High voltage winding or layer-to-ground
in the Low Voltage winding.

Lightning Poletype Winding Failures

TRANSFORMER FAILURE CAUSES


POLE TYPE (167 UNITS)

OVRLOAD
5%

SEC
10%

NONE
4%
HVPROB
43%
LVPROB
19%

LVPOS
17%

LEAD
2%

Lightning Padmount Winding Failures

TRANSFORMER FAILURE CAUSES


PAD-MOUNTED (84 UNITS)
HVPROB
12%
SEC
21%

LEAD
1%

OVRLOAD
1%

LVPOS
18%

NONE
11%

LVPROB
36%

Low Side Surges

5% of Stroke Currents Exceed 85 kA


50% Exceed 35 kA
35-50% of Surges enter on the LV side
The Average LV Surge is 1500 amps/transformer/year?
The Majority do not exceed 5000 amps?

Distribution Core Type

core & coil

P S

- good dielectric
strength...

S P P S

- typically good on
thermal performance...
- natural impedance's
typically 2.5-3.5%...
- MUST be interlaced...

Core Type C&C Cross-section

S P

Distribution Non-Interlaced LV windings

core & coil

- excellent Short Circuit


strength...

- natural impedance's
typically 1.5-2.0%
for SPS construction...

Non-Interlaced SPS Shell Type C&C Cross-section

Distribution Shell Type - Interlaced LV windings

core & coil

- excellent Short Circuit


strength...

SS

SS

SS

- natural impedance's
typically 1.5-2.0%
for SPS construction...

Interlaced SPS Shell Type C&C Cross-section

SS

Lightning Anonymous Winding Failures

H1

HV
LV

The Anonymous Failure Mode

LV

H2

Lightning Anonymous Winding Failures


During the 1960s, the Transformer
Manufacturers switched from Conductor
wound Copper LV windings to Aluminum
Sheet wound construction COST $$$
Driven by COST, the practice of NONINTERLACED Construction found favor
with those Manufacturers who could
make this change

During the 1970s, the installed failure rate of distribution transformers began to rise
dramatically!!!
Teardown analysis began to show a special failure signature which became known
as The Anonymous Failure this is a turn-turn or layer-layer dielectric failure
near the grounded end of a single bushing transformer
And this seemed to be associated with the Non-Interlaced Shell Type Construction

Lightning Anonymous Winding Failures

H1

HV
LV

The Anonymous Failure Mode

LV

H2

Layer to Layer failures near the grounded end of the HV winding is a


signature of a low side surge occurrence...

Lightning Anonymous Winding Failures

Arrester

E=L

di
dt

= the voltage developed across


the ground leads...

The majority of LV surges probably enter the Transformer through the LV ground
connections... either due to Primary Arrester operation or from the ground following
direct or nearby strokes...

Lightning Anonymous Winding Failures

HV
LV

LV

Surge currents flowing through the LV windings of a Non-Interlaced LV


winding produce a high magnetic field across the primary coil...

Lightning Anonymous Winding Failures

290 kV winding voltage


to ground...

kV

10 kVA 95kV BIL


H2

HV winding layers

H1

The rapidly changing magnetic field induces a very high voltage in the primary
winding...
The lightning arrester connected across H1 to H2 does not see any voltage...

Lightning Anonymous Winding Failures

Layer to Layer Voltage


Peak 80 kV

kV

10 kVA 95kV BIL


H2

HV winding layers

H1

The high layer to layer stress in the HV winding will cause coil failure near either
end of the coil... but usually at or near the grounded end of the winding...

Lightning Low Side Surges

HV
LV

LV

LV

LV

Surge currents flowing through the LV windings of an Interlaced LV winding


cancel and produce a weak magnetic field across the primary coil...

Lightning Low Side Surges

Non-Interlaced
290 kV winding voltage
to ground...

kV

Interlaced
3 kV to ground...
H2

HV winding layers

H1

Interlacing the LV winding balances the winding and significantly reduces the
stress due to LV Surges...

Lightning Low Side Surges

Layer to Layer Voltage


kV

Non-Interlaced
Peak 80 kV
Interlaced
Peak 1 kV

10 kVA 95kV BIL

H2

HV winding layers

H1

Interlacing the LV winding balances the winding and significantly reduces the
stress due to LV Surges...

