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CHAPTER IV

PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION

4.1

INTRODUCTION

The subjectivity of the performance delivered by process plants in recent years have
increasingly inconsistent and difficult to satisfy. Many theories and research and
development have been performed to ensure that accuracy of lab scale performance
can be implemented to actual process plant but still inconsistent pattern and major
tweaks for adjustment are required thus throwing millions out of designed budget. A
further complication is that modern plants have become more difficult to operate due to
its trend towards complex and highly integrated processes. It is difficult to minimize
disturbances propagated from one unit to other interconnected units.

With the increase awareness of safety and efficient plant operation, it is a common
matter that process control and integration has become increasingly imperative to
ensure that chemical engineers are competent to operate modern plants in a view of
safety and profitability whilst satisfying yield of process and environmental
requirements.
A chemical plant is an arrangement of processing unit that uses chemical in its basic
reaction and process to ensure that targeted productions are achieved. The overall
objective of a single plant is to convert raw materials by using available sources of
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energy in the most economical efficient way. The entire operating system involved in a
plant is monitored through a single or multiple control systems. Methods of limiting
hazard levels by control features include censoring control limits and various aspects of
sequential and continuous monitoring.
A chemical plant might be thought of as a collection of vessels or tanks in which
undergoes several heating or cooling and reaction that would involve exothermic or
endothermic reaction. The complexity of such requirement in ensuring that all of the
variables interacting with each other will not in general going to be handled manually. If
a simple low production processes took place, then maybe a manual approach is
achievable. A simple process such as cooking and filtration could illustrate an example
discussed. However, for a process that requires great accuracy on dosing, mixing,
agitation, compression and heat exchange at which is a much familiar occurrence in
chemical process plant: the optimum specification on our desired product couldnt be
achieved without a glimpse of control system. Therefore, it is very crucial that all
equipments involve in any chemical or even physical plant is equipped with an at least
good or appropriate control system with an elaborate function on handling the behavior
of variables affecting the process.

4.2

Objectives for control system

There are numbers of important objective that can be as a guideline in specifying


control and instrumentation schemes. There are :

4.2.1

Safety

The plant must operate safely to protect the well-being of plant personnel and nearby
communities.

A great illustration of the matter is through a typical safety driven

constraint requires that the temperature and pressure if a steel vessel not exceeding
the upper limits dictated by metallurgy.
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4.2.2

Product specification and production rate

It is crucial to ensure that the driving force for the implementation of on-line, optimal
process control is to satisfy customer expectations. The product quality and rate will
reflect significantly on reputation and dedication in delivering extraordinary service.
4.2.3

Economic plant operation

Plants are expensive to design and expensive to construct, therefore in every intention
of delivering services there is also intention on getting maximum profits. The final
products must be competitive if not astounding to ensure that involvement in the
business will not turn sour. Conversely, the manufacture of an excessively pure product
will involve unnecessary cost.
4.2.4

Environment regulation

Environment should never be victims to greediness of human being. There are million
reasons to why environment shall never be harmed. The processing plants must
comply with constraints on the air and the water quality as well as waste disposal or
treatment.
4.2.5

Stable plant operation

Stable plant operations are indeed closely related to the desired operating range of the
process unit. Thus, upper bounds on the vapor velocity to avoid flooding in a distillation
column and upper bounds on the reactor temperature prevent degradation on the
catalyst or on the onset of undesirable side reactions.

4.3

Control hardware

Control hardware that had been used in process control systems are;
1. Sensor (to detect process variables)
2. Transmitters (to convert the sensor signal into an equivalent signal)
3. Control valves
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4. Controllers (compares process signal with a desired set point value and produces an
appropriate controller output signal)

4.3.1

Sensors

Instruments for on-line measurement of many properties have been developed. The
most important variables are flow rate, temperature, pressure and level.

4.3.2 Types of control

There is several control approach that has been applied in the production plant, the
basic concepts of these control are stated below.

4.3.2.1 Feedback Control

The feedback control system function is to bring the measured quantity to its required
value or set point. The feedback control system uses direct measurements of the
controlled variables to adjust the values of the manipulated variables. The main
advantage of the feedback control is the corrective actions occur as soon as the
controlled variable deviates from the set point regardless of its source and the type of
disturbances. Minimal knowledge of the process is sufficient to set up this type of
control. It is also both versatile and robust which means that if the process condition
changes, re-tuning will still give a satisfactory result.

