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RESPIRATORY SYSTEM REVIEWER.

Respiratory System Parts: Conducting and


Respiring
I.

II.

Respiratory - Capable of
exchanging oxygen with CO2 in our
blood
Conducting - Conveys the air from
hour environment atmosphere
towards the respiring parts

Respiratory System Divided Anatomically


into: Upper and Lower Respiratory Tract.
I.
II.

Upper = Nose, nasal cavity,


pharynx
Lower = Larynx downward

A. NOSE
Part of the conducting system
Anterior opening is anterior nares
Within it is a dilatation wherein nasal
hair grows(for boogers) and for
filtering
Posterior opening of the vestibule is
the posterior nares(opens to the nasal
cavity). A narrowing posteriorly.

B. NASAL CAVITY
Primarily humidifies and warms the
air. Cold and dry air irritates our
bronchial lining(bronchioconstriction)
like people with Asthma.
Nasal Septum - a cartilage that
separates
nasal cavity into two.
Nasal Concha = has protuberances
known as the lateral wall
Nasal Meatus - Depression
underneath nasal concha. Increases
the surface area of the nasal cavity.
Opening of Nasol
Duct - In the
inferior meatus
Choanae - Posterior opening of nasal
cavity, superior to soft pallete. Opens
up to the nasopharynx.
Roof of nasal cavity has olfactory
epithelium and is connected to

several sinuses(where air circulates


and lightens the weight of cranial
and facial bones).
SINUSES:
- Also for resonance of sound. Can't
produce m and l sound cause of filled
up sinus.
i.
Frontal Sinus(midline)
ii.
Sphenoid Sinus( seen
posteriorly)
iii.
Ethmoid Sinus(parasaggital
view)
iv.
Maxillary Sinus (for
humidifying and warming
C. PHARYNX
3 Regions:
i.
Nasopharynx - Posterior
to the nasal cavity.
Allows air to pass.
ii.
Oropharynx - For food,
air and water.
iii.
Laryngopharynx - both
food and air pass
Oral cavity isn't capable of and
humidifying the air. Air passes
through pharynx going to
larynx(cartilagenous)
D. LARYNX
Cartilaginous structure
In the lateral view, larynx is
anterior to esophagus.
When you swallow, epiglottis
falls back covering our larynx.
Food would be diverted
posteriorly towards esophagus.
Unpaired Cartilages:
a) Epiglottis((leaf-like),
b) Thyroid,
c) Cricoid - Bullring-like shape.
Posteriorly fat and thick,
anteriorly thin. Found in the
posterior protuberance
Paired Cartilages, seen in
the glottic view:
a) Arytenoid ,
b) Cuneiform,
c) Corniculate.

Cuneiform and cornuculate is


for attachment of laryngeal
muscles and vocal chords

Vocal chords are attached to


Arytenoid and Cuneiform
True Vocal Cord(aka Vocal
Fold) - Thin fibrous connective
tissue; Dense regular; When
you produce sound, it pulls
together in the middle and as
air passes through it, it vibrates
and that produces the sound.
False Vocal Cord(aka
Vestibular folds) - In a relaxed
position, it's V-shaped where air
passes. It'd be flapped while
our true vocal cords, when it
resonates, is pulled toward the
midline and as you blow air to
it, vibrates.
The pitch of the sound is
controlled by the tension of the
2 vocal chords(it can be pulled).
Tenser Vocal Cord = higher
pitch/high frequency of
vibration.

E. TRACHEA
Comprised of: C-shaped
rings(Around 16-20 rings and is
connected posteriorly by a smooth
muscle.
Can be felt, has several bumps or
ridges going down
Carina - point of bifurcation into
the right main/primary bronchus
and left main bronchus.
Bifurcates at the same level of
sternal angle(same as pulmonary
trunk).
i.
Right main bronchusVertical, wider, but shorter
ii.
Left main bronchus horizontally-directed,
narrower, and longer.

Foreign bodies are aspirated to the


right main bronchus since it's

bigger and broader. Right main


bronchus divides into three
secondary bronchi.
I.
RIGHT LUNG
3 lobes divided by the oblique and
horizontal fissure that divide into:
a) superior anterior lobe,
b) medial right lobe
c) inferior posterior right lobe. (3
lumbar lumbar bronchus/secondary
bronchi.)
SHORTER THAN LEFT BUT MORE
BROAD.
10 Broncho Pulmonary
Segment

a)
b)

II.
LEFT LUNG
2 lobes divided by the oblique
fissure that divide the left lung
into:
anterior superior lobe
posterior inferior lobe.
2 fissures the heart partly
occupies the right thoracic side.
Left, has a cardiac notch which is
an impression produced by the
heart on the lungs.
LONGER AND NARROWER
Lingula - Tongue-like structure on
the superior anterior lobe found
on the left lung. Produced by the
cardiac notch.
9-10 Broncho Pulmonary
Segment