Lightning Low Side Surges


Non-Interlaced LV windings are the major cause of Distribution
Transformer (DT) Lightning Failures...
Small kVAs are MORE susceptible because of more turns...
Primary Arresters DO NOT Protect the HV against LV Surges...
Interlacing or LV Arresters reduces DT Failure Rate...

1.0 %

0.5 %

Failure
Rate

interlaced types

non-interlaced types

Lightning - Summary
The proper application and choice of Arresters can reduce the failure
rate significantly especially in the Southeastern USA
Arrester Lead length can be very important
About 50% of lightning surges come from the low side on the smaller
kVA transformers, Interlaced windings and/or LV Arresters can reduce
winding failures

Starting Transformers and Motors

68

Motor Starting Issues


The current required to start equipment such as Electric Motors or
Transformers requires a starting current, typically known as Inrush or
locked rotor current
For fusing, the typical inrush rule is to keep the fuse melt beyond 812 times rated current at 0.1 second (about 6 cycles)
The short term voltage drop or Flicker is a function of the required
Locked Rotor current required to start the equipment a number of
papers and information is available to the user on this issue
In addition to the impact on the local low voltage circuits, starting
equipment such as large motors can cause voltage quality issues on
the primary circuits of the distribution feeders which can affect
associated equipment
Some electronic systems may be sensitive to these changes!

Transformers Resistance & Reactance in Ohms


Ft = [ kV2 / kVA ] x 10
Rt = Ft x %IR = ohms resistance
Xt = Ft x %IX = ohms reactance
Ztvector = Rt + j Xt

(vector form)

Ztscalar = Rt2 + Xt 2

then,

ISC AMPS =

kV x 1000
Zt

scalar

tscalar = tan-1(Xt/Rt )

(scalar form)
(scalar form)

which of course is Ohms Law

In addition to the TRANSFORMER, the LV Fault Current is also limited by the Impedances of the
SYSTEM to/from the Transformer, the LV circuit to/from the Fault, and the impedance of the
FAULT complexity is added with Line-Line and/or Line to Neutral Faults and the connections (Y-Y
or Y-D)... And of course the transformation base levels

Motor Start calculations


The voltage drop across the transformer:
%T = [1-Zm/sqrt((Rm+Rt)^2 + (Xm+Xt)^2))] x100

where, Zm is the motor impedance is calculated as,


Zm = (line-line voltage rating of the motor) / LRA
LRA = locked rotor amps
PF = motor starting power factor
Rm = Zm x PF ohms
Xm = sqrt( 1-PF^2) ohms

To translate the %Impedance ( %IZ ) into Real and Reactive components, we use the transformer impedance factor, Ft.
Ft = [ [(Secondary voltage in kV)^2] / kVA rating of Transformer ] x 10
Rt = Ft x %IR ohms
Xt = Ft x %IX ohms

%IR and %IX are calculated from the Load Loss watts (LL) and Impedance (%IZ) of the specific transformer.
%IR = LL / (kVA x 10)
%IX = sqrt[ %IZ^2 - %IR^2 ]

The voltage drop across the secondary conductor is:


%C = [ [ Rc x LRA x PF ] + [ Xc x LRA x sqrt(1-PF^2) ] ] x 100 / LV
where LV is the line-line secondary voltage, typically 240 volts and,
Rc = conductor resistance in ohms per 100 feet x [ 2 x length /100 ]
Xc = conductor reactance in ohms per 100 feet x [ 2 x length /100 ]

The conductor length is multiplied by 2 as the current must have a return path. If the return path conductor is not the same
size and characteristics as the line conductor the calculation must be adjusted accordingly.

Flicker

Flicker is typically the voltage drop caused by the Locked Rotor Current
required to start a air-conditioner compressor motor.
The duration of this current for residential air conditioners varies from
4 to 20 cycles. A voltage drop occurs in each component of the system,
i.e., Transformer and Conductors, based on the magnitude of the current
and the impedance of the components.
The most common occurrence is during the startup of residential air
conditioners. Customers see this as a dimming of the lights or, under
extreme conditions, as a shrinking of the TV picture.

Customer sensitivity varies based on individual perception, the


magnitude and duration of the voltage dip, and the type of
light source.