However, this type of control also has certain disadvantages, which are, there is
no corrective action taken until after a deviation in the controlled variable occurs. In
addition, it does not provide a predictive control action to compensate for the effects of
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known or measurable disturbances. If the process encounters large and frequent


disturbance, the action of the controller will be such that the process will operate
continually in a transient state and never attain the desired steady state.

4.3.2.2 Feed forward Control

The basic idea of the feed forward control is to measure the important load variables
and take the corrective actions before they upset the process. However there are
disadvantages of this control technique as the load disturbances must be measured
online and in many applications this is not feasible.

For this technique to be effective, we need to have some basic knowledge about
the process to construct a process model. Ideal feed forward control theoretically is
capable of achieving perfect control but in reality it may not be physically realizable.
There are times when the combination of both feedback and feed forward control
strategies are required such as in the level control.

4.3.2.3 Cascade Control

Cascade control uses more than one measurement and manipulated variables. This
control uses the output of the primary controller to manipulate the set point of the
secondary controller as if it were the final control element. This controller has two
distinguishing features;

The output signal of the master controller servers as the set point for the slave
controller
The two feedback control loops are nested, with the secondary control loop (for
the slave controller) located inside the primary control loop (for the master
controller)
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This controller is widely used in process industries and is particularly useful when
the final control element exhibits nonlinear behavior. Reasons for cascade control;
Allow faster secondary controller to handle disturbances in the secondary loop.
Allow secondary controller to handle non-linear valve and other final control
element problems.
Allow operator to directly control secondary loop during certain modes of
operation (such as startup)

4.3.2.4 Ratio Control

Ratio control is a type of feed forward control and has a wide application in industries.
The objective of the controller is to maintain the ratio of two process variable at a
specified value, for example the ratio of manipulated variables and disturbances is
being controlled rather than controlling each variable.

Typical application of ratio control;

To maintain a ratio control of feed flow rate and the steam in the reboiler of a
distillation column.

Maintaining the stoichiometric ratio of reactant to a reactor.

Maintaining the reflux ratio in distillation column.

Hold the ratio of two blended streams, in order to maintain the compositions of
the blending.

Hold the ratio of purge stream to the recycle streams.

Maintaining the ratio of the liquid floe rate to the stripper, in order to achieve
desired composition in the exit vapour stream.

4.4

PROCESS & INSTRUMENTATION DIAGRAM (P&ID)

4.4.1

Instrument and computing device

a)

Instrument

Rounded circle

b)

Computing device

Square box

4.4.2

a)

Signals transmission

Electrical line
4.4.3

Inst
rum

b)

Pneumatic line

ents

labeling

a)

First letter

measured variable

b)

Second letter

device

c)

Third letter

device or condition

4.4.4

Notations that use in the control system design sheet


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Instrument labeling

Meaning

TT

Temperature transmitter

TC

Temperature control

PT

Pressure Transmitter

PC

Pressure control

LT

Level transmitter

LC

Level control

FT

Flow transmitter

FC

Flow control

AT

Alarm temperature

AP

Alarm pressure

RC

Ratio control

4.5 CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN SHEET

4.5.1

First Mixer Control system

The first mixer introduced to the system is the most important equipment in this plant,
this is due to the equipment is require to maintain the stoichiometric ratio of reactants to
a reactor. In general, 1 -butene (stream 2) and air (oxygen and nitrogen) are mixed
(MIX-100) and are rationed to the water vapor (stream 1) flow. This means that the flow
rate of air is controlled by the flow rate of 1-butene and air. The water vapor is a heating
element that elevates the temperature of the mixed stream before entering the reactor
(CRV100). Pressure and temperature indicator (PI and TI) are also included in
controlling the vessel condition.

Figure 4.1 MIX-100 control systems


Controlled

Manipulated Variables

Disturbance

Variables

Level

System

Drum

Composition

Control

outlet

stream

Change of liquid level

Feedback

(stream 4)

inside the drum

control

Feed streams of the

Change in composition

Ratio control

drum flow rate (stream


2 and 3)

4.5.2

Heat exchanger Control system

The control objective is to keep the exit streams temperature at a desired value which is
350C by varying the flow rate of steam as a heating utility.

