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Assistant Professor
West Tambaram, Chennai - 44




2011, Anuradha Publications

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Concept of CAD as drafting and designing facility, desirable features of
CAD package, drawing features in CAD - Scaling, rotation, translation, editing,
dimensioning, labeling, Zoom, pan, redraw and regenerate, typical CAD command
structure, wire frame modeling, surface modeling and solid modeling (concepts
only) in relation to popular CAD packages.
CIM as a concept and a technology, CASA/SME Model of CIM, CIM II,
benefits of CIM, communication matrix in CIM, fundamentals of computer
communication in CIM - CIM data transmission methods - seriel, parallel,
asynchronous, synchronous, modulation, demodulation, simplex and duplex. Types
of communication in CIM - point to point (PTP), star and multiplexing. Computer
networking in CIM - the seven layer OSI model, LAN model, MAP model, network
topologies - star, ring and bus, advantages of networks in CIM.
History of Group Technology - role of G.T. in CAD/CAM Integration - part
families - classification and coding - DCLASS and MCLASS and/OPTIZ coding
systems - facility design using G.T - benefits of G.T - cellular manufacturing.
Process planning - role of process planning in CAD/CAM Integration - approaches
to computer aided process planning - variant approach and generative approaches CAPP and CMPP systems.
Shop floor control - phases - factory data collection system - automatic
identification methods - Bar code technology -automated data collection system.
FMS - components of FMS -types - FMS workstation - material handling and
storage system - FMS layout - computer control systems - applications and benefits.


Production planning and control - cost planning and control - Inventory
Management - material requirements planning (MRP) - shop floor control. Lean and
Agile Manufacturing. Types of production monitoring systems - structure model of
manufacturing - process control and strategies - direct digital control.
Total = 45 Periods



Concept of CAD as drafting and Design Facility ........................................1.1

1.1.1 CAD Definition ..................................................................................1.2
1.1.2 Design Process ...................................................................................1.2


Desirable Features of CAD package ...........................................................1.2

1.2.1 Application software ..........................................................................1.2
1.2.2 AutoCAD ...........................................................................................1.3
1.2.3 Features of AutoCAD.........................................................................1.3
1.2.4 AutoCAM...........................................................................................1.4
1.2.5 Features of AutoCAM system ............................................................1.4


Drawing features in CAD ............................................................................1.5

1.3.1 Two Dimensional Transformation ...................................................1.10
1.3.2 Basic Modelling Transformations ....................................................1.12


Typical CAD command structure ..............................................................1.17


Wire Frame Modelling ..............................................................................1.17

1.5.1 Wireframe with Linear Edges ..........................................................1.18
1.5.2 Wireframe with Curvilinear Edges ..................................................1.19

1.5.3 Advantages of wireframe modelling ................................................1.20

1.5.4 Disadvantages of wireframe modelling ...........................................1.20

Surface Modelling .....................................................................................1.21

1.6.1 Advantages........................................................................................1.26
1.6.2 Disadvantages ...................................................................................1.26


Solid Modelling .........................................................................................1.26

1.7.1 Solid Model Construction Techniques..............................................1.28
1.7.2 Feature-based modelling...................................................................1.32
1.7.3 Advantages of Solid Modelling ........................................................1.33


Comparison of Various Modelling ............................................................1.33

Review Questions ...............................................................................................1.34



Introduction - Computer integrated manufacturing .....................................2.1

2.1.1 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) as a concept and a
Technology .........................................................................................2.3


CASA/SME Model of CIM .........................................................................2.7


Development of CIM (CIM II) ....................................................................2.8


Benefits of CIM .........................................................................................2.10


Communication Matrix in CIM .................................................................2.10


Fundamentals of Computer Communication in CIM ................................2.12


CIM Data Transmission Method ...............................................................2.13

2.7.1 Serial and Parallel data transmission ................................................2.13
2.7.2 Asynchronous data transmission ......................................................2.14 Advantages and Disadvantages of
Asynchronous Transmission ...........................................................2.15
2.7.3 Synchronous Transmission ..............................................................2.15 Advantages and Disadvantages of
Synchronous Transmission .............................................................2.15

2.7.4 Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation .....................................2.16

2.7.5 Type of Communication Systems ....................................................2.17

Types of communication in CIM ...............................................................2.18

2.8.1 Point-to-Point communications........................................................2.18
2.8.2 Star Network ....................................................................................2.19
2.8.3 Multiplexing .....................................................................................2.20


Computer Networking in CIM ..................................................................2.22

2.9.1 Principles of Networking .................................................................2.22
2.9.2 Private Computer Communication Networks ..................................2.24
2.9.3 Public Switched Data Networks ......................................................2.24
2.9.4 Local Area Network (LAN) .............................................................2.24
2.9.5 Network Techniques.........................................................................2.25
2.9.6 Components of a Network ...............................................................2.26
2.9.7 Network Wiring Methods.................................................................2.27
2.9.8 Network Topologies .........................................................................2.28

2.10 Open System Inter Connection (OSI) ........................................................2.29

2.10.1 Seven Layers of OSI model ............................................................2.30
2.11 Local Area Network (LAN model) ............................................................2.34
2.11.1 Elements of LAN ..........................................................................2.35
2.11.2 Computer Network Architecture.....................................................2.36
2.12 Manufacturing Automation Protocol (MAP model) ..................................2.41
2.13 advantages of Networking in CIM .............................................................2.42
Review Questions ...............................................................................................2.45



Introduction to Group Technology ..............................................................3.1

3.1.1 History of Group Technology ............................................................3.2


Role of GT in CAD/CAM Integration .........................................................3.2


Benefits of Group Technology .....................................................................3.4


Part Family ..................................................................................................3.4

3.4.1 Definition ...........................................................................................3.4
3.4.2 Types of part family ............................................................................3.4


Methods of Group Parts into families..........................................................3.9

3.5.1 Visual Inspection ................................................................................3.9
3.5.2 Production Flow Analysis (PFA) .......................................................3.9 Steps to be followed to carry out production flow analysis .............3.9 Procedure for production flow analysis .........................................3.10


Classification and Coding ..........................................................................3.14

3.6.1 Parts Classification ...........................................................................3.14 System based on part design attributes .........................................3.14 System based on manufacturing attributes ...................................3.14 System based on design and Manufacturing system attributes ....3.15
3.6.2 Coding ..............................................................................................3.15 Hierarchical coding .......................................................................3.16 Decision tree coding ......................................................................3.17


Coding System...........................................................................................3.17
3.7.1 OPTIZ Coding System .....................................................................3.18
3.7.2 Machine Class Coding System .........................................................3.21
3.7.3 K-K-3 System ...................................................................................3.22
3.7.4 Code System .....................................................................................3.23
3.7.5 D-Class System.................................................................................3.24
3.7.6 RNC System .....................................................................................3.25


Facility Design using Group Technology ..................................................3.26

3.8.1 Machine cell types ............................................................................3.26
3.8.2 Cell Layouts......................................................................................3.27

3.8.3 Key machine concept........................................................................3.28


Advantages of Group Technology .............................................................3.28

3.10 Disadvantages of Group Technology.........................................................3.29

3.11 Cellular Manufacturing..............................................................................3.29
3.11.1 Definition ........................................................................................3.29
3.11.2 Objectives .......................................................................................3.30
3.11.3 Composite Part Concept .................................................................3.30
3.11.4 Machine Cell Design ......................................................................3.32 Types of machine cells and layouts ..............................................3.32 Factors accounted for cell design ................................................3.36 Key machine concept ...................................................................3.37
3.12 Process Planning ........................................................................................3.37
3.12.1 Basic functions of process planning ...............................................3.38
3.13 Computer aided Process Planning (CAPP) ...............................................3.38
3.13.1 Role of process planning in CAD/CAM integration ......................3.39
3.13.2 Approaches to CAPP ......................................................................3.40 Manual Approach ........................................................................3.40 Variant Approach ........................................................................3.43 Generative Approach ...................................................................3.46 Hybrid Approach .........................................................................3.50
3.13.3 Product Development through Computer-Aided
Process Planning (CAPP)...............................................................3.52
3.13.4 Benefits of CAPP ............................................................................3.54
3.13.5 Economics of CAPP .......................................................................3.55
3.13.6 CAPP steps used for Machining Operation ...................................3.55
3.13.7 Advantages of CAPP ......................................................................3.56
3.14 Computerized Manufacturing Process Planning (CMPP) .........................3.57
3.15 Computer-Aided Production Management (CAPM) .................................3.58

3.15.1 Bill Of Material (BOM)..................................................................3.59

3.15.2 Stock Control ..................................................................................3.60
3.15.3 Material Requirement Planning (MRP) ..........................................3.61
Review Questions ...............................................................................................3.61



Introduction - Shop Floor Control ...............................................................4.1

4.1.1 Phases in Shop Floor Control .............................................................4.2 Order Release ..................................................................................4.2 Order scheduling .............................................................................4.3 Order Progress ................................................................................4.5


Types of Scheduling ....................................................................................4.6

4.2.1 Reasons for shop floor scheduling process .........................................4.7
4.2.2 Types of scheduling techniques ..........................................................4.8
4.2.3 Stages in Scheduling...........................................................................4.9
4.2.4 Types of Loading ..............................................................................4.10
4.2.5 Load Charts and Machine Loading Charts ......................................4.12


Activities of CIM based SFC.....................................................................4.14


Factory Data Collection System ................................................................4.15

4.4.1 Types of factory data collection system............................................4.15
4.4.2 Numbers and Arrangement of Keyboard-Based
Terminals Possible in the Factory ....................................................4.19


Automatic Identification Methods .............................................................4.20

4.5.1 Reasons for using automatic identification techniques.....................4.21
4.5.2 Technology of AIS ............................................................................4.22 Bar code.........................................................................................4.22 Radio frequency system .................................................................4.22 Magnetic stripes ............................................................................4.24 Optical Character Recognition (OCR) ..........................................4.24

Bar Code Technology ................................................................................4.25

4.6.1 Bar Code Symbol..............................................................................4.26
4.6.2 Bar Code Readers .............................................................................4.29 Contact bar code reader ................................................................4.29 Non contact bar code reader .........................................................4.30
4.6.3 Bar Code Printers..............................................................................4.31


Automated Data Collection System ..........................................................4.31

4.7.1 Data Acquisition System ..................................................................4.32
4.7.2 Data Logger ......................................................................................4.33
4.7.3 Multilevel Scanning..........................................................................4.34


Automated Data Collection Technologies .................................................4.35

4.8.1 Bar Code (explained in ........................................................4.35
4.8.2 Optical Character Recognition .........................................................4.35
4.8.3 Machine Vision System ...................................................................4.37
4.8.4 Radio Frequency Identification ........................................................4.39
4.8.5 Magnetic Identification .....................................................................4.40
4.8.6 Voice Technology .............................................................................4.40


Introduction to Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) ............................4.41

4.9.1 Types of Flexibility ...........................................................................4.42
4.9.2 Types of FMS ...................................................................................4.45
4.9.3 Components of FMS.........................................................................4.49 Workstations ..................................................................................4.49 Material Handling and Storage System.........................................4.51 Computer Control System ..............................................................4.58 Human Resources ..........................................................................4.59
4.9.4 Applications of FMS.........................................................................4.59

4.9.5 Benefits of FMS ...............................................................................4.60

Review Questions ...............................................................................................4.62



Introduction - Production Planning and Control .........................................5.1

5.1.1 Effects of Production Planning and Control ......................................5.3


Computer-Integrated Production Management System...............................5.5

5.2.1 Engineering and manufacturing data base ..........................................5.8
5.2.2 Material requirements planning (MRP) ..............................................5.8
5.2.3 Capacity planning ...............................................................................5.9
5.2.4 Inventory management .....................................................................5.11
5.2.5 Shop floor control .............................................................................5.11
5.2.6 Cost planning and control .................................................................5.11 Cost planning.................................................................................5.12 Cost control ...................................................................................5.13


Production Planning Process .....................................................................5.13

5.3.1 Functions of PPC ..............................................................................5.14


Material Requirements Planning (MRP) ...................................................5.18

5.4.1 Benefits of MRP ...............................................................................5.23


Shop Floor Control (SFC) System.............................................................5.24

5.5.1 Introduction ......................................................................................5.24
5.5.2 Various Activities of SFC .................................................................5.29
5.5.3 Scheduling Techniques for SFC .......................................................5.29
5.5.4 Scheduling and Controlling Production for delivery
schedules - Line of Balance (LOB) Method ....................................5.37


Lean and Agile Manufacturing ..................................................................5.45

5.6.1 Lean Production and Waste in Manufacturing .................................5.45

5.6.2 Agile manufacturing .........................................................................5.49

5.6.3 Just-In-Time Approach .....................................................................5.53

Production Monitoring System..................................................................5.55

5.7.1 Data logging systems ........................................................................5.56
5.7.2 Data acquisition systems ..................................................................5.57
5.7.3 Multilevel scanning ..........................................................................5.58


Structural Model of a Manufacturing Process ...........................................5.58


Process Control Strategies .........................................................................5.60

5.9.1 Feedback control...............................................................................5.61
5.9.2 Regulatory control ............................................................................5.62
5.9.3 Feedforward control .........................................................................5.62
5.9.4 Preplanned control ............................................................................5.63
5.9.5 Steady-state optimal control .............................................................5.65
5.9.6 Adaptive control ...............................................................................5.66

5.10 Direct Digital Control (DDC) ....................................................................5.69

Review Questions ...............................................................................................5.71




Computer Aided Design (CAD) is the technology concerned with the integrated
design activities using a digital computer. This includes creation and modification
of graphic images on a video display, printing these images on a printer or plotter
as a hard copy, analyzing and optimizing the design and storing and retrieving of
design information for further process as database.
CAD can be described as any design activity that involves the effective use
of computer to create and modify an engineering design. The use of a computer in
the design of a product is to increase the productivity of the designer and to create
a database for manufacturing. In this unit, we shall study the various activities of
design process with the aid of computer.



1.1.1 CAD Definition

CAD is the term which means Computer Aided Design. CAD can be defined
the computer is utilized in the creation of model, modification and analysis of a
design to get the optimum model.
It requires computer with proper display and input / output devices as
hardware. To create and modify the design and to analyze proper software viz.,
AutoCAD, ProE, Catia, Ansys, Nastran etc. are required.

1.1.2 Design Process

The design process is the pattern of activities that is followed by the designer
in arriving at the solution of a technological problem is generated. The design
progresses in a step-by-step manner from identification of the problem to give the
better solution to the problem.
There are different models are available in the design process. They are
shigley, Pahl and Beitz. Ohsuga and Earle.


1. Managing various file manipulation in the computer
2. Loading computer programs into memory and controlling the execution
of program.
3. Create environment torun the application softwares.
Windows, OS/2, UNIX, and Linux are some of the wellknown Operating

1.2.1 Application software

The application softwares in CAD include the following.
1. Software to create and modify 2D and 3D models of components.
2. Software for engineering analysis in the created model.



3. Comparability between the softwares.

AutoCAD, Pro-E, IDEAS, UniGrpahics, CADian, Solid works, CAD Key
and CATIA are some of the wellknown application softwares used in computer
aided design.

1.2.2 AutoCAD
AutoCAD is a drawing software package developed by the company Autodesk
Inc., USA. It is one of the most widely uses softwares for creating engineering
drawings easily and quickly. The important features of AutoCAD are listed below.

1.2.3 Features of AutoCAD

1. Creating basic geometrical objects line, circle, and rectangle, etc. can
be easily drawn.
2. We can easily modify the size, shape, and location of objects by using
AutoCAD commands.
3. We can erase, move, and rotate the selected objects.
4. We can create duplicates of objects by using COPY. ARRAY, OFFSET,
and MIRROR features.
5. We can change the size of objects by using commands like TRIM,
EXTEND, LENGTHEN, STRETCH, SCALE, etc. It is also possible
to create FILLET, CHAMFER and BREAK in objects.
6. The Zooming feature enables to magnify the details in a drawing.
7. The Layering feature, various portions of a drawing can be drawn on
different layers, which can be superimposed according to the need.
8. Dimensioning of the facility improves the details of the drawing.
9. Hatching feature is used to fill area of a drawing with a predefined
pattern. The pattern is used to differentiate components of an object. It
is also possible to create our own hatch patterns.



10. AutoCAD supports 3D modeling such as wireframe, surface, and solid

modeling. Each type has its own creation and editing techniques.
11. We can split the drawing area into two or more adjacent rectangular
areas and display different view of the model using viewport.
12. The surfaces of 3D models have been viewed with realistic effects. It
is also possible to create hidden-line or shaded image of model.
13. Plotting the drawing is very easy.

1.2.4 AutoCAM
A part program is needed to produce a component in a CNC machine.
Traditionally, these part programs are written manually by part programmer by using
G-codes and M-codes. Nowadays, various graphical user interface (GUI) based
systems are available for developing the CNC part programs. In these systems, a
dedicated CAM software helps in developing the CNC part programs.
The CAM systems may be linked to any major CAD systems such as
AutoCAD, Solid works, CADKey, etc. Typical examples of such CAM systems
are MasterCAM, Virtual Gibbs, SmartCAM, SurfCAM, EdgeCAM, AlphaCAM
etc. Out of these, MasterCAM is widely used in industry as well as in educational

1.2.5 Features of AutoCAM system

The features of AutoCAM systems are given below.
1. Geometry of the part can be drawn easily by using the available geometric
entities. It is also possible to modify the part as per our requirements.
The dimensions and other annotations required for drafting can also be
2. Standards are available to convert the CAD database into manufacturing



3. Most AutoCAM system provides a complete cutting tool database

for cutting process parameter selection. This helps in customizing the
cutting tool database of individual operations to suite their requirements.
4. Tool path modules are available for tool path generation. These modules
utilize the geometry of the part and the built in cutting tool database to
generate the optimum tool path. The tool path can be verified before
finishing the part program.
5. Simulation facilities are available to check the generated CNC programs.

Advantages of AutoCAM
1. Creation of part program is easy.
2. The time required to create the part program is minimized.
3. The error in part program is minimized.
4. The part program can be easily modified.
5. The overall productivity of CAD/CAM system is increased.
6. To ensure efficient, reliable and user friendly link between CAD and


Editing Commands
Some of the important editing commands are discussed below:
CHANGE: Alters properties of selected objects
Command: CHANGE (enter)
Select objects or window or Last (select objects to be changed)
Properties/<Change point>: (type P)
Change what property (Color/Elev/LAyer/LType/Thickness)?
(type Layer)



New Layer: (enter new layer name and press enter)


Erases entities from the drawing.

Command: ERASE (enter)
Select objects or Window or Last: (Select objects to be erased
and press enter when finished)

EXTEND: Lengthens a line to end precisely at a boundary edge.

Command: Extend (enter)
Select boundary edge(s)...
Select Objects (pick the line which represents the boundary edge
which lines will be extended to)
(press enter when finished selecting cutting edges)
<Select object to extend>/Undo: (pick the line(s) that need to be

Trims a line to end precisely at a cutting edge.

Command: Trim (enter)
Select cutting edge(s)...
Select Objects (pick the line which represents the cutting edge of
line in which objects will be trimmed to)
(press enter when finished selecting cutting edges)
<Select object to trim>/Undo: (pick the line(s) that need to be

You can edit selected objects by manipulating grips that appear at defining
points on the object. Grips is not a command. To activate grips simply pick the



object. Small squares will appear at various entity-specific positions. By selecting

an end grip you can stretch the entity to change its size. By selecting the center grip
you can move the entity to a new location. To remove grips press CTL-C twice. You
can perform the following using grips: Copy, Multiple Copy, Stretch, Move, Rotate,
Scale, and Mirror.

Dimensioning of an object usually involves four or five stages:
Select the type of dimensioning
Select the object
Choose a position for the dimension
Decide on the dimension text.(optional)
Choose a position for the text
You are now going to be shown how to dimension the top line and one of the
angles of the second triangle.

Labelling which specifies a number of the bars to which it relates is used by
Master RC for the production of schedules. The remaining labelling types, that is,
those which indicate only which mark a bar is, or where it begins and ends, have no
effect on the schedule.

In this section the following terms are used:

Distribution line
Used for groups of bars, running from the start of the first group to the end of
the last group.



The line connecting linking the label itself to the distribution line.

Labelling set
The arrows, short bar symbols, distribution lines, blobs, annotation and the
label text itself which make up one complete set of graphics labelling the bar(s). For
some types of labelling these are consolidated into a BLOCK.

Label itself
The text at the end of the label leader (sometimes placed directly on the
distribution line)

Labelling command summary

There follows a brief summary of the purpose of each labelling command,
after which each is discussed in more detail:

Label Single Bar

This is used to label one or more bars of the same mark, represented on the
drawing by a single bar. For example, the longitudinal bars in the elevation of a

One single command will give you the versatility to move around your
drawing. This is the ZOOM

Zoom Extents
This option will display all the graphics that are contained in the drawing
(referred to as the drawing extents) with the largest image possible

Zoom Window
This option (also a hidden default) prompts the user to pick two corners of a
box on the existing view in order to enlarge that area to fill the display.



Zoom Previous
This option restores the displayed view prior to the current one. For the
purpose of this option, up to 10 views are saved so that the last ten views can be
recalled. This option includes every time you use the scroll bar, which is one reason
to avoid the scroll bars for panning a lot in your drawing.

Zoom Realtime
Zoom Realtime provides interactive zooming capability. Pressing <ENTER>
(after entering zoom) on the command line automatically places you in Realtime
mode. Hold the left mouse button down at the midpoint of the drawing and move
the cursor vertically to the top (positive direction) of the window to zoom in up to
100% (2x magnification). Hold the left mouse button down at the midpoint of the
drawing and move the cursor vertically to the bottom (negative direction) of the
window to zoom out to 100% (.5x magnification). You cannot zoom out beyond the
extents of the current view.
When you release the pick button, zooming stops. You can release the pick
button, move the cursor to another location in the drawing, and then press the pick
button again and continue zooming from that location. To exit Realtime Zoom
mode, press <ENTER> or (ESC).

Zoom All
This option causes AutoCAD to display the whole drawing as far as its
drawing limits or drawing extents (whichever is the greater of the two).

Another useful command is PAN. These are both quicker than using the scroll
bars on the side of the drawing area, unless you have a very short distance to move
your drawing (and can make your scroll bars obsolete and thereby create more
drawing space)..



When BLIPMODE is on, marker blips left by editing commands are removed
from the current viewport.



REGEN regenerates the entire drawing and recomputes the screen coordinates
for all objects in the current viewport. It also reindexes the drawing database for
optimum display and object selection performance.

1.3.1 Two Dimensional Transformation

Geometric transformations have numerous applications in geometric
modeling e.g., manipulation of size, shape, and location of an object. In CAD,
transformation is also used to generate surfaces and solids by sweeping curves and
surfaces, respectively. The term Sweeping refers to parametric transformations,
which are utilized to generate surfaces and solids. When we sweep a curve, it is
transformed through several positions along or around an axis, generating a surface.
The appearance of the generated surface depends on the number of instances of
the transformation. A parameter t or s is varied from 0 to 1, with the interval value
equal to the fraction of the parameter. For example, to generate 10 instances, the
parameter will have a value t/10 or s/10. Ti develop an easier understanding of
transformations, we will first study the two-dimensional transformations and the
extend it to the study of three-dimensional transformations. Until we get to the
discussion of surfaces and solids, we will limit our discussion of transformation
to only the simple cases of scaling, translation, rotation, and the combinations of



these. Applications of transformations will become apparent when we discuss the

surface and solid modeling.
There are two types of transformations:

Modeling Transformation
In this transformation alters the coordinate values of the object. Basic
operations are scaling, rotation and, combination of one or more of these basic
transformations. Examples of these transformations can be easily found in any
commercial scaling, translation, and rotation transformations, respectively.

Visual Transformation
In this transformation there is no change in either the geometry or the
coordinates of the object. A copy of the object is placed at the desired sight, without
changing the coordinate values of the object. In Auto CAD, the ZOOM and PAM
commands are good example of visual transformation.

1.3.2 Basic Modeling Transformations

There are three basic modeling transformations: Scaling, Translation, and
Rotation. Other transformations, which are modification or combination of any of
the basic transformations, are Shearing, Mirroring, copy, etc.
Let us look at the procedure for carrying out basic transformations, which are
based on matrix operation. A transformation can be expressed as
[P*] = [P] [T]
where [P*] is the new coordinates matrix, [P] is the original coordinates matrix, or
points matrix, [T] is the transformation matrix
With the x-terms set to zero, the P matrix can be written as,



Rx1 y1 0 V
Sx2 y2 0 W
S x3 y3 0 W
6P@ = S . . . W
S. . .W
SS . . . WW
x y 0
T n n X
The size of this matrix depends on the geometry of the object, e.g., a point is
defined by the single set of coordinates (x1, y1, z1), a line is defined by two sets of
coordinates (x1, y1, z1) and (x2, y2, z2), etc. Thus a point matrix will have the size
1 3, line will be 2 3, etc.
A transformation matrix is always written as a 4 4 matrix, with a basic shape
shown below,
6T @ = S



0 WW

Values of the elements in the matrix will change according to the type of
transformation being used, as will see shortly. The transformation matrix changes
the size, position, and orientation of an object, by mathematically adding, or
multiplying its coordinate values. We will now discuss the mathematical procedure
for scaling, translation, and rotation transformations.

1.3.2 Basic Modelling Transformations

(a) Scaling
In scaling transformation, the original coordinates of an object are multiplied
by the given scale factor. There are two types of scaling transformations: uniform
and non-uniform. In the uniform scaling, the coordinate values change uniformly
along the x, y, and z coordinates, where as, in non-uniform scaling, the change is
not necessarily the same in all the coordinate directions.



Uniform Scaling
For uniform scaling, the scaling transformation matrix is given as
Ss 0 0 0W
S0 s 0 0 W
6T @ = S
S0 0 s 0 W
S0 0 0 1 W
Here, s is the scale factor.

Non-Uniform Scaling
Matrix equation of a non-uniform scaling has the form:
Ss x
6T @ = S



0 WW

where, sx, sy, sz are the scale factors for the x, y, and z coordinates of object.

(b) Homogeneous Coordinates

Before proceeding further, we should review the concept of homogeneous
coordinate system. Since the points matrix has three columns of the x, y, and z
values, and a transformation matrix is always 4 4 matrix, the two matrices are
incompatible for multiplication. A matrix multiplication is compatible only if the
number of columns in the first matrix equals the number of row in the second matrix.
For this reason, a points matrix is written as,
Rx1 y1 z1 1 V
Sx2 y2 z2 1 W
S x3 y3 z3 1 W
6T @ = S . . . . W
S . . . .W
SS . . . . WW
x y z 1
T n n n X



Here, we have converted the Cartesian coordinates into homogeneous

coordinates by adding a 4th column, with unit value in all rows. When a fourth
column, with values of 1 in each row, is added in the points matrix, the matrix
multiplication between the [P] and [T] becomes compatible. The values (x1,y1, z1, 1)
represent the coordinates of the point (x1, y1, Z1), and the coordinates are called as
homogeneous coordinates. In homogeneous coordinates, the points (2,3,1), (4,6,2),
(6,9,3), (8,12,4), represent the same point (2, 3, 1), along the plane z = l, z = 2, z =
3 and z = 4, respectively. In our subsequent discussion on transformation, we will
use homogeneous coordinates.

Example 1:
If the triangle A(l, 1), B(2,1), C(l, 3) is scaled by a factor 2, find the new
coordinates of the triangle.

Writing the points matrix in homogeneous coordinates, we have
1 1 0 1
6 P @ = >2 1 0 1 H
1 3 0 1
and the scaling transformation matrix is,
S2 0 0 0 W
S0 2 0 0 W
6 Ts @ = S
S0 0 2 0 W
S0 0 0 2 W
The new points matrix can be evaluated by the equation
[P*] = [P] [T], and by substitution of the P and T values, we get
2 0 0 0W
1 1 0 1 S
2 2 0 1
S0 2 0 0 W
P = >2 1 0 1 HS
W = >4 2 0 1 H
W 2 6 0 1
1 3 0 1 SS
0 0 0 1W



Figure 1.1: Scaling technique

(c) Translation Transformation

In translation every point on an object translates exactly the same distance.
The effect of a translation transformation is that original coordinate values increase
or decrease by the amount of the translation along the x, y, and z-axis. For example,
if line A(2,4), B(5,6) is translated 2 units along the positive x axis and 3 units along
the positive y axis, then the new coordinates of the line would be.
A(2 + 2, 4 + 3), B(5 + 2, 6 + 3)


A(4, 7), B(7, 9)

The transformation matrix has the form:
S1 0 0 0 W
S0 1 0 0 W
6 T1 @ = S
S0 0 1 0 W
Sx y 0 1 W
where, x and y are the values of translation in the x and y direction, respectively. For
translation transformation, the matrix equation is
[P*] = [P] [Tt]
where, [Tt] is the translation transformation matrix.



Example 2:
Translate the rectangle (2,2), (2,8), (10,8), (10,2) 2 units along x-axis and 3
units along y-axis.

Using the matrix equation for translation, we have
[P*] = [P] [Tt], substituting the numbers, we get

6 P* @ = S



1 WS1
1 WS0
1 WS x



0W S 4
0W S 4
0 WW SS12
1 W S12



1 WW

We will first consider rotation about the z-axis, which passes through the
origin (0,0,0), since it is the simplest transformation for understanding the rotation
transformation. Rotation about an arbitrary axis, other than an axis passing through
the origin, requires a combination of three or more transformations, as well see
When an object is rotated about the z-axis, all the points on the object rotate
in a circular arc, and the center of the arc lies at the origin. Similarly, rotation of
an object about an arbitrary axis had the same relationship with the axis, i.e., all
the points on the object rotate in a circular arc, and the centre of rotation lies at the
given point through which the axis is passing.





The word wireframe is related to the fact that one may imagine a wire that is
bent to follow the object edges to generate the model. Typically, a wireframe model
consists entirely of points, lines, arcs and circles, conics, and curves. Wireframe
modeling is the most commonly used technique and all commercial CAD/CAM
systems are wireframe-based.
The simplicity of the geometrical concepts based on wireframe modeling
makes them attractive to use to introduce users to the CAD/CAM field. In addition,
at early design stages, designers might just need a sketch pad to try various ideas.



Wireframes are ideal to provide them with such a capability. From an industrial point
of view, wireframe models may be sufficient to many design and manufacturing
needs. From a practical point of view, many companies have large amounts of
wireframe databases that are worth millions of dollars and man-hours and therefore
make it impossible to get rid of wire frame technology. (Refer figure 1.2)
Wireframe models are also considered lengthy when it comes to the amount
of defining data and command sequence required to construct them. For example,
compare the creation of a simple box as a wireframe and as a solid. In the latter, the
location of one corner, the length, width, and height are the required input while in
the former the coordinates of at least four corners of one face, the depth, and the
edge connectivity are required, considering the box as a two-and-a-half-dimensional
object In other words, both topological and geometrical data are needed to construct
wireframe models while solids require only.
From an application, and consequently engineering, point of view, wireframe
models are of limited use. Unless the object is two-and-a-half dimensional, volume
and mass properties, NC tool path generation, cross-sectioning, and interference
detections cannot be calculated. The model can, however, be used in manual finite
element modeling and tolerance analysis.

Figure 1.2: Displaying holes and curved ends in wire frame models

1.5.1 Wireframe with Linear Edges

Wireframe with linear edges are the simplest type. It consists of straight line
edges joining pair of points. For example a tetrahedron consists of four vertex points
(P1, P2, P3, P4) with six linear edges (A, B, C, D, E).



Joining pair of these points as shown in Table 3.1 model of tetrahedron is
formed. The geometry of the tetrahedron is represented by the co-ordinates of its
vertices. It is also shown in table 1.1.
Table 1.1: Linear wireframe model of a tetrahedron
Vertex List

Edge List


P1 (0,0,0)

A<P1, P2>


P2 (0,0,1)

B <P2, P3>


P3 (1,0,0)

C <P3, P4>


P4 (0,1,0)

D<P3, P1>


E<P1, P4>


F<P4, P2>


1.5.2 Wireframe with Curvilinear Edges

In wire frame model the curved boundaries are represented by curvilinear
edges. Best example is cone. It consists of a single apex point and a circular base.
The apex is joined to the base by an infinite set of straight line edges known as
generators. (Refer figrue 1.3)

Figure 1.3
To under stand this , first the cone is considered that it contains three vertices.



One at the apex (Pj) and another two (P2 and P3) at the base as shown in the
table 1.2
Table 1.2: Curvilinear wireframe model of a cone
Vertex List

Edge List

Edge Type

P1 (0,0, 3)

A<P1, P2>


P2 (-1,0,0)

B<P1, P3>


P3 (0, 0, 0)

C<P2, P3>


D<P2, P3>


The straight edges A, B, C, D connect the vertices as shown in the table 1 .2

Like this considering more number of vertices on its base and corresponding
edges connecting these base vertices and apex (generators) a wire frame model of
cone with realistic look is created.
Like this wireframe model with curved and linear edges are formed.
1.5.3 Advantages of wireframe modelling
1. Simple to construct.
2. Designer needs little training.
3. It needs less memory space.
4. It takes less manipulation time.
5. It is best suitable for manipulations as orthographic, isometric and
perspective views.
1.5.4 Disadvantages of wireframe modelling
These models are usually ambiguous representations of real objects and
rely heavily on human interpretation. Models of complex designs having
many edges become very confusing and perhaps even impossible to



The lack of visual coherence and information to determine the object

profile. In most systems, the holes are displayed as two parallel circles
separated by the hole length.
Representations of the intersection of plane faces with cylinders and that
of cylinders with cylinders, or tangent surfaces in general is usually a
problem in wire frame modeling and requires user manipulations.
Despite its many disadvantages, the major advantages of wireframe
modelling are its simplicity to construct. Therefore, it does not require
as much computer time and memory as does surface or solid modeling.
However, the user or terminal time needed to prepare and/or input data
is substantial and increases rapidly with the complexity of the object
being modeled. Wireframe modeling is considered a natural extension of
traditional methods of drafting.
The images of wire frame model cause confusion to the viewer.
Cannot get required information from this model.
There is ambiguity (doubt) in identifying the surfaces.
Hidden line removal feature not available.
Not possible for mass, volume calculations, NC part programming,
cross sectioning etc.