Flicker Motor Starting Current 15-20 cycles


RAYSAC

Y1
Volts
400

Y2
Amps
300

300

200

200
100

100
0

-100

-100

-200
-200

-300
-400
0.00

0.05

0.10

0.15

0.20
Channel A (V)

0.25
0.30
Channel A (I)

Measured : 02/14/97 11:47:57

0.35

0.40

-300
0.45 Sec.

Motor Start Single Phase


Capacitor Start motors utilize a capacitor in series with
the
start winding to provide phase shift in the current through
the start winding. This phase shift causes an angular
displacement in the magnetic fields between the Run and
Start windings resulting in a torque on the rotor.
Run Winding
Start Winding

Rotor
Start Winding
Run Winding

The larger the Capacitor


- the larger the phase shift
- the larger the starting torque
- the shorter the starting cycle

Motor Start Permanent Split Capacitor Motor


Run Capacitor

Start

Run

Line

The Start winding and Run Capacitor remain


energized at all times

Motor Start Conventional 3 wire Hard Start


Run Capacitor

Potential Relay

Start Capacitor

Start

Run

Line

The Potential Relay removes capacitor with Start


Winding back E.M.F.

Residential Air Conditioners

Residential Air Conditioners use one of two types of Motors


- Permanent Split Capacitor
- Capacitor Start / Capacitor Run
Residential Air Conditioners use one of two types of Compressors
- Reciprocating (Piston)
- Scroll (new High Efficency units)
Motor Sizing rules are Different for Different Compressors

Motor Start Flicker Field Test Data


AC Starting Characteristics
250.0

200.0

150.0

LRA

RECIP Test Data


Recip Regression
Scroll Test DAta
Scroll Regression

100.0

50.0

0.0
2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

Tons

4.5

5.0

5.5

Motor Start Flicker Kickstart TO-5

Motor Start Flicker Kickstart TO-5


Run Capacitor

Potential Relay

Start Capacitor

Start

Run

Line

The Potential Relay removes capacitor with Start


and Run Winding back E.M.F.

Flicker Kickstart Motor Starting Current 4-6 cycles


RAYG4KS

Y1
Volts
400

Y2
Amps
400

300

300

200

200

100

100

-100

-100

-200

-200

-300

-300

-400
0.00

0.05

0.10
Channel A (V)

0.15
Channel A (I)

M easured : 02/25/97 16:39:47

0.20

-400
0.25 Sec.

Compressor/Motor Start Flicker

Summary

Compressor Flicker is a momentary (5-30 cycle) voltage drop caused


by Motor Start such as a Residential Air Conditioner
Compressor Flicker is as perceived by the user Not everyone can
notice it once seen, the mind can tune-in to it
Flicker is a function of the required Locked Rotor Starting
Amperes the High Efficiency Scroll Type Compressors require
Higher Starting Amps thus going to Higher Efficiencies can cause
other issues!
Adding extra Capacitive Reactance will not reduce the magnitue of
the required starting current, but can reduce the amount of time
required to get the compressor started thus reducing the perception
of Flicker

Transformer Costs and Efficiencies

83

Quantifying Transformer Costs

Capital Vs. Expense Dollars


Financial Math Relationships
Cost of Losses the A and B Factors
Band of Equivalence
DOE Efficiency Rules

Capital Dollars
The purchase cost of a transformer is amortized over the
expected life. This is done by applying a Fixed Charge
Rate (FCR) to the purchase price...
Price x FCR = Annualize Fixed Cost
The result is an annual cost which is uniform for the life of
the unit...
FCR (%) = Fixed Charge Rate - The cost of carrying a capital investment
made up of:
- The weighted cost of capital (stocks, bonds)
- Depreciation on the investment
- Taxes (Income, Ad valorem, Gross Receipts)
- Insurance

Expense Dollars
Expense costs such as Cost of Losses or future Change-Out are
levelized to an annual form with the Capital Recovery Factor which
considers only the cost of money and time
Change Out Cost x CRF = Annualize Change Out Cost
The result is an annual cost which is uniform for the life of
the unit...

CRF (%) = A/P = i(1+i)n /((1+i)n-1)

Note: In ANNUAL form Expense and Capital are equal!