Right diapragm is higher than


left.
Tertiary/Segmental bronchus constitutes the functional unit of
lungs known as broncho
pulmonary segment(it has an
independent bronchial segmental
bronchus and pulmonary artery
supply air supply to oxygenate.)
When you remove one broncho
pulmonary segment, it won't
affect other functions of lung.
Functional lungs is for

oxygenating the blood. You need


an air and blood supply to
oxygenate.
Tracheobronchal Tree - Has 16
divisions .
Trachea
Main bronchus
Lobar bronchi
Segmental bronchi
(Primary>Secondary>Tertiary)
respectively
Bronchioles- no cartilages
Terminal bronchioles
Respiratory bronchiles
Alveolar ducts

From the trachea to the terminal


bronchiole(bronchiole has lost its
cartilage compared to bronchi) has
around 16 divisions of the broncho
tracheal tree.
Respiratory bronchole is in the
terminal bronchiole. It has
exchange of gases.
2 Blood Supply of Lungs:
i.
Bronchial Artery(supplies
until terminal bronchiole)
ii.
Pulmonary Artery(carries
deoxygenated blood)
Respiratory bronchiole - from
terminal to alveolar ducts. 7
subdivisions until terminal duct
becomes bronchioles.
Alveolar ducts (simple cuboidal) Around 23 branching from Trachea
to Alveolar ducts. Has maximum
gas exchange
3 Types of Alveoli Cells:
i.
Pneumocyte Type I(flatcells) Squamous cells
ii.
Pneumocyte Type 2/Clara cells Surfactant secreting cells
Surfactant =
lipopolysaccharide that
maintains patency of
alveolus. Prevents alveolus
from collapsing. Like a

balloon that you can't blow


when it's collapsed.
iii.
Alveolar Macrophage - from blood
Monocytes. Dendritic cells which
phagocytosis dead cell
debris/inhaled foreign materials,
viruses, and bacteria.
In the alveolus, capillaries that
surround it is from the
pulmonary artery. They become
alveolar capillaries.
BLOOD AIR
BARRIER(RESPIRATORY
MEMBRANE)

Thickness through which


oxygen and CO2 need to
traverse to exchange gases
in between the air and that
of the blood
Comprised of Alveolar cells
which are:
a) Pneumocyte Type
1(flatcells)
b) Endothelial cell of capillary
c) Basement membrane between
the two cells.

MUSCLES OF RESPIRATION:
1. Inspiration(Diaphragm).
Accessory muscles of inspiration =
a) external intercostal,
b) scalene
c) sternocleidomastoid.
2. Expiration - No primary muscle.
passive process through the recoil
and relaxation of the diaphragm.
Accessory muscles:
a) internal intercostal
b) abdominal muscles(rectus
abdominis, obliques, and
transversus abdominis).
These push up the diaphragm
to expel air.
EXP 38 PULMONARY VOLUMES &
CAPACITIES

Pulmonary function can be primary


be assessed through spirometry.
Spirometry is a laboratory
procedure to determine the
strength of the lungs
Respiratory cycle has two phases:
inhalation and exhalation
Ventilation movement of air into
and out of the respiratory tract and
is critical for normal body functions
Spirometry can measure:
a. lung volumes
b. capacities the sum of the
different lung volumes
Measurements:
a. small line 100 ml
b. big line 1000 ml
*round to nearest hundredth

A. LUNG VOLUMES
Tidal volume (TV) the normal air
the comes in and out of the lungs
during normal respiration,
unconscious breathing
Inspiratory reserved volume (IRV)
maximum volume of air that can be
inhaled after a normal inhalation
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
maximum volume of air that can be
exhaled after a normal inhalation
Residual volume (RV) considerable
amount of air that remains in the lungs
after a most forceful exhalation. It
maintains the patency of the alveoli. It is
the air left in the tracheobronchial tree.
This cannot be measured by spirometry.
B. LUNG CAPACITIES
Total lung capacity (TLC) sum of
all volumes
Vital capacity (VC) measured by
inhaling up to maximum lung
capacity, and then exhaling. Vital
because it can be controlled.
Inspiratory capacity (IC)
Functional residual capacity (FRC)
left in the lungs, maintains the
diffusion of gases

VOL/CA
P

EQUATION

Normal
Value

TV
ERV
VC
IRV
IC
TLC

values from exp


values from exp
values from exp
VC [ERV + TV]
TV + [VC (ERV+TV)]
TV + RV + IRV + ERV

500 ml
1200 ml
4800 ml
3100 ml
3600 ml
6000 ml

Gender

Age

M/F

< 19

F
M

Equation to predict RV (liters)

RV= (0.020 x height in inches)


0.91092
19RV= (0.0813 x height in
99
inches)
+ 0.009 x age in years (3.9)
19RV= (0.686 x height in inches)
99
+ 0.017 x age in years (3.45)
NORMAL VALUE: 1200 ml

Exp 39 BREATH-HOLDING TIME

Functional residual capacity makes


you able to hold your breath to a
ceratin time. When CO2 increases,
respiratory center in the medulla
oblongata is triggered for the
diaphragm to contact again.
Hyperventilation fast, deep
breathing, decrease in carbonic
acid, brought by anxiety attacks,
may lead to apnea or cessation of
breathing
Hypoventilation slow or shallow
breathing, increase in carbonic acid