A surface model is an object of less ambiguous representation than a wire
frame model. Surface models are necessary several areas of mechanical engineering
Body panels of automobiles
Aircraft structural members
Marine vehicles
Consumer products etc



The surface model is constructed from surfaces as shown figure 1.3 (a). The
geometric entities used to construct surface model is curves and surfaces. The
mathematical techniques available for handling curves are Bezier and of B-splines.
The CAD system provide variety of surfaces as explained below.
Flat plane surfaces: It is defined in number of ways, such as between parallel
lines, through three point or through a line and a point.

Figure 1.3 (a)

Curved surfaced: It includes the following
1. Surfaces fitted to arrays of data points
2. Surfaces based on curves
a) Tabulated cylinder

b) Rules surface

c) Surface of revolutions d) Swept surfaces

3. Sculptured or curve mesh surfaces

Surfaces fitted to arrays of data points

The surface is fitted on arrays of data points called control points. The surface
is generated either to pass through or to interpolate the points. Bezier type of surface
is shown in figure 1.3 (b).



Figure 1.3 (b): Bezier surface

Tabulated Cylinder: It is defined as projecting a generating curve along a
vector. This surface is shown in figure 1.3 (c)

Figure 1.3 (c): Tabulated cylinder

Rules surface: It is produced by linear interpolation between tow different
generating or edge curves. This surface is shown in figure 1.3 (d).



Figure 1.3(d): Ruled surface

Surface or revolution: It is produced by revolving a generating curve about a
center line. It is shown in figure 1.3 (e).

Figure 1.3 (e): Surface or revolution

Figure 1.3 (f): Swept surface



Figure 1.3 (g): Sculptured surface

Swept Surface: It is produced by sweeping the defining curve along an
arbitrary spine curve instead of a circular are. It is shown figure 1.3 (f).
Sculptured or curve mesh surface: It is produced by a grid of generating
curves which interest to form a patch work of surface patches. It is shown is figure
1.3 (g).
Fillet surfaces: It is the curve which interpolate between different surfaces,
(eg) Chamfer surface. It is shown in figure 1.3 (h),

Figure 1.3 (h): Filet surface



1.6.1 Advantages
1. They are less ambiguous
2. Useful for specific non-analytical surfaces, called sculptured surfaces
such as those used for modeling car bodies, and ship hulls.
3. More complex surfaces are easily identifiable by the model.
4. Hidden line removal feature is available to add realism to the model.

1.6.2 Disadvantages
1. Construction not so simple as wire frame model
2. No information regarding the interior of the model is possible.
3. Mass properly calculation is difficult
4. It takes more time to create
5. It requires more memory space
6. It requires more manipulation time.


It is the more complete representation of objects than surface and wire frame
models. In this, the model is displayed as solid look of an object. Adding colour to
the images the model becomes more realistic. These type of models can be quickly
created and modified.
Following are the same approaches to define a solid mode.
1. Pure primitive instancing
2. Generalized sweeps
3. Spatial occupancy enumeration
4. Cellular decomposition



5. Constructive solid geometry (CSG or C-rep)

6. Boundary representation (B-rep)
7. Hybrid scheme.
Out of these, Constructive Solid Geometry approach (CSG), boundary
representation approach (B-rep) and hybrid scheme are generally followed today to
create solid models. They are explained below.

Constructive solid geometry (CSG or C-rep approach)

The CSG system is also called as building block approach. It allows the
designer to build the model with solid graphic primitives such as rectangular blocks,
cubes, spheres, cylinders and pyramids.
The solid primitives are combined to form the required solid model by Boolean
operations. The different Boolean operators and their operation are given below.
Boolean operator





To give a shape equal the

combination or addition together
the two primitives.



To give a shape equal to the common

volume of the combined primitives.


To give a shape equal to the volume

obtained by subtraction of one
primitive from other.

(i) Two dimensional

Consider one rectangular primitive (A) and other circular primitive (B) in
two dimension and position them as in figure 1.4 (a) the shape for different Boolean
operation is given in figure 1.4 (b), (c), (d), (e), they got shapes as shown in shaded



Figure 1.4: Boolean operations for two dimensional model

(ii) Three dimensional

Consider one rectangular block primitive (A) and another cylindrical block
(B) and position them as shown in figure 1.5 (a). The shape for different Boolean
operation is given in figure 1.5 (b) (c), (d), (e).

Figure 1.5: Boolean operation of 3 dimensional object

1.7.1 Solid Model Construction Techniques

Four methods for constructing a 3-D object within a CAD solid modelling
systems are considered the most significant:
Pure Primitive Instancing (PPI) (Figure 1.6): PPI involves recalling
already-stored descriptions of primitive solids.
Sweeping (S) (Figure 1.7): Sweeping technique is used in creating solid
models of two-and-a-half-dimensional objects. The class of two-anda-half-dimensional objects includes both solids of uniform thickness
in a given direction and axisymetric solids. The former are known as



extruded solids and are created via linear or translational sweep; the
latter are solids of revolution which can be created via rotational sweep.
Sweeping is used in general as a means of entering object descriptions
into B-rep or CSG-based modellers.

Figure 1.6: Pure primitive instancing

Boundry representation (B-rep): B-rep construction consists of
entering all bounding edges for all surfaces. This is similar or copying
an engineering drawings into the computer, line by line, surface by
surface, with one important qualification: The lines must be entered
and surfaces oriented in such a way that they create valid volumes.
Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG): CSG technique uses Boolean
combinations of primitive solids to build a part. The Boolean operations
are addition (+), subtraction(-), and intersection (*), as illustrated in
three dimensions in figure 1.8.



Figure 1.7: Sweeping

A hybrid construction technique is utilised in Pro/Engineer: Pro/E
solid modelling package have a CSG - compatible user input and
therefore provide users with a set of building blocks, called features.
Features are simple basic shapes and are considered solid modelling
entities which can be combined by a mathematical set of Boolean
operations to create the solid. Features themselves are considered valid
off-the-shelf solids. In addition, Pro/E supports sweeping operations
that permit users to utilise wireframe entities (sketched sections) to
create faces that are swept later to create solids. Also, in Pro/E, PPI



technique is supported to duplicate features that are topologically

identical but vary, in size from the nominal features.

Figure 1.8: Three-Dimensional Boolean Operations

Constructive solid geometry (CSG or C - rep approach)

The CSG system is also called as building block approach. It allows the
designer to build the model with solid graphic primitives such as rectangular blocks,
cubes, spheres, cylinders and pyramids.
The solid primitives are combined to form the required solid model by boolean
operations (Refer figure 1.9). The different boolean operators and their operation
are given below.



Figure 1.9: Boolean Operator

1.7.2 Feature-based modelling

Features generally fall into one of the following categories:
Base Features: The basic feature may be either a sketched feature
or datum plane(s) referencing the default coordinate system (MCS).
The base feature is important because all future model geometry will
reference this feature directly or indirectly; it becomes the root feature.
Changes to the base feature will affect the geometry of the entire model.
Sketched Features: In general, sketched features are created by
extruding, revolving, blending, or sweeping a sketched cross section.
Material may be added or removed by protruding or cutting the feature
from the existing model.
Referenced Features: Referenced features reference existing geometry
and employ an inherent form; they do not need to be sketched. Some
examples of referenced features are rounds, drilled holes, and shells.
Datum Features: Datum features, such as planes, axes, curves, and
points, are generally used to provide sketching planes and contour
references for sketched and referenced features. Datum features do not
have physical volume or mass, and may be visually hidden without
affecting solid geometry.



1.7.3 Advantages of Solid Modelling

It is complete and unambiguous.
Suitable for automated applications like creating part program without
much human involvement.
Creation is fast.
It gives more information.


Wire frame modelling

Surface modelling

Solid modelling


Confusion to the viewer Less confusion

No confusion


More ambiguity in Less ambiguity

identifying the surfaces

No ambiguity


Connot get


for To
extent Best
automated applications suitable for automated automated application


Not possible for mass, Not possible

volume calculations,
NC part programming,
cross sectioning etc.



Need less memory

Still more memory


Manipulation takes less More time



Construction simple



No realistic look

Realistic surface look

required Can

required More informations

More memory

Still more memoiy


wire Difficult than wire

frame and surface
Realistic solid look



10. Represented
a Represented
collection of corner collection of corner
points and edge lines
points and edge lines
point, edge lines and
face surfaces

collection of corner
points and edge lines
points, edge lines, face
surface and internal


Explain about drawing features in CAD.


What do you understand from Two Dimensional Transformation?


Explain in detail about Basic Modelling Transformer.


Define Sealing.


Define Homogenous Coordinates.


What is Rotation?


What are the typical CAD command structures?


What do you understand from wireframe modelling?


Discuss briefly about the wireframe modelling.


State the advantages of wireframe modelling.


Discuss the disadvantages of wireframe models are manifold.


State surface modelling and explain in detail.


What are the advantages of surface modelling?


What are the disadvantages of surface modelling?


Explain solid modelling and explain in detail with neat sketch.


What are solid modelling Techniques? Explain with neat sketch?


Describe briefly about the feature based modelling.


What are the advantages of solid modelling?


Discuss and compare about the various models.


Components of CIM


Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) is the manufacturing approach of
using computers to control the entire production process. This integration allows
individual processes to exchange information with each other and initiate actions.
Through the integration of computers, manufacturing can be faster and less errorprone, although the main advantage is the ability to create automated manufacturing
processes. Typically CIM relies on closed-loop control processes, based on realtime input from sensors. It is also known as flexible design and manufacturing.
The term computer-integrated manufacturing is both a method of
manufacturing and the name of a computer-automated system in which individual
engineering, production, marketing, and support functions of a manufacturing
enterprise are organized. In a CIM system functional areas such as design, analysis,



planning, purchasing, cost accounting, inventory control, and distribution are linked
through the computer with factory floor functions such as materials handling and
management, providing direct control and monitoring of all the operations.
As a method of manufacturing, three components distinguish CIM from other
manufacturing methodologies:
Means for data storage, retrieval, manipulation and presentation.
Mechanisms for sensing state and modifying processes.
Algorithms for uniting the data processing component with the sensor/
modification component.
CIM is an example of the implementation of information and communication
technologies (ICTs) in manufacturing.
CIM implies that there are at least two computers exchanging information,
e.g. the controller of an arm robot and a micro-controller of a CNC machine.
Some factors involved when considering a CIM implementation are the
production volume, the experience of the company or personnel to make the
integration, the level of the integration into the product itself and the integration
of the production processes. CIM is most useful where a high level of ICT is used
in the company or facility, such as CAD/CAM systems, the availability of process
planning and its data.
There are three major challenges to development of a smoothly operating
computer-integrated manufacturing system:
Integration of components from different suppliers: When different
machines, such as CNC, conveyors and robots, are using different
communications protocols. In the case of AGVs, even differing lengths
of time for charging the batteries may cause problems.
Data integrity: The higher the degree of automation, the more critical
is the integrity of the data used to control the machines. While the
CIM system saves on labor of operating the machines, it requires extra



human labor in ensuring that there are proper safeguards for the data
signals that are used to control the machines.
Process control: Computers may be used to assist the human operators
of the manufacturing facility, but there must always be a competent
engineer on hand to handle circumstances which could not be foreseen
by the designers of the control software.

2.1.1 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) as a concept and

a Technology
A number of definitions have been developed for computer integrated
manufacturing (CIM). However a CIM system is commonly thought of as an
integrated system that an compasses all the activities in the production system
from the planning and design of a product through the manufacturing system,
including control. CIM is an attempt to combine existing computer technologies in
order to manage and control the entire business. CIM is an approach that very few
companies have adopted at this time, since surverys show that only 1 or 2% of U.S.
manufacturing companies have approached full-scale use of FMS and CAD/CAM,
let alone CIM systems.
As with traditional manufacturing approaches, the purpose of CIM is to
transform product designs and materials into salable goods at a minimum cost in
the shortest possible time. CIM begins with the design of a product (CAD) and
ends with the manufacture of that product (CAM). With CIM, the customary split
between the design and manufacturing functions is (supposed to be) eliminated.
CIM differs from the traditional job shop manufacturing system in the
role of the computer plays on the manufacturing process. Computer-integrated
manufacturing systems are basically a network of computer systems tied together
by a single integrated database. Using the information in the database, a CIM system
can direct manufacturing activities, record results, and maintain accurate data.
CIM is the computerization of design, manufacturing, distribution, and financial
functions into one coherent system.



Figure 2.1 presents a block diagram illustrating the functions and their
relationship in CIM. These functions are identical to those found in a traditional
production (planning and control) system for job shop MS. With the introduction of
computers, changes have occurred in the organisation and execution of production
planning and control through the implementation of such systems as mrp, capacity
planning, inventory management, shop floor control and cost planning and control.
The following figure 2.1 shows the major functions in the CIM.

Figure 2.1: Major Functions in CIM

The society of manufacturing Engineers (SME) defined as CIM is the
integration of the total manufacturing enterprise through the use of integrated
systems and data communications coupled with new managerial philosophies that
improve organizational and personal efficiency.
CIM basically involves the integration of all the functions of an enterprise. The
new CIM wheel (Figure 2.2) of Society of Manufacturing Engineers illustrates this
concept well and demonstrates the interrelationship among the various segments of



the enterprise. CIM is generally considered as a new approach to manufacturing,

management and corporate operation. It is generally interpreted that CIM includes
most of the advanced manufacturing technologies such as computer aided design,
computer numerical control, robots, just in time production, etc. However, CIM goes
beyond all those technologies and provides new way of doing business that includes
commitment to customer satisfaction, total quality, and continuous improvement. As
discussed in the earlier chapters, a single enterprise based database, that supports all
the information needs for manufacturing in every department becomes an essential
part of CIM. This database removes the communication barriers between various
departments of an enterprise allowing for complete integration of all departments.

Figure 2.2: The New Manufacturing Enterprise Wheel Suggested by

Society of Manufacturing Engineers
(Courtesy: of the Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Dearborn, Michigan)



The SME Manufacturing enterprise wheel has 6 defined areas. They are:
1. The success of an enterprise depends on the customer, and thus
customer becomes the hub of the wheel. With a clear understanding
of the customer requirement and the market place, the enterprise will
2. The next level focuses on the organisational structure of the enterprise.
This deals with the organizing people, training, motivation and
cooperation in teamwork. There are a number of techniques used to
achieve these goals such as organisational learnings, leadership,
standards, quality circles, and rewards.
3. The third level in the wheel focuses on the shared knowledge of the
enterprise. This will include all the databases and archival knowledge
and experience, all of which can be utilised to support the people and
the processes.
4. All the systems that are actually used in the total enterprise are present
in this part of the wheel. All the processes are grouped into three major
categories, namely product and process, manufacturing and customer
support. Each of these have the components that actually perform the
necessary functions.
5. Resources and responsibilities of the enterprise are included in this
section. The resources are the people, materials, tools, information,
technology and suppliers. The responsibilities will be to the employees,
investors and the communities that it will be serving while undertaking
the statutory, ethical and environmental safeguards.
6. The final part of the wheel is the actual manufacturing infrastructure.
This would include all the infrastructure such as customers and their
needs, suppliers, distributors, prospective workers, natural resources,
financial markets, educational and research institutions and competitors.



There should be a tight integration between all the segments as shown to

achieve the benefits of CIM.
In the earlier chapters many of the components of CIM have been dealt in
sufficient detail. In order to achieve the CIM, it therefore becomes necessary to
integrate all the functions (either automatic or manual) through some means such that
the benefits of automation can be achieved. For example, FMS may be considered
as mini CIM since a number of functions of CIM are already available within an
FMS. If the FMS control program is linked to the business data processing unit, CIM
can be realised. However one difference is that FMS relies on complete automation
with very little manual intervention save for the work and tool preparation areas.
However, in CIM there can be a large number of manual operations present besides
the automated equipment, all of which will have to be taken into account while
planning and implementing CIM.


CIM is the integration of totally manufacturing enterprise by using integrated
system and DATA communication with new managerial philosophies that improve
organizational and personnel efficiency.
Beginning of the 80s was developed that CIM Wheel (CIM wheel) of the
CASA/SME (Refer figure 2.3) [computer and Automated of system Association
OF the Society OF Manufacturing Engineers OF the United States OF America).
Main idea was the holistic view of the enterprise, on the basis of the CIM. In center
of the CIM Wheel stands the integrated architecture (integrated system architecture)
with a common database (common DATA) and the information administration and communication (information resources management & communication].



Figure 2.3: CASA model of CIM

On the second level enterprise functions became from the ranges factory
automation, product & processes and production planning and - control over the
components of the integrated architecture links with one another.
At this concept it was new that over it going out administrative tasks, on a
third level, were considered. It concerns management & personnel management,
marketing, strategic planning and financial system. The advancement CIM of the
Wheel is the Manufacturing Enterprise Wheel.


CIM is an integration process leading to the integration of the manufacturing
enterprise. Figure 2.4 indicates different levels of this integration that can be seen



within an industry. Dictated by the needs of the individual enterprise this process
usually starts with the need to interchange information between the some of the
so called ISLANDS OF AUTOMATION. Flexible manufacturing cells, automatic
storage and retrieval systems, CAD/CAM based design are the examples of islands
of automation i.e computer based automation has been achieved completely in a
limited spheres of activity in an enterprise. This involves data exchange among
computers, NC machines, robots, gantry systems etc. Therefore the integration
process has started bottom-up. The interconnection of physical systems was the
first requirement to be recognised and fulfilled.

Figure 2.4: Levels of integration against evolution of CIM

The next level of integration, application integration in Figure 2.4 is concerned
with the integration of applications; applications are used in the data processing
sense. Application integration involves supply and removal of information,
communication between application users and with the system itself. Thus the
application integration level imposes constraints on the physical integration level.
There also has to be control of the applications themselves.




The following is the list of a few of the benefits that can be achieved by use
of CIM.
1. CIM improves the operational control by means of reduction in the
number of uncontrollable variables, reducing dependents on human
2. CIM improves the short run responsiveness.
3. CIM improves long run accommodations by means of changing product
volumes, different part mixes.
4. CIM reduces the inventory through reducing lot sizes, improving
inventory turn overs for the particular company.
5. CIM increases machine utilization by means of eliminating or reducing
machine setup, utilizing automated features.


The communication matrix is a tool for pro actively planning communications

on a project. Firstly, you list all the individuals and groups who will need to be told



things, or to whom you must listen (Stakeholder Analysis) along one axis; and all
the topics or the information that will need to be communicated along the other
This tool is excellent for pre-planning with groups; they can write on blank
proformas or contribute as a whole onto a flipchart or laptop projection.
Once you have produced the matrix, send it out to all the participants (with
any politically sensitive items removed) so people know who, how and when you
are planning to communicate and the part they will play. You may get a lot of calls
from people who feel that they, or others, have been left out of important parts, but
these conversations are shorter and much more productive than contact after the
event complaining about lack of communication.
The following Table 2.1 shows the working and procedure used in
communication matrix.
Table: 2.1: Procedures of communication

To From














Data Communication is the exchange of information of the data between the
parties intended for communication. The data involved may be a piece of information
in a simple text file or an audio file. It may even be the video conferencing between
the parties.
What ever may be the medium for communication, the important thing is that
the data exactly reaches the destination it is intended for. The most happening thing
today in data communication is VoIP i.e. Voice over Internet Protocol.
The physical integration of industrial controllers with Computer Aided
Design (CAD) systems and manufacturing management systems has become one of
the most important issues in the field of Computer Integrated Manufacture (CIM).
Communications links between these intelligent, computer based systems are a
vital part of all modern, manufacturing organisations endeavouring to integrate
management systems and production systems into a more efficient, responsive and
cohesive unit.
Communications within a manufacturing organisation can take on many
forms. At a basic level it is often necessary to reliably transfer data or programs,
developed on a Computer, to a Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine
tool, robot or Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). At a higher level it may be
necessary to integrate CAD workstations, industrial controllers (CNCs & PLCs)
and manufacturing management computer systems through a Local Area Network
(LAN). However, in order to establish links and networks that can function with



industrial equipment, there needs to be an understanding of the basic mechanisms

and problems of data communications and the special needs of the manufacturing
Contrary to the (often misguided) industry faith in turn-key solutions, the
selection, installation and maintenance of a network requires a good deal of in-house
expertise. A large proportion of high-technology manufacturing systems fail simply
because companies place too much reliance on external consultants and vendors
instead of developing this vital, in-house expertise. Inevitably, manufacturers need to
realise that all-embracing, ever-lasting, future-proofed, turn-key solutions
simply do not exist in the world of reality. This is particularly true for industrial
communications networks which live in an environment of widely differing,
incompatible and constantly changing computer technologies and standards.
In many disciplines of engineering, there are difficulties in finding standards
that cover a specific technology. This is certainly not the case in terms of industrial
networking. In fact there are an enormous number of standards that cover the area.
The bulk of these standards do not, in isolation, provide a mechanism for reliable
data communication in the factory. A range of cohesive standards needs to be
selected in order to realise a viable link or network. However, many standards are
incompatible with one another or unsuitable for the industrial environment. Some
communications standards are even irrelevant to the applications to which they are
now applied.
In order to select communications equipment or develop communications
protocols for the manufacturing environment, one needs to understand both the
networking technology and the standards themselves.


2.7.1 Serial and Parallel data transmission
The need to provide data transfer between a computer and a remote terminal
has led to the development of serial communication.



Serial data transmission implies transfer data transfer bit by bit on the single
(serial) communication line .
In case of serial transmission data is sent in a serial form i.e. bit by bit on a
single line. Also, the cost of communication hardware is considerable reduced since
only a single wire or channel is require for the serial bit transmission. Serial data
transmission is slow as compared to parallel transmission.
However, parallel data transmission is less common but faster than serial
transmission. Most data are organized into 8 bit bytes. In some computers, data are
further organized into multiple bits called half words, full words. Accordingly data
is transferred some times a byte or word at a time on multiple wires with each wire
carrying individual data bits. Thus transmitting all bits of a given data byte or word
at the same time is known as parallel data transmission.
Parallel transmission is used primarily for transferring data between devices
at the same site. For eg : communication between a computer and printer is most
often parallel so that entire byte can be transferred in one operation.

2.7.2 Asynchronous data transmission

Serial data communication generally employs either synchronous or
asynchronous communication scheme. This two scheme used different techniques
for synchronizing in the circuits in sending and receiving end.
In asynchronous transmission each character is transmitted separately, that
is one character at a time. The character is preceded by a start bit, which tells the
receiving end where the character coding begins, and is followed by a stop bit,
which tells the receiver where the character coding ends. There will be intervals
of ideal time on the channel shown as gaps. Thus there can be gaps between two
adjacent characters in the asynchronous communication scheme. In this scheme,
the bits within the character frame (including start, parity and stop bits) are sent at
the baud rate.
The START BIT and STOP BIT including gaps allow the receiving and sending
computers to synchronise the data transmission. Asynchronous communication



is used when slow speed peripherals communicate with the computer. The
main disadvantage of asynchronous communication is slow speed transmission.
Asynchronous communication however, does not require the complex and costly
hardware equipments as is required for synchronous transmission. Advantages and Disadvantages of Asynchronous Transmission

The advantage of asynchronous transmission is that it does not required any
local storage at the terminal or the computer and is thus cheaper to implement.
Major disadvantage of asynchronous transmission is that the transmission
lines is idle during the time intervals between transmitting characters.

2.7.3 Synchronous Transmission

In Synchronous communication scheme, after a fixed number of data bytes a
special bit pattern is send called SYNC by the sending end.
Data transmission take place without any gap between two adjacent characters.,
however data is send block by block. A block is a continuous steam of characters
or data bit pattern coming at a fixed speed. You will find a Sync bit pattern between
any two blocks of data and hence the data transmission is synchronized.
Synchronous communication is used generally when two computers are
communicating to each other at a high speed or a buffered terminal is communicating
to the computer. Advantages and Disadvantages of Synchronous Transmission

Main advantage of Synchronous data communication is the high speed. The
synchronous communications required high-speed peripherals/devices and a goodquality, high bandwidth communication channel.
The disadvantage include the possible in accuracy. Because when a receiver
goes out of Synchronization, loosing tracks of where individual characters begin
and end. Correction of errors takes additional time.



2.7.4 Pulse Code Modulation and Demodulation

Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) forms the heart of the modern telephone
system. To understand PCM, lets consider how multiple analog voice signals are
digitized and combined on to a single digital trunk.
The analog signals are digitized in the end office by a device called a codec
(coder-decoder) producing a 7 or 8 bit number. The coder makes 8000 samples
per second (125sec/sample) because the Nyquist theorem say that is sufficient
to capture all the information from the 4-KHz telephone channel bandwidth. At
a lower sampling rate, information would be generated/gained. This technique is
called PCM (pulse Code Modulation). As a consequence, virtually all time intervals
within the telephone system are multiplies of 125sec.
Demodulation is the act of extracting the original information-bearing signal
from a modulated carrier wave. A demodulator is an electronic circuit (or computer
program in a software defined radio) that is used to recover the information content
from the modulated carrier wave.
These terms are traditionally used in connection with radio receivers, but
many other systems use many kinds of demodulators. Another common one is in a
modem, which is a contraction of the terms modulator/demodulator.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying
one or more properties of a high-frequency periodic waveform, called the carrier
signal, with a modulating signal which typically contains information to be
transmitted. This is done in a similar fashion to a musician modulating a tone (a
periodic waveform) from a musical instrument by varying its volume, timing and
pitch. The three key parameters of a periodic waveform are its amplitude (volume),
its phase (timing) and its frequency (pitch). Any of these properties can be
modified in accordance with a low frequency signal to obtain the modulated signal.
Typically a high-frequency sinusoid waveform is used as carrier signal, but a square
wave pulse train may also be used.
In telecommunications, modulation is the process of conveying a message
signal, for example a digital bit stream or an analog audio signal, inside another



signal that can be physically transmitted. Modulation of a sine waveform is used

to transform a baseband message signal into a passband signal, for example
low-frequency audio signal into a radio-frequency signal (RF signal). In radio
communications, cable TV systems or the public switched telephone network
for instance, electrical signals can only be transferred over a limited passband
frequency spectrum, with specific (non-zero) lower and upper cutoff frequencies.
Modulating a sine-wave carrier makes it possible to keep the frequency content
of the transferred signal as close as possible to the centre frequency (typically the
carrier frequency) of the passband.
A device that performs modulation is known as a modulator and a device
that performs the inverse operation of modulation is known as a demodulator
(sometimes detector or demod). A device that can do both operations is a modem

2.7.5 Type of Communication Systems

The communication system can be classified into three categories
1. Simplex
2. Full Duplex
3. Half Duplex

A simplex system is a communication system in which the message can be
send in one direction only.
Radio and TV boardcasting are eg User - Transmitter - Receiver - User

Full Duplex
A full duplex system is one in which the link is capable of transmitting in both
the direction, at the same.
Eg : telephone system.



Half Duplex
In a half duplex system, each end may transmit, but only one at a time. This
requires both transmitting and receiving circuitary at each end. but the actual link
between the two ends may be shared.
Eg : A citizens band radio where a frequency channel is shared and each
party has to say over to switch the direction of the communication.


2.8.1 Point-to-Point communications
Point-to-point communications generally refers to a connection restricted to
two endpoints.
Point-to-point is sometimes referred to as P2P or Pt2Pt. This usage of P2P is
distinct from P2P referring to peer-to-peer file sharing networks.
Point-to-point is distinct from point-to-multipoint where point-to-multipoint
also refers to broadcast or downlink.

Basic point-to-point data link

A traditional point-to-point data link is a communications medium with exactly
two endpoints and no data or packet formatting. The host computers at either end
had to take full responsibility for formatting the data transmitted between them. The
connection between the computer and the communications medium was generally
implemented through an RS-232 interface, or something similar. Computers in
close proximity may be connected by wires directly between their interface cards .
When connected at a distance, each endpoint would be fitted with a modem
to convert analog telecommunications signals into a digital data stream. When
the connection used a telecommunications provider, the connections were called
a dedicated, leased, or private line. The ARPANET used leased lines to provide
point-to-point data links between its switching nodes, which were called Interface
Message Processors.



Modern point-to-point links

More recently (2003), the term point-to-point telecommunications relates to
wireless data communications for Internet or Voice over IP via radio frequencies
in the multi-gigahertz range. It also includes technologies such as laser for
telecommunications but in all cases expects that the transmission medium is line of
sight and capable of being fairly tightly beamed from transmitter to receiver. Today
(2009) there are online tools to help users find if they have such line of sight, one
example is the PTP estimator from AlphiMAX.
The telecommunications signal is typically bi-directional, either time division
multiple access (TDMA) or channelized.
In hubs and switches, a hub provides a point-to-multipoint (or simply
multipoint) circuit which divides the total bandwidth supplied by the hub among
each connected client node. A switch on the other hand provides a series of pointto-point circuits, via micro segmentation, which allows each client node to have a
dedicated circuit and the added advantage of having full-duplex connections.

2.8.2 Star Network

Star networks are one of the most common computer network topologies. In
its simplest form, a star network consists of one central switch, hub or computer,
which acts as a conduit to transmit messages. This consists of a central node,
to which all other nodes are connected; this central node provides a common
connection point for all nodes through a hub. Thus, the hub and leaf nodes, and the
transmission lines between them, form a graph with the topology of a star. If the
central node is passive, the originating node must be able to tolerate the reception of
an echo of its own transmission, delayed by the two-way transmission time (i.e. to
and from the central node) plus any delay generated in the central node. An active
star network has an active central node that usually has the means to prevent echorelated problems.
The star topology reduces the chance of network failure by connecting all of
the systems to a central node. When applied to a bus-based network, this central hub



rebroadcasts all transmissions received from any peripheral node to all peripheral
nodes on the network, sometimes including the originating node. All peripheral
nodes may thus communicate with all others by transmitting to, and receiving from,
the central node only. The failure of a transmission line linking any peripheral node
to the central node will result in the isolation of that peripheral node from all others,
but the rest of the systems will be unaffected.
It is also designed with each node (file servers, workstations, and peripherals)
connected directly to a central network hub, switch, or concentrator.
Data on a star network passes through the hub, switch, or concentrator before
continuing to its destination. The hub, switch, or concentrator manages and controls
all functions of the network. It is also acts as a repeater for the data flow. This
configuration is common with twisted pair cable. However, it can also be used with
coaxial cable or optical fibre cable

2.8.3 Multiplexing
Multiplexing is a form of data transmission in which one communication
channel carries several transmissions at the same time. The telephone lines .that
carry our daily conversations can carry thousands or even more of conversations at
a time using multiplexing concept. The exact number of simultaneous transmission
depends on the type of communication channel and the data transmission rate.
Economics of scale play an important role in the telephone system. It costs
essentially the same amount of money to install and maintain a high-bandwidth trunk
as low-bandwidth trunk between two switching officers. Consequently, telephone
companies have developed elaborate schemes for multiplexing many conversations
over a single physical trunk.
Accordingly, the communication channel is shared in such a way as to
maximum the utilization of the channel capacity. Thus the method of dividing a
single channel into many channels so that a number of independent signals may be
transmitted on it is known as Multiplexing.



Multiplexing schemes can be divided into two basic categories

1. Frequency Division Multiplexing FDM
2. Time Division Multiplexing TDM
Frequency division multiplexing ( FDM) is the technique used to divide the
bandwidth available in a physical medium into a number of smaller independent
logical channels with each channel having a small bandwidth. The method of using
a number of carrier frequencies each of which is modulated by an independent
speech signal is in fact frequency division multiplexing.
The following figure depict how three voice-grade telephone channels are
multiplexing using FDM. When many channels are multiplexed together, 400Hz
is allocated to each channel to keep them well separated. First the voice channels
are raised in frequency, each by a different amount. Then they can be combined,
because no two channels how occupy the same portion of the spectrum. Notice
that even though there are gaps(guard bands) between the channels, there is some
overlap between adjacent channels, because the filters do not have sharp edges.
This overlap means that a strong spike at the edge of one channel will be felt in the
adjacent one as non-thermal noise.
Frequency-division multiplexing works best with low-speed devices. The
frequency division multiplexing schemes used around the world are to some degree
standardized. A wide spread standard is 12 400-Hz each voice channels ( 300Hz
for user, plus two guard bands of 500Hz each) multiplexed into the 60 to 108 KHz
band. Many carriers offer a 48 to 56 kbps leased line service to customers, based on
the group. Other standards upto 230000 voice channels also exist.

The allocated spectrum is about IMHz, roughly 500 to 1500 KHz. Different
(stations, each operating in a portion of the spectrum. With the interchannel
separation great enough to prevent interference. This system is an example of
frequency division multiplexing.



Advantages of FDM
1. Here user can be added to the system by simply adding another pair of
transmitter modulator and receiver domodulators.
2. FDM system support full duplex information flow which is required by
most of application.
3. Noise problem for analog communication has lesser effect.

Disadvantages of FDM
1. In FDM system, the initial cost is high. This may include the cable
between the two ends and the associated connectors for the cable.
2. In FDM system, a problem for one user can sometimes affect others.
3. In FDM system, each user requires a precise carrier frequency.