Basic Financial Math

Capital Recovery Factor


A/P = i(1+i)n /((1+i)n-1)

Annuity

Compound Amount Factor


F/A = (1+i)n-1/i

Present Worth Factor


P/A = ((1+i)n-1)/i(1+i)n

Present
Value

Sinking Fund Factor


A/F = i/((1+i)n-1)

Compound Interest Factor


F/P = (1+i)n

Future
Value

Present Value Factor


P/F = 1/(1+i)n

Moving Money (Value) through Time

Cost of Transformer Losses


The cost to operate a Transformer over its life is affected
by the Cost to Supply the capacity, or Demand (SC $/kW-yr),
and the Cost incurred to supply the Energy (EC $/kW-Hour).
The No Load losses are continuous as long as the transformer
is connected to the system, typically 8760 hours/year.
The Load Losses vary with transformer load and are affected by
the annual load factor and the timing of the system peak.
The Annual cost of ownership (AOC) is:

AOC = Price x FCR + A x NL + B x LL


NOTE: draft C57.12.33 Loss Evaluation methodology currently under development by the IEEE

The A Factor
A = $ per No Load (excitation) Loss Watt
A =

SC + 8760 x EC
1000

$/watt

where,
SC = Avoided Cost of System Capacity ($/kW-yr) - - The levelized avoided
(incremental) cost of generation, transmission, and primary distribution
capacity required to supply the next kW of load to the distribution
transformer coincident with the peak load.
EC = Avoided Cost of Energy ($/kWh-yr) - - The levelized avoided (incremental)
cost for supplying the next kWh, which may be produced by the utilitys
generating units or purchased from an energy supplier.

The B Factor
B = $ per Load (winding) Loss Watt

B =

( SC x RF + 8760 x LsF x EC) x PL2


$/watt

1000

where,
RF = Peak Loss Responsibility Factor - Defines the relationship between the
transformer peak load and the transformer load at the time of system peak load.
LsF = Loss Factor - A ratio of the annual average load losses to the peak
value of load losses on the transformer. LsF = [(K2n*tn)/t]/K2peak
NOTE: An empirical relationship for loss factor for RESIDENTIAL transformers is the
Propst/Ganger relationship: LsF = 0.15 (Load Factor) + 0.85 (Load Factor)2

PL = Equivalent Annual Peak Load ON THE TRANSFORMER

Evaluation Forms
The Transformer Evaluation Equation may be written as:

Total Owning Cost (TOC) = F x Price + A x NL + B x LL

Where the factor F is a multiplier against the Price and is used to


express the owning cost equation in three forms:

Type

description

form

- EFC

Equivalent First Cost

1.0

Capital form

- PW

Present Worth

FCR/CRF

Expense form

- AC

Annual

FCR

Annuity form

Band of Equivalence
The BOE was described by the Shincovich and Stephens (EEI 1981)
as a way to address the uncertainty of the future estimates on factors
such as Energy Costs, Loading, etc 1% was suggested!
Uncertainty of course can result in HIGHER or LOWER future costs!
However, this idea has been expanded as a tool to force lower first prices
at the expense of future costs 3-10% BOE is not uncommon!
BOE reduces the actual value of the Loss Evaluation Factors
Typically, a 3% BOE effectively reduces the A&B Factors by or more!

Variances would be better addressed with tools such as


Crystal Ball or the Economics Variance module in TAP

A & B Variance

LCC Mild Steel Tank vs. Stainless

DOE Transformer Efficiencies 2010 Rule

95

Energy Policy and Conservation Act


The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 established an
energy conservation program for major household appliances. The National
Energy Conservation Policy Act of 1978 amended EPCA to add Part C of
Title III, which established an energy conservation program for certain
industrial equipment. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 amended EPCA to
add certain commercial equipment, including distribution transformers.
The Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable
Energy, Building Technologies Program conducts the program that
develops equipment energy conservation standards and has overall
responsibility for rulemaking activities for distribution transformers
in fulfillment of the law.

http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/

Energy Policy and Conservation Act

Distribution Transformers
The first step in developing energy conservation standards was the
Secretarial determination in 1997 that, "Based on its analysis of the
information now available, the Department has determined that energy
conservation standards for transformers appear to be technologically
feasible and economically justified, and are likely to result in significant
savings" 62 FR 54809 (October 22, 1997).
The Department of Energy (DOE) conducted two rulemakings for
Distribution Transformers:
an energy conservation standard
a test procedure

http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/

Energy Policy and Conservation Act

In response, NEMA developed the TP-1 Minimum Efficiency


Guidelines in the early 1990s note: basically a 3 year payback!
In August 2006, the DOE published the Notice of Proposed
Rulemaking with a recommendation for to the Trial Standard Level 2
(TSL-2)
Mixed responses some opposed mostly based on increased cost
and material availability some saying it doesnt go far enough

http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/

Trial Standard Levels

Efficiency = Power OUT / Power IN


%E = 100 x kVA x 0.5 / [ kVA x 0.5 + ((NL + LL x 0.9 x 0.52)/1000)]
Where NL and LL are in watts
Note: 0.9 = Load Loss Temp correction from 85 to 55 deg C