Figure 4.2 HE-101 control systems

Controlled

Manipulated Variables

Disturbance

outlet

The flow of steam supply

Feed

temperature at

from stream 1 must be

stream 5

stream 6 must

sufficient

Control System

Variables

The

be

in

temperature

at

Feedback
control

350C

before entering
the reactor for
reaction
process

4.5.3

Reactor (CRV-100) Control system


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The oxidative dehydrogenation process involve a very significant heat exchanging


process that uses water flow from treated waste water (separator V-101) to maintain the
temperature of the reactor from exceeding the desired temperature. The control system
will focused on the flowrate of water, flowrate of inlet feed, as well as temperature and
pressure of the system. Each of the manipulated variables stated will affect the
performance and safety if not controlled appropriately. The process diagram is as
shown in figure 12.2 below.

Figure 4.3 CRV-100 control systems


Controlled

Manipulated Variables

Disturbance

Outlet flowrate of hot

Back

water

water

Control System

Variables
Level

flow
from

of

cooling
shell

Feedback control

of

reactor
Flow

Feed streams of the


reactor

flow

Change in reaction rate

Feedback control

rate

(stream 6)
Temparature

Flow of cooling water

Temperature

runaway Cascade control

inlet

inside reactor shell

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Pressure

4.5.4

The flowrate of outlet

Increase of pressure at

feed stream 7

outlet pressure

Feedback control

Separator (V-101) control system

The two phase separator is an equipment to separate the vapor and liquid from the
mixture. The main objective for two phase separator is to separate the water from
butadiene and to maintain operation of separator in good condition. Table 4.1 and figure
4.2 shows the control parameters for separator and control system.
Table 4.1: The Control Parameter of separator (V-101)
Type
Temperatur

Variable
The

Objective
To maintain the

Disturbance
Change of

temperature in

temperature of the

temperature in

Flow

the vessel
The flow of the

separator, stream 8
To maintain the flow of

vessel
Change in the

feed inlet

the feed inlet stream

flow inlet stream

stream

before entering the

The level in

separator, stream 8
To maintain the level at

Change in the

the vessel

the liquid stream.

product flow in

Functioning to control

inlet stream and

the high level and low

failure of liquid

level of the liquid in

stream

The pressure

stream 9
To maintain the

Change in the

in the vessel

pressure of the

flow in inlet

separator before

stream and the

entering another

change of

equipment, stream 10

pressure in

Level

Pressure

Action
Cascade
Control
Cascade
Control

Feedback
Control

Feedback
Control

vessel

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Two Phase Separator (V-101)


Symbol:
TT, FT, LT, PT- Temperature, flow, Level, Pressure transmitter
TC, FC, LC,PC - Temperature, flow, Level, Pressure controller
Figure 4.4 Control systems for separator (V-101)
4.5.5

Separator (V-102) control system

Separator is an important equipment to separate between gas phase and liquid phase
materials. It also makes further separation easier for reactor proposes and distillation
column. The operating pressure must be maintained at 10.1325 bar and liquid level
must be maintain at exact level.
Objective: To separate vapor and liquid components in specific condition.

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Figure 4.5 Control systems for separator (V-102)


Control system:
a) To control level of the liquid in the separator from set point.
b) To maintain the pressure and temperature at stream 13 at the exact value.
Control system contributes to the safe process operation. The selection of the correct
controller before running the separator is required. To maintain the liquid level, the level
alarms were installed to prevent overflowing. On the other hand, pressure alarm and
temperature controller were installed to maintain pressure and temperature.

Objective (s)

Control

Manipulated

System

Variables

To maintain

Feedback

Liquid outlet

the level in the

control

flowrate

separator

Disturbances

Set Point

Inlet flowrate

H = 3.455 m

(stream 18)

14

To control the

Feedback

Vapour outlet

pressure in the

control

flowrate

separator

Inlet flowrate

P = 10.1325 bar

F = 9.326 kg/s

(stream 14)

To maintain

Feedback

Inlet flowrate

Change in inlet

the inlet

control

(stream 13)

flowrate

flowrate

4.5.6

Separator (V-103) control system

The third separation unit is intended to purify the nitrogen gas that is produced from the
previous separation unit. The purpose of the purification process is to increase the
quality of the nitrogen and use it as a cryogenic cooling element that is significantly
involved in the process.
Control system:
a) To control level of the liquid in the separator from set point.
b) To maintain the pressure and temperature at stream 14 at the exact value
Objective (s)