Data is defined as the raw, unreduced information that is available on each
component of a CIM system like a PC, Robot, Workstation or CNC. Normally, each
component wants access to all the necessary data to make decisions. This means
each component in a CIM system, can take advantage of all available information
to achieve higher reliability and more optimal processing or manufacturing.
Networks allow channels of communications to exist among various sections of a
manufacturing system. Peal-time modifications to business plans can be effected via
communications through the network. Networks are essential to move information
Networks such as the ones used in CIM systems make data sharing easy,
peripheral changing easy and information sharing possible.

2.9.1 Principles of Networking

As technology has been putting more processing power into smaller computers
the trend has been to move away from massive, centralised processors which handle



every tasks to networks of smaller processors, each closely tailored to particular

applications. From the manufacturing standpoint, this eliminates the possibility of
shutting down the entire plant if a large central computer fails. Networking also
allows piece-wise growth of the overall system with minimal investment and
Networking provides the means for tying together the various islands of
automation and in the process makes integration possible by allowing high speed
data exchange between related functions.
Networking is essential for several activities. Some examples are:i)

Design and Development of VLSI components, aircrafts etc.

ii) Airline or train reservation.

iii) Electronic mail.
Communication networks can be classified into four categories depending
upon the physical separation of the communicating devices.
a) Miniature (<50 mm) such networks are concerned with the
interconnection of multiple computational elements which are
implemented on the same I.C.
b) Small (<500 mm) these are concerned with the interconnection of
multiple computational units which are located on a single rack.
c) Medium (<1 km) these networks are concerned with the interconnection
of multiple computational units (office workstation, CAD systems,
shop floor terminals, CNC systems, Robots etc). These are connected
through a LAN.
d) Large (>1 km) Large networks involve connection of remote mainframes,
networking of a minicomputer system to a remote, mainframe or
terminals etc. It can be city wide (Metropolitan Area Network (MAN))
or countrywide or Worldwide (WAN)



Typical wide area networks in India are:










2.9.2 Private Computer Communication Networks

A manufacturing industry may have a number of computer systems located
at different sites around a country. There is a requirement for them to communicate
each other to share resources and exchange information. An autonomous data
communication network for this purpose is called a private computer communication

2.9.3 Public Switched Data Networks

Initially organisation implemented their own private nationwide data networks
using communication lines based from public telephone authorities. As computer
technology grew and computer became varied it became necessary to communicate
between different computers in different organisations. This led to the development
of public switched data networks (PSDN).
More recently the need for efficient transmission of voice and data has led to
the development of Integrated Services Digital Networks (ISDN).

2.9.4 Local Area Network (LAN)

A network is a group of computers that are linked to communicate with each
other and share resources like hard disk, printers etc via the cables and interfaces
that connect the computers and peripherals. Application softwares used in a network
allows several users access the same program and data at the same time.



Figure 2.5: Typical Network

As the name implies, a LAN is a system that covers short distances. Usually
LAN is limited, to a single department or a single building or a single campus.
Figure 2.5 shows a typical network.
A LAN consists of a number of computers connected to a file server. Common
resources of the network include a bank of printers and facilities for disc mirroring
and disc duplexing.

2.9.5 Network Techniques

NETWORK BASICS : A given network technology falls into one of two
categories: Local area network (LAN) or Wide area networks (WAN). LANs are
intended to serve a number of users who are physically located close together.
WANs are more akin to telephone network, tying different people in different
buildings, cities or even countries. A message is routed through several interim
points before reaching its final destination; a WAN may also incorporate the. ability



to automatically change to an alternate message routing path if the computer at one

location fails. A LAN (local area network) has 2 to 10 times more traffic on it than
a wide area network (WAN). Each gate node gateway or system, if well designed,
reduces communication requirement.
Each individual point within a network that can communicate through the
network is called a node . Each node is assigned a unique address. This way, a
destination address can be put into each message and it can be sent to correct

2.9.6 Components of a Network

A LAN is a system comprising the following basic components:

Computers (PCs, Graphics Workstations, Minis etc)

ii) Network interface card (NIC): This is a communications hardware in

the form of an add-on card for sending and receiving messages. This
is also called network adapter. NIC is plugged into one of the slots of
the PC expansion slots and the transmission cable is attached to the
connector provided on the card.
iii) Network Cable: A transmission cable is attached to each device
(computer/ peripheral) to enable the transmission of messages from
one device to another. The details of cables commonly used are given
in Table 2.2.

Table 2.2: Cables used in Networking

Twisted pair

1 M bit/sec


Least expensive base band,
single channel



Coaxial Cable
base band

10 M bit/sec

upto 4 km

broad band

5 M bit/sec

upto 50 km

Fibre Optics

Multi Channel Capability

Multi Channel Large Capacity

iv) Network Server: This computer is used to manage shared resources.

Server is a combination of hardware and software. The file server does
the following tasks:

Manages the shared hard disk.

Makes sure that multiple requests do not conflict each other.

Protect data.

Prevent unauthorized access.

Maintain a list of privilege and authorisations.

v) Central Mass storage: The hard disc of the file server showed have
sufficient capacity (usually in term of Gigabytes).

2.9.7 Network Wiring Methods

There are two basic ways that three or more nodes can be incorporated in a
network; these are point-to-point and multidrop. (Refer Figure 2.6)

Figure 2.6: Types of Network Arrangement



2.9.8 Network Topologies

Given that one or the other or a combination of wiring methods will be used
when interconnecting network nodes, there are several commonly used network
topologies, or ways of routing the interconnections. (Refer Figure 2.7)

Figure 2.7: Classification of Networks

i) Star Network:
This means running a separate cable or line between file server and each
node. This is useful when a master slave relationship exists between the file server
and the nodes. For sending data and files from one node to another request should
be made to the file server which establishes a dedicated path between the nodes.
The data can be transmitted through this path.

ii) Ring Network:

This involves connecting all nodes in series. The cable will normally loop
back to form a full circle. This is some times used when nodes are widely separated,
as each node can act as a repeater (amplifier) for message destined for downstream
nodes. The data will have to pass through other workstations before reaching the



file server. The data is sent in the form of a packet which contains both source
and destination addresses of the data. As the packet circulates through the ring
the destination station copies the data into its buffer and the packet continues to
circulate until it goes back to source workstation as an acknowledgement.

iii) Bus Networks:

Allow all nodes to share the same cable. Any message that travels on the
cable is seen by every node on the cable. This topology uses both base band and
broad band transmission.

iv) Hybrid Networks:

This includes features of more than one topology to achieve the optimal tradeoff of reliability, performance, flexibility and cost.


The OSI model is based on a proposal developed by the International
organization for Standardization (ISO) as a first step toward international
standardization of the Protocols used in the various layers (day and Zimmermann.
1983). It was revised in 1995 (day,1995). The model is called the ISO OSI (Open
System Interconnection) Reference because it deals with connecting open systemsthat is, systems that are open communication with other systems. We will just call
it the OSI model for short. (Refer figure 2.8)
The OSI model has seven layers. The principles that were applied to arrive, at
the seven layers can be briefly summarized as follows:
1. A layer should be created where a different abstraction is needed.
2. Each layer should perform a well-defined function.
3. The function of each layer should be chosen with an eye toward defining
internationally standardized protocols.
4. The layer boundaries should be chosen to minimis the interfaces.



5. The number of layers should be large enough that distinct functions

need not be thrown together in the same layer out of necessity and small
enough that the architecture does not become unwiedly.
The OSI model itself is not a network architecture because it does not specify
the exact services and protocols to be used in each layer. It just tells what each layer
should do. However, ISO has also produced standards for all the layers, although
these are not part of the reference model itself Each one has been published as a
separate international standard.

2.10.1 Seven Layers of OSI model

1. The physical layer
The physical layer is concerned with transmitting raw bits over a communication
channel The design issues have to do with making sure that when one side sends
a 1 bits, it is received by the other side as a 1 bits, not as a 0 bit. Typical questions
here are how many volts should be represent a 1 and how many for a 0, how many
nanoseconds a bit lasts, whether transmission may proceed simultaneously in both
directions, how the initial connection is established and how it is torn down when
both sides are finished, and how many pins the network connector has and what
each pin is used for. The design issues here largely deal with mechanical, electrical,
and timing interfaces and the physical transmission medium which lies below the
physical layer.

2. The data link layer

The main task of the data link layer is to transform a raw transmission facility
into a line that appears free of undetected transmission errors to the network layer.
It accomplishes this task by having the sender break up the input data into data
frames (typically a few hundred or a few thousand bytes) and transmit the frames
sequentially. If the service is reliable, the receiver confirms correct receipt of each
frame by sending back m acknowledgement frame.
Another issue that arises in the data link layer (and most of the higher layers
as well) is how to keep a fast transmitter from drowning a slow receiver in data.



Some traffic regulation mechanism if often needed to let the transmitter know how
much buffer space the receiver has at the moment Frequently, this flow regulation
and the error handling are intonated.

Figure 2.8: The OSI reference model

Broadcast networks have an additional issue in the data link layer how to
control access to the shared channel. A special sublayer of the data link layer, the
medium access control sublayer, deals with this problem.

3. The network layer

The network layer controls the operation of the subnet. A key design issue is
determining how packets are routed from source to destination. Routes can be based
on static tables that are wired into the network and rarely changed. They can also



be determined at the start of each conversation, for example, a terminal session

(example, a login to a remote machine). Finally, they can be highly dynamic, being
determined a new for each packet, to reflect the current network load.
If too many packets are present in the subnet at the same time, they will get
in one anothers way, forming bottlenecks. The control of such congestion also
belongs to the network layer. More generally, the quality of service provided (delay,
transit time, jitter, etc.,) is also a network layer issue.
When a packet has to travel from one network to another to get to its
destination, may problems can arise. The addressing used by the second network
may be different from the first one. The second one may not accept the packet
at all because it is too large. The protocols may differ and so on. It is up to the
network layer to overcome all these problems to allow heterogeneous networks to
be interconnected.
In broadcast network, the routing problem is simple, so the network layer is
often thin or even nonexistent.

4. The transport layer

The basic function of the transport layer is to accept data from above, split it
up into smaller units pass these to the network layer and ensure that the pieces all
arrive correctly at the other end. Furthermore, all this must be done efficiently and
in a way that isolates the upper layers from the inevitable changes in the hardware
The transport layer also determines what type of service to provide to the
session layer and ultimately to the users of the network. The most popular type of
transport connection is an error-free point-to-point channel that delivers messages
or bytes in the order in which they were sent. However, other possible kinds of
transport service are the transporting of isolated messages with no guarantee about
the order of deli very and the broadcasting of messages to multiple destinations.
The type of service is determined when the connection is established.



The transport layer is a true end-to-end layer, all the way from the source
to the destination. In other words, a program on the source machine carries on a
conversation with a similar program on the destination machine using the message
headers and control messages. In the lower layers, the protocols are between each
machine and its immediate neighbours, and not between the ultimate source and
destination machines, which may be separated by many routers. (Refer figure 2.8)

5. The session layer

The session layer allows users on different machines to establish sessions
between them. Sessions offer various services including dialogue control token
management (preventing two parties from attempting the same critical operation
at the same time), and synchronization (check pointing long transmissions to allow
them to continue from where they were after a crash).

6. The presentation layer

Unlike lower layers, which are mostly concerned with moving bits around the
presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information
transmitted. In order to make it possible for computers with different data
representations to communicate the data structures to be exchanged can be defined
in an abstract way along with a standard encoding to be used on the wire. The
presentation layer manages these abstract data structures and allows higher-level
data structures (example, banking records), to be defined and exchanged.

7. The application layer

The application layer contains a variety of protocols that are commonly
needed by users. One widely-used application protocol is HTTP (Hyper Text
Transfer Protocol), which is the basis for the World Wide Web. When a browser
wants a Web page, it sends the name of the page it wants to be server using HTTP.
The server then sends the page back. Other application protocols are used for file
transfer, electronic mail and network news.




A Local Area Network (LAN) is an arrangement of hardware and software that
permits logically related devices to communicate with each other distances up to
20 miles. In the CIM environment, these devices may be machining centres. CAD/
CAM workstations, AG Vs NC equipment, robots PLCs, data acquisition systems,
bar code readers and so on. LAN is usually proprietary for a single organisation.
Developed by Datapoint Corp., the first LAN, implemented in 1977, was
called an Attached Resource Computer (ARC) rather than a local area network.
Early promotions for this product prophesied that it would dramatically alter the
way the business world thinks and uses computers. By 1983,5000 units were
in place in the U.S. alone. Early computer networks used star configuration with
dumb (non-programmable) terminals accessing a hosts computing power. This
centralized approach was cost-effective during the 1970s. As minis and micros
evolved and became inexpensive, they are replaced dump terminals. Minis and
micros encouraged distributed processing and are now hosts or nodes in a network.
A LAN deploys switching technology to transfer data.

Special Features of LAN

1. Shared transmission medium.
2. Peer-to-peer communication (i.e., a device can communicate directly
with another one at the same level).
3. High-speed communication, up to 10 Mbps, as compared to a wide area
network (WAN), which uses standard communication facilities such as
telephone and leased lines.
Thus, LANs permit a large number and variety of computer systems and other
digital devices, including machining centers, to share peripherals and exchange
information at high speed over limited distances. This fulfills the communications
needs of most CIM plants.
LANs have become popular in recent years. The main reason for this is the
microcomputers low cost and enhanced capabilities. As a network node a micro



can share expensive computer resources such as databases and large printers. LANs
are also expandable as the need arises, so investment is not wasted.
Several factors should be considered in designing and implementing LAN.
For example, the speed of the LAN should be approximately equal to the fasted
computer or device on the input/output bus. The goals are reliability, maintainability,
cost, flexibility, compatibility, and extensibility. LANs should allow networking of
a variety of devices, even of different makes. For security, the files and records
should be lockable.
A wide variety of LANs are available. Prospective users should discuss their
particular needs with application engineers of companies engaged in the networking
business. Such a company is sometimes called a system integrator.

2.11.1 Elements of LAN

LANs comprise the following elements:

i) Nodes
In a CIM environment, the usual nodes are PCs, PLCs. CNC machines, and
simi equipment and other digital devices.

ii) Network communication cards (adaptor cards)

The network cards provide communications paths between a node and the

iii) Network software

The network software is usually a package from the vendor that provides all
the necessary protocol to communicate from the node environment, say DOS, to all
network environment.

iv) Transmission media (cabling)

Depending on the type of network, the transmission media may be a telephone
line twisted-pair cable, coaxial cable, or fiber-optic cable.



v) Server (PC or dedicated)

The server is a special node with a hard disk where the network software
resides. It is the junction of file transfers and mass storage.
A dedicated server offers several storage and performance advantages over a
PC used part time as a server.

vi) Peripherals
Printers, plotters, modems, and so on.

2.11.2 Computer Network Architecture

When selecting computer networks for CIM, questions to be answered
What network architecture, or configuration?
What protocol?
Which transmission standards?
Which media to use?


Figure 2.3: Typical distributed system architectures




The computer network is a collection of nodes that can communicate with

each other via digital transmission lines.
The network architecture is the set of functions that should be performed by
the network with its nodes, or computers. (Typical digital network architectures are
shown in figure 2.9).
The network protocol (discussed below) is the set of rules stating how two or
more nodes should intermit during a communications session.
To be able to communicate with a computer or any device the first step is to
ensure that the physical transmission facilities (i.e., physical lines) exist between
the desired nodes.

Figure 2.10: Bus type local area network architecture.

Once the physical link is established the next step is to make sure that the
network is not used as a point-to-point line. There are several different techniques



available to interleave the random traffic of such lines, including the multidropping, multiple access techniques, packet switching, or fast circuit switching
and different other forms of time division multiplexing (line sharing) techniques.
The last step before a successful communication can start on the line is to make sure
that the bit stream sent has correctly arrived.
Typical computer network and Local Area Network (LAN) architecture
The bus or open ring structure, [figure 2.9(a) and figure 2.10]
The star or hierarchical structure, [figure 2.9(b) and figure 2.11]
The loop or ring structure [figure 2.9(c) and figure 2.12]
The above listed architectures are widely used in different Local Area Networks
(LANs). ALAN is a private data communications system operating in hostile
environment (Example: factory shop-floor) making use of the distributed processing
concept in a limited geographical area. LANs are capable of accomplishing shopfloor communication and control between a number of different machine controllers,
micro, and minicomputers. FMS cells and workstations.
In the bus or open ring structure a master scheduler controls the data
traffic. If data is to be transferred the requesting computer sends a message
to the scheduler, which puts the request into a queue. The message contains an
identification code which is broadcast to all nodes of the network. The scheduler
works out priorities and notifies the receiver as soon as the bus is available. The
identified node takes the message and performs the data transfer between the two
computers. Having completed the data transfer the bus becomes free for the next
request in the schedulers queue.
The benefit of this architecture is that any computer can be accessed directly
and messages can be sent in a relatively simple and to assign frequencies and
priorities to organize the traffic.,
In the star configuration each computer at each level has its specific
assignment corresponding to the tasks to be solved. At that level. If all computers



are the same only one type of interface and communications package is required.
Unfortunately in practice most stat structures grow to an irregular shape utilizing
a variety of computers and controllers.
The star architecture is vulnerable in the case of a computer switch. A further
difficulty is that twisted pair wires limit communications distance and bandwidth
and are sensitive to electrical interferences.
In the ring architecture an intelligent interface is required for each node.
The data flow within the ring can be controlled by a scheduler or by sending the
messages at pre-described intervals. As soon as an intelligent interface receives
a message via the ring, it investigates it to determine whether the address in the

Figure 2.11: Star type local area network architecture



Figure 2.12: Ring type local area network architecture


MAP is a hardware/software protocol developed jointly by a group of
industries and vendors of computers and PLCs. It follows the ISO OSI model. MAP
was developed as a result of the plans of General Motors to automate its factories.
MAP uses a broad band LAN, with a token ring protocol for traffic control.
Since it is broadband, all devices in the LAN like computers. CNC machines,
robots, PLCs etc., share the same cable, but different groups of devices can be
placed on separate channels on the line. Additionally, closed-circuit TV (video)
channel can also be accommodated on same cable. MAP physical level is based on
the IEEE 802.4 token-bus standard. At the data link level, it uses the IEEE 802.2
logical control standard. MAP also uses 8473 network layer protocol for connection
less-mode network service.




1. Speed
Networks provide a very rapid method for sharing and transferring files.
Without a network, files are shared by copying them to floppy disks, then carrying
or sending the disks from one computer to another. This method of transferring files
in this manner is very time-consuming.

2. Cost
The network version of most software programs are available at considerable
savings when compared to buying individually licensed copies. Besides monetary
savings, sharing a program on a network allows for easier upgrading of the program.
The changes have to be done only once, on the file server, instead of on all the
individual workstations.

3. Centralized Software Management

One of the greatest benefits of installing a network at a school is the fact that all
of the software can be loaded on one computer (the file server). This eliminates that
need to spend time and energy installing updates and tracking files on independent
computers throughout the building.

4. Resource Sharing
Sharing resources is another area in which a network exceeds stand-alone
computers. Most schools cannot afford enough laser printers, fax machines,
modems, scanners, and CD-ROM players for each computer. However, if these or
similar peripherals are added to a network, they can be shared by many users.

5. Flexible Access
School networks allow students to access their files from computers throughout
the school. Students can begin an assignment in their classroom, save part of it on a
public access area of the network, then go to the media center after school to finish
their work. Students can also work cooperatively through the network.



6. Security
Files and programs on a network can be designated as copy inhibit, so that
you do not have to worry about illegal copying of programs. Also, passwords can be
established for specific directories to restrict access to authorized users.

Advantages and disadvantages of a Wireless LAN

Wireless LANs have advantages and disadvantages when compared with
wired LANs. A wireless LAN will make it simple to add or move workstations, and
to install access points to provide connectivity in areas where it is difficult to lay
cable. Temporary or semi-permanent buildings that are in range of an access point
can be wirelessly connected to a LAN to give these buildings connectivity. Where
computer labs are used in schools, the computers (laptops) could be put on a mobile
cart and wheeled from classroom to classroom, providing they are in range of access
points. Wired network points would be needed for each of the access points.

It is easier to add or move workstations
It is easier to provide connectivity in areas where it is difficult to lay
Installation can be fast and easy and can eliminate the need to pull cable
through walls and ceilings
Access to the network can be from anywhere in the school within range
of an access point
Portable or semi-permanent buildings can be connected using a wireless
Where laptops are used, the computer suite can be moved from
classroom to classroom on mobile carts



While the initial investment required for wireless LAN hardware can be
similar to the cost of wired LAN hardware, installation expenses can be
significantly lower
Where a school is located on more than one site (such as on two sides
of a road), it is possible with directional antennae, to avoid digging
trenches under roads to connect the sites
In historic buildings where traditional cabling would compromise the
faade, a wireless LAN can avoid drilling holes in walls
Long-term cost benefits can be found in dynamic environments requiring
frequent moves and changes
They allows the possibility of individual pupil allocation of wireless
devices that move around the school with the pupil.

As the number of computers using the network increases, the data
transfer rate to each computer will decrease accordingly
As standards change, it may be necessary to replace wireless cards and/
or access points
Lower wireless bandwidth means some applications such as video
streaming will be more effective on a wired LAN
Security is more difficult to guarantee, and requires configuration
Devices will only operate at a limited distance from an access point,
with the distance determined by the standard used and buildings and
other obstacles between the access point and the user
A wired LAN is most likely to be required to provide a backbone to the
wireless LAN; a wireless LAN should be a supplement to a wired LAN
and not a complete solution



Long-term cost benefits are harder to achieve in static environments

that require few moves and changes
It is easier to make a wired network future proof for high data transfer.


Explain briefly CIM as concept and technology.


State the CASA/SME in CIM.


What do you mean by communication matrix?


Explain CIM data transmission method.


Discuss about serial and parallel data transmission.


Explain about Asynchronous data transmission also explain about synchronous

data transmission method.


Explain the types of communication system.


What are the communication in CIM.


What do you understand about

(i) PTP.
(ii) Star Netwrok.
(iii) Multiplexing.


How can you differentiate the multiplexing schemes?


Explain computer networking in CIM, also state its principle.


Explain briefly Network topologies with neat sketch.


(a) MAP
(b) LAN




Group Technology
and Computer Aided
Process Planning
Group Technology (GT) is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts
are identified and grouped together to take the advantage of their similarities in
design and production. Similar parts are arranged into part families. Each family
possesses similar design and/or manufacturing characteristics.

A plant producing 5000 different parts may be able to group into 25-35 part
families. Since each member of a family have almost similar processing activities,
grouping of machines required for the processing of all the members of a part family
leads to an efficient manufacturing method. This groups of machines are known as
cells (GT cells). Manufacturing method is known as cellular manufacturing.



3.1.1 History of Group Technology

In 1925, R. Flanders presented a paper in the United States before the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers in which he described a way of
organizing manufacturing at Jones and Lamon Machine Company that would today
be called group technology.
In 1937, A. Sokolovskiy of the Soviety Union described the essential features
of group technology by proposing that parts of similar configuration be produced
by a standard process sequence, thus permitting flow line techniques to be used for
work normally accomplished by batch production
In 1949, A. Korling of Sweden presented a paper (in Paris, France) on group
production, whose principles are an adaptation of production line techniques to
batch manufacturing. In the paper, he describes how work is decentralized into
independent groups, each of which contains the machines and tooling to produce a
special category of parts.
In 1959, researcher S. Mitrofanov of the Soviet Union published a book
entitled Scientific Principles of Group Technology. The book was widely read
and is considered responsible for over 800 plants in the Soviet Union using group
technology by 1965. Another researcher, H. Opitz in Germany studied work parts
manufactured by the German machine tool industry and developed the well-known
parts classification and coding system for machined parts that bears his name.
In the United States, the first application of group technology was at the
Langton Division of Harris-Intertype in New Jersey around 1969. Traditionally
a machine shop arranged as a process type layout, the company reorganized
into family of parts lines each of which specialized in producing a given part
configuration. Part families were identified by taking photos of about 15% of the
parts made in the plant and grouping them into families. When implemented, the
changes improved productivity by 50% and reduced lead times from weeks to days.


An important aspect of Group Technology is that it often helps to minimize
unnecessary variety of components in a manufacturing plant by making designers



aware of existing similar components. Often design engineers are unaware of

the existence of similar designs in current production, perhaps because the part
numbering system does not carry sufficient information to allow them to retrieve
designs from the CAD system. In these circumstances parts effectively tend to be
duplicated, perhaps with minor differences which are unnecessary to the parts role
in the end product. Among other problems, unnecessary part numbers lead to a
proliferation of paperwork and increased stock.
The use of GT codes to retrieve data is also useful when it comes to process
planning. Process planners rather than starting from zero with each new part to be
planned can review the process plan for a similar part (i.e., a part with a similar GT
code) and modify it to develop the process plan for the new part.
Group technology and cellular manufacturing are applicable in a wide variety
of manufacturing situations. GT is most appropriately applied under the following
The plant currently uses traditional batch production and a process type
The parts can be grouped into part families.
Each machine cell is designed to produce a given part family or limited
collection of part families. So it must be possible to group parts made in the plant
into families. However, it would be unusual to find a mid-volume production plant
in which parts could not be grouped into part families.
There are two major tasks that a company must undertake when it implements
group technology. These two tasks represent significant obstacles to the application
of GT.

1. Identifying the part families

If the plant makes 10,000 different parts, reviewing all of the part drawings
and grouping the parts into families is a substantial task that consumer a significant
amount of time.



2. Rearranging production machines into machine cells

It is time consuming and costly to plan and accomplish this rearrangement,
and the machines are not producing during the changeover.


GT promotes standardization of tooling, fixturing, and setups.
Setup times are reduced, resulting in lower manufacturing lead times.
Worker satisfaction usually improves when workers collaborate in a GT
Material handling is reduced because parts are moved within a machine
cell rather than within the entire factory.
Process planning and production scheduling are simplified.
Higher quality work is accomplished using group technology.


3.4.1 Definition
A part family is nothing but the collection of parts which are similar in
geometric shape and size or similar steps of manufacturing process are required in
the production.

3.4.2 Types of part family

1. Design part family.
2. Manufacturing part family.

(1) Design Part Family

A part family with similar design characteristic and features are grouped in a
family is known as design part family.
The basic thinking of design engineers will be interm of function and
performance and the design should be creative. Surveys in manufacturing industries



have repeatedly indicated that there is a considerable amount of similarities available

in the part manufacturing. (Refer figure 3.1)

Figure 3.1: Part family

According to one important survey is found that 90% of the 3000 part made
by a manufacturing industry fall into only five major families of the part.

A pump has the basic components such as motor, housing, shaft, seals and
flanges. Inspite of variety of pumps manufactured, each of these components is
basically same interms of design and manufacturing methods. Consequent all shafts
can be placed in one family of shafts.



Creating new parts and introducing new parts are quit expensive. Therefore
the design of the part should be modified to a common structure, that will reduced
the cost considerably. Otherwise for the new parts, the design engineer should
prepare one or more NC programs, new process plans, new fixtures and new tools.
The figure 3.1 (a) and (b) illustrates examples of two parts from the same
family. This parts are placed in same family due to its similarity in size and other
design features. They have exactly same shape and size but the area of production
is differ because different finishing process.
Similarly from the figure 3.1 (c) and (d), it is observed that the shape and size
are different but the operations are same. That is three holes must be provided. It has
same manufacturing characteristics but different shapes even though these parts are
grouped with respected manufacturing process. (Refer figure 3.2 & 3.3)

Figure 3.2: Thirteen parts with similar manufacturing process requirements

but different design attributes.



Figure 3.3: Grouping parts according to their geometric similarities

(2) Manufacturing Part Family

Manufacturing part family is really grouping the manufacturing machines
into separate workcells. That is traditional arrangement of the machines have to be
arranged according to function.
For batch production, if the machines of the same type are arranged in group
of lathe, group of milling machine, group of drilling machine and grouping of
grinding machine, then there is a considerable random movement. Now this will
create unnecessary movement of workpiece
During machining of a given part, the workpiece may visit several time to the
particular machine. This results in an improper material handing, a large in process
inventory, more manufacturing lead time, more loading time and high cost. Such a
arrangement is not efficient due to time wastage and effort



Therefore, manufacturing part families are used to arrange machines are

arranged into cells. Each cell is organised to specialize in the manufacture of a
particular part family.
In the figure 3.4, all similar machines are arranged in a single way in functional
layout of machine tool in a traditional plant. Arrows indicate the flow of material
and parts in various stages of completion, and it shows that there is a complexity
in transportation of finished parts. In group technology layout, the machines are
arranged based on the flow of product.

(a) Functional layout of machine tools in a traditional plant

(b) Group Technology

Figure 3.4: Layout of Machine tools




There are three general methods available for change over to group technology
from traditional production process. These methods are time consuming and involve
the analysis of much data by properly trained personnel.
1. Visual inspection.
2.. Production Flow Analysis (PFA).
3. Classification and coding by examination of design and production data.

3.5.1 Visual Inspection

Visual inspection method is the least sophisticated, simplest and least
expensive method. The visual inspection involves the classification of parts into
families by looking at either the physical part, photographs of the parts or drawing
of the parts and arranging them into similar groupings. But this method is less
accurate to compare with other methods.

3.5.2 Production Flow Analysis (PFA)

Production flow analysis is a technique for identifying part families and
associated grouping of machine tools. It does not use a classification and system
and part drawing to identify families. Production flow analysis makes the use of
information contained on route sheets instead of part drawing. Work part with
identical or similar routings are classified into part families. These groups can then
be used to form logical machine cells in a group technology layer. Steps to be followed to carry out production flow analysis


Route sheet for all the parts to carryout production flow analysis.

ii) The matrix shows operation numbers and the component number is
prepared showing which component requires which operations.
iii) Any particular part is included only in one group. For facility grouping,
one machine type should be only is one group.



iv) If any operation is required by only one or very few components or if

some operation is required by all the components, then these operations
should not be taken in account while deciding the groups. Procedure for production flow analysis

Procedure for production flow analysis can be organised into four categories.

Data collection.

ii) Sorting of process routing.

iii) PFA chart.
iv) Analysis.

i) Data collection
The first step in the PFA procedure is to decide on the scope of study and
to collect the necessary data. The scope defines the population of the parts to be
The minimum data required for PFA are part numbers and machine routing.
This data can be obtained from routing sheet additional data, such as lot size,
time standards and annual production rate, might be useful for designing machine
cells of the desired production capacity.

ii) Sorting of process routing

The second strip is to arrange the parts into groups according to the similarity
of their process routing. The computer card format for organising the process routing
data in PFA allows space for the part number, sequence of code and other data like
lot size that identify particular machines in routing. (Refer figure 3.5)



Figure 3.5: Card format for organizing process routing data in PFA.
A sorting procedure is used on the cards to arrange them into Packs. The
packs are nothing but a group of parts with identical process routing. Some packs
may contain only one part number. A pack identification number or letter given on
each pack.
Table 3.1: Possible code numbers to indicated processes and machines
(Highly simplified).












Turret lathe








Drill manual




NC drill
















Grind-exterior cylinder




Grind-interior cylinder










iii) PFA chart

The PFA chart is graphical representation of the process used for each pack.
A simplified version of PFA chart is shown in figure 3.6. The chart is merely a plot
of the process code number for all the packs that have been determined.

Figure 3.6: PFA chart (Highly simplified).

iv) Analysis
It is the most difficult and most subjective method in PFA. Due to the crucial
slip in procedure, the data exhibited in PFA chart has to be analysed and similar
groups have to be identified. If any similar groups are found in the PFA chart, must
be rearranged to a new pattern which brings together packs with similar ratings. The
possible re-arranged PFA chart is shown in figure 3.7.



Figure 3.7: Rearranged PFA chart, indicating possible machine groups.

The different groups are identified with in blocks. The machines identified
with in blocks would be synthesised is to logical machine cell. This can be analysed
to develop a revised process sequence. Sometimes, there is no necessary of
rearrangement of PFA chart. Then, these parts must continue its own PFA chart.

Disadvantages of PFA
1. It provides no mechanisms for rationalizing the manufacturing routings.
2. There is no consideration being given to routing sheet whether the
routing are optimal or consistent or even logical.
3. The main weakness of PFA is that data used in the analysis are derived
from production route sheet, but the process sequence from these sheet



have been prepared by different process planner, so there is a chances

of differences which may reflect on routing sheet This will cause nonoptimal illegical and unnecessary slips.


In group technology, the parts are identified and grouped into families by
classification and coding (C/C system) systems,

3.6.1 Parts Classification

1. System based on part design attributes.
2. System based on manufacturing attributes.
3. System based on both design and manufacturing attributes. System based on part design attributes

In pertain to similarities in geometric features and consist of the following:

External and internal shapes and dimensions.

ii) Aspect ratio. (Length-to-width or length-to-diameter).

iii) Dimensional tolerance.
iv) Surface finishes.
v) Path functions.
vi) Material type.
vii) Major dimensions. System based on manufacturing attributes

In pertains to similarities in the methods and the sequence for the manufacturing
operations performed on the part. The selection of manufacturing process depends
on many factors such as shapes, dimensions and other geometric features of the
part. The manufacturing attributes of a part consist of the following:

The primary production processes used.



ii) The secondary and finishing process used.

iii) The dimensional tolerance and surface finish.
iv) The sequence of operations performed.
v) The tools, dies fixtures and machinery used.
vi) The production quality.
vii) The Production rate
viii) Production time.
ix) Major dimensions.
x) Basic external shape. System based on design and Manufacturing system attributes

Figure 3.8
This system contains the best characteristics of both design and manufacturing
attributes. There is a vital link between the design and manufacturing system
attributes, by means of group technology as shown in figure 3.8.