TSL-1 = NemaTP1
TSL-2 = 1/3 between TP1 and TSL-4
TSL-3 = 2/3 between TP1 and TSL-4
TSL-4 = minimum Life Cycle Cost
TSL-5 = max Energy Savings with no change in LCC
TSL-6 = max Energy Savings

KVA NEMA TP1


10.0
98.40%
15.0
98.60%
25.0
98.70%
37.5
98.80%
50.0
98.40%
75.0
99.00%
100.0
99.00%
167.0
99.10%
75.0
112.5
150.0
225.0
300.0
500.0
750.0
1000.0
1500.0
2000.0
2500.0

98.70%
98.80%
98.90%
99.00%
99.00%
99.10%
99.20%
99.20%
99.30%
99.40%
99.40%

TSL-2
98.40%
98.56%
98.73%
98.85%
98.90%
99.04%
99.10%
99.21%

TSL-3
98.43%
98.59%
98.76%
98.99%
99.04%
99.18%
99.24%
99.35%

TSL-4
98.46%
98.62%
98.79%
99.14%
99.19%
99.33%
99.39%
99.50%

98.91%
99.01%
99.08%
99.17%
99.23%
99.32%
99.24%
99.29%
99.36%
99.40%
99.44%

99.09%
99.19%
99.26%
99.35%
99.41%
99.50%
99.42%
99.47%
99.42%
99.46%
99.50%

99.27%
99.37%
99.44%
99.53%
99.59%
99.68%
99.60%
99.65%
99.48%
99.50%
99.55%

Final Rule October 12, 2007


Effective January 1, 2010, Liquid Filled Distribution Transformers manufactured for
sale in the United States MUST meet or exceed the following Efficiency levels

Efficiency = Power OUT / Power IN

@ 50% Load

%Eff = 100 x kVA x 0.5 / [ kVA x 0.5 + ((NL + LL x 0.9 x 0.52)/1000)]


where NL and LL are in watts
Note: 0.9 = Load Loss Temp correction from 85 to 55 deg C

DOE Final Rule


Similar rules are in place for Medium Voltage Dry type Transformers

The DOE rule resolves the issue between Single and Three Phase designs by
using the same Efficiency Value for the Single Phase design for the equivalent 3
Phase kVA
For example, the required efficiency value for a 3 150 kVA transformer is the same as a 50 kVA 1
unit. (3 x 50 = 150 kVA)

Pre-Existing Distributor Stock, Re-manufactured units, and Transformers


intended for Mining Operations are excluded from the rule
For Liquid Filled Transformers, the relationships to the Trial Standard Levels
are
1 10-167 kVA
1 250-833 kVA

slightly above TSL-4


between TSL2 and TSL3

3
3
3
3

TSL-2
between NEMA TP-1 & TSL-2
slightly greater than TSL-3
TSL-3

45-300 kVA
500 kVA
750 kVA
1000-2500 kVA

For the final rule, DOE set average A & B values of A=3.85 and B=1.16 $/watt 1 and B=1.93 $/watt 3

DOE Projected Benefits


TSL-1

TSL-2

TSL-3

TSL-4

TSL-5

TSL-6

Energy Saved Quads =

1.77

2.39

3.15

3.63

6.9

9.77

CO2 (Mt) reductions =

123.1

167.3

218.5

252.7

483.1

679.5

NOX (kt) reductions =

34.1

46.4

60.9

71

134.9

188

Hg (t) reductions

3.7

4.3

4.9

6.4

6.5

NOTE: The QUAD is used by the U.S. Department of Energy in discussing


world and national energy budgets. One Quad = 1015 BTU. The global primary
energy production in 2004 was 446 quads

Conclusion

Q/A?
Don A. Duckett, P.E.
Technical Sales Engineer
HD Supply Utilities
(407) 402-0944
Don.Duckett@ieee.org