Control

Manipulated

System

Variables

To maintain the

Feedback

Liquid outlet flowrate

level in the

control

Disturbances

Inlet flowrate

separator

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To control the

Feedback

Vapour outlet

pressure in the

control

flowrate

To maintain the inlet

Feedback

Inlet flowrate

flowrate

control

Inlet flowrate

separator

Change in inlet
flowrate

Figure 4.6 Control systems for separator (V-103)

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4.5.7

Distillation column (T-100) control system

The distillation column is used to purify the product up to reasonable grade that can be
marketable to the industry. There are a few factors that can affect the purification
process such as temperature, reflux rate, feed rate and the flooding level. The summary
of the control system (Seborg et al., 2004) is tabulated in table 4.1.

Figure 4.7 Control systems for Distillation column (T-100)

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Table 4.1: Summary of control system for distillation column (Seborg et al., 2004)
Control

Control

Manipul

Disturba

objectiv

variable

ative

nces

Control strategy

point

To

The

variable
The

The

Feedback control system

control

flowrate

flowrate

pressure

the

inside of

of

flowrate

the

into

of

distillatio

column

the

feed into

the

column

feed build-up,
the

Set-

The

flow

transmitter

will

260 kg/hr

measure the flowrate of input

flowrate

and send the signal to the flow

at

controller to make corrective

the

stream

action and then the signal is


send to the powered control

distillatio

valve

where

the

action

is

n column
To

The

The

The

maintain

temperat

flowrate

temperat

the

ure

of

ure

of

of heating water is measured

temperat

inside

cooling

feed into

by respective transmitter. The

ure

the

water

the

temperature

inside the

distillatio

into

column

transfer

column

reboiler

the

execute (Kister, 1990).


Cascade control system:

T=144.05

The temperature and flowrate

to

measured
the

is

temperature

indicator controller and then the

column

temperature will send the signal


to the flow controller. At the flow
indicator controller, the flow is
used

together

with

the

temperature and flow to make a


corrective action before the
signal will be send to the
To

The

control

level

the level

powered valve
Feedback control system:

The

The

flowrate

temperat

flooding

of output

ure

measure the level of liquid in

of

inside

stream

inside of

the column and send the signal

flooding

the

at

the

to the flow controller to make a

inside the

column

reboiler

column

corrective action and then the

of

= 14

the

The

flow

transmitter

will

18

column

signal will send to the powered


control valve where that action
is used to regulate the level
inside the column
Ratio control system:

To

The

The

The

control

refux

flowrate

pressure

the reflux

rate into

of

inside the

transmitter used in this type of

rate

the

recycle

column

control

column

condens

transmitter will measure the

ate

flow at the recycle stream and

into

There

will

be

system.

Reflux
two
The

flow

ratio = 45

first

the

the second is to measure the

distillatio

flowrate at the output. The

flowrate that been measured at

column

the output is send to a ratio


controller. The ratio of both
streams is compared with the
set point and the signal is send
to the ratio indicator controller
for corrective action (Kister,
1990).
Feedback control system:

To

Level of

The

Temperat

control

condens

flowrate

ure

the level

ate

of output

inside the

measure

of

the

stream

condens

condensate in the condenser

condens

condens

from the

er

and send the signal to the level

ate inside

er

condens

controller to have the corrective

ate

action and the signal is send to

in

the

condens

The

the

level

transmitter
the

powered

level

control

will
of

valve

er
To

The

The

Pressure

maintain

pressure

flowrate

of

the

inside

of

and

pressure

the

cooling

temperat

output of the column as the

inside the

column

water

ure of the

pressure represents the vapor

column

pressure and the composition

column

into

the

feed
the

where the action take part.


Feedback control system:

The pressure transmitter will

P = 1.520
bar

measure the pressure of the

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condens

of the vapor exit the column.

er

The signal is send to the


pressure controller to provide a
corrective action. The signal is
send to the powered control
valve where the action is used
to regulate the cooling water
flowrate in the condenser.

4.7 Reference

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Seborg, D.E., Edgar, T.F. & Mellichamp, D.A (2004).Process Dynamic and Control. 2 nd
Edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Kister, H.Z. (1990). Distillation Operation. McGraw Hill.

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