3.6.2 Coding
The coding of parts can be based on a particular companys own system or
it can be based on commercial classification and coding system. The classification
and coding system (C/C system) must be highly competent to the other system. The



code structure generally consist of numbers, letters or combinations of two. Each

specific component of product is assigned a code. The code may pertain less than
twelve digit design attributes or less than twelve digit manufacturing.
In most advanced system it may pertains thirty digit attributes of both design
and manufacturing.
1) Hierarchical coding.
2) Poly code.
3) Decision-Tree coding. Hierarchical coding

It is also called monocode.
This code, the interpretation of each succeeding digit depends on the
value of preceding digit. (Refer figure 3.9)

Figure 3.9: Hierarchical coding.

Each symbol amplifies the information contained in the preceding digit.
Therefore a digit code cannot be interpreted alone.
The main advantages of this system is a short code contains large
amount information. But it is complicated to apply in a computerized


3.17 Decision tree coding

It is also known as hybrid code.
This is most advanced system. It combines both design and manufacturing
attributes a as shown in figure 3.10 & 3.11.

Figure 3.10

Figure 3.11: Decision-tree classification for a sheet-metal bracket.


The six major industrial coding system are:
1. OPITZ system.



2. KK-3 system.
3. DCLASS system.
4. Multi-class system.
5. CODE system.
6. RNC-6 digit Mono code system.

3.7.1 OPTIZ Coding System

It is oldest scheme of classification and coding system. It was developed by
H.OPTIZ university of Aachen is West Germany.
OPTIZ system uses the following sequence as shown in figure 3.12.

Figure 3.12: OPTIZ system

The form codes (1 2 3 4 5) describes the primary design attributes of the
part. The supplementary codes (6 7 8 9) describes the manufacturing attributes like
dimensions, work material, shape of raw material and accuracy of material.
The secondary code (A B C D) describes the type of production and sequence
of production. The secondary code may be designed by the firm to serve its own
particular needs. The basic structure of the OPTIZ system of part classification and
coding is shown in figure 3.13.
In the form code the first digit indicates whether the part is rotational or not.
The other digits indicates the general shape and proportions of the part.
The survey of rotational part is limited with code value 0,1,2 as shown in
figure 3.14 because there is no unique features
For general, the classification of work parts, the coding of first five digits is
also mentioned in the figure 3.14.

Figure 3.13: Basic structure of the optiz system of parts classification and coding.





Figure 3.14: Form code (digits 1 through 5) for rotational parts in the optiz
system. Part classes 0.1, and 2.


3.7.2 Machine Class Coding System

Figure 3.15: Code determined for part-Multiclass system.




It was developed under the name of MICLASS (Metal Institute

CLASSification) system, Netherland.

This system was developed to help automated and standardize several

design, production and management function.

It involves the range from 12 to 13 digits The first 12 digits are universal
code and remaining 18 digits are used to code data that are specific to the
particular company or industry.

This system is used interactively with computer and asks the user many
questions On the bases of the answers, the computers automatically
assigns a code number to the part. The software is available in modules
that can be linked. (Refer figure 3.15)

3.7.3 K-K-3 System

It is a general purpose coding system for the parts that are to be machined.

It is 21 digits decimal system

This code is much lengther than the previous systems.

It classifies the dimensions and aspect ratio of the parts

It was developed by Japan Society for the promotion of machine industry.

(Refer figure 3.16)


Parts name
Major dimensions

(Rotational components)
General classification
Detail classification
General classification
Detail classification

Primary shapes and ratio of major of dimensions




External surface and outer primary



Concentric screw threaded parts


External surface

Functional cut-off parts

Extraordinary shaped parts




Cylindrical surface


Internal primary shape

Shape details and kinds of



Internal surface

Internal curved surface

Internal flat surface and cylindrical

End surface
Nonconcentric holes

Regularly located holes

Special holes

Noncutting process

Figure 3.16: The structure of a KK-3 system for rotational components.

3.7.4 Code System

It consists of eight digits.

Every digit in eight digit contains 16 possible values (zero through 9 and A
through F) which are used to describe the parts design and manufacturing

The initial digit position indicates the basic geometry of the part is called
the major division of the CODE system.

This digit would be used to specify whether the shape was a cylinder, flat
piece, block or other.

The interpretation of the remaining seven depends on the value of the first
digit, but these digits form a chain type structure. (Refer figure 3.17)



Figure 3.17: CODE system

2nd and 3rd digits

Basic geometry and principle manufacturing process.

4th, 5 th and 6th digit Secondary manufacturing process, example, threads,

grooves, slots, etc.,
7th and 8th digits

Overall size of the part.

3.7.5 D-Class System

It also consists of eight digits and they are divided into five code segments.
(Refer figure 3.18)

The first segment composed of three digits, which is used to denote the
basic shape of the part.

The second segment denotes the form features of the code

The features may be such as complexity of the part which includes (such
as holes and slots) heat treatments, and special surface finishes

The complexity is determined by the number of special features.

The third segment indicates the over all size envelop of the coded part
which composes one-digit-size code.



The fourth segment indicates the precision which also composes one
digit in length. The final segment comprises two code digit, which is used
to denote the material type.

Figure 3.18: D - CLASS system

3.7.6 RNC System

Figure 3.19: RNC system.




Design of the machine cell is critical in cellular manufacturing. The
performance of a GT cell depends on its design. An effective cell design is governed
by the following.
i) Machine cell types.
ii) Cell layouts.
iii) Key machine concept.

3.8.1 Machine cell types

1. Single machine cell
It consists of one machine with necessary fixtures and tooling. This type of
cell is suitable to work parts with attributes that allow them to be processed on
turning or milling.

2. Group machine cell with manual handling

It consists of more than one machine with manual handling of material between
the machines. This cell is organized in to a U shaped layout as shown in figure 3.20
(a). This allows a) variations in the workflow b) Using of multifunction workers and
c) To use the existing process-type layout machines without re-arrangement.

3, Group machine cell with semi-integrated handling

It consists of more than one machine with the use of conveyor to move the
parts between machines in the cell

4. Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)

It is the combination of fully automatic processing machines and automated
material handling systems.



3.8.2 Cell Layouts

Different cell layouts are U - shape (figure 3.20 (a)), in - line (figure 3.20
(b)), loop (figure 3.20(c)), and rectangular (figure 3.20 (d)).

U-shape layout make use of manual material handling and others semi
automated material handling.



Figure 3.20: Machine cells with semi-integrated handling.

3.8.3 Key machine concept

In a GT machine cell there is certain machine which is more expensive or
doing critical operations. This is known as key machine. Other machines are known
as supporting machines. The arrangement of supporting machines are in such a way
that they must keep the key machine busy. That is, the utilization of key machine
must be more than that of supporting machines.


1. Speed of the throughput: The time taken by components moving from
raw materials to finished part is greatly reduced.
2. Work in process in clearly substantially reduced because of increase
in speed of throughput.
3. Scrap-the rate of scrap is dropped and familiarity with limited range of
components seems the logical reason.
4. Material handling: Special equipment can be devised for the family and
group and the level of automation rises significantly.
5. Design retrieval can be possible.



6. Control over production: When dealing with the administration of the

group of machines, control is easier than when all production in under
functional layout.
7. Application to other spheres of activities is possible like shipping
inspection etc.,
8. Rate fixing becomes easier.
9. Special tools and fixtures can be economically devised.


1. The cost of implementation is generally high. This is because an outside
consultant is often required since in house expertise on GT is rarely a
available. It requires a long set up time and painful debugging.
2. Group technology may not be suitable for a factory with a very large
variety of products.
3. The entire production of the company cannot be put under the GT and
hence GT will have to coexist with the conventional layouts.
4. There are too many GT codes in use and there is no one GT code that
suits all applications.
5. It is often difficult to conceive all the operations for a group of
components being taken care of in the cell created for it.
6. The range of product mix in a plant may be under constant change in
which case the GT cells may need constant revision which is impractical.


3.11.1 Definition
Cellular manufacturing is an application of group technology in which
dissimilar machines or processes have been aggregated into cells, each of which is
dedicated to the production of a part or product family or a limited group of families



3.11.2 Objectives
The typical objectives in cellular manufacturing are similar to those of group
1. To shorten manufacturing lead times: Shorten manufacturing lead
times, by reducing setup, workpart handling, waiting times, and batch
2. To reduce work-in-process inventory: Smaller batch sizes and shorter
lead times reduce work-in-process.
3. To improve quality: This is accomplished by allowing each cell to
specialize in producing a smaller number of different parts. This reduces
process variations.
4. To simplify production scheduling: The similarity among parts in
the family reduces the complexity of production scheduling. Instead of
scheduling parts through a sequence of machines in a process-type shop
layout, the parts are simply scheduled though the cell.
5. To reduce setup times: This is accomplished by using group tooling
(cutting tools, jigs, and fixtures) that have been designed to process the
part family, rather than part tooling, which is designed for an individual
part. This reduces the number of individual tools required as well as the
time to change tooling between parts.

3.11.3 Composite Part Concept

Part families are defined by the fact that their members have similar design
and/or manufacturing features
The composite part concept takes this part family definition to its logical
conclusion. It conceives of a hypothetical part, a composite part for a given family,
which includes all of the design and manufacturing attributes of the family
An individual part in the family will have some of the features that characterize
the family but not all of them. The composite part possesses all of the features.



There is always a correlation between part design features and the production
operation required to generate those features. Round holes are made by drilling,
cylindrical shapes are made by turning, flat surfaces by milling, and so on.
A production cell designed for the part family would include those machines
required to make the composite part. Such a cell would be capable of producing
any member of the family, simply by omitting those operations corresponding to
features not possessed by the particular part.
The cell would also be designed to allow for size variations within the family
as well as feature variations.

a) The composite part for a family of machined rotational parts.

b) The individual features of the composite part
Figure 3.21: Composite part concept.
Consider the composite part in figure 3.21 (a). It represents a family of
rotational parts with features defined in figure 3.21 (b). Associated with each
feature is a certain machine operation as summarized in table 3.2. A machine cell
to produce this part family would be designed with the capability to accomplish
all seven operations required to produce the composite part (the last column in the
To produce a specific member of the family, operations would be included
to fabricate the required features of the part. For parts without all seven features,



unnecessary operations would simply be omitted. Machines, fixtures, and tools

would be organized for efficient flow of workparts through the cell
In practice, the number of design and manufacturing attributes is greater than
seven and allowances must be made for variations in overall size and shape of the
parts in the family. Nevertheless, the composite part concept is useful for visualizing
the machine cell design problem.
Table 3.2: Design features of the composite part and the manufacturing operations
required to shape those features.

Design feature

Corresponding manufacturing


External cylinder



Cylinder face



Cylindrical step



Smooth surface

External cylindrical grinding


Axial hole






Internal threads


3.11.4 Machine Cell Design

Design of the machine cell is critical in cellular manufacturing.

The cell design determines to a great degree the performance of the cell.
In this subsection, we discuss types of machine cells, cell layouts, and key
machine concept. Types of machine cells and layouts

GT manufacturing cells can be classified according to the number of machines
and the degree to which the material flow is mechanized between machines.

Types of machine cells:

a. The single machine cell



b. Group machine cell with manual handling (type IIM generally, type III
M less common).
c. Group machine cell with semi-integrated handling (type IIM generally,
type III M less common).
d. Flexible manufacturing cell or flexible manufacturing system (type IIA
generally, type III A less common).

a. The single machine cell

The single machine cell consists of one machine plus supporting fixtures
and tooling. This type of cell can be applied to workparts whose attributes
allow them to be made on one basic type of process such as turning or

For example, the composite part of figure 3.21 could be produced on a

conventional turret lathe with the possible exception of the cylindrical
grinding operation.

2. Group machine cell with manual handling

The group machine cell with manual handling is an arrangement of more

than one machine used collectively to produce one or more part families.

There is no provision for mechanized parts movement between the

machines in the cell Instead, the human operators who run the cell perform
the material handling function.

The cell is often organized into a U-shaped layout (as shown in figure
3.22). This layout is considered appropriate when there is variation in the
work flow among the parts made in the cell

It also allows the multifunctional workers in the cell to move easily

between machines

The group machine cell with manual handling is sometimes achieved in

a conventional process type layout without rearranging the equipment.



This is done simply by assigning certain machines to be included in the

machine group and restricting their work to specified part families

This allows many of the benefits of cellular manufacturing to be achieved

without the expense of rearranging equipment in the shop. Obviously, the
material handling benefits of GT are minimized with this organization.

Figure 3.22: Machine cell with manual handling between machines. Shown is a
U-shaped machine layout

3. Group machine cell with semi - integrated handling

The group machine cell with semi-integrated handling system such as a
conveyor, to move parts between machines in the cell.

4. Flexible manufacturing cell or flexible manufacturing system

The flexible manufacturing system (FMS) combines a fully integrated
material handling system with automated processing stations. The FMS is the most
highly automated of the group technology machine cells.

Types of layouts
A variety of layouts are used in GT cells. The U-shape, as in figure 3.22, is a
popular configuration in cellular manufacturing. Other GT layouts include in-line,
loop, and rectangular, shown in figure 3.23 for the case of semi-integrated handling.



Figure 3.23: Machine cells with semi-integrated handling

Figure 3.24: Four types of part moves in a mixed model production system. The
forward flow of work is from left to right.



Determining the most appropriate cell layout depends on the routing of parts
produced in the cell.
Four types of part movement can be distinguished in a mixed model part
production system. They are illustrated in figure 3.24 and are defined as follows,
where the forward direction of work flow is defined as being from left to right in
the figure:
1. Repeat operation, in which a consecutive operation is carried out on the
same machine, so that the part does not actually move.
2. In-sequence move, in which the part moves from the current machine to
an immediate neighbour in the forward direction.
3. By-passing move, in which the part moves forward from the current
machine to another machine that is two or more machines ahead.
4. Backtracking move, in which the part moves from the current machine
in the backward direction to another machine.
When the application consists exclusively of in-sequence moves, then an inline layout is appropriate.
A U-shaped layout also works well here and has the advantage of closer
interaction among the workers in the cell.
When the application includes repeated operations multiple stations
(machines) are often required.
For cells requiring by-passing moves, the U-shape layout is appropriate.
When backtracking moves are needed, a loop or rectangular layout is
appropriate to accommodate recirculation of parts within the cell. Factors accounted for cell design

(a) Quantity of work to be done by the cell
This includes the number of parts per year and the processing (or assembly)
time per part at each station. These factors determine the workload that must



be accomplished by the cell and therefore the number of machines that must be
included as well as total operating cost of the cell and the investment that can be

(b) Part size, shape, weighty and Other physical attributes

These factors determine the size and type of material handling and processing
equipment that must be used. Key machine concept

In some respects, a GT machine cell operates like a manual assembly line
and it is desirable to spread the workload evenly among the machines in the cell as
much as possible. On the other hand, there is typically a certain machine in a cell
(or perhaps more than one machine in a large cell) that is more expensive to operate
than the other machines or that performs certain critical operations in the plant.
This machine is referred to as the key machine. It is important that the
utilization of this key machine be high even if it means that the other machines in
the cell have relatively low utilization.
The other machines are referred to as supporting machines and they should be
organized in the cell to keep the key machine busy.
In a sense, the cell is designed so that the key machine becomes the bottleneck
in the system.


Process planning is an important task in discrete part manufacturing. In the
production process, there is a sequence of production operations through which
the raw material is effectively converted into finished product. So, there must be
a perfect production planning and production design is necessary to complete the
product. This process of decision making is called process planning. The sequence
of operations are recorded on a route sheet. The route sheet consists of the following



Cutting conditions (feed and spindle speed).

Total time of production and production cost.

Planning the process.

Current trends in routing sheet is to store relevant data in computers and affix
a barcode to the part, that serves as a key into the database of parts information.
Process planning depends upon the

Type of the product.

Quantity of product.

Type of raw material and parts.

Production facilities and technology on hand.

3.12.1 Basic functions of process planning

Process planning is earned out in two stages:
1. Process design.
2. Operation design.

(1) Process design

Process design is macroscopic decision-making of an overall process route
for converting the raw material into finished product.

(2) Operation design

Operation design is microscopic decision-making of an individual operations
contained in the process route.


CAPP is an automatic process planning functions by means of computers.

CAPP accomplishes the complex task of production planning by viewing

the total operations as an integrated system, so that the individual



operations and steps involved in production are co-ordinated perfectly

with other system and are performed efficiently and reality with the help
of computers.

CAPP requries extensive software and good co-ordinates with CAD/

CAM and it is a powerful tool for a efficiently planning and scheduling
the manufacturing operations.

CAPP is effective in small volume, high variety parts production requiring

machining forming and assembly operations.

CAPP requires vast amount of knowledge and experience in manufacturing

methods and technology.

It is necessary to find technical loss concerning the sequence of operations

associated with each given shape to be manufactured based upon past
experiences of process design and to make a process file.

3.13.1 Role of process planning in CAD/CAM integration

The process planning system involves a series of the following steps in
manufacturing process.
1. Interpretation of product design data.
2. Selection of machining process and tools, jigs and fixtures.
3. Determination of processing and geometrical shape.
4. Determination of datum surfaces.
5. Determination of sequence of operations.
6. Determination of production tolerance
7. Determination of cutting conditions.
8. Calculation of production time.
9. Generation of route sheet.



3.13.2 Approaches to CAPP

There are four basic important approaches to perform the task of process
planning. They are:
1. Manual approach.
2. Variant approach.
3. Generative approach.
4. Hybrid approach.
Among these, the Hybrid approach is an approach to perform the task of
process planning which combines both variant and generative type. Each approach
is appropriate under certain conditions. Therefore, knowledge of nature, advantages
and limitations are important. Manual Approach

The traditional manual approach involves examining an engineering part

drawing and developing manufacturing process plans and instructions.

These are based upon knowledge of process and machine capabilities,

tooling, materials, related costs and shop practices etc.

This approach requires very skilled manufacturing analyst to develop

process plans which are feasible, low cost and consistent with plans for
similar parts.

If the part to be produced belongs to an existing product design, of similar

parts, then the process planning involves recalling that existing process
plans of a similar part and modifying them to create a new routing for the
new product.

Work books or other Data management methods are often used to

manually classify, store and retrieve that information.

If the part to be produced is new, the planner may have to generate a

routing as a unique plam.



The manual approach is highly subjective, labour intensive, time

consuming, tedious, and often boring.

Further more, the task requires personnel well trained and experienced in
manufacturing shop floor activities.

There are two levels of process planning which is applicable for both manual
as well as CAPP approaches. They are:
i) High-level planning.
ii) Low-level planning.

i) High-level planning
In high-level planning the planner identifies the machinable features (surfaces)
of the part, groups them into setups, and orders these setups.
Each setup is listed in the order in which it is to be done, the features to be cut
in each of the setups, and the tools for cutting each feature.

ii) Low-level planning

In low-level planning, the planner specifies the details of performing the each
step that results from the first level (choosing machines, cutting conditions, type
fixturing, cost and time estimates, etc.,).
Planner through manual process will follow a less consistent set of steps
to develop process plans for new product. These steps involve primarily stock
preparation, plan preparation, and specification. In detail, it has follows

1. Get oriented
The process planner will go through the engineering drawing to identify the
basic structure, and checks for any major problems.

2. Recognize outer envelope of the finished part

With the help of the engineering drawing, the planner can easily recognize the
outer, or bounding envelope of the part. The recognition includes both the geometric



shape and the surface finish of the envelope, which determines the optimal shape of
stock in order to produce the finished part.

3. Choose the optimal stock

While selecting the stock, the dimensions of the stock are about 1/4 in larger
than the finished parts dimensions which could be selected based on the above step.

4. Recognize part features

The second component of the finished part recognition is listing its feature
and sub features that are subtracted from its outer envelope.

5. Choose a stock preparation plan

The next step is for the planner to outline all methods for getting the raw
material (stock) into an accurate shape with minimum scrap, and them it is graphed.

6. Consider alternative methods for producing each feature

7. Generate a plan by exploring feature interactions
The difficulty in generation of plan is that finding an order to machine the
features in which no sub goal interferes too seriously with achieving the others. The
final generation plan of the part may be expressed graphically in what may be called
a Feature interaction graph.

8. Integrate the squaring graph with the feature integration graph

The graphs obtained in steps 5 and 7 are merged with as much overlap between
the steps as possible so that we can get a compact sequence. The more overlap, the
better and more concise the final plan. The resulting graph is the final plan outline
represents the final ordering for the desired process plan.

9. Verify the plan

In this, the planner typically verifies the plan by checking the setups are
actually feasible, that the clamps are not in the way of the tools, etc.



10. Elaborate the process plan

The above nine steps represent the high-level planning of the process plan.
This step represents the low-level planning. Here, the planner generates more details
for producing each individual feature, choosing feeds and speed, estimating costs
and standard times etc.,.
After this, the planner releases the process plan to the various department for
The manual approach is the best approach for small companies with few
process plans to generate. A good analyst can create process plans which a accurate,
farily consistent and cost effective with minimum scrap.

Advantages of manual approach

1. Good flexibility.
2. Investment cost is low.

Disadvantages of manual approach

1. This becomes rapidly inefficient and unmanageable when the number
of process plans and revisions to those plans increases.
2. It requires large time for planning.
3. Inconsistent plans.
4. This approach always reflects the personal experiences and preferences,
prejudices of the process planner. Variant Approach

Variant process planners use existing process plans, then allow the user to
edit the plan for their new parts.

The variant CAPP systems are based on GT and parts classification and



ln this system, a standard process is stored in computer files for each part
code number and the process plan for new part is created by identifying
recalling and retrieving and existing plan for similar part and the plan is
edited for any modification.

The standard plans may be based on current routings or ideal plan is

prepared for each family. The basic variant approach to process planning
with group technology (GT) is,

Go through normal group technology setup procedures.


After part families identified, develop standard process plan for


iii) When a new plan has been designed, prepare a GT-code for each
iv) Use the GT system to lookup which part family is the closest
match, and retrieve standard plan for that family.

Edit standard plan so that values now match the new design
parameters, and add or delete steps are required.

The basic workstructure of variant CAPP (is shown in figure 3.25).

Figure 3.25: Basic workstructure of variant CAPP.



Figure 3.26: Operation of a retrieval computer-aided process planning system.

The user begins by identifying group technology board for the component
for which the process plan is to be determined. (Refer figure 3.26)

A search is made of the part family file to determine, if a standard route

sheet exists for a given part code .

If a file contains a process plan for a part, it is retrieved and displayed for
the use.

The standard process plan is examined to determine if there is any

modification is necessary.

Although the new part has the same code number, minor differences in
this process might be required to make the part.

The standard is edited accordingly If the file does not contain a process
plan for the given code number, the user may search the file for a similar
code number for which a standard routing exists.

By editing the existing process plan or by starting from scratch check the
develops the process plan for the new part.

This becomes the standard process plan for the new part code number.

The final step is the process plan formatter, which prints the route sheet
in the proper format. The formatter may call other application programs,



determining cutting conditions for machine tool operations, calculating

standard times for machining operations or computing cost estimates.
MIPLAN is an example of retrival type CAPP system.

Advantages of variant approach

1. Investment cost is low.
2. Development time is less.
3. It is well suited to medium to low product mixes.
4. It can be rapidly developed for various companies and various parts.
5. It can be interfaced with other CIM operations.
6. One program can be used in radically different industries.

Disadvantages of variant approach

1. GT codes cannot be used for a longer period.
2. Planning operations are comparatively slow.
3. More chances of error than generative systems. Generative Approach

Generative process planners should create a new process plan without the
use of any existing plans. This does not imply that the process planner is
automatic. It is an alternative systems to variant CAPR.

A generative CAPP creates the process plan using systematic procedure

rather than retrieving and editing the existing plans form a database. The
structure of generative CAPP is shown in figure 3.27.

Generative plans are generated by means of decision logics, formula

technology algorthims and geometric based data used for converting a
part from the raw material to finished state.



The rules of manufacturing and equipment capabilities are stored in a

computer system. The process sequence is planned without human
assistance and predefined standard plans.

The design of generative CAPP is a problem in the field of expert system

which is a branch of artificial intelligence.

The artificial intelligence techniques used in GCAPP are PROPEL,

algorthmieal system like LUPRA-TOUR for turned parts, PRICAPP and
ICAPP systems for milled parts.

The expert system are computers programs that are capable of solving
complex problems that normally requires a human who has years of
experience and education.

Stages of generative CAPP systems

i) Knowledgebase.
ii) Computer comparable part description.
iii) Inference engine.

i) Knowledge base
The technical knowledge of manufacturing and the logic used by successful
process planners must be captured and coded into a computer program.
An expert system is applied for this process planning and it is incorporated
into a knowledge has to solve process planning problems and to create route sheets.



Figure 3.27: Structure of a generative CAPP system.



ii) Computer comparable part description

Generative CAPP requires computer comparable description of the part.

The description contains the following data needed to plan the process
1. The geometric part of the model can be developed on a CAD system
during product design.
2. A group technology code number of the part defining its features in
significant detail.

iii) Inference engine

Figure 3.28: General structure of generative CAPP.



The generative CAPP system requires the capability to apply the process
planning logic with calculus algorithm and process knowledge contained
in the knowledge based to a given part description. CAPP system applies its
knowledge base for problem solving and this problem solving procedure
is referred to as the Inference Engine.

By using inference engine Generative CAPP system synthesis a new

process plan for each new part present to it. The general structure of
Generative CAPP system is shown in figure 3.28.

The several Generative CAPP system have been such as GENPLAN,


1. Flexibility and consistency for process planning for new parts.
2. Higher overall planning quality.
3. Planning operations are comparatively fast.
4. Generative CAPP is fully automatic.
5. It is suitable for large companies.

It requires more extensive setup. Hybrid Approach

An approach which combines the characteristics of both variant and generative
CAPP is known as hybrid approach. (Refer figure 3.29)
An example of this type of approach is stock preparation plan. By having
standard shock scopes and knowing all the possible ways, we can prepare a given
stock such type of information can be made available to the decision logic in order
to shorten it.



In hybrid, object-oriented programming techniques is used i.e., Object

Oriented Database Administrative System (OODBAS). The main concept used is
the object.
It is described by a complex of properties which constitute the object attributes
and methods.
The input information for OODBAS are graphical as well as alphanumeric.
The CAPP modules also contains the following data.
Graphical data related to the parts (shape, size, dimensions, as basic
types of object-oriented models).
Alpha numerical data which contain technological information.
Methods base, which comprises optimization and calculation algorithms.

Figure 3.29: Hybrid approach.



3.13.3 Product Development through Computer-Aided Process

Planning (CAPP)
Process planning involves defining the operations required in the manufacture
of a product. More specifically, this could involve such decisions as
a) Types of manufacturing process required.
b) Sequence of operations.
c) Machining speeds, feeds and operation times.
d) Tooling requirements.
e) Work-holding arrangements.
f) Machine selection and routing requirements.

Figure 3.30: Product development via CAPP.

An interactive C APP system, used in conjuction with a DBMS, computerises
routine data-gathering, helps automate manufacturing decision-making, and makes
available more of the planners time for methods improvement and cost-reduction
Figure 3.30 Shows how CAPP fits into the development of the product in a
CIM organisation, and effectively provides the vital interface between design and



Figure 3.31: Database structure of a CAPP system.

A more comprehensive representation is shown in figure 3.31. This shown the
inputs and outputs to a common database using a commercial CAPP package called
CAPES (Computer-Aided Planning and Estimating System). A system such as this
can provide the following facilities:
a) Where-used capability, allowing the user to list parts and operations
using specific machines, materials and tools from within the database.
b) Rapid estimating by direct generation or from simple modification of
similar-to products or jobs.
c) Speedy response to changes in materials, machines, tools and conditions.
d) Costing facilities for labour, materials, and overheads.
e) Method analysis and what- if simulation.
f) Graphical analysis of machine manipulation, loading, gauging and setup.
g) Automatic documentation of route cards and operation plan sheets in
either VDU display or hard-copy form.



h) Automatic release of operational data to production control, CNC partprograming, and manufacture via the common database.
i) Instant retrieval of information, assisted by coding and classification
systems as described in the previous section. The CAPES package uses
a retrieval system called Finder. This operates via an hierarchical tree
classification system with ten possible levels.

3.13.4 Benefits of CAPP

CAPP has the following advantages.

i) Increase in productivity of process planners

The systematic approach and availability of process plan in the data permits
more process plans to be developed by user. It gives more complete and detailed
process plan.

ii) Product rationalisation and Standardization

CAPP leads to more logical and consistent process planning than conventional
process planning. It results better product quality and reduces the manufacturing

iii) Improved legibility

CAPP improved legibility compared to manual prepared route sheets and it
reduces manual effort in preparation if routing sheet.

iv) Integrated with other application

The ability of CAPP programs to be interfaced with other application programs
such as cost estimating, work standards and others.

v) Effective inventories
More-effective use of inventories of tools, gauges, fixtures and other tools are



vi) Reduced lead time

CAPP reduced leads time to propare process plans.

vii) Updation and Access

The part drawing can be revised and every planner can access the same
database (central database).

viii) Other improvements

CAPP reduces calculation errors.

ix) Response
CAPP provides faster response to engineering changes.

3.13.5 Economics of CAPP

In a detailed survey of twenty two large and small manufacturing industries
using generative type CAPP, the following estimated cost saving were obtained.
i) 5 8% reduction in process planning effort.
ii) 10% saving in direct labour.
iii) 4% savings in material.
iv) 10% saving in scrap.
v) 6% saving in work-in-process.

3.13.6 CAPP steps used for Machining Operation

The important step involving computer aided process planning for machining
operations are;
1. Interpretation of part design data.
2. Selection of maching process.
3. Selection of machine tools and fixture.



4. Machining optimization.
5. Decomposition of machinable volumes.
6. Selection of machinable volumes.
7. Generation of precedence constraints.
8. Sequence of machinable volumes.
Factors to be considered for designing CAPP in Engine block manufacturing
1. Product geometry, material, tolerance, weight, etc.,.
2. Available process.
3. Available machine tools and fixtures.
4. Manufacturing skill.
5. Inventory.
Computer aided process planning begins with engineering drawings,
specifications, parts or material lists and a forecast of demand.

3.13.7 Advantages of CAPP

1. It reduces process planning and production lead time.
2. It has faster response to engineering changes, this will leads to revise
or create new plans according to technology development.
3. It access to up-to-date information in a central database.
4. It improves cost estimating procedures and reduces the calculation
5. It gives more complete and detailed process plans.
6. It gives improvement in production scheduling and capacity utilization.



7. It improves the ability to introduce new manufacturing technology,

8. It is easily incorporate with other manufacturing application programs.
9. It reduces the effort of process planning.
10. It reduceds expenses of direct labour.
11. It reduces the scrap.
12. CAPP provides cost saving in material, scrap and work-in progress.
13. It reduces inaccuracies in manufacturing.
14. It provides greater control of management in all levels.
15. It provides great effort on optimization technique in manufacturing.


Process planning is performed in all industries it significant is greatest in
small batch discrete part metal fabrication and manufacturing industries.
A completed manufacturing processes includes the complete transformation
from a raw material to a desired product. In general Computerized Manufacturing
Process Planning (CMPP) refers to either Machining process planning or Assembly
process planning. Machining process planning is concerned with how each single
workpiece is machined on individual machine or manufacturing cells.
While assembly process planning is concerned with how several workpieces
can be assembled together to form a Machine part, Machining process planning is
often called as process planning.
A process planning is an important document for production management. It
can be used for a management of production the assurance of product quality and
optimization of production scheduling. It is a key link for integrating design and



The following essential informations are necessary of CMPP.

1. Design data.
2. Quality requirement data.
3. Production type data.
4. Raw material data.
5. Company capacity and capability data.


The function of a CAPM system is to monitor and control the organisation of
production and materials requirements of the manufactured product.
A good example of a CAPM system is shown in figure 3.32. This is called
the Micros Manufacturing System and is discussed by kind permission of Kewill
Systems pic. This CAPM package contains a number of modules which may be
categorised as either links between CAD, stock control and purchasing departments
through the DBMS.
a) Material Control (including stock control, bill of material, material
requirement planning, and purchasing order printing and progressing),
b) Production Control (including work in progress, scheduling, shop
documentation, and job costing).
Designers can thus have ready access to purchase data files for raw materials
and bought-out items. Typical purchase information could include: item availability,
cost, and delivery; alternative suppliers; and previous purchase history. Designs
may therefore be efficiently optimised at an early stage in the process.
Standard purchase notes may be printed and dispatched via interface with
stock control data. Information includes: item descriptions, quantities, supplier, unit
prices, carnage price, date ordered, date due, and delivery instructions.



Once the item has been delivered, the form may be modified to include the
data of receipt and the information returned to the database as a goods received
file. The REC (received) dates of the roadster form reveals that two of the ordered
items have been delivered, although the QT Y OUTST (quantity outstanding)
column indicated that these were not supplied in the fall quantities required.

Figure 3.32: ACAPM system: the Micros Manufacturing System.

3.15.1 Bill Of Material (BOM)

BOM is a list of assemblies, compound components, component elements,

raw materials, and bought-out items which make up the complete product.

When created via the DBMS of a CIM system, the BOM allows the user to
quickly explode down through the various levels of product constituents,
from intermediate components and assemblies (high level) down to raw
materials (low level).

This lists the intermediate components of a roadster bicycle produced

with the aid of the Micros CAPM system.

The works orders is effectively the instructions for the shop floor to
manufacture or assemble whatever is listed on the BOM display.



A CIM-based BOM system can provide the following facilities:

a) Fast creation of BOMs via DBMS interface with CAD and stock
control databases.
b) Simplification of new BOM creation by rapid cross-reference with
existing BOMs.
c) Creation of costed BOMs with automatic updating of current costs.
d) Accurate and efficient updating of stock records via stock control
e) Automatic issuing of works orders to production control via the
f) The creation of Trial Kitting Lists to determine if sufficient stock
is available to meet the requirements of the works order. This helps
to minimise shortages and work in progress.

3.15.2 Stock Control

A computer-aided stock control system provides a database record of the

movement of all stock in and out of the stores. Via the VDU, it accepts
enquiries and produces reports on the status of all stock items.

The stock record of each item could include the following information:

Stock number; description; stock-on-hand; stock-on-order; allocated

stock; reorder level; lead time; supplier code; bin location; material,
labour, and overhead cost; selling price.

Such a computerised stock control facility helps to minimise stock levels

and redundant stock; provides faster updating of stock records and early
warning of shortages for assembly programmes; and allows instant access
to current order information via DBMS interface with the purchasing



This type of computer-aided purchasing system also enables engineers to

compile priority lists for the purchase of items, and so assist in bringing
forward the implementation of the works order.

3.15.3 Material Requirement Planning (MRP)

The function of MRP is to take the total sales and production demand explode
it through the BOM structures and, not only calculate the requirement for new
purchase orders and works orders, but also identify any existing orders which need
to be brought forward, delayed, or cancelled. In a CAPM system, MRP should link
directly with BOM data and stock


Explain Briefly about group Technology.


What is the Role of GT in CAD/CAM?


What are the Benefits, & disadvantages of GT?


Explain Types of part family.


Explain Briefly about PFA.


What are the types of coding system?


Explain the Opitz coding system.


Explain KK- 3 & D class coding system.


Explain about composite part concept.


Explain Briefly with Suitable example about cellular manufacturing.


Define CAPP.


Explain about CAPP.


Write a short note on generative CAPP.


Explain Briefly on variant CAPP.




Write advantages and disadvantages of CAPP.


Explain computerized manufacturing process planning.


Explain Briefly about material requirement planning.


Shop Floor Control and

Introduction to FMS

Shop floor control (SFC) deals with managing the work-in-process.

This consists of the release of production orders to the factory controlling

the progress of the orders through the various work stations, and getting
the current information of the status of the orders.

This can be shown in the form of a factory information system. (Refer

figure 4.1).

The input to the shop floor control system is the collection of production

These can be in the form of master schedule, manufacturing capacity

planning and MRP data. The factory production operations are the
processes to be controlled.



4.1.1 Phases in Shop Floor Control

A typical shop floor control system consists of three phases:
1. Order release.
2. Order scheduling.
3. Order progress.
The three phases and their connections to other functions in the production
management system are pictured in figure 4.1. In todays implementation of shop
floor control, these phases are executed by a combination of computer and human
resources with a growing proportion accomplished by computer automated methods.

Figure 4.1: Three phases in a shop floor control system. Order Release

The order release phase of shop floor control provides the documentation
needed to process a production order through the factory. The collection of
documents is sometimes called the shop packet. It consists of,



1. The route sheet, which documents the process plan for the item to be
2. Material requisitions to draw the necessary raw materials from inventory.
3. Job cards or other means to report direct labor time devoted to the order
and to indicate progress of the order through the factory.
4. Move tickets to authorize the material handling personnel to transport
parts between work centers in the factory if this kind of authorization is
5. Parts list, if required for assembly jobs.
In the operation of a conventional factory, which relies heavily on manual
labor, these are paper documents that move with the production order and
are used to track its progress through the shop.
In a modern factory, automated identification and data capture technologies
are used to monitor the status of production orders, thus rendering the
paper documents (or at least some of them) unnecessary.
The order release module is driven by two inputs, as indicated in figure
4.1. The first is the authorization to produce that derives from the master
The authorization proceeds through MRP which generated work orders
with scheduling information.
The second input to the order release module is the engineering and
manufacturing data base which provides the product structure and process
planning information needed to prep the various documents that accompany
the order through the shop. Order scheduling

The order scheduling module follows directly from the order release
module and assigns the production orders to the various work centers in
the plant.



In effect, order scheduling executes the dispatching function in PPC.

The order scheduling module prepares a dispatch list which indicates which
production orders should be accomplished at the various work centers. It
also provides information about relative priorities of the different jobs.
For example, by showing due dates for each job. In current shop floor
control practice, the dispatch list guides the shop foreman in making work
assignments and allocating resources to different jobs so that the master
schedule can best be achieved.
The order scheduling module in shop floor control is intended to solve two
problems in production control: 1) Machine loading and 2) Job sequencing
To schedule a given set of production orders or jobs in the factory, the
orders must first be assigned to work centers. Allocating orders to work
centers is referred to as machine loading
The term shop loading is also used, which refers to the loading of all
machines in the plant. Since the total number of production orders usually
exceeds the number of work centers, each work center will have a queue
of orders waiting to be processed.
Job sequencing involves determining the sequence in which the jobs will
be processed through a given work center.
To determine this sequence, priorities are established among the jobs in
the queue and the jobs are processed in the order of their relative priorities.
Priority control is a term used in production control to denote the function
that maintains the appropriate priority levels for the various production
orders in the shop.
As indicated in figure 4.1, priority control information is an important
input in the order scheduling module. Some of the dispatching rules used
to establish priorities orders in the plant include:

1. First-come-first serve
Jobs are processed in the order in which they arrive at the machine. One might
argue that this rule is the most fair.



2. Earliest due date

Orders with earlier due dates are given higher priorities.

3. Shortest processing time

Orders with shorter processing times are given higher priorities.

4. Least slack time

Slack time is defined as the difference between the time remaining until due
date and the process time remaining. Orders with the least slack in their schedule
are given higher priorities.

5. Critical ratio
The critical ratio is defined as the ratio of the time remaining until due date
divided by the process time remaining. Orders with the lowest critical ratio
are given higher priorities.
When an order is completed at one work center, it enters the queue at the
next machine in its process routing.
That is, the order becomes part of the machine loading for the next
work center, and priority control is utilized to determine the sequence of
processing among the jobs at the machine.
The relative priorities of the different orders may change over time.
Reasons behind these changes include:
1) Lower or higher than expected demand for certain product.
2) Equipment breakdown that cause delays in production.
3) Cancellation of an order by a customer.
4) Defective raw materials that delay an order. Order Progress

The order progress module in shop floor control monitors the status of the
various orders in the plant, WIP, and other characteristics that indicate the progress



and performance of production. The function of the order progress module is to

provide information that is useful in managing the factory based on data collected
from the factory.
The information presented to production management is often summarized in
the form of reports, such as the following:

1. Work order status reports

These reports indicate the status of production orders. Typical information in
the report includes the current work center where each order is located, processing
hours remaining before completion of each order, whether the job is on-time or
behind schedule, and priority level.

2. Progress reports
A progress report is used to report performance of the shop during a certain time
period (example, week or month in the master schedule). It provides information on
how many orders were completed during the period, how many orders should have
been completed during the period.

3. Exception reports
An exception reports indicates that deviations from the production schedule
(example, overdue jobs) and similar exception information.
These reports are useful to production management in making decisions
about allocation of resources, authorization of overtime hours, and other capacity
issues and in identifying problem areas in the plant that adversely affect achieving
the MPS.


Process-focussed production systems produce many non-standard products
in relatively small batches that flow along different routes or paths through the
production facility and require frequent machines change-overs. Such production
systems are also known as intermittent production systems or job shops figure 4.2.



Figure 4.2: Scheduling and Shop floor decisions in process-focused

production system.
In such production systems, the departments or work centres are organized
around the types of equipment or operations. (Example, drilling, welding, soldering,
etc.,). Products flow through work centres in batches corresponding to individual
customer orders or batches of economic batch quantities in produce to stock

4.2.1 Reasons for shop floor scheduling process

a) Job shops have to produce products against customer orders for which
delivery dates have to be promised .
b) Production lots tend to be quite small and may require numerous
machine change-overs.
c) Possibility of assigning and reassigning workers and machines to many
different orders due to flexibility.



d) In such a flexible, variable and changing environment, schedules must

be specific and detailed work centre-wise to bring orderliness.
The type of scheduling technique used in job shop depends on the volume of
orders, the nature of operations and the job complexity.

4.2.2 Types of scheduling techniques

1. Forward Scheduling.
2. Backward Scheduling.

1. Forward scheduling

Figure 4.3: Forward scheduling.

In this approach, each task is scheduled to occur at the earliest time that,
the necessary material will be on hand and capacity will be available.
It assumes that procurement of material and operations start as soon as the
customers, requirements are known. The customers place their orders on a
needed-as-soon-as possible basis. (Refer figure 4.3)
The earliest completion date assuming that everything goes as planned
could be quoted to the potential customer.
Some buffer time may be added to determine a data that is more likely to
be achievable, if it is acceptable to the customer.
Forward scheduling is used in many companies such as steel mills and
machine tool manufacturers where jobs are manufactured to customer
orders and delivery is requested on as early as possible, basis.



Forward scheduling is well suited where the supplier is usually not able to
meet the schedules.
This type of scheduling is simple to use, gets jobs done in shorter lead
times but accumulates high work in process inventories.

2. Backward scheduling

Figure 4.4: Backword scheduling

This scheduling technique is often used in assembly-type industries and in
job shops that commit in advance to specific delivery dates.
After determining the required schedule dates for major sub-assemblies,
the schedule uses these required dates for each component and works
backward to determine the proper release data for each component
manufacturing order.
The jobs start date is determined by setting back from the finish date, the
processing time for the job.
By assigning jobs as late as possible, backward scheduling minimizes
inventories, since each job is not completed until it is due nut not earlier.
Backword scheduling is also known as reverse scheduling. (See figure 4.4)

4.2.3 Stages in Scheduling

1. Loading.
2. Dispatching.



1. Loading
Loading or shop loading is the process of determining which work centre
receives which job.
It involves assigning a job or task to a particular work centre to be preformed
during a scheduling period (such as a week).
Loading of work centres depends on the available capacity and the
expected availability of the material for the job. The jobs are assigned to
machines or work centres taking into consideration the priority sequencing
and machine or work centre utilization.

2. Dispatching
Dispatching is sequencing and selecting the jobs waiting at a work centre
(i.e., determining which job to be done next) when capacity becomes
It is actually authorising or assigning the work to be done. The dispatch list
is a means of priority control.
lt lists all jobs available to a work centre and ranks them by a relative
priority. When priorities have been assigned to specific jobs, scheduling
gets implemented through the dispatch list.

4.2.4 Types of Loading

Loading procedures are categorised as either finite loading or infinite loading.
In finite loading, jobs are assigned to work centres by comparing the required hours
for each operation with the available hours in each work centre for the scheduling
period. In infinite loading, jobs are assigned to work centres without regard to
capacity (as if the capacity were infinite).



a) Finite loading

Figure 4.5: Finite loading.

Finite loading systems start with a specified capacity for each work centre
and a list of jobs to be processed at the work centre (sequencing). The work centres
capacity is allotted to the jobs by simulating job starting times and completion times.
The finite loading system combines loading, sequencing and detailed scheduling. It
creates a detailed schedule for each job and each work centre, based on the capacity
of the work centre. (Refer figure 4.5)

b) Infinite loading
The process of loading work centres with all the jobs, when they are required
without regard to the actual capacity available at the work centre is called infinite
loading. Infinite loading indicates the actual released order demand (load) on the
work centre, so as to facilitate decision about using overtime, sub-contracting or
using alternative routing and delaying selected orders. (Refer figure 4.6)



Figure 4.6: Infinite loading.

4.2.5 Load Charts and Machine Loading Charts

a) Load chart or Load schedule
A load schedule or load chart is a device for comparing the actual load (labour
hours and machine hours) required to produce the products as per the MPS against
the available capacity (labour hours and machine hours) in each week.
Figure 4.7, illustrates the load schedule or chart shown graphically for a
particular work centre having a weekly capacity of 100 standard hours and the
weekly load for six weeks period. The load against each time period (i.e., week) is
as shown:



Figure 4.7: Load schedule.

Machine loading chart (Gantt load chart)

Figure 4.8: Gantt load chart drawn for a particular week of a particular month.



Gantt charts are used to display graphically the work loads on each work
centre. There are two types of Gantt charts,
i) Gantt load chart.
ii) Gantt scheduling chart or progress chart.
Gantt charts are simple to devise and easy to understand. The Gantt load
chart offers the advantage of ease and clarity in communicating important shop

Week number

Engg. release
Receipt of materials
Figure 4.9: Gantt scheduling chart.


a) Assigning a priority to each order which helps in setting the sequence
of processing orders at work centres.
b) Issuing dispatching lists to each work centre. These lists indicate
which orders are to be produced at a work centre, their priorities and
completion dates/ times.
c) Providing input-output control on all work centres.



d) Up-dating the work-in-progress inventory. Information such as number

of good parts coming out of each processing step (operation), amount
of scrap, amount of rework required and number of units short on each
e) Measuring the efficiency, utilization and productivity of workers and
machines at each work centre.


The Factory Data Collection (FDC) system consists of the various paper
documents, terminals, and automated devices located throughout the plant
for collecting data on shop floor operations plus the means of compiling
and processing the data usually by computer.

The factory data collection system serves as an input to the order progress
module in shop floor control. Using our feedback control system analogy
of figure the FDC system is the sensor component of the shop floor control

Examples of the types of data on factory operations collected by the FDC

system include piece counts completed at certain work center, direct labor
time expended on each order, parts that are scrapped, parts requiring
rework, and equipment downtime.

The data collection system can also include the time clocks used by
employees to punch in and out of work.

4.4.1 Types of factory data collection system.

i) On-Line Versus Batch Systems

The purpose of the factory data collection system is twofold: to supply

data to the order progress module in the shop floor control system and
to provide current information to production foreman, plant management
and production control personnel.



To accomplish this purpose, the factory data collection data collection

system must input data to the plant computer system.

This can be done in either an on-line or off-line mode. In an on-line

system the data are entered directly into the plant computer system and
are immediately available to the order progress module.

The advantage of the on-line data collection system is that the data file
representing the status of the shop can be kept current at all times.

As changes in order progress are reported, these changes are immediately

incorporated into the shop status file. The personnel with a need to know
can access this status in real time and be confident that they have the most
up-to-date information on which to base any decisions.

In the off-line collection system, the data are temporarily stored in either
a storage device or a stand-alone computer system to be entered and
processed subsequently by the plant computer in a batch mode. In this
mode of operation, there is a delay in the data processing.

Consequently, the plant computer system cannot provide real-time

information on shop floor status.

This delay and the requirements for a separate data storage system are Hie
principle disadvantages of this configuration.

The advantage of an off-line collection system is that it is generally easier

to install and implement.

ii) Data Input Techniques

The techniques of factory data collection include manual procedure,

computer terminals located in the factory and other technologies.

The manually oriented techniques of factory data collection are those in

which the production workers must fill out paper forms indicating order
progress data.



The forms are subsequently turned in and compiled using a combination

of clerical and computerized methods.

The manual/clerical techniques include:

1. Job Traveller

This is a log sheet included in the shop packet that travels with the order
through the factory. Workers who spend time on the order are required
to record their times on the log sheet together with other data such as the
data, piece counts, defects and so on.

The job traveller becomes the chronological record of the processing of

the order.

The problem with this method is its inherent incompatibility with the
principles of real-time data collection. Since the job traveller moves with
the job, it is not readily available for compiling current order progress.

2. Employee time sheets

In the typical operation of this method, a daily time sheet is prepared for
each worker and the worker must fill out the form to indicate the work that
was accomplished during the day.

Data entered on the form include the order number, operation on the route
sheet, the number of pieces completed during the day, time spent and so

Some of these data are taken from information contained in the shop
packet for the order. The time sheet is turned in daily and order progress
information is compiled.

3. Operators tear strips

With this technique, the shop packet includes a set of preprinted tear strips
that can easily be separated from the packet

The preprinted data on each tear strip include order number, route sheet
details and so on.



When a worker finishes an operation or at the end of the shift, one or the
tear strips is torn off, piece count and time data are recorded by the worker
and the form is turned in to report order progress.

4. Prepunched cards

This is essentially the same technique as the tear strip method, but
prepunched computer cards are included with the shop packet instead of
tear strips.

The prepunched cards contain the same type of order data and the workers
must write the same kind of production data onto the card.

The difference in the use of prepunched cards as that in compiling the

daily order progress, mechanized data processing procedures can be used
to record some of the data.

There are problems with all of these manually oriented data collection
procedures. They all rely on the co-operation and clerical accuracy of
factory workers to record data onto a paper document.

There are invariably errors in this kind of procedure. Error rates associated
with hand-written entry of data average 1/30.

Some of the errors can be detected by the clerical staff that does the
compilation of order progress.

Examples of detectable errors include wrong dates incorrect order

numbers (the clerical staff knows which orders are in the shop and they
can usually determine when order number has been entered by a worker
and incorrect operation numbers on the route sheet (if the worker enters
a certain operation number but the preceding operation number has not
been started, an error has been made).

Other errors are more difficult to identify.

If a worker enters a piece count of 130 pieces which represents the work
completed in one shift when the batch size is 230 parts, this is difficult for
the clerical staff to verify.



If a different worker on the following day complete the batch and also
enters a piece count of 130, it is obvious that one of the workers overstated
his / her production.

Another problem is the delay in submitting the order progress data for
compilation. There is a time lapse in each of the methods between when
events occurs in the shop and when the data representing those events are

The job traveller method is the worst offender in this regard.

Here the data might not be compiled until the order has been completed
too late to take any corrective action. This method is of little value in a
shop floor control system.

The remaining manual methods described above suffer a one-day delay

since the shop data are generally submitted at the end of the shift and a
summary compilation is available until the following day at the earliest.

The data-entry methods also include more automated input technologies

such as magnetic card readers or optical bar code readers.

Certain types of data, such as identification of order, product, and even

operation sequence number, can be entered with the automated techniques
using magnetised or bar-coded included with the shop packet.

4.4.2 Numbers and Arrangement of Keyboard-Based Terminals

Possible in the Factory
1. One centralized terminal

In this arrangement there is a single terminal located centrally in the part.

This requires all works to walk from their workstations to the central when
they must enter the data. If the plant is large, this becomes inconvenient.

Also, use of the terminal increase at the time of a shift change, and this
results in over time for the workers.



2. Satellite terminals

In this configuration, there are multiple data collection terminals located

throughout the plant.

The number and locations are designed to strike a balance between

minimizing the investment cost in terminals and maximizing the
convenience of the workers in the plant.

3. Workstation terminals

The most convenient arrangement for the workers is to have a data

collection terminal at each workstation.

This minimize the time lost in walking to the satellite terminals. However,
it seems to be justified only when the number of data transactions is
relatively large and when the terminals are also designed for collecting
certain data automatically.

The trend in industry is toward more use of automation in factory data

collection systems. Although the term automation is used, many of the
techniques require the participation of human workers.


The field of automatic identification is often associated with the material

handling industry. In fact, the industry trade association called the
Automatic Identification manufacturers (AIM) is an affiliate of the Material
Handling Institute, Inc. Many of the applications of this technology relate
to material handling.

Automatic identification is a term that refers to various technologies used

in automatic or semiautomatic acquisition of product data for entry into a
computer system.

These technologies are mostly sensor-based methods that provide a

means of reading data that are coded on a document, product, component,



container and so on without the need for human interpretation of the data.
Instead, the computer system interprets and processes the data for some
useful application.

The applications of automated identification systems are numerous they

include retail sales, warehousing (semi-automated storage and picking),
product sortation and tracking shipping and receiving and shop floor

Some of the automated identification applications require workers

to be involved in the data collection procedure, usually to operate the
identification equipment in the application.

These techniques are therefore semi-automated rather than automated

methods. Other applications accomplish the identification procedure with
no human participation.

The same basic sensor technologies may be used in both cases. For
example, certain types of bar code readers are operated by people while
other types are operated automatically.

4.5.1 Reasons for using automatic identification techniques

1. There are some very good reasons for using automatic identification
techniques. First and foremost, the accuracy of the data collected is
improved, in many cases by a significant margin. To illustrate, the error
rate in bar code technology is approximately 10,000 times lower than
in manual keyboard data entry. The rate of 1/3,000,000 is used an error
rate of comparison with the handwritten and keyboard entry methods.
The error rates of most of the other technologies is not as good as for
bar codes but still better than manual-based methods.
2. A second reason for using automatic identification is to reduce the
time required by human workers to make the data entry. The speed
of data entry handwritten documents in approximately documents is



approximately 5 to 7 characters per second and it is 10 to 15 characters

per second (at best) for keyboard entry.

4.5.2 Technology of AIS

Automatic identification methods are capable of reading hundreds of characters
per second. This comparison is certainly not the whole story in a data collection
transaction, but the time savings in using automatic identification techniques can
mean substantial labour cost benefits for large plants with many workers.
The technologies available for use in automatic identification systems
Radio frequency systems.
Magnetic stripe.
Optical character recognition
Machine vision. Bar code

The use of bar codes in factory data collection system is predominant and
growing. The other techniques are either used in special applications in factory
operations or they are widely applied outside the factory. Radio frequency system

Radio-Frequency (RF) systems rely on the use of radio frequency signals

similar to those used in wireless television transmission.

Although the type of signal is the same, there are differences in the use of
RF technology in product identification

One difference is that the communication is in two directions rather than

one direction (as in TV).

Also, the signal power is substantially lower in factory identification

applications (ranging from several milliwatts to 7 watts).



Radio-frequency identified, an antenna at some location where data are to

be read and a reader the interprets the data

The identification tag is a transponder, a device that is capable of emitting

a signal of its own when it receives a signal from an external source. It is
attached to the product, truck, railway car, or other item.

The term tag is misleading, since the term refers to a small but rugged
boxlike container that houses the electronics for data storage and RF

The container may be as much as 2.5 2.5 7.5 inch in size and be capable
of withstanding temperatures from 40 to +400F. The tags are usually
read-only devices that contain up to 20 characters of data representing
the item identification and other information that is to be communicated.

Recent developments in the technology have provided much higher data

storage capacity and the ability to change the data in the tag (read/write

This opens many opportunities for incorporating much more status and
progress information into the automatic identification system.

The antenna is located at an identification station and listens for the RF

signal from the identification tag that uniquely the item to which it is

The signal is then fed to a reader that decodes and validates the signal
prior to transmission of the associated data to the collection computer

The hardware required for an RF identification system has tended to be

more expensive than for most data collection technologies.

For this reason, RF systems have generally been appropriate for data
collection situations in which environmental factors preclude the use of
optical techniques such as bar codes.



For example, RF systems are suited for identification of products with

high unit values in manufacturing processes (such as spray painting) that
would obscure any optically coded data.

They are also used for identifying railroad cars and in highway trucking
applications where the environment and conditions make other methods
of identification infeasible. Magnetic stripes

Magnetic stripes (the term magnetic strip is also used) attached to the
product or container can also be used for item identification in factory and
warehouse applications.

These are the same kinds of magnetic stripes that are used to encode
identification data onto plastic access cards for use in automatic bank,

Their use seems to be declining for ship floor control applications because
they are more expensive than bare codes and cannot be scanned remotely.

Two advantages they possess is their larger data storage capacity and the
ability to alter the data contained in them. Optical Character Recognition (OCR)

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) techniques refer to a specially

designed alphanumeric character set that is machine readable by an
optical sensor device.

The substantial benefit offered by OCR technology is that the characters

and associated text can be read by human beings as well as machines.

The list of disadvantages, at least for factory and warehouse applications

includes the requirement for near-contact scanning, lower scanning rates
and a higher error rate compared to bar code scanning.



Machine vision systems are used for automated inspection tasks. The
applications also include certain classes of automatic identification
problems and these applications may grow in number as the technology

For example, machine vision systems are capable of distinguishing

between a limited set of products moving down a conveyor so that the
products can be sorted.

The recognition task is accomplished without requiring that a special

identification code be placed on the product. The recognition by the
machine vision system is based on the inherent geometric features of the


Bar code technology has become the most popular method of automatic
identification in retail sales and in factory data collection

The bar code itself consists of a sequence of thick and spaces is coded to
narrow spaces separating the bars. The pattern of bars and spaces is coded
to represent alphanumeric characters. Bar code readers interpret the code
by scanning and decoding the sequence of bars. The reader consists of the
scanner and decoder.

The scanner emits a beam of light that is swept past the bar code (either
manually or automatically) and sense light reflections to distinguish
between the bars and spaces.

The light reflections are sensed by a photo detector that converts the spaces
into an electric signal and the bars into absence of an electrical signal.

The width of the bars and spaces is indicated by the duration of the
corresponding signals. The decoder analyses the pulse train to validate
and interpet the corresponding data. (Figure 4.10).



Figure 4.10: Conversion of bar code into pulse train of electrical signals.

Certainly, a major reason for the acceptance of bar codes is their widespread
use in grocery and other retail store.

In 1973, the grocery industry adopted the Universal Product Code

(UPC) as its standard for item identification. This is a 10 digit bar code
that uses five digits to identify the product and five digits to identify the

The U.S. Department of Defence provided another major endorsement in

1982 by adopting a bar code standard (Code 39) that must be applied by
vendors on product cartons supplied to the various agencies.

4.6.1 Bar Code Symbol

The Universal Product Code is only one of many bar code formats in
commercial use today.

The bar code standard adopted by the automotive industry the Department
of Defence the General Services Administration and many other
manufacturing industries os Code 39, also known as AIM USD-2 (for
automatic Identification Manufacturers Uniform Symbol Description-2),
although this is actually a subset of Code 39. We describe this format as
an example of bar code symbols [2,3,5].



Table 4.1: Character structure, USD-2.

Code 39 uses a uniquely defined series of wide and narrow elements (bars
and spaces) to represent 0-9, the 26 alpha characters and special symbols.

The wide elements are equivalent to a binary value of one and the narrow
elements are equal to zero.

The width of the narrow bars and spaces called the X dimension provides
the basis for a scheme of classifying bar codes into codes into three code

High density: X dimension is 0.010 inch or less.

Medium density: X dimension is between 0.010 and 0.030 in.

Low density: X dimension is 0.030 in. or greater.

For bar codes with X 0.020 in., the wide elements must be printed
with a width of anywhere between 2 x and 3 x (two to three times the X

For bar codes will X < 0.020 in., the wide elements must have a width
between 2.2 x and 3 x. Whatever the wide-to-narrow ratio, the width must



be uniform throughout the code in order for the reader to consistently

interpret the bar code. Figure presents the character structure for USD-2,
and figure illustrates how the character might be developed in a typical
bar code.

Denotes a start/stop code which must precede and follow every bar code
message Note that is used only for the start/stop code.

Figure 4.11: Atypical grouping of characters to form a bar code in Code 39.

In addition to the character set in the bar code, there must also be a socalled quiet zone both preceding and following the bar code, in which
there is no printing that night confuse the decoder. (Refer figure 4.11)

The reason for the name Code 39 is that nine elements (bars and spaces)
are used in each character and three of the elements are wide elements.

The placement of the wide spaces and bars in the code is what uniquely
designates the character. Each code begins and ends with either a wide or
narrow bar.

The code is sometimes referred to an code three-of-nine.



4.6.2 Bar Code Readers

Bar code readers come in a variety of configurations; some require a human
being a operate them and others are stand-alone automatic units. They are usually
classified as contact or non-contact readers. Contact bar code reader

Contact bar code readers are hand-held wands or light pens operated by
moving the tip of the wand quickly past the bar code on the object or
document. The wand tip must be in contact with the bar code surface or in
very close proximity during the reading procedure.

In a factory data collection application, they are usually part of a keyboard

entry terminals. Figure illustrates this type of terminal, which allows the
worker to input data both by using the bar code reader and by keystroke

The terminal is sometimes referred to as a stationary in the sense that it is

placed in a fixed location in the shop. When a transaction is entered in the
factory, the data are communicated to the computer system in an on-line
or batch.

In addition to their use in factory data collection systems stationary contact

bar code readers are widely used in retail establishments to enter the item
identification in a sales transaction. Bar codes (Universal Product Codes)
are include on the labels for many types of products sold commercial

Contact bar code readers are also available as portable units which can be
carried around the factory or warehouse by a worker

They are battery-powered units that include a solid-state memory device

capable of storing data acquired during operation.

The data can subsequently be transferred to the computer system. Portable

bar code readers often include a keypad that can be used by the operator to
input data that cannot be entered via bar code



These portable units are used for order picking in a warehouse and similar
applications which require a worker to move large distances in a building. Non contact bar code reader

Noncontact bar code readers do not use a contacting want read the bar
code. Instead, they locus a light beam on the bar code and a photodector
reads the reflected signal to interpret the code.

The reader probe is located a certain distance from the bar code (several
inches to several feet) during the read procedure.

Noncontact readers are classified as fixed beam and moving beam

1. Fixed beam readers are stationary units that use a fixed beam of
light They are usually mounted beside a conveyor and depend for
their operation on the movement of the workpiece typically in large
warehousing and material handling operations where large quantities
of materials must be identified as they flow past the scanner on
conveyors. Fixed beam scanners in these kinds of operations
represent some of the first applications of bar codes in industry, and
they date back to the 1950s.
2. Moving beam scanners use a highly focused beam of light actuated
by a rotating mirror to traverse an angular sweep in search of the
bar code on the object. Lasers are often used to achieve the highly
focused light beam. A span is defines as a single sweep of the light
beam through the angular path. The high rotational speed of the
mirror allows for very high scan rates-up to 1440 scans per second.
This means that many scans of a single bar code can be made during
a typical reading procedure, thus permitting verification of the
reading. Moving-beam scanners can be either stationary or portable
units. Stationary moving beam scanners are located in a fixed position
to read bar codes on objects as they move past on a conveyor or



other material handling equipment. They are used in warehouses

and distribution centers to automate the product identification and
sortation operation.

4.6.3 Bar Code Printers

Preprinted bar codes are produced using traditional techniques such as
letterpress and lexographic printing. These methods are used for printing labels in
large quantities for product cartons.
Bar codes can also be prepared by other methods in which the process is
controlled by microprocessor to achieve more individualize printing of the barcoded document or item label. Examples of applications of these individualized
bar code printing methods include keyboard entry of data for inclusion in the bar
code for each item that is labeled automated weighing scales and other inspection
procedures in which unique grading and labelling of product is required, unique
identification of production lots for pharmaceutical products and preparation of
route sheets and other documents that are included in a shop packet traveling with
production order.
Production workers use bar code readers to indicate order number and
completion of each step in the operation sequence. The various printing technologies
used in these applications include dot matrix, ink jet, and electronic printing.
A relatively new technology for bar code making of metal parts in a factory
makes use of a laser etching process. The process provides a permanent identification
mark on the item which is not susceptible to damage in the harsh environments
that are encounted in many manufacturing processes. The laser etching process is
beginning to be used in the automotive industry.


The trend in factory data collection systems is towards the use of more
automation technologies. Some of the bar code reading methods and
other automatic identification techniques discussed in the two preceding
sections can be operated in a fully computer-automated mode.



These fully automated methods fall within the scope of what we are
calling process monitoring.

As indicated earlier; computer process monitoring involves a computer

system which is directly connected to the manufacturing process for the
purpose of collection data on the process and associated equipment.

There is no direct control of the manufacturing process as a result of the

computer process monitoring installation.

The process either remains under the control of human operators or its
automatically controlled by a process controller that is separate from the
computer process monitoring system.

The hardware components used in a computer monitoring system axe

sensors and transducers, analog-to-digital converters, simple limit
switches and photo detectors to indicate presence or absence of an object
(example, a workpart), pulse generators (example, optical encoders),
multiplexers and so on.

Devices used to output data from the computer to the manufacturing

process (example, digital-to-analog converters) are typically not part of
the process monitoring application.

4.7.1 Data Acquisition System

A Data Acquisition System (DAS) is a computer system used to

automatically collect data from a process or piece of equipment.

Data acquisition systems either perform an analysis of the data or transmit

the data to another computer for processing and analysis.

A microcomputer is typically used as the controller/processor for a

current technology DAS. Other possible controller/processors include
microcomputers, microprocessors, and single-board computers.

The functions of the controller/processor include synchronizing the data

sampling and storage tabulating the data for presentation and statistical and



other analysis. Other components of the DAS include-analog transducers,

analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), digital transducers and digital input
interfaces (example, pulse counters).

A standard microcomputer can be converted to use as a DAS by adding

the necessary ADSs, multiplexers, and other circuitry as a separate frontend unit or in the form of I/O cards in the computer.

The means of sampling the data can be either synchronous or asynchronous

process. Synchronous sampling involves the use of software to drive the
sampling process.

In this case, the frequency of the sampling rate is determined by the

computer processor timer, and sampling must be performed synchronously
with the time.

Asynchronous sampling involves the use of hardware to perform the

sampling task. This is generally laster and more accurate but more

Also the hardware-based system cannot be re programmed thus reducing

its flexibility to meet changing application requirements.

4.7.2 Data Logger

A data logger is a system that is sometimes compared with a data acquisition

system. A data logger is a device that automatically collects and stores data
for later off-line (batch) analysis. No data analysis capability is available
on the data logger.

Before microprocessors became so common, data loggers represented a

viable means of data collection. Today, almost all devices that collect data
posses a micro-processor-based control unit that permits some type of
analysis to be performed.

Consequently, the distinction between data loggers and data acquisition

systems has become blurred and most systems commercially available
today fall into the DAS category.



4.7.3 Multilevel Scanning

Figure 4.12: Multilevel scanning in computer process monitoring.

In computer process monitoring, it is possible for the numbers of monitored

variables to becomes quite large. Although it is technically feasible to
monitor all of the variables, it may result in inefficient use of the computer
since some of the variables would not be needed under normal operating

In this kind of situation, it is appropriate to utilize a computer process

monitoring configuration referred to as multilevel scanning. (Figure 4.12)

In multilevel scanning, there are two (or more) levels of process scanning
performed by the computer system, a high-level scan and a low-level scan.

During normal operation of the process, only the high-level scan is

performed. In this monitoring procedure, only the key variables and status
data are scanned.

When these variables indicate that the process is operating abnormally,

the computer switches to a low-level scan for the affected operations and

This low-level scan involves a more complete data logging and analysis
procedure to ascertain the source of the malfunction. A low-level scan can
also be initiated on request of the operator.



Many of the same functions and capabilities discussed can be

accomplished in computer process monitoring. These include the use of
program interrupts, machine breakdown diagnosis and certain aspects or
error detection and recovery.


4.8.1 Bar Code (explained in
4.8.2 Optical Character Recognition

Like bar codes, optical character recognition (OCR) recognizes and

processes symbols. But unlike the bare code system, which interprets
data coded in a series of bars and spaces, OCR devices interpret human
readable characters for computers. As wand or slot readers, OCR scanners
collect character information in the form of pixels. (Refer figure 4.13)

Data can be scanned either from the left or the right. Typical character
fonts are OCR-B, found at the bottom of the UPC symbol on grocery
items and OCR-A, found on DOD bar code labels, paperback books and
retail clothing tags.

The average OCR scanner can read 20-200 characters per second, highspeed systems as many as 1,200 characters per second. (Refer figure 4.14)

Feature extraction or template comparison are the two techniques for

decoding data scanned by OCR systems.

The former method compares character features such as vertical,

horizontal, or diagonal lines and loops with those stored in the computer
memory. The latter method compares the character, pixel by pixel, after it
has been decoded in brinary data form.

For each character, the computer memory contains an array of pixels

called a character template.



Figure 4.13: Bar code contact wands and Slot readers.



Figure 4.14: Hand-held bar code scanners.

4.8.3 Machine Vision System

In vision or image processing systems, computers analyze and interpret
images, Though there may be different approaches to analysis, most vision system
begin the task with a camera scene divided into pixels.
The computer compares the pixels to identify prominent object features such
as edges or holes. Comparing these features with those of the images stored in
memory allows recognition.



Figure 4.15: Stationary bar code scanners.

Cameras used in vision systems are either vidicon similar to a commercial
TV camera, or CCD (Charge-Coupled Device). A third type is the CCPD (ChargeCoupled Photo-Diode) image sensor. Both CCD and CCPD cameras are based on
solid state electronics.
Vision systems can carry out a variety of tasks in seven general categories:
a) Gaging.
b) Verifying.
c) Identifying.



d) Recognizing.
e) Locating.
f) Detecting flaws and.
g) Multimedia integrating.
Identifying includes all the tasks in which symbols determine an objects
identity, whereas recognizing uses observed features of the object. Multimedia
integrating combines the image data with word processing, database, graphic
and communication systems. This versatility of integration is attractive for CIM
applications. Vision system applications in manufacturing include sorting, material
handling, process control, machine monitoring, safety, guidance.

4.8.4 Radio Frequency Identification

When no line of sight exists between the scanner and the identification tag as
in some material handling applications or when read/write capability is required,
Raido Frequency Identification (RFID) is the answer.
The object being tracked has a transponder that transmits a specific radio
frequency representing a unique signature or data stream that the transmitter or
reader can interrogate. The antenna picks up the signal
RFID systems are based on transmission of a radio signal and its obstruction
by the object if in the capture windows. The basic components are control unit
(reader), antenna, and coded identification .
The antenna continuously transmits a low-wattage (1-7 mW) microwave
signal. When a tag enters the field of view, the reflected signal gets frequencymodulated. Coded tag may be active of passive.
The active tag is battery-operated can store several Kbytes of data and can
add, delete or change the data in the tag on the basis of the key code received. RF
tags carry predetermined process information that local scanning logic stations at
each workstation can read.



After completing the programmed work, the station adds a relevant message to
the tag. At the end of an assembly line, a computer can off-load all the information,
thus producing a complete record of the assembly and test functions.

4.8.5 Magnetic Identification

Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR) uses stylised OCR fonts. The
fonts are printed with a magnetic ink to permit readability after being overprinted or
even smudged. MICR is used to read smaller documents of size 7 to 20 cms. Like
OCR, these also require precise orientation and registration.

4.8.6 Voice Technology

Speech is the most natural way of communication. This eliminates the need
of the user to understand a computer system. Voice technology is intelligently
packaged and applied in several applications.
Moreover the training can be minimised and the key board entry can be
eliminated and hand and eye co-ordination is no longer needed.
Voice recognition (VR) is of two types
i) Speaker dependent.
ii) Speaker independent.
Most voice recognition systems are speaker independent systems. VR systems
recognise the users vocabulary and stores a computer image of each utterance and
compares later the input words to the computer stored words. If the input matches
the stored pattern, recognition is achieved.
This provides larger vocabulary and accurate recognition. Commercial VR
systems are having around a few hundred words in active vocabulary and skilful
programming can develop application dependent vocabularies.
Real application of VR systems rests on the fact that user need not be trained
to use the system. Speaker independent system uses recognition template from
memories of the previously recorded images.



The templates represent speech patterns of both male and female speakers.
These are now available with limited vocabularies.



Figure 4.16: Flexibility and Automation.

Flexibility has become a key consideration in the design of manufacturing
systems. It is the essential feature of flexible manufacturing systems. Flexibility is a
collection of properties of manufacturing system that support changes in production
activities or capabilities. It is defined as the ability of a system to cope with changing
circumstances. It describes the ability of manufacturing system to be applied
for different tasks which may be due to changes in product demand, changes in
production system and changes in product itself If the system is not flexible then it
may not be able to operate effectively as situation changes. The general relationship



between flexibility and automation is shown in figure 4.16, which shows that the
most highly automated systems usually have the least flexibility and vice versa.
Flexibility is not a single homogeneous property, but is composed of various
different components.
A FMS is a group of NC machine tools that can randomly process a group
of parts, having automated material handling and central computer control to
dynamically balance resource utilisation so that the system can adopt automatically
to change in part production, mixes and levels of output.
FMS is a randomly loaded automated system based on group technology
manufacturing linking integrated computer control and a group of machines to
automatically produce and handle (move) parts for continuous serial processing.
FMS combines microelectronics and mechanical engineering to bring the
economies of scale to batch work. A central online computer controls the machine
tools, other workstations, and the transfer of components and tooling. The computer
also provides monitoring and information control. This combination of flexibility
and overall control makes possible the production of a wide range of products in
small numbers.

4.9.1 Types of Flexibility

a) Machine flexibility
This is the ease of making the changes to process a given set of part types. The
setup time required for a machine tool to switch from from one part type to another
includes: cutting tool preparation time, part positioning and releasing time, and the
NC program change-overtime.
The flexibility can be attained by:

Technological progress, example sophisticated tool loading and part

loading devices.


Proper operation assignment, so that there is no need to change the tools

that are in the tool magazines, or they are changed less often.



iii) Having the technological capability of bringing both the part and
required cutting tools to the machine tool together.

b) Process flexibility
This is the ability to produce a given set of part types (each possibly using
different materials in several ways), i.e., the capability to absorb changes in product
mix. It is also known as mix flexibility. Process flexibility increases as machine
set up costs decrease.
This flexibility can be attained by having:

Machine flexibility.


Multipurpose, adaptable, CNC machining centres.

c) Product flexibility
This is the ability to change to process new part types, i.e., the capability
to absorb economically and quickly the production of new product designs. It
can be measured by the time required to switch from one part mix to another, not
necessarily of the same part types. It can be attained by having:

An efficient and automated production planning and control system.


Machine flexibility.

d) Routing flexibility
This is the ability to process a given set of parts on alternative machines, i.e.,
not to experience a dramatic decrease in production rate when breakdown occur.
This flexibility can be attained by:

Allowing for automated and automatic rerouting of parts.


Pooling machines into machine groups.

iii) Duplicating operation assignments.



e) Volume flexibility
This is the ability to operate profitably, at different production volumes. The
lower the volume is, the more volume flexible the system must be. This flexibility
can be attained by having:

Multipurpose machines.


A layout that is not dedicated to a particular process.

iii) A sophisticated, automated materials handling system.

iv) Routing flexibility.

f) Expansion flexibility
It is the ability to easily add capability and capacity into the system, as needed.
This flexibility is attained by having

A non-dedicated, non-process driven layout.


A flexible materials handling system consisting of, say, wire guided


iii) Modular, flexible machining cells with pallet changers.

iv) Routing flexibility.

g) Operation flexibility
It is the ability to interchange ordering of operations on part. The flexibility
is attained by:

Keeping the routing options open.


Making the decision like the next operation or the next machine in
real time and depends upon current system state.

h) Production flexibility
It is the universe of part types that can be processed. It is attained by:




Increasing the level of technology and the versatility of the machine



Having all above mentioned flexibilities.

Figure 4.17, displays the relationship between the different flexibilities.

The arrow signify necessary for. An ideal FMS would possess all of the defined
flexibilities. However, the cost would be quite high.

Figure 4.17: Relationship among flexibility types.

There are two basic types of FMS, namely dedicated FMS and random FMS.
A dedicated system machines fixed set of part types with well defined manufacturing
requirements over a known time horizon. The random FMS, on the other hand,
machines a greater variety of parts in random sequence.

4.9.2 Types of FMS

The FMS can be classified based on:
1. Kinds of Operation.
2. Number of machines.
3. Flexibility level.

1. Kinds of operation
Based on the kinds of operations the FMS can be classified as:
1. Processing operations.
2. Assembly operations.



An FMS is designed to perform one or the other. The system may process
rotational parts or non rotational parts.
Flexible manufacturing systems with multiple stations that process non
rotational parts one much higher than systems that process rotational parts.

2. Number of machines
Based on the number of machines in the system, the FMS can be classified
as follows:
i) Single machine cell.
ii) Flexible manufacturing cell.
iii)Flexible manufacturing system.

i) Single Machine Cell (SMC)

It consists of one CNC machining center.
It has parts storage system for an attended pertion.
The raw workparts are loaded into the parts storage unit and completed
parts are unloaded from it, (Refer figure 4.18)
The cell can be designed to operate in either flexible mode or a batch
mode or in combination.
Batch mode
Flexible mode
1. The Machine processes parts of a The system satisfies the following
single style is specified lot sizes.
flexibility test.
a) Processing different part style.
b) Responding to changes in
production schedule.
c) New parts are introduced.
2. It is changed over to process a batch Error recovery can not be satisfied.



Figure 4.18: Single machine cell consisting of one CNC machining center and
parts storage unit.

ii) Flexible Manufacturing Cell (FMC)

Figure 4.19: A flexible manufacturing cell consisting of three identical processing

stations (CNC machining centers), a load/unload station and a part handling



iii) Flexible manufacturing systems

It has four or more processing workstation which are connected by a
common part handling system (mechanical) and by a distributed computer system




It has four or more machines.


It includes


Computer control system is larger Computer control system is smaller.

and more sophisticated.


It has two or three machines.

processing It does not include non processing


3. Flexibility level
Based on the level of flexibility, the FMS can be classified on:
i) Dedicated FMS.
ii) Random-order FMS.

i) Dedicated FMS
It is designed to produce a limited variety of part styles.
The product design is stable and the system can be designed with a
certain amount of process specialization to make the operations more
To make limited part family, the machines can be designed for the
specific processes.

ii) Random-order FMS

It is more appropriate when the part family is large.
There are some variations in part configurations.



New part designs are introduced into the system.

Engineering changes in parts are produced.
It uses general purpose machines for producing variations in product
and it is capable of processing parts in various sequences.
More sophisticated computer control system is required.

4.9.3 Components of FMS

The components of FMS are listed below;
1. Workstations.
2. Material handling and storage system.
3. Computer control system.
4. Human resources. Workstations
Depends on the type of work accomplished by the system, the various
processing or assembly equipments are used in an FMS.

Types of workstations
1. Machining stations
The CNC machine tool is used as a workstations in FMS. Most common is
the CNC machining center. The horizontal machining center is commonly used.
CNC machining centers possess features that make them compatible with
the FMS, including automatic tool changing and tool storage, palletized workparts,
CNC, capacity distributed Numerical Control.
Machining centers are having automatic pallet changers. It is interfaced with
the FMS part handling system. Machining centers are used for non rotational parts.
Turning centers are used for rotational parts.



Mill-turn centers are used for parts that are mostly rotational but require
multitooth rotational cutters like milling and drilling. For achieving higher
production in milling than machining center, special milling machine modules can
be used. The milling module can be horizontal spindle, vertical spindle or multiple

2. Load and unload stations

The load and unload station connects the FMS and the rest of the factory. In
this station raw workparts enters the system and finished parts exit the system.
Loading and unloading can be carried out either manually or by automated
handling system. The mechanized cranes and other handling devices are used to lift
the heavy parts. Air hoses or other washing facilities are required to remove chips
and ensure clean mounting and locating points.
The loading and unload station should include a data entry unit and monitor
for communication between the operator and the computer system.
The instructions are sent to the operator regarding which part to load on to the
next pallet. When different pallets are required for different parts, the correct pallet
must be supplied to the station. All of these require communication between the
computer system and the operator at load and unload station.

3. Other processing stations

Sheet metal fabrication processing stations are used in addition to machining.
The processing workstations consist of press working operations such as bending,
shearing, punching, notching, and forming processes.
Therefore workstations consist of heating furnace, a forging press and
trimming station.

4. Assembly operation
For batch production, the flexible automated assembly system are developed
instead of manual labour. Robots are used for assembly operation.



The robots are programmed to perform various tasks with sequence variation
and different product styles assembled in the system. In electronics assembly
system, programmable component placement machines are used.

5. Other stations and Equipment

1. Inspection - Co-ordinate measuring machine. Special inspection probes
in a machine tool spindle, Machine vision.
2. Cleaning parts and pallet fixtures.
3. Central coolant delivery system.
4. Chip removal system. Material Handling and Storage System

This systems used to transfer parts from one station to other station.

1. Functions
The material handling and storage system performs the following functions.
1. The material handling system is used as a temporary storage of parts. In
FMS, the number of parts waiting for processing exceeds the number of
parts being processed at any movement.
2. The material handling system includes the locations for loading and
unloading stations.
3. The material handling system must be capable of being controlled by
the computer system.
4. It carries variety of workpart configurations.
5. The parts must be capable of moving from any one machine in the
system to any other machines to provide various routing alternations for
the different parts.



2. Material handling equipment

1. Conventional material transport equipment Industrial trucks, Automated
guided vehicle system, Conveyors, Cranes.
2. In line transfer mechanisms.
3. Robots.

3. Material handling systems

1. Primary handling system - Transfer of workparts between station in the
2. Secondary handling system.
It consists of automatic parallel changes, transfer devices and other similar
Transfer of workparts from the primary system to the machine tool or other
processing stations.

4. Other purpose
1. Reorientation of the workpart.
2. Used as a buffer storage.

5. FMS Layout
The material handling system establishes the FMS layout. Most layout
configurations found in todays FMSs can be divided into five categories
1. In-lint layout.
2. Loop layout.
3. Ladder layout.
4. Open field layout.
5. Robot-centered cell.



1. In the in-line layout, the machines and handling system are arranged
in a straight line. In its simplest form, the parts progress from one
workstation to the next in a well-defined sequence, with work always
moving in one direction and on back flow. The operation of this type of
system is similar to a transfer line, except that a variety of workparts are
processed in the system. Since all work units follow the same routing
sequence, even though the processing varies at each station, this system
is classified as type III A in our manufacturing systems classification
system. For in-line systems requiring greater routing flexibility, a
linear transfer system that permits movement in two directions can be
installed. One possible arrangement for doing this is shown in figure
4.20, in which a secondary work handling system is provided at each
workstation to separate most of the parts from the primary line. Because
of the variation in routings, this is a type II A manufacturing system.

Figure 4.20: In-line FMS layouts.



Table 4.2: Material handling equipment.


Typical material handling system

(Chapter or Section)
In-line transfer system
Conveyor system
Rail guided vehicle system

Loop layout

Conveyor system
In-floor towline carts

Ladder layout

Conveyor system
Automated guided vehicle system
Rail guided vehicle system

Open field layout

Automated guided vehicle system

In-floor towline carts


Industrial robot

2. In the loop layout, the workstation are organized in a loop that is served
by a part handling system in the same shape, as shown in figure 4.21 (a).
Parts usually flow in one direction around the loop, with the capability
to stop and be transferred to any station. A secondary handling system is
shown at each workstation to permit parts to move without obstruction
around the loop. The load/unload station(s) are typically located at one
end of the loop. An alternative form of loop layout is the rectangular
layout. As shown in figure 4.21 (b), this arrangement might be used
to return pallets to the starting position in a straight line machine



Figure 4.21: FMS loop layout.

3. The ladder layout consists of a loop with rungs between the straight
sections of the loop, on which workstations are located, as shown in
figure 4.22. The Rings increase the possible ways of getting from one
machine to the next and obviate the need for a secondary handling
system. This reduces average travel distance and minimizes congestion
in the handling system, thereby reducing transport time between



Figure 4.22: FMS ladder layout.

4. The open field layout consists of multiple loops and ladders and may
include sidings as well as illustrated in figure 4.23. This layout type
is generally appropriate for processing a large family of parts. The
number of different machine types may be limited, and parts are routed
to different workstations depending on which one becomes available
5. The robot-centered cell (figure 4.24) uses one or more robots as the
material handling system. Industrial robots can be equipped with
grippers that make them well suited for the handling of rotational parts,
and robot-centered FMS layouts are often used to process cylindrical or
disk-shaped parts.



Figure 4.23: Open field FMS Layout.

Figure 4.24: Flexible machining cell with turning centres and a Robot serving as
the material handling unit.



The FMS consist of a computer system which is interfaced to the material
handling system, workstations.
The FMS computer system consist of central computer controlling the
individual machines and other computer components.

1. Distributing the control instructions to various machines

The central computer co-ordinate the individual machines through the
instructions. In FMS, part programs must be downloaded to machines, The DNC
system stores the programs, editing existing programs, developing new programs
and perform other function.

2. Workstation control
In a fully automated FMs, the individual machines operate under computer

3. Production control
Co-ordinating various production operations of the FMS modules by direct
communication with their controllers like CNC etc.,

4. Primary material handling system control

It is also called as traffic control. If refers to the management to primary
material handling system that moves parts between machines. This can be achieved
by activating switches at various branches and points at machine tool locations.

5. Secondary material handling system control

It is also called shuttle control. It controls the secondary material handling
system at each workstation.

6. Monitoring of workparts
The computer must monitor the station of each cart or pallet in the primary
and secondary handling system.



7. Tool management
Arrange the availability of the right tool in the right conditions at the right
time in the right place. Tool life is also monitored by the computer system.

8. Performance reporting and Monitoring

The computer control system is programmed to collect all the data on the
operation and performance of the system and reports can be prepared based on the
performance of FMS.
9. Machine diagnostics to obtain any malfunctions of the FMS modules. Human Resources

Human are needed to manage the operations of FMS.

Loading the workparts and unloading the finished parts.

ii) Selecting tools and setting tools.

iii) Maintenance and repair the machines.
iv) Writing part programs.
v) Operating computer systems.

4.9.4 Applications of FMS

1. All types of machining operations.
2. Assembly works.
3. Sheet metal press-working.
4. Forging.
5. Welding.
6. Surface-treatment.
7. Inspection and Testing.



4.9.5 Benefits of FMS

a) To provide flexible manufacturing facilities for a family of work pieces,
that is, there will be a greater potential to make changes in terms of
products, technology etc., as the need arises. Necessity depends on
market needs and not when the production deems it so. It means that it
provides more flexible response to the customers.
b) It reduces both direct and indirect labour cost; machines and material
handling systems associated with FMS are unmanned and are under the
control of a supervisory computer. As there is automatic handling and
automatic gauging and inspection by the use of Robots, the need for
manual labour is minimised. The cost of labour per unit of production
is less which in turn is responsible for reduced unit cost.
c) It increases or improves the utilisation of equipment and facilities
through its inherent flexibility. Utilisation in FMS is as high as 85% as
compared to 50% or even less in conventional case.
d) It provides reduced manufacturing lead time, reduced inventory of parts
(both stock and work in progress), since time spent by the material on
shop floor is reduced drastically and responsible for rapid throughput of
work on the part.
e) It can maximise the combination of operations at a single location.
f) FMS minimises the requirement of tooling as in most of the cases
specialised tooling is software.
g) It provides better and more consistent quality products.
h) It provides a better management control by integration of computers,
NC and automated handling. It provides the scheduling flexibility too.
In general, there will be an increase in productivity of quality goods and a
reduction in manufacturing cost by decreasing both transfer time and production
time. (Refer figure 4.25)


Figure 4.25

Figure 4.26: Benefits derived from FMS

Reduced cycle time.

Lower Work-In-Process (WIP) inventory.




Low direct labour costs.

Ability to change over to different parts quickly.

Improved quality of product (due to consistence).

Higher utilization of equipment and resources (Utilisation) better than

standalone CNC machines).

Quicker response to market changes.

Reduced space requirements. Ability to optimise loading and throughput

of machines. Expandability for additional processes or added capacity.
Reduced number of tools and machines required.

Motivation for designers to add variations and features to meet customer


Compatible with CIM.


Explain about (SFC) Shop Floor Control.


Explain the scheduling techniques and stages in scheduling.


What are the steps involved in the factory data collection system? Explain.


What re the methods used for Automatic Identification.


Explain the Bar code Technology.


Explain Bar code Technology in detail.


Explain various Bar code Reader.


Explain Bar Code printers.


Describe Automated Data Collection System.


Describe Multi level scanning.



Explain components of FMS in detail.


Describe FMS with neat diagram.


Explain material handling and storage system in detail.


Give FMS layout with neat diagram.


Give the application of FMS in detail.


Explain machine vision system in detail.


Explain voice Technology in detail.


Give detail description of OCR with diagram.


State the benefits of FMS.


Explain various workstations in FMS.





Computer Aided Planning and

Control and
Computer Monitoring
Any manufacturing activity require resource input in terms of men, materials,
capital and machines. In any business that produced a product or service, production
activity must be related to market demands indicated by the continuous stream of
customers orders. For maximum effectiveness, this must be in such a way that
customer demands are satisfied, but at the same time production activities are carried
on in an economic manner. The process of developing this kind of relationship
between market demands and production capability is the function of Production
Planning and Control or sometimes referred to as production control.
Production planning and control can be effected principally through the
management of work flow inventories and backlogs and changing levels of
operation. The set of policies and procedures that are used to manage work flow,



inventories backlogs and changes in the level of production rate comprise what
called a production planning and control system.
PPC is factorys nervous system. The functions of PPC in a factory can be
easily compared with the nervous system in human organism. It serves to coordinate the activities of a plant just as the nervous system regulates muscular
movements. When simple repetitive operations are performed, this production
control is accomplished more or less subconsciously in the same manner that
the nervous system automatically regulates ones breathing. When less repetitive
activity is involved, more conscious direction is necessary, both in the plant and in
the human system.
Customer demands are likely to differ in quantities and delivery schedules and
this will lead to large fluctuations in the production levels. So to meet any demand,
it is desirable to have planning for production in future time periods for inventories
of finished goods and meet part of market demands from such finished goods
inventories. Furthermore, the lead times involved in procurement of manufacturing
inputs warrant planning for production in advance. This is particularly so, in the
Indian context, with specific reference to industrial raw materials. Also, requirements
of skilled manpower necessitate such planning where time factor involved in
training personnel is rather large. Also the social political structure in India makes
it quite difficult for an organisation to have varying manpower levels. This, again,
necessitates production planning in order to smooth out the needs for manpower.
Another reason why PPC is necessary, is the need to meet changes in demands
due to trend, cyclical and reasonable factors. Long-run changes in demand are taken
care of by change in overall capacity by expansion and or new facilities. However,
in short run, these will have to be taken care of by such factors as sub-contracting,
using overtime and building up inventories. Needless to say, in planning production
for these purposes, one should take into consideration the changes in production
levels over future periods in order to economise on cost of production. This is must
factor which necessaries planning for production and exercising control.



Moreover, production operations are subject to variety of uncertainties such as

emergency order, breakdown, material shortages and various other contingencies.
PPC provides a way to take these factors into considerations.

5.1.1 Effects of Production Planning and Control

The effects of PPC can be grouped in two captions:
a) Material factors
b) Human factors

a) Material factors
Under this following categories are included:

i) Quality of the output:

An improvement in volume of output within quality and safety limits
laid down by management is most common objective of PPC.

ii) Plant utilisation:

With ever increasing capital investment per producer in industry, making
complete use of plant is of growing importance. Experience and research has
shown that in many types of plant the capital saving due to improved load
factors are proving the most substantial of all. These improvements are also
being achieved through better labour effectiveness.

iii) Use of services:

Again economics in the use of steam, water, air and electricity may be
paramount factors.

iv) Quality of product:

It may be sometimes desirable for economic or other reasons, to improve
the quality of product to new or more consistent standard.



v) Process efficiency:
An operator can have a far more significant, effect on process efficiency
than that was previously possessed.

vi) Standard of safety:

In dealing with many products quite apart from the normal good
standards a particularly high level of safety may be important, which is being
achieved by it.

vii) Works cleanliness:

It is another objective of management.

b) Human factors
Under this following may be included.

i) Effectiveness of work:
The work should be such that it meets the ego and emotion of the worker
and he feels the pride over it. In other words, the objective of management
is to choose right man for right job at right place at right time on right wages
and salaries.

ii) Interest in work:

The worker should take interest in work and he will put the heart and
hand in performing the task is another prime aim of good management.

iii) Waiting time:

The waiting time should remain minimum for the want of materials,
tools, equipment, supervision, inspection, delivery etc. It can only be achieved
when the worker on the work will help fully and take interest in it.

iv) Need for supervision:

To make the worker expert and self-dependent in normal day to day
work is the other aim of the management. The supervisory time should be



reduced. The supervisors should be left, to perform the task of planning,

coordination, motivation, control and feedback informations only.

v) Ideas for new methods:

Workers, working on the machine are said to be the best man for new
idea and suggestions, as he knows the various aspect of work fully. To give
encouragement to the worker for new ideas and new method, PPC is brought
in picture.

vi) Team spirit:

To develop the team spirit and feeling of brotherhoodness among
workers is another aim. The workers should do the work as a team, and should
recognise their value and status in company as a group not individuals.

vii) Absentieeism:
To minimise and regulate the absenteeism, PPC may be introduced.

viii) Labour turnover:

It helps the turnover to its minimum.


There have been several factors working over the last several decades to
cause the evolution of a more modern and effective approach to the problems of
production planning and control cited above. The most obvious of these factors
was the development of the computer, a powerful tool to help accomplish the vast
data processing and routine decision-making chores in production planning that had
previously been done by human beings.
In addition to the computer, there were other factors which were perhaps
less dramatic but equally important. One of these was the increase in the level of
professionalism brought to the field of production planning and control. Production



planning has been gradually transformed from what was largely a clerical function
into a recognized profession requiring specialized knowledge and academic training.
Systems, methodologies, and even a terminology have developed to deal with the
problems of this professional field.
Important among the methodologies of production planning and control, and
another significant factor in the development of the field, is operations research.
The computer became the important tool in production planning, but many of the
decision-making procedures and software programs were based on the analytical
models provided by operations research. Linear programming, inventory models,
queueing theory, and a host of other techniques have been effectively applied to
problems in production planning and control.
Another factor that has acted as a driving force in the development of better
production planning is increased competition from abroad. Many American firms
have lost their competitive edge in international and even domestic markets.
Increasing U.S. productivity is seen as one important way to improve our competitive
position. Better management of the production function is certainly a key element
in productivity improvement.
Finally, a fifth factor is the increase in the complexity of both the products
manufactured and the markets that buy these products. The number of different
products has proliferated, tolerances and specifications are more stringent, and
customers are more particular in their requirements and expectations. These changes
have placed greater demands on manufacturing firms to manage their operations
more efficiently and responsively.
As a consequence of these factors, companies are gradually abandoning the
traditional approach in favor of what we are calling computer-integrated production
management systems. There are other terms which are used to describe these
systems and their major components. IBM uses the term communications-oriented
production information and control systemCOPICSto identify the group of
system elements. George Plossl integrates the various system concepts under the
name manufacturing control. Computer-Aided Manufacturing International,



calls its development effort in this area the factory management project.
Oliver Wight refers to the use of MRP II, or manufacturing resource planning, to
consolidate the manufacturing, engineering, and financial functions of the firm into
one operating system. All of these terms refer to computerized information systems
designed to integrate the various functions of production planning and control and
to reduce the problems.

Figure 5.1: of activities in a computer-integrated production management system.

Figure 5.1 presents a block diagram illustrating the functions and their
relationships in a computer-integrated production management system. Many of these
functions are nearly identical to their counterparts in traditional production planning



and control. For example, forecasting, production planning, the development of the
master schedule, purchasing, and other functions appear die same in figure 5.1.
To be sure, modern computerized systems have been developed to perform
these functions, but the functions themselves remain relatively unchanged. More
significant changes have occurred in the organization and execution of production
planning and control through the implementation of such schemes as MRP, capacity
planning, and shop floor control. What follows is a brief description of some of the
recently developed functions in a CIPMS. We will neglect those functions which
are nearly the same as their conventional counterparts. The newer functions are
highlighted in figure 5.1 bold blocks.

5.2.1 Engineering and manufacturing data base

This data base comprises all the information needed to fabricate the components
and assemble the products. It includes the bills of material (assembly lists), part
design data (either as engineering drawings or some other suitable format), process
route sheets, and so on. Ideally, these data should be contained in some master file
to avoid duplication of records and to facilitate update of the files when design
engineering changes are made or route sheets are updated. As shown in figure 5.1,
the design engineering and process planning functions provide the inputs for the
engineering and manufacturing data base.

5.2.2 Material requirements planning (MRP)

MRP involves determining when to order raw materials and components
for assembled products. It can also be used to reschedule orders in response to
changing production priorities and demand conditions. The term priority planning
is now widely used in describing computer-based systems for time-phased planning
of raw materials, work-in-progress, and finished goods.
We will devote most of the following chapter to the subject of material
requirements planning.



5.2.3 Capacity planning

MRP is concerned with the planning of materials and components. Capacity
planning, on the other hand, is concerned with determining the labour and equipment
resources needed to meet the production schedule.
Capacity planning will often necessitate a revision in the master production
schedule. It would be infeasible, and counterproductive in all likelihood, to develop
a master schedule that exceeds plant capacity. Therefore, the master schedule is
checked against available plant capacity to make sure that the schedule can be
realized. If not, either the schedule or plant capacity must be adjusted to be brought
into balance. Capacity planning has always been of concern in traditional production
planning and control. However, it is an area of planning whose recognition has
been growing in recent years due to its impact on the ability to achieve the master
production schedule.
The term plant capacity is used to define the maximum rate of output that the
plant can produce under a given set of assumed operating conditions. The assumed
operating conditions refer to the number of shifts (one, two, or three shifts per day),
number of days of plant operation per week, employment levels, and whether or not
overtime is included in the definition of plant capacity. Capacity for a production
plant is traditionally measured in terms of output units of the plant. Examples would
be tons of steel for a steel mill, number of automobiles for a car assembly plant, and
barrels of oil for a refinery. When the output units of a plant are nonhomogeneous,
input units may be more appropriate for measuring plant capacity. A job shop, for
instance, may use labor hours or available machine hours to measure capacity.
Capacity planning is concerned with determining what labor and equipment
capacity is required to meet the current master production schedule as well as
the long-term future production needs of the firm. Capacity planning is typically
performed in terms of labor and or machine hours available.
The function of capacity planning in the overall production planning and
control system is shown in figure 5.1. The master schedule is transformed into



material and component requirements using MRP. Then these requirements are
compared with available plant capacity over the planning horizon. If the schedule
is incompatible with capacity, adjustments must be made either in the master
schedule or in plant capacity. The possibility of adjustments in the master schedule
is indicated by the arrow in figure 5.1 leading from capacity planning to the master
Capacity adjustments can be accomplished in either the short term or the
long term. Capacity planning for short-term adjustments would include decisions
on such factors as the following:
1. Employment levels. Employment in the plant can be increased or
decreased in response to changes in capacity requirements.
2. Number of work shifts. Increasing or decreasing the number of shifts
per week.
3. Labour overtime hours or reduced workweek.
4. Inventory stockpiling. This would be used to maintain steady
employment during temporary slack periods.
5. Order backlogs. Deliveries of product to customers would be delayed
during busy periods.
6. Subcontracting. Letting of jobs to other shops during busy periods, or
taking in extra work during slack periods.
Capacity planning to meet long-term capacity requirements would include
the following types of decisions:
1. Investing in more productive machines or new types of machines to
manufacture new product designs
2. New plant construction
3. Purchase of existing plants from other companies



4. Closing down or selling off existing facilities which will not be needed
in the future

5.2.4 Inventory management

In the manufacturing environment, inventory management is closely tied to
material requirements planning. The objectives are simple to keep the investment
in inventory low while maintaining good customer service. The use of computer
systems has provided opportunities to accomplish these objectives more effectively.

5.2.5 Shop floor control

The term shop floor control refers to a system for monitoring the status
of production activity in the plant and reporting the status to management so that
effective control can be exercised. We examine shop floor control and the use of
computers to monitor production.

5.2.6 Cost planning and control

The cost planning and control system consists of the data base to determine
expected costs to manufacture each of the firms products. It also consists of the cost
collection and analysis software to determine what the actual costs of manufacturing
are and how these actual costs compare with the expected costs. The following
section is devoted to this important area in the operations of a computer-integrated
production management system.
The cost planning and control function encompasses most of the other
functions within the computer-integrated production management system. It
receives data from all of the other CIPMS modules and reduces them to a lowest
common denominator: money. The objectives of the cost planning and control
system are to help answer the following questions:
1. What are the expected costs to manufacture and sell each of the
companys products?
2. What are the actual costs to manufacture and sell each of the companys



3. What are the differences between what it should cost and what it does
cost, and how are these differences explained?
The underlying basis for attempting to answer these questions is the objective
of minimizing the costs of manufacturing the firms products. Cost planning

Cost planning is concerned with the first of the three questions: What are
the expected costs of manufacturing a product? An attempt is made to answer the
question by determining the standard cost for the product. The standard cost for the
product is the aggregate cost of labor, materials, and allocated overhead costs. The
standard costs are compiled from various data sources and other modules in the
CIPMS. The following list includes several standard data sources:
1. The bill of materials gives the components and materials used in the
2. Process route sheets list the manufacturing operations used for each
component in the product.
3. Time standards specify the operation times for each operation listed on
the route sheets.
4. Labor and machines rates allow the time standards to be converted into
dollar costs for each operation.
5. Material quotations from purchasing provide information on material
costs, based on catalog price data or direct quotes from potential
6. Accounting data determine appropriate overhead rates.
With so much data collected from many different sources, the computation of
a standard cost for a product is not an insignificant task. To accomplish the task and
determine a meaningful cost value, the current approach involves use of a data base
which is common for engineering, manufacturing, and accounting. In this way, all



departments have access as needed to the same information files and there is greater
consistency and accuracy of computations based on data in these files.
Development of standard costs for all of the companys products provides a
yardstick against which the actual production cost performance can be measured.
Determining the actual costs is the function of cost control. Cost control

Cost control is concerned with the second and third questions: What are the
actual costs of manufacturing? And what are the differences between actual costs
and expected costs?
In any manufacturing activity, there will be differences between the
standard costs computed in cost planning and the actual costs that occurred during
production. The reasons why these differences happen comprise a never-ending list.
Actual prices of raw materials increase above quoted prices, machines break down,
differing lot sizes influence production costs, actual process sequences deviate from
the planned route sheets, and a vast collection of other reasons result in variances
between actual costs and standard costs.
Cost control involves the collection of data from which the actual costs of
the product can be calculated. Data on material costs can be compiled through the
purchasing department. Data on labour costs can be collected by means of the shop
floor control system. Over-head costs are usually excluded from consideration
because they do not represent an actual expense of the product but rather an allocation
of general factory and corporate expenses. Included within the cost control function
is the preparation of reports that document actual product costs and variances from
standard costs.


The production planning process starts with a good sales forecast for the next
year that discounts as many of the variables in the marketplace as possible. The
demand management issues, such as interplant transfers, distribution requirements,



and service parts must also be factored into the production plan. Changes in inventory
or backlog levels that affect the overall production rate must also be considered.
Effective production planning processes have reviews at regular intervals
with a time fence for changes requested in the aggregate production levels. For
example, successful firms often review the production plan monthly and make
changes quarterly. The time fence frequently sets limits on how late in the planning
cycle, changes in the aggregate levels can be made. For example, the time fence
may indicate that no changes can be made in the current or closest period and
that not more than a 10 percent change can be made in the nearest future period.
Routine reviews of the production plan keep the communication alive between top
management and manufacturing.

5.3.1 Functions of PPC

The highest efficiency in production is obtained by manufacturing the
required quantity of product, of the required quality, at the required time by the best
and cheapest method. To attend this objective management employs production
planning and control, the tool that coordinates all manufacturing activities. (Fig. 5.2)
The main functions of PPC can be classified in ten categories:

i) Materials:
Raw materials, as well as standard finished parts and semi-finished products
must be available when required to ensure that each production of operation will
start on time. Duties include the specification of materials (both with respect to
dimensions and quality) quantities and availability; delivery dates standardization
and reduction of variety, procurement and inspection. This function also covers the
procurement of semi-finished products from subcontractors.

ii) Methods:
1. The purpose of this function is to analyse possible methods of
manufacture and try to define the best method compatible with a given
set of circumstances and facilities. This analysis covers both the general



study and selection of production processes (for the manufacture

of components or assemblies) and the detailed development and
specifications of methods of application.
2. Such a study results in determining the sequence of operations and the
division of the product in to assemblies and sub-assemblies, modified
by the limitations of existing layout and work flow.

iii) Machines and equipments:

Methods of manufacture have to be related to available production facilities,
coupled a detailed study of equipment replacement policy, Maintenance policy,
procedure and schedules are also functions connected with managerial responsibility
for equipment, since the whole problem of breakdowns and reserves can be
seriously reflected in halts in production, tool management, as well as problems in
both design and economy of jigs and fixtures, which constitutes some of the major
duties of production planning and control.

iv) Routing:
Once the overall methods and sequence of operations have been laid down,
each stage in production is broken down to define each operation in detail, after
which the issue of production orders can be planned. Routing prescribes the flow
of work in the plant and is related to considerations of layout of temporary storage
locations for raw materials and components of material handling systems. Routing
is fundamental production function on which all subsequent planning is based.

v) Estimating:
When production orders and detailed operation sheets available with
specifications, feeds, speeds and use of auxiliary attachments and methods, the
operation times can be worked out. This function involves the extensive use
of operation analysis in conjuction with methods and routing as well as work
measurement in order to set up performance standards. The human element figures
prominently in work measurement because it is sensitive to systems of work rating
and wage incentive schemes. Hence it may consequently result in a wide scatter of



operation times and in unduly large fluctuations and perhaps instabilities in time

vi) Loading and Scheduling:

Machines have to be loaded according to their capability performing the given
task and according to their capacity Machine loading is carried out in conjuction
with routing to ensure smooth work flow; and with estimating, to ensure that the
prescribed methods feeds and speeds are best utilised. Scheduling is perhaps the
toughest job facing a production manager because it determines the utilisation of
equipment and manpower and hence the efficiency of the plant. Scheduling must
ensure that operations are properly dovetailed, that semi-finished components arrive
at their next station in time, that assembly work is not delayed, and that on the other
hand the plan is not unnecessary loaded with physically and financially with work in
process, i.e., with semi-finished components waiting for their next operation. This
calls for a careful analysis of process capacities, so that flow rates along the various
production lines can be suitably co-ordinated. In machine loading, appropriate
allowances for set up of machines, process adjustments, and maintenance downtime have to be made, and these allowances form vital part of the data constantly
used by the scheduling function.

vii) Despatching:
This function is concerned with the execution of the planning function.
Despatching is the routine of setting productive activities in motion, through
release of orders and instruction and in accordance with previously planned times
and sequences as embodied in route sheets and loading schedules. Despatching
authorizes the start of the production operations by releasing materials, components,
tools, fixtures and instruction sheets to the operator and ensures that material
movement is carried out according to the planned routing sheets and schedules.

viii) Expediting:
This control tool is the executive arm that keeps a close watch on the progress
of the work expediting or follow up or progress as it is some times called, is



logical step after dispatching. Despatching maintains them and sees them through to
their successful completion. This function has to keep close liaison with scheduling,
in order to provide efficient feed-back and prompt review of targets and schedules.

Figure 5.2: The ten functions of production planning and control cycle

ix) Inspection:
Another major control function is that of inspection. Although the control of
quality is often detached from the production planning and control department, its
findings and criticisms are of supreme importance both in the execution of current
plans and in the planning stage of future undertakings. When the limitations of



processes, methods and manpower are known. These limitations can form a basis
for future investigations in evaluating, with the view to improving production
methods, or indicating the cost implications of quality at the design stage.

x) Evaluating:
Perhaps the most neglected function, but on an essential link between control
and future planning, is that of evaluating. The executive tasks of despatching and
expediting are concerned with the immediate issues of production and with measures
that will as certain the fulfilment of set targets. Valuable information is gathered in
this process, but the feedback mechanism is rather limited in nature and unless
provision is made so that all this accumulated information can be properly digested
and analysed, valuable data may be irretrievably lost. Thus here the evaluating
function comes in, to provide a feedback mechanism on a longer term basis so that
past experience can be evaluated with the view to improve utilisation of methods
and facilities. Many firms consider this function important enough to divorce part of
it from production planning and control and to establish it as a separate department
in its own right in which wider aspects of production management can be studied,
using modern tools of operations research.


The material requirements planning system is essentially an information
system consisting of logical procedures for managing inventories of components
assemblies, sub-assemblies, parts and raw materials in a manufacturing environment.
The primary objective of an MRP system is to determine how many of each item
in the bill of materials must be manufactured or purchased and when. The key
concepts used in determining the material requirements are:
1. Product structure and bill of materials
2. Independent versus dependent demand
3. Parts explosion
4. Gross requirements



5. Common-use items
6. On-hand inventories

Scheduled receipts

Net requirements

7. Planned order releases

8. Lead time
Brief discussions of these concepts are given below:

1. Product structure and bill of materials

Product is the single most important identity in an organization. The product
is what a company sells to its customers. The survival of a company depends on
the profit on the sales of the products. A product maybe made from one or more
assemblies, sub-assemblies and components. The components are made from some
form of raw materials. To manufacture the products, it is therefore important to
understand the product structure and have correct information on the components,
subassemblies, and assemblies.
A bill of materials is an engineering document that specifies the components
and subassemblies required to make each end item (product). It can be represented
as a symbolic exploded view of the end item structure. Consider a hypothetical
product called end item E1 (at level 0), which is made up of two subassemblies
S1 and S2 at level 1 as shown in Figure 5.3 . Subassemblies S1 and S2 at level 1
consist of two and three components at level 2, respectively A complete product
structure for product E1 is shown in Figure 5.3. The end item E1 is called a parent
item to subassemblies S1 and S2, which are called component items. Similarly,
subassembly S1 is a parent item to components C1 and C2 and S2 is a parent item
to C3, C4 and C5. At level 3, the raw material becomes input to the components at
level 2.



Figure 5.3: Product structure for hypothetical product and bill of materials

2. Independent versus Dependent demand

The demand for the end items originates from customer orders and forecasts.
Such a demand for end items and spare parts is called independent demand. The
demand by a parent item for its components is called dependent demand. For
example, if the end-item demand is X number of units and one unit of end item
requires Y units of a subassembly, then the demand of that subassembly is XY units.

3. Parts explosion
The process of determining gross requirements for component items, that
is, requirements for the subassemblies, components and raw materials for a given
number of end-item units, is known as parts explosion. Therefore, parts explosion
essentially represents the explosion of parents into their components.

4. Gross requirements of component items

To compute the gross requirements of component items, it is necessary to
know the amounts of each component item required to obtain one parent item. This
information is available from the product structure and the bill of materials (as
indicated in parentheses beside each component item). For example, if the demand
for end product El from a market survey in period 7 is 50 units (for product structure
and the bill of materials, see Figure 5.3), we can determine the dependent demand
(gross requirements) for the subassemblies and the components as follows:


Demand of S1 = 1

demand of E1 = 50 units

Demand of S2 = 2

demand of E1 = 100 units

Demand of C1 =1

demand of S1 = 50 units

Demand of C2 =2

demand of S1 = 100 units

Demand of C3 =2

demand of S2 = 200 units

Demand of C4 =3

demand of S2 = 300 units

Demand of C5 =1

demand of S2 = 100 units


Figure 5.4: Product structure for end product E2

5. Common-use items
Many raw materials and components may be used in several subassemblies
of an end item, and several end items. For example, consider the product structure
for end products E1 and E2 given in Figure 5.3 and Figure 5.4, respectively.
Components C2 and C4 are common to both E1 and E2. In the process of determining
net requirements, common-use items (C2 and C4 in this case) must be collected
from different products to ensure economies in manufacturing and purchasing these



6. On-hand inventory, Scheduled receipts and Net requirements

In some cases, when there is ongoing production activity, initial inventory
for some of the component items is available from previous production runs.
Also, to maintain continuous production from one planning horizon to another,
some inventory is planned to be available at the end of the planning horizon. This
inventory is referred to as on-hand inventory for the current planning period. Further
more, it takes some time for orders to arrive. Therefore, the orders placed now are
delivered into some future periods. These are known as scheduled receipts. The net
requirements in a period are thus obtained by subtracting the on-hand inventory and
items already on order to be available in that period for these component items from
the gross requirements.

7. Planned order releases

Planned order releases refer to the process of releasing a lot of every component
item for production or purchase. The question is how the economic lot sizes of
component items are determined. Because shortages are not permitted in an MRP
system, the lot sizes are determined by trading off the inventory holding costs and
setup costs. Although the manufacturing system is a multistage production system,
the demand at each stage (level) is deterministic and time varying. Lot sizes in
an MRP system are determined for component items for each stage sequentially
starting with level 1, then level 2 and so on.

8. Lead time and Lead time offsetting

The lead time is the time it takes to produce or purchase a part. In manufacturing,
the lead time depends on the setup time, production time, lot size, sequence of
machines on which operations are performed, queuing delays, and so forth. The
purchasing lead time is the time that elapses between placing an order with a vendor
and receipt of the order.
We know from the parts explosion and gross to net requirements how many
of each component item (subassemblies, components and raw materials) are needed



to support a desired finished quantity of an end item. Information on the sequence

in which the operations must be done and the amount of time it takes to perform
these operations for a given lot size, is required to schedule the component items.
The manufacture or purchase of component items must be offset by at least their
lead times to ensure availability of these items for assembly into their parent items
at the desired time.

5.4.1 Benefits of MRP

There are many advantages claimed for a well-designed, well managed
material requirements planning system. Among these benefits reported by MRP
users are the following.

(1) Reduction in inventory

MRP mainly affects raw materials, purchased components and work-inprocess inventories. Users claim a 30 to 50% reduction in work-in-process.

(2) Improved customer service

Some MRP proponents claim that late orders are reduced to 90%.
Quicker response to changes in demand and in the master schedule.

(3) Greater productivity

Claims are that productivity can be increased by 5 to 30% through MRP.
Labour requirements are reduced correspondingly.

(4) Reduced setup and product changeover costs

(5) Better machine utilization
(6) Increased sales and reductions in sales price




5.5.1 Introduction

Figure 5.5: Three Phases in a Shop Floor Control System

Shop floor control system refers to a system for monitoring the status of
manufacturing activities on the plant floor and reporting the status to management
so that effective control can be exercised. Production Activity Control (PAC) and
Factory Co-ordination (FC) provide a frame work which integrates the requirements
planning functions of RP type systems and the planning and control activities on a
shop floor, and in doing so close the loop between the tactical and operations layers
of the production planning and control hierarchy.



Production management systems are concerned with planning and control of

the manufacturing operations. The functions of production planning, development
of the master schedule, capacity planning and MRP all deal with the planning
objective. Systems that accomplish the control objective are often referred to as
Shop Floor Control (SFC).
The input to the SFC system is the collection of production plants like results
of process planning, Material Requirement Planning (MRP), capacity planning.
The SFC system consists of the following elements. (Refer figure 5.5)

Master schedule.

ii) Engineering database.

iii) Manufacturing database.
iv) MRP.
v) Capacity planning
The figure 5.5 shows the various phases in a shop floor control systems.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) has recently a great deal of attention
as an effective strategy to improve manufacturing responsiveness and quality. CIM
seeks to integrate the entire manufacturing enterprise using a network of computer
systems. However, the evolution to CIM has been slower than expected. This can
be directly attributed to the high software development and maintenance costs and
the difficulty in achieving the required levels of integration between system (Ayres,
1989; Merchant, 1988). These problems are especially evident in the development
of the Shop Floor Control System (SFCS). The SFCS is responsible for planning,
scheduling, and controlling the equipment on the shop, floor.



Table 5.2: Planning, Scheduling, and Execution activities for each level in the
SFCS control architecture.



Determining the
start/finish times
for the individual
tasks. Determining
the sequence of part
processing when
multiple parts are

Interacting with
the machine
controller to initiate
and monitor part

Workstation Determining the

part routes through
the workstation,
(e.g. selection
of processing
equipment). Includes
replanning in
response to machine
Allocation of shared

Determining the
start/finish times for
each part on each
processing machine
in the workstation.

Interacting with the

equipment level
controllers to assign
and remove parts
and to synchronize
the activities of
the devices (e.g. as
required when using
a robot to load a part
on a machine tool).


Determining the
start/finish times
for part batches at
each workstation.
Scheduling the
delivery of shared

Interacting with
the workstation
controllers and the
Resource Manager
to deliver/pickup


planning (e.g. tool
path planning).

Determining part
routes through the
shop. Splitting
part orders into
batches to match
material transport
and workstation
capacity constraints.
Managing shared
tools between



Figure 5.6: Cycles of activities in a computer - integrated manufacturing system

based SFC.
The shop processes orders which are part of the master production schedule
for the facility. Shop level planning uses the shop level process plan and the
current shop loading to determine the workstation route that the individual parts
will take. Further, the order may be broken up into batches and part groups to



facilitate production, transport, and/or handling. Shop level scheduling convents

the batches and workstation assignments from planning into a list of tasks to be
issued by execution. This list provides a priority ranking for the order within the
shop. Additionally, start/end times will be set for tasks at each workstation. Shop
level execution co-ordinates the production of the current open orders in the shop
by issuing the tasks to the individual workstations as specified by the scheduler.
The shop also facilitates interactions between the individual workstations where
Processing workstations produce parts in the form of patches or part groups.
Workstation level planning uses the workstation level process plan and the current
workstation loading to determine the actual pieces of equipment that the parts
will be processed on. This also includes the determination of the specific work
content that is to be achieved by the equipment. For example, a milling machine
might perform the drilling operation during the next production run. The planning
module will evaluate the workstation load and attempt to balance the processing
requirements across all equipment in the workstation. Scheduling converts the
sequence of equipment operations for all parts into a list of tasks that is issued
by execution. This task list represents current scheduling policy being utilized by
the workstation. Execution co-ordinates the movement of the batch or part group
though the workstation by issuing the tasks to the individual equipment controllers
and co-ordinating the interaction between equipment.
Processing equipment performs operations on part groups. Equipment level
planning uses the work content assigned by the workstation to determine a sequence
of operations to be performed on that piece of equipment. In the case of machining,
planning might optimize machining parameters based on the machine and tool
status. Scheduling converts this sequence of operations into a list of specific tasks
to be issued by execution. The list represents a priority ranking of the part groups
currently assigned to the equipment. Execution co-ordinates the production of part
groups by performing the tasks provided by scheduling. Equipment level execution
provides the direct interface between the control system and the physical machines.



The figure 5.6 shows the cycle of activities in a modern manufacturing system
using shop floor control.

5.5.2 Various Activities of SFC

The various activities included in shop floor planning and control are
1. Assigning a priority to each order which helps in setting the sequence
of processing orders at work centres.
2. Issuing dispatching lists to each work centre. These lists indicate which
orders are due to be produced at a work centre, their priorities and
completion dates/times.
3. Up-dating the work-in-progress inventory. Information such as number
of good parts coming out of each processing step (operation), amount
of scrap, amount of rework required and number of units short on each
4. Providing input-output control on all work centres.
5. Measuring the efficiency, utilization and productivity of workers and
machines at each work centre.

5.5.3 Scheduling Techniques for SFC

Process-focussed production systems produce many non-standard products
in relatively small batches the following different routes or paths through the
production facility and require frequent machines change-overs. Such production
systems are also known as intermittent production system or job shops.
In such production systems, the departments or work centres are organized
around the type of equipments or operations, (e.g., drilling, welding, soldering, etc.)
Products flow through work centres in batches corresponding to individual customer
orders or batches of economic batch quantities in produce - to stock situations.



Figure 5.7: Scheduling and Shop floor decisions in process - Focused production
Figure (5.7) illustrates scheduling and shop-floor decision in process-focusses
operations or job shop. The following reasons shop floor scheduling process in
quite complex.
a) Job shops have to produce products against customer orders for which
delivery dates have to be promised.
b) Production lots tend to be quite small and may require numerous
mahcine change-overs.
c) possibility of assigning and reassigning workers and machines to many
different orders due to flexibility.
d) In such a flexible, variable and changing environment, schedules must
be specific arid detailed work centre-wise to bring orderliness.
The type of scheduling technique used in job shop depends on the volume of
orders, the nature of operations and the job complexity. Two types of scheduling
techniques used are.



1. Forward Scheduling
2. Backward Scheduling.

1. Forward Scheduling:

Figure 5.8: Forward Scheduling.

In this approach, each task is scheduled to occur at the earliest time that, the
necessary material will be on hand and capacity will be available. It assumes that
procurement of material and operations start as soon as the customers, requirements
are known. The customers place their orders on a needed-as-soon-as possible basis.
The earliest completion date, assuming that everything goes as planned, could be
quoted to the potential customer. Some buffer time may be added to determine
a date that is more likely to be achievable, if it is acceptable to the customer.
Forward scheduling is used in many companies such as steel mills and machine
tool manufacturers where jobs are manufactured to customer orders and delivery is
requested on as early as possible, basis. Forward scheduling is well suited where
the supplier is usually not able to meet the schedules. This type of scheduling is
simple to use, gets jobs done in shorter lead times but accumulates high work in
process inventories. Figure 5.8 illustrates forward scheduling.

2. Backward Scheduling:
This scheduling technique is often used in assembly-type industries and in
job shops that commit in advance to specific delivery dates. After determining the



required schedule dates for major sub-assemblies, the schedule uses these required
dates for each component and works backward to determine the proper release date
for each component manufacturing order. The jobs start date is determined by
letting back from the finish date, the processing time for the job.

Figure 5.9: Backward Scheduling

By assigning jobs as late as possible, backward scheduling minimizes
inventories, since each job is not completed until it is due, but not earlier. Backward
scheduling is also known as reverse scheduling. (See figure 5.9).

Stages in Scheduling:
Scheduling is performed in two stages, viz.:
1. Loading.
2. Dispatching.

Loading or shop loading is the process of determining which work centre
receives which job. It involves assigning a job or task to a particular work centre
to be performed during a scheduling period (such as a week). Loading of work
centres depends on the available capacity (or determined by load schedules) and the
expected availability of the material for the job. The jobs are assigned to machines
or work centres taking into consideration the priority sequencing and machine or
work centre utilization.



Dispatching is sequencing and selecting the jobs waiting at a work centre
(i.e., determining which job to be done next) when capacity becomes available. It is
actually authorising or assigning the work to be done. The dispatch list is a means
of priority control. It lists all jobs available to a work centre and ranks them by a
relative priority. When priorities have been assigned to specific jobs, scheduling
gets implemented through the dispatch list.

Finite loading and Infinite loading:

Loading procedures are categorised as either finite or loading or infinite
loading. In finite loading, jobs are assigned to work centres by comparing the
required hours for each operation with the available hours in each work centre for
the scheduling period. In infinite loading, jobs are assigned to work centres without
regard to capacity (as if the capacity were infinite).

a) Finite Loading:
Finite loading systems start with a specified capacity for each work centre
and a list of jobs to be processed at the work centre (sequencing). The work centres
capacity is allotted to the jobs by simulating job starting times and completion times.
The finite loading system combines loading, sequencing and detailed scheduling. It
creates a detailed schedule for each job and each work centre, based on the capacity
of the work centre.
Figure 5.10 shows a finite capacity load profile for a work centre having a
capacity of the work centre.



Figure 5.10: Finite Loading

b) Infinite Loading:
The process of loading work centres with all the jobs, when they are required
without regard to the actual capacity, available at the work centre is called infinite
loading. Infinite loading indicates the actual released order demand (load) on the
work centre, so as to facilitate decision about using overtime, sub-contracting or
using alternative routings and delaying selected orders.
Figure 5.11 illustrates the infinite loading profile.

Figure 5.11: Infinite Loading



Load Charts and Machine Loading Charts:

a) Load Chart or Load Schedule:
A load schedule or load chart is a device for comparing the actual load (labour
hours and machine hours) required to produce the products as per the MPS against
the available capacity (labour hours and machine hours) in each week.
Figure 5.12 illustrates the load schedule or chart shown graphically for a
particular work centre having a weekly capacity of 100 standard hours and the
weekly load for six weeks period. The load against each time period (i.e., week) is
as shown:
Week Number

Load (std hours)







Figure 5.12: Load Schedule

b) Machine Loading Chart (Gantt Load Chart):

Gantt charts are used to display graphically the work loads on each work
centre. There are two types of Gantt charts viz,
i) Gantt load chart and ii) Gantt scheduling chart or progress chart.
Figure 5.13(a) illustrates a Gantt load chart drawn for a particular week of a
particular month.



Figure 5.13: (a) Gantt load chart drawn for a particular week
of a particular month.
Gantt charts are simple to devise and easy to understand. The Gantt load
chart offers the advantage of ease and clarity in communicating important shop
Figure 5.13 (b) illustrates a Gantt scheduling chart.
Week number


Engg. release
Receipt of materials
Figure 5.13: (b) Gantt Scheduling Chart.



5.5.4 Scheduling and Controlling Production for delivery

schedules - Line of Balance (LOB) Method
It is quite common that production system often produce products as per
the commitment to a delivery schedule promised to the customers. These delivery
schedules can be part of a purchase order.
In order to ensure that the actual product deliveries match with the planned
delivery schedules, a system must be devised to schedule and control all the
processing steps of the production system.
Quite often, the firm may be in schedule in terms of deliveries, but may default
soon on deliveries because the production pipeline may run out of products sooner
or later. When this happens, it may be too late to take corrective action, because the
deliveries get affected until the pipeline can again be refilled with products.
Line-of-Balance(LOB) technique has been used successfully to schedule
and control upstream processing steps in a variety of production systems (LOB)
producing goods and services.

LOB Technique:
The Line of Balance technique is used in production scheduling and control
to determine, at a review date, not only how many (quantity) of an item should have
been completed by that date, but also how many should have passed through the
previous (upstream) operation stages (processing steps) by that time so as to ensure
the completion of the required delivery schedule.
LOB is a charting and computational technique for monitoring and controlling
products and services that are made to meet specific delivery schedules. The concept
of LOB is similar to the time phased order point system (TPOP) and MRP system
(Material Requirements Planning). Starting from the delivery schedule (date) for
the final product and the quantity, the product structure tree is drawn on a horizontal
scale, off-setting lead time on a time scale, reflecting the previous processing steps
or stages of production. The processing steps or production stages may include



purchased parts, machined parts, sub-assemblies and major assembly operations

to support delivery schedule for the finished product. The LOB chart shows the
quantity of parts, components, sub-assemblies, major assemblies and end products
produced at every stage and at any given review date. It indicates the quantity of
goods or services that should have been completed at every production stage or
processing step and at any given time, so as to meet the delivery date for the end
The LOB technique shows the desired progress as well as the actual progress
achieved on the LOB chart. The LOB technique can be best explained with an
example as below:

XYZ Company has received customer orders to deliver a product for which
the operations program and the delivery schedules are given below:

Delivery Schedule:
Week No.

Quantity of end product to be


Figure 5.14: Operations Programme



Develop a LOB chart and determine the quantities that should have passed
through the upstream processing step/stages during the review point at the end of
2nd week.

Method: The five stages required to be followed in LOB technique are
1. Preparation of operation programme or assembly chart.
2. Preparation of cumulative completion / delivery schedule or objective
3. Construction of LOB chart.
4. Construction of program progress chart.
5. Analysis of progress and corrective action. These stages are illustrated

Stage 1: Preparation of operation programme or assembly chart:

The operation programme or assembly chart shows the Mead time for each
operation stage/ processing step. The lead time is the length of time prior to the
completion of the final operation/ processing step by which, intermediate operations
must be completed.
Figure 5.15 illustrates an operation programme chart or assembly chart

Figure 5.15: Operation Programme Chart or Assembly Chart.



The delivery lead time for the finished product (end item) is zero and the time
scale indicating lead time runs from right to left, the operation programme chart
indicates that the purchased part A must be combined with the item B in operation
stage/processing step 4, three days before the completion of end item.
Item B, prior to combination, has undergone a conversion operation which
has to be completed five days before the completion of end item. The purchased
part for item B must be available 10 days prior to the delivery date for the end item,
which means the longest lead time is 10 days.

Stage 2: Preparation of Completion schedule (cumulative) or objective

The quantities of the end item to be completed, week by week and cumulatively,
are indicated in the cumulative completion schedule and shown in the table below:
Table 5.3: Cumulative completion schedule

Qty. of end item to be


Cumulative quantity to be

5 Nos.

5 Nos.

10 Nos.

15 Nos.

10 Nos.

25 Nos.

10 Nos.

35 Nos.

15 Nos.

50 Nos.

The cumulative completion schedule is shown graphically in the objective

chart in figure 5.16:



Figure 5.16: Cumulative completion schedule graph or objective chart

Stage 3: Construction of line of balance chart:

The line of balance shows the quantity of item that should have been completed
at each operation stage/processing step in a particular week at which, progress will
be reviewed so as to meet the delivery schedule for the finished product and to meet
the completion schedule.
The line of balance chart can be constructed graphically as illustrated below:
The following steps are required to construct the line of balance chart
Step (a): Draw the cumulative completion schedule graph as shown in figure
5.17 (a).



Figure 5.17
Step (b): Draw a vertical line AB on the cumulative completion schedule
graph at the week at which the review is to take place (say 2nd week in this example).
Step (c): Draw the line of balance schedule on the right hand side of the
cumulative completion schedule graph [refer figure 5.17(b)]. Show by means of
vertical bars, the 5 operation stages on the LOB schedule and indicate the quantities
of the item that should have been passed through the operation stages/processing
steps 1 to 5, by means of height of the vertical bars for each stage/processing step.
In this example, it is done as below:
Let line A B cut the cumulative completion schedule graph at point C From
C draw a horizontal line upto the vertical bar at operation stage/processing step
No. 5. The height of the vertical bar indicates the quantity of the item that should
have been completed at operation stage No. 5(i.e., completion of end product). In
this example, this quantity of end product that should have been completed by the
end of week number two is 15 numbers.
Step (d): For each of the other operation stages/processing step (i.e., operation
stages 1 to 4), find out how many should have been completed at the end of week
No.2. This will be the total of not only the requirements for the completed end item



by the two-week review date, but also the quantity to be completed in the lead time
for that operation. This is determined graphically as follows:
Draw a horizontal line C, D1 from the line AB, such that length C, D,, indicates
the lead time (i.e., 3 days) for operation stages 4 and 3. From D,, draw a vertical line
to cut the cumulative completion schedule graph at E,. Draw a horizontal line from
E{ extending it upto the vertical bars drawn at operation stage No.4 and 3 (note
both operations 4 and 3 indicate the quantities of the item that should have passed
through these two stages. In this example, it is 21 numbers. (Analytically calculated
as 15 + (3/5) x10 = 15 + 6 = 21 numbers).
Similarly, for operation stage no.2, draw a horizontal line CD2, such that
the length CD9 indicates a lead time of Sjjays. Draw a vertical line D2E2 to cut
the cumulative completion graph at E2. Draw a horizontal line from E2 upto the
vertical bar drawn at operation stage No.2 at the 2nd review week, (in this case
quantity is 25 numbers).
For operation stage No. 1, draw a horizontal line CD3 such, that the length
CD3 indicates the lead time for operation stage No.l (in this example it is 10 days
or 2 weeks). Draw a vertical line D3E3 to cut the cumulative completion graph at
E3. Draw a horizontal line from E3 upto the vertical bar drawn at operation stage
No.1 on the LOB schedule. The height of the vertical bar indicates the quantity of
the item that should have been completed at operation stage no.1 (in this case the
quantity is 35 i.e., 35 numbers. of purchased part B should have been received by
the end of 2nd review week).
Step (e): Draw the line of balance (a stair-case step like line) by joining the
tops of the vertical bars for each operation stage.

Step 4: Construction of Programme Progress Chart:

The programme progress chart for the review week (week No.2 in this
example) is shown in Figure 5.18.



Figure 5.18: Programme Progress Chart

In this graph, the actual number of items produced at each operation stage
against the quantities that should have been produced as indicated by line of
balance are shown on the LOB chart. This chart indicates clearly, the excess or
shortage in the quantities of the item at the operation stages, which is illustrated in
the figure 5.18. The actual quantities are shown by hatched vertical bars.

Step 5: Analysis of Progress and Corrective Action:

By referring to the programme process chart which is prepared every week,
the difference between the desired production (as indicated by line of balance)
for the review week (week no.2 in this example) can be compared with the actual
production achieved at the end of the review week (shown by height of patched
vertical bars for each operation stage). The excess production or short fall in
production can be found out (as shown in figure 5.18) and appropriate corrective
action such as expediting delivery of bought-out item (item B) or production of
in-house made items or reducing the production to bring it in line with the line of

Benefits of LOB Technique

1. LOB is a simple planning and control technique, which like network
analysis, formalizes and enforces planning discipline and enables
control to be exercised at each stage of the production line.



2. LOB prevents any feeling of false security which might be engendered

if the delivery of an item is on schedule but unappreciated shortfalls at
early stages are building up trouble.
3. LOB enables identification of shortfalls or even excessive production
or purchasing levels, so that corrective action can be taken in good time.
4. LOB achieves its greatest benefits when products or services are
produced to specific delivery schedules, production involves many
processing steps and production lead times are long.


5.6.1 Lean Production and Waste in Manufacturing
Lean production means doing more work with fewer resources. It is an
adaptation of mass production in which work is accomplished in less time, in a
smaller space, with fewer workers, and with less equipment, and yet achieves
higher quality levels in the final product. Lean production also means giving
customers what they want and satisfying or surpassing their expectations. The term
lean production was coined by researchers in the International Motor Vehicle
Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology to describe the way in which
production operations were organized at the Toyota Motor Company in Japan during
the 1980s. Toyota had pioneered a system of production that was quite different
from the mass production techniques used by automobile companies in the United
States and Europe. summarizes most of the comparisons between mass production
and lean production.
The Toyota Production System had evolved starting in the 1950s to cope with
the realities of Japans postwar economy. These economic realities included (1) a
much smaller automotive market than in the United States and Europe, (2) a scarcity
of Japanese capital to invest in new plants and equipment, and (3) an outside world
that included many well-established automobile companies determined to defend
their markets against Japanese imports. To deal with these challenges, Toyota
developed a production system that could produce a variety of car models with



fewer quality problems, lower inventory levels, smaller manufacturing lot sizes for
the parts used in the cars, and reduced lead times to produce the cars. Development
of the Toyota production system was led by Taiichi Ohno, a Toyota vice president,
whose efforts were motivated largely by his desire to eliminate waste in all its
various forms in production operations.
The ingredients of a lean production system can be visualized as the structure
shown in Figure 5.19. At the base of the structure is the foundation of the Toyota
system: elimination of waste in production operations. Standing on the foundation
are two pillars.
Table 5.3: Comparison of Mass Production and Lean Production
Mass Production

Lean Production

Inventory buffers

Minimum waste

Just-in-case deliveries

Just-in-time deliveries

Just-in-case inventory

Minimum inventory

Acceptable quality level (AQL)

Perfect first-time quality

Taylorism (workers told what to do)

Worker teams

Maximum efficiency

Worker involvement

Inflexible production systems

Flexible production systems

If it aint broke, dont fix it

Continuous improvement

Figure 5.19: The structure of a lean production system.



Just-in-time production
Autonomation (automation with a human touch).
The two pillars support a roof that symbolizes a focus on the customer.
The goal of lean production is customer satisfaction. Between the two pillars and
residing inside the structure is an emphasis on worker involvement: workers who
are motivated, flexible, and continually striving to make improvements. Table
identifies the elements that make up just-in-time production, worker involvement,
and autonomation in the lean production structure. (Refer figure 5.19)
Table 5.4: The Elements of Just-in-Time Production, Worker Involvement, and
Autonomation in the Lean Production Structure
Pull system of production
control using kanbans
Setup time reduction
for smaller batch sizes
Production leveling
On-time deliveries Zero
defects Flexible workers

Worker Involvement


Continuous improvement
(kaizen) Quality circles
Visual management The
5S system Standardized
work procedures
Participation in total
productive maintenance
by workers

Stop the process

when something goes
wrong (e.g., a defect is
produced) Prevention
of overproduction Error
prevention and mistake
proofing Total productive
maintenance for reliable

The underlying basis of the Toyota production system is elimination of waste,

or in Japanese, muda. The very word has the sound of something unclean (perhaps
because it begins with the English word mud).
Actual work that consists of activities that add value to the product.
Examples include processing steps to fabricate a part and assembly
operations to build a product.
Auxiliary work that supports the actual value-adding activities.
Examples include loading and unloading a production machine that
performs processing steps.



Muda, activities that neither add value to the product nor support the
value adding work. If these activities were not performed, there would
be no adverse effect on the product.
Ohno identified seven forms of waste in manufacturing that he wanted to
eliminate by means of the various procedures that made up the Toyota system.
Ohnos seven forms of waste are
1. Production of defective parts
2. Production of more than the number of items needed (overproduction)
3. Excessive inventories
4. Unnecessary processing steps
5. Unnecessary movement of people
6. Unnecessary transport and handling of materials
7. Workers waiting.
Eliminating production of defective parts (waste form 1) requires a quality
control system that achieves perfect first-time quality. In the area of quality control,
the Toyota production system was in sharp contrast with the traditional QC systems
used in mass production. In mass production, quality control is typically defined in
terms of an acceptable quality level or AQL, which means that a certain minimum
level of fraction defects is tolerated. In lean production, by contrast, perfect quality
is required. There is little or no inventory in a lean system to act as a buffer. In mass
production, inventory buffers are used just in case these quality problems occur. The
defective work units are simply taken off the line and replaced with acceptable units.
However, such a policy tends to perpetuate the cause of the poor quality. Therefore,
defective parts continue to be produced. In lean production, a single defect draws
attention to the quality problem, forcing the company to take corrective action and
find a permanent solution. Workers inspect their own production, minimizing the
delivery of defects to the downstream production station. (Refer figure 5.20)



Figure 5.20: Three categories of activities in manufacturing.

Overproduction (waste form 2) and excessive inventories (waste form 3) are
correlated. Producing more parts than necessary means that there are leftover parts
that must be stored. Of all of the forms of muda, Ohno believed that the greatest
waste of all is excess inventory. Overproduction and excess inventories cause
increased costs in the following areas:
Warehousing (building, lighting and heating, maintenance)
Storage equipment (pallets, rack systems, forklifts)
Additional workers to maintain and manage the extra inventory
Additional workers to make the parts that were overproduced
Other production costs (raw materials, machinery, power, maintenance)
to make the parts that were overproduced
Interest payments to finance all of the above.

5.6.2 Agile manufacturing

Agile manufacturing is an approach to manufacturing which is focused on
meeting the needs of customers while maintaining high standards of quality and
controlling the overall costs involved in the production of a particular product.
This approach is geared towards companies working in a highly competitive
environment, where small variations in performance and product delivery can make
a huge difference in the long term to a companys survival and reputation among



This concept is closely related to lean manufacturing, in which the goal is

to reduce waste as much as possible. In lean manufacturing, the company aims
to cut all costs which are not directly related to the production of a product for
the consumer. Agile manufacturing can include this concept, but it also adds an
additional dimension, the idea that customer demands need to be met rapidly and
effectively. In situations where companies integrate both approaches, they are
sometimes said to be using lean and agile manufacturing.
Companies which utilize an agile manufacturing approach tend to have
very strong networks with suppliers and related companies, along with numerous
cooperative teams which work within the company to deliver products effectively.
They can retool facilities quickly, negotiate new agreements with suppliers and
other partners in response to changing market forces, and take other steps to meet
customer demands. This means that the company can increase production on
products with a high consumer demand, as well as redesign products to respond to
issues which have emerged on the open market.
Agile manufacturing is a term applied to an organization that has created the
processes, tools, and training to enable it to respond quickly to customer needs and
market changes while still controlling costs and quality.
An enabling factor in becoming an agile manufacturer has been the
development of manufacturing support technology that allows the marketers,
the designers and the production personnel to share a common database of parts
and products, to share data on production capacities and problems particularly
where small initial problems may have larger downstream effects. It is a general
proposition of manufacturing that the cost of correcting quality issues increases as
the problem moves downstream, so that it is cheaper to correct quality problems at
the earliest possible point in the process.
Agile manufacturing is seen as the next step after LEAN in the evolution of
production methodology. The key difference between the two is like between a thin
and an athletic person, agile being the latter. One can be neither, one or both. In
manufacturing theory being both is often referred to as leagile. According to Martin



Christopher, when companies have to decide what to be, they have to look at the
Customer Order Cycle (the time the customers are willing to wait) and the leadtime
for getting supplies. If the supplier has a short lead time, lean production is possible.
If the COC is short, agile production is beneficial.
Agile Manufacturing should primarily be seen as a business concept. Its aim
is quite simple - to put our enterprises way out in front of our primary competitors.
In Agile Manufacturing our aim is to develop agile properties. We will then use
this agility for competitive advantage, by being able to rapidly respond to changes
occurring in the market environment and through our ability to use and exploit a
fundamental resource -knowledge.
One fundamental idea in the exploitation of this resource is the idea of using
technologies to lever the skills and knowledge of our people. We need to bring
our people together, in dynamic teams formed around clearly identified market
opportunities, so that it becomes possible to lever one anothers knowledge. Through
these processes we should seek to achieve the transformation of knowledge and
ideas into new products and services, as well as improvements to our existing
products and services.
The concept of Agile Manufacturing is also built around the synthesis of a
number of enterprises that each have some core skills or competencies which they
bring to a joint venturing operation, which is based on using each partners facilities
and resources. For this reason, these joint venture enterprises are called virtual
corporations, because they do not own significant capital resources of their own.
This, it is believed, will help them to be agile, as they can be formed and changed
very rapidly.
Central to the ability to form these joint ventures is the deployment of advanced
information technologies and the development of highly nimble organisational
structures to support highly skilled, knowledgeable and empowered people.
Agile Manufacturing enterprises are expected to be capable of rapidly
responding to changes in customer demand. They should be able to take advantage



of the windows of opportunities that, from time to time, appear in the market place.
With Agile Manufacturing we should also develop new ways of interacting with
our customers and suppliers. Our customers will not only be able to gain access
to our products and services, but will also be able to easily assess and exploit our
competencies, so enabling them to use these competencies to achieve the things that
they are seeking.

Some Key Issues in Agile Manufacturing

The I am a Horse Syndrome
There is an old saying that hanging a sign on a cow that says I am a horse
does not make it a horse. There is a real danger that Agile Manufacturing will fall
prey to the unfortunate tendency in manufacturing circles to follow fashion and to
relabel everything with a new fashionable label. The dangers in this are two fold.
First, it will give Agile Manufacturing a bad reputation. Second, instead of getting
to grips with the profound implications and issues raised by Agile Manufacturing,
management will only acquire a superficial understanding, which leaves them
vulnerable to those competitors that take Agile Manufacturing seriously. Of course
this is good news for the competitors!

The Existing Culture of Manufacturing

One of the important things that is likely to hold us back from making a
quantum leap forward and exploring this new frontier of Agile Manufacturing, is
the baggage of our traditions, conventions and our accepted values and beliefs.
A key success factor is, without any doubt, the ability to master both the soft and
hard issues in change management. However, if we are to achieve agility in our
manufacturing enterprises, we should first try to fully understand the nature of our
existing cultures, values, and traditions. We need to achieve this understanding,
because we need to begin to recognise and come to terms with the fact that much
of what we have taken for granted, probably no longer applies in the world of Agile
Manufacturing. Achieving this understanding is the first step in facing up to the
pain of consigning our existing culture to the garbage can of historically redundant



Understanding Agility
Agility is defined in dictionaries as quick moving, nimble and active. This is
clearly not the same as flexibility which implies adaptability and versatility. Agility
and flexibility are therefore different things.
Leanness is also a different concept to agility. Sometimes the terms lean and
agile are used interchangeably, but this is not appropriate. The term lean is used
because lean manufacturing is concerned with doing everything with less. In other
words, the excess of wasteful activities, unnecessary inventory, long lead times,
etc are cut away through the application of just-in-time manufacturing, concurrent
engineering, overhead cost reduction, improved supplier and customer relationships,
total quality management, etc.

5.6.3 Just-In-Time Approach

Just-In-Time (JIT) is a management philosophy that strives to eliminate
sources of manufacturing waste by producing the right part in the right place at the
right time. Waste results from any activity that adds cost without adding value, such
as moving and storing. JIT (also known as lean production or stockless production)
should improve profits and return on investment by reducing inventory levels
(increasing the inventory turnover rate), reducing variability, improving product
quality, reducing production and delivery lead times, and reducing other costs (such
as those associated with machine setup and equipment breakdown). In a JIT system,
underutilized (excess) capacity is used instead of buffer inventories to hedge against
problems that may arise.
JIT applies primarily to repetitive manufacturing processes in which the same
products and components are produced over and over again. The general idea is
to establish flow processes (even when the facility uses a jobbing or batch process
layout) by linking work centers so that there is an even, balanced flow of materials
throughout the entire production process, similar to that found in an assembly line.
To accomplish this, an attempt is made to reach the goals of driving all queues
toward zero and achieving the ideal lot size of one unit.



The basic elements of JIT were developed by Toyota in the 1950s and became
known as the Toyota Production System (TPS). JIT was firmly in place in numerous
Japanese plants by the early 1970s. JIT began to be adopted in the U.S. in the
Toyota was able to meet the increasing challenges for survival through an
approach that focused on people, plants and systems. Toyota realised that JIT would
only be successful if every individual within the organisation was involved and
committed to it, if the plant and processes were arranged for maximum output and
efficiency, and if quality and production programs were scheduled to meet demands
JIT manufacturing has the capacity, when properly adapted to the organisation,
to strengthen the organisations competitiveness in the marketplace substantially by
reducing wastes and improving product quality and efficiency of production.

Just-In-Time Production Systems

Just-in-time (JIT) production systems were developed to minimize inventories,
especially work-in-process (WIP). Excessive WIP is seen in the Toyota production
system as waste that should be minimized or eliminated. The ideal just-in-time
production system produces and delivers exactly the required number of each
component to the downstream operation in the manufacturing sequence just at the
moment when that component is needed. This delivery discipline minimizes WIP
and manufacturing lead time, as well as the space and money invested in WIP.
At Toyota, the just-in-time discipline was applied not only to the companys own
production operations but to its supplier delivery operations as well.
While the development of JIT production systems is attributed to Toyota,
many U.S. firms have also adopted the philosophy of just-in-time. Other terms are
sometimes applied to the American practice of JIT to suggest differences with the
Japanese practice. For example, continuous flow manufacturing is a widely used
term in the United States that denotes a just-in-time style of production operations.
Continuous flow suggests a method of production in which workparts are processed



and transported directly to the next workstation one unit at a time. Each process
is completed just before the next process in the sequence begins. In effect, this is
JIT with a batch size of one work unit. Prior to JIT, the traditional U.S. practice
might be described as a just-in-case philosophy; that is, to hold large in-process
inventories to cope with production problems such as late deliveries of components,
machine breakdowns, defective components, and wildcat strikes.
The just-in-time production discipline has shown itself to be very effective in
high-volume repetitive operations, such as those found in the automotive industry.
The potential for WIP accumulation in this type of manufacturing is significant, due
to the large quantities of products made and the large numbers of components per
product. The principal objective of JIT is to reduce inventories. However, inventory
reduction cannot simply be mandated to happen. Certain requisites must be in place
for a just-in-time production system to operate successfully. They are (1) a pull
system of production control, (2) setup time reduction for smaller batch sizes, and
(3) stable and reliable production operations.


All the factor, data collection systems described in the preceding section
required some form of human participation. Computer process monitoring (also
sometimes called computer production monitoring) is a data collection system in
which the computer is connected directly to the workstation and associated equipment
for the purpose of observing the operation. The monitoring function has no direct
effect on the mode of operation except that the data provided by monitoring may
result in improved supervision of the process. The industrial process is not regulated
by commands from the computer. Any use that is made of the computer to improve
process performance is indirect, with human operators acting on information from
the computer to make changes in the plant operations. The flow of data between the
process and the computer is in one direction onlyfrom process to computer.
The components used to build a computer process monitoring system include
transducers and sensors, analog-to-digital converters (ADC), multiplexers, realtime



clocks, and other electronic devices. These components are assembled into various
configurations for process monitoring. We discuss three such configurations:
1. Data logging systems
2. Data acquisition systems
3. Multilevel scanning
A particular computer process monitoring system is highly custom designed
and may consist of a combination of these possible configurations. For example, a
data acquisition system may include multilevel scanning.

5.7.1 Data logging systems

A data logger (DL) is a device that automatically collects and stores data for
offline analysis. Strictly speaking, the data could be analyzed by a person without
the aid of computer. Our interest here is in data logging systems that operate in
conjunction with computers. Data loggers can be classified into three types:
1. Analog input/analog output
2. Analog input/analog and digital output
3. Analog and digital input/analog and digital output
Type 1 can be a simple one-channel strip chart recording potentiometer for
tracking temperature values using a thermocouple as the sensing device. Types 2
and 3 are more sophisticated instruments which have multiple input channels and
make use of multiplexers and ADCs to collect process or experimental test data
from several sources. The DL can be interfaced with tape punches, magnetic tape
units, teletypes and printers, plotters, and so on. They can also be interfaced with
the computer for periodic transfer of data.
A programmable data logger (PDL) is a device that incorporates a
microprocessor as part of the system. The microprocessor serves as a controller to
the data logger and can be programmed by means of a keyboard . The programmable



data logger can easily accommodate changes in rate or sequence of scanning the
inputs. The PDL can also be programmed to perform such functions as data scaling,
limit checking (making certain the input variables conform to prespecifled upper
and lower bounds), sounding alarms, and formatting the data to be in a compatible
and desirable format with the interface devices.

5.7.2 Data acquisition systems

The term data acquisition system (DAS) normally implies a system that
collects data for direct communication to a central computer. It is therefore an online system, whereas the data logger is an off-line system. However, the distinction
between the DL and the DAS has become somewhat blurred as data loggers have
become directly connected to computers.

Figure 5.21: Multilevel scanning in computer process monitoring

Data acquisition systems gather data from the various production operations
for processing by the central computer. The basic data can be analog or digital data
which are collected automatically (transducers, ADC, multiplexers, etc.). It is a
factory-wide system, as compared with data loggers, which are often used locally
within the plant. The number of input channels in the DAS is therefore typically
greater than in the DL system.
For the data logger the number of input channels might range between 1 and
100, while the data acquisition system might have as many as 1000 channels or



The rate of data entry into the DL system might be 10 readings per second for
multiple-channel applications. By contrast, the DAS would have to be capable of a
data sampling rate of up to 1000 per second. Because of these differences, the data
acquisition system would be typically more expensive than the data logger.

5.7.3 Multilevel scanning

In the data acquisition system, it is possible for the total number of monitored
variables to become quite large. Although it is technically feasible for all these
variables to be monitored through multiplexing, some of the signals would not be
needed under normal operating conditions. In such a situation it is convenient to
utilize; a multilevel scan configuration, as illustrated schematically in Figure 5.21.
With multilevel scanning, there would be two (or more) process scanning
levels, a high-level scan and a low-level scan. When the process is running normally,
only the key variables and status data would be monitored. This is the high-level
When abnormal operation is indicated by the incoming data, the computer
switches to the low-level scan, which involves a more complete data logging and
analysis to ascertain the source of the malfunction. The low-level scan would
sample all the process data or perform an intensive sampling for a certain portion of
the process that might be operating out of tolerance.


Most production operations are characterized by a multiplicity of dynamically
interacting process variables. These variables can be cataloged into two basic types,
input and output variables. However, there are different kinds of input variables
and different kinds of output variables. Let us first consider how the input variables
might be classified. There are three categories as follows:
1. Controllable input variables. These are sometimes called manipulative
variables, because they can be changed or controlled during the



process. In a machining operation, it is technologically possible to

make adjustments in speed and feed during the operation. In a chemical
process, the controllable input variables may include flow rates,
temperature set-tings, and other analog variables.
2. Uncontrollable input variables. Variables that change during
the operation but which cannot be manipulated are defined as
uncontrollable input variables. In chemical processing, variations in
the starting raw chemicals may be an uncontrollable input variable for
which compensation must be made during the process. In machining,
examples would be tool sharpness, work-material hardness, and
workpiece geometry.
3. Fixed variables. A third category of input to the process is the fixed
variable. These are conditions of the setup, such as tool geometry and
workholding device, which can be changed between operations but not
during the operation. Fixed inputs for a continuous chemical process
would be tank size, number of trays in a distillation column, and other
factors that are established by the equipment configuration.
The other major type of variable in a manufacturing process is the output
variable. It is convenient to divide output variables into two types:
1. Measurable output variables. The defining characteristic of this first
type is that it can be measured on-line during the process. Examples of
variables that can be measured during process operation include flow
rate, temperature, vibration, voltage, and power.
2. Performance evaluation variables. These are the measures of overall
process performance and are usually linked to either the economics
of the process or the quality of the product manufactured. Examples
of performance evaluation variables in production include unit cost,
production rate, yield of good product, and quality level.



The structural relationships between these different input and output variables
are illustrated in Figure 5.22. The measurable output variables are determined by the
input variables. The performance of the process, as indicated by the performance
evaluation variable, is determined by the measurable output variables. To assess
process performance, the performance evaluation variable must be calculated from
measurements taken on the output variables.
The problem in process control is to control the measurable output variables
so as to achieve some desired result in the performance evaluation variable. This is
accomplished by manipulating the controllable inputs to the process.
There are various ways to implement computer process control of
manufacturing operations, both in terms of hardware configurations and in terms of
software programs. Consideration of hardware configurations includes the number
and types of computers and how they are interconnected. Software programming
is concerned with selecting among the available control strategies to regulate or
optimize process performance. Let us first discuss the various process control

Figure 5.22: Structure of a manufacturing process.


There are a variety of control strategies that can be employed in process control.
The choice of strategy depends on the process and the performance objectives to be
achieved. In this section we discuss the following control strategies:



1. Feedback control
2. Regulatory control
3. Feedforward control
4. Preplanned control
5. Steady-state optimal control
6. Adaptive control

5.9.1 Feedback control

In the manufacturing process model shown in Figure 5.23 it is often feasible
from a controls viewpoint to relate the behavior of a particular output variable to
one corresponding input variable. This matching of one input variable to one output
variable forms a single open-loop system. By measuring the output variable and
comparing it to the input variable, it is possible to close the control loop, thereby
forming an automatic feedback control system. This arrangement is illustrated
schematically in Figure 5.23. In the conventional concept of a feedback control
system, the value of the controlled variable is subtracted from the value of the input
variable and any difference between them is used to drive the controlled variable
toward its desired value. In Figure 5.23, y is the controlled variable and x is the
input variable. In process control applications, the input variable is often referred
to as the set point. The difference between the set point and the measured y value
is called the error and becomes the input to the process controller. The manner in
which the process controller is designed to operate depends on the physical nature
of the process and the feedback measurement device/Consideration of process
control theory goes beyond the scope of the current chapter. The feedback control
system is also called a closed-loop system because the block diagram takes on
the general appearance of a closed loop. By contrast, an open-loop system is one
without feedback.



Figure 5.23: Feedback control system.

5.9.2 Regulatory control

Regulatory control is analogous to feedback control except that the objective
in regulatory control is to maintain .the overall performance evaluation variable at a
certain set-point level. In feedback control, the objective is to control the individual
output variables at their respective set-point values.
In many industrial processes it is sufficient to maintain the performance
evaluation variable at \ certain level or within a given tolerance band of that level.
This would be appropriate in situations where performance was measured in terms
of product quality and it was desired to maintain the product quality at a particular
level. In a chemical process, this quality level might be the concentration of the final
chemical product. The purpose of process control is to maintain that quality at the
desired constant value during the process. To accomplish this purpose, set points
would be determined for individual feedback loops in the process and other control
actions would be taken to compensate for disturbances to the process.

5.9.3 Feedforward control

The trouble with regulatory control (the same problem is present with
feedback control) is that compensating action is taken only after a disturbance has
affected the process output. An error must be present in order for any control action
to be initiated, but this means that the output of the process is different from the
desired value.
In feedforward control the disturbances are measured before they have
upset the process, and anticipatory corrective action is taken. In the ideal case, the



corrective action compensates completely for the disturbance, thus preventing any
deviation from the desired output value. If this ideal can be reached, feedforward
control represents an improvement over feedback control.

Figure 5.24: Feedforward control system (combined with feedback control.)

The essential features of a feedforward control system are illustrated in
Figure 5.24. The feedforward control concept can be applied to the individual
measurable output variables in the process or to the performance evaluation variable
for the entire process. The disturbance is measured and serves as the input to the
feedforward control elements. These elements compute the necessary corrective
action to anticipate the effect of the disturbance on the process. To make this
computation, the feedforward controller contains a mathematical or logical model
of the process which includes the effect of the disturbance. Feedforward control by
itself does not include any mechanism for checking that the output is maintained
at the desired level. For this reason, feedforward control is usually combined with
feedback control, as illustrated in Figure 5.24. The feedforward loop is especially
helpful when the process is characterized by long response times or dead times
between inputs and outputs. Feedback control alone would be unable to make timely
corrections to the process.

5.9.4 Preplanned control

The term preplanned control refers to the use of the computer for directing the
pro- cess or equipment to carry out a predetermined series of operation steps. The
control sequence must be developed in advance to cover the variety of processing
conditions that might be encountered. This control strategy usually requires the use
of feedback control loops to make certain that each step in the operation sequence is



completed before proceeding to the next step. However, feedback information may
not be necessary in every control command provided by the computer.
The name preplanned control is not universally applied throughout all areas
of industry. Other terms are used to describe control strategies which are either
identical or similar to preplanned control. What follows is a listing of some of the
terms most frequently used.
Computer Numerical Control: Essentially, it involves the use of the
computer to direct a machine tool through a program of processing steps. As such,
it is a form of preplanned control. Direct numerical control (DNC), although not the
same as CNC, involves a similar control sequence.
Program Control: This term is used in the process industries. It involves the
application of the computer to start up or shut down a large complex process, or to
guide the process through a changeover from one product grade to another. It also
refers to the computers use in batch processing to direct the process through the
cycle of processing steps. With program control the object is to direct the process
from one operating condition to a new operating condition and to accomplish this
in minimum time. There are often constraints on this minimum time objective, so
the strategy of program control is to determine the best trajectory of set-point values
that is compatible with the constraints. In batch processing, there may be a sequence
of operating conditions or states through which the process must be commanded.
The paper industry provides an example of program control. In the manufacture
of various grades of paper, a slightly different operating cycle is required for each
grade. The process control computer is programmed to govern the process through
each phase of the operating cycle for any grade of paper produced.
Sequencing Control: This class of preplanned control consists of guiding the
process through a sequence of on/off-type steps. The variables under command of
the computer can take on either of two states, typically on or off. In sequencing
control, the process must be monitored to make sure that each step has been carried
out before proceeding to the next step.



An example of the application of sequencing control is in automated

production flow lines. The sequence of workstation power feed motions, parts
transfer, quality inspections which may be incorporated in the line, and so on, are
all included under computer control. In addition, the computer may be programmed
to perform diagnostic subroutines in the event of a line failure, to help identify the
cause of the downtime occurrence. Tool change schedules may also be included as
one of the computer functions. The operators are directed by the computer when to
change cutters.

5.9.5 Steady-state optimal control

The term optimal control refers to a large class of control problems. We
shall limit its meaning in this discussion to open-loop systems. That is, there is no
feedback of information concerning the output. Instead, two features of the system
must be known in advance:
1. Performance evaluation variable. This measure of system
performance is also called the objective function, index of performance,
or figure of merit. Basically, it represents the overall indicator of process
performance that we desire to optimize by solving the optimal control
problem. Among the performance objectives typically used in optimal
control are cost minimization, profit maximi- zation, production-rate
maximization, quality optimization, least-squares-error minimization,
and process-yield maximization. These objectives are general and must
be specified to suit the particular application.
2. Mathematical model of the process. The relationships between
the input variables and the measure of process performance must be
mathematically defined. The model is assumed to be valid throughout
the operation of the process. That is, there are no disturbances that might
affect the final result of the optimization procedure. This is why we refer
to the problem as steady-state optimal control. The mathematical model
of the process may include constraints on some or all of the variables.
These constraints limit the allowable region within which the objective
function can be optimized.



With these two attributes of the process defined, the solution of the optimal
control problem consists of determining the values of the input variables that
optimize the objective function. To accomplish this task, a great variety of
optimization techniques are available to solve the steady-state optimal control
problem. These techniques include differential calculus, linear programming,
dynamic programming, and the calculus of variations. All of these mathematical
approaches have been applied to the class of problems in this category of steadystate optimal control.

5.9.6 Adaptive control

Adaptive control possesses attributes of both feedback control and optimal
control. Like a feedback system, measurements are taken on certain process
variables. Like an optimal system, an overall measure of performance is used. In
adaptive control, this measure is called the index of performance (IP). The feature
that distinguishes adaptive control from the other two types is that an adaptive
system is designed to operate in a time-varying environment. It is not unusual for a
system to exist in an environment that changes over the course of time. If the internal
parameters or mechanisms of the system are fixed, as is the case in a feedback control
system, the system might operate quite differently in one environment than it would
in another. An adaptive control system is designed to compensate for the changing
environment by monitoring its performance and altering, accordingly, some aspect
of its control mechanism to achieve optimal or near-optimal performance. The term
environment is used in a most general way and may refer to the normal operation
of the process. For example, in a manufacturing process, the changing environment
may simply mean the day-to-day variations that occur in tooling, raw materials, air
temperature, and humidity (if these have any influence on the process operation).
An adaptive system differs from a feedback system or an optimal system in that it
is provided with the capability to cope with this time-varying environment. The
feedback and optimal systems operate in a known or deterministic environment.
If the environment changes significantly, these systems might not respond in the
manner intended by the designer.



On the other hand, the adaptive system evaluates the environment. More
accurately, it evaluates its performance within the environment and makes the
necessary changes in its control characteristics to improve or, if possible, to
optimize its performance. The manner of doing this involves three functions which
characterize adaptive control and distinguish it from other modes of control. It may
be difficult, in any given adaptive control system, to separate out the components
of the system that perform these three functions; nevertheless, all three must be
present for adaptation to occur. The three functions of adaptive control are:
1. Identification function. This involves determining the current
performance of the process or system. Normally , the performance
quality of the system is defined by some relevant index of performance.
The identification function is concerned with determining the current
value of this performance measure by making use of the feedback
data from the process. Since the environment will change over time,
the performance of the system will also change. Accordingly, the
identification function is one that must proceed over time more or
less continuously. Identification of the system may involve a number
of possible measurement activities. It may involve estimation of
a suitable mathematical model of the process or computation of the
performance index from measurements of process variables. It could
include a comparison of the current quality with some desired optimal
2. Decision function. Once the system performance is determined, the
next function is to decide how the control mechanism should be adjusted
to improve process performance. This decision procedure is carried out
by means of a preprogrammed logic provided by the system designer.
Depending on the logic, the decision may be to change one or more
of the controllable inputs to the process; it may be to alter some of the
internal parameters of the controller, or some other decision.
3. Modification function. The third adaptive control function is to
implement the decision. While the decision function is a logic function,



modification is concerned with a physical or mechanical change in the

system. It is a hardware function rather than a software function. The
modification involves changing the system parameters or variables so
as to drive the process toward a more optimal state.
Figure 5.25 illustrates the sequence of the three functions in an adaptive
controller applied to a hypothetical process. The process is assumed to be influenced
by some time-varying environment. The adaptive system first identifies the current
process performance by taking measurements of inputs and outputs. Depending on
current performance, a decision procedure is carried out to determine what changes
are needed to improve system performance. Actual changes to the system are made
in the modification function.

Figure 5.25: General configuration of an adaptive control system

Collecting data from factory operations can be accomplish by any of several
means. Shop data can be entered by workers through manual terofinals located
throughout the plant or can be collected automatically by means of limi/switches,
sensor systems, bar code readers, or other/services. The collection and use of
production (Ma in factory operations for scheduling and tracking purposes is called
shop floor control.




DDC was certainly one of the important steps in the development of computer
process control. DDC is a computer process control system in which certain
components in a conventional analog control system are replaced by the digital
computer. The regulation of the process is accomplished by the digital computer
on a time-shared, sampled-data basis rather than by the many individual analog
components working in a dedicated continuous manner. With DDC, the computer
calculates the desired values of the input parameters and set points, and these values
are applied through a direct link to the process, hence the name direct digital
The difference between direct digital control and analog control can be seen
by comparing Figure 5.26 and 5.27. The first figure shows the instrumentation for a
typical analog control loop. The entire process would have many individual control
loops, but only one is shown here. Typical hardware components of the analog
control loop include the sensor and transducer, an instrument for displaying the
output variable (such an instrument is not always included in the loop), some means
for establishing the set point of the loop (shown as a dial in the figure, suggesting
that the setting is determined by a human operator), a comparator (to compare set
point with measured output variable), the analog controller, an amplifier, and the
actuator that determines the input parameter to the process.

Figure 5.26: A typical analog control loop.



Figure 5.27: Components of a DDC System

In the DDC system (Figure 5.27), some of the control loop components
remain unchanged, including (probably) the sensor and transducer as well as the
amplifier and actuator. Components likely to be replaced in DDC include the analog
controller, recording and display instruments, set point dials, and comparator. New
components in the loop include the digital computer, analog-to-digital and digitalto-analog converters (ADCs and DACs), and multiplexers to share data from
different control loops with the same computer.
DDC was originally conceived as a more efficient means of performing the
same kinds of control actions as the analog components it replaced. However, the
practice of simply using the digital computer to imitate the operation of analog
controllers seems to have been a transitional phase in computer process control.
Additional opportunities for the control computer were soon recognized, including:
More control options than traditional analog. With digital computer
control, it is possible to perform more complex control algorithms than
with the conventional proportional-integral-derivative control modes
used by analog controllers; for example, on/off control or nonlinearities
in the control functions can be implemented.
Integration and optimization of multiple loops. This is the ability to
integrate feedback measurements from multiple loops and to implement
optimizing strategies to improve overall process performance.



Ability to edit the control programs. Using a digital computer makes

it relatively easy to change the control algorithm when necessary by
simply reprogramming the computer. Reprogramming the analog
control loop is likely to require hardware changes that are more costly
and less convenient.
These enhancements have rendered the original concept of direct digital
control more or less obsolete. In addition, computer technology itself has progressed
dramatically so that much smaller and less expensive yet more powerful computers
are available for process control than the large mainframes available in the early
1960s. This has allowed computer process control to be economically justified
for much smaller scale processes and equipment. It has also motivated the use of
distributed control systems, in which a network of microcomputers is utilized to
control a complex process consisting of multiple unit operations and/or machines.


Explain MRP with flow charts.


Explain shop floor control system.


Distinguish lean and agile manufacturing.


Explain JIT Approach in detail.


Explain LOB methods with diagram.


Explain various benefits of MRP.


Explain terms
a. Cost planning
b. Cost control


Explain the benefits of LOB technique.


Explain Lean Production & Waste in manufacturing.




Explain Agile manufacturing.


Describe Computer - integrated Production management system.


Give the effect of production planning & control in detail.


Explain inventory management in detail.


Describe various process control strategies.


Give detail description of feedback control.


Explain Adaptive control in detail.


Explain direct digital control in detail.


i) Regulatory control.
ii) Feed forward control.


Give detail description of various activities of SFC.


Describe scheduling techniques of SFC.