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Inductors and Capacitors

Passive Elements

Passive Elements

Capacitors

Capacitors
Capacitors
Capacitors
Capacitors

Capacitor

Is consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator (dielectric).

Capacitor Is consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulator (dielectric).

CAPACITANCE It is the ratio of the charge on one plate of a capacitor to the voltage difference between the two plates and measured in Farads

Where:

C

A

C   A d

d

plates and measured in Farads Where: C   A d  - permittivity of the

- permittivity of the dielectric material

A - surface area of each plates d - distance between the plate

1 Farad = 1 Coulomb/Volt

A capacitor is a passive element designed to store energy in its electric field. (Electro static energy)

q = Cv
q = Cv
energy in its electric field. (Electro static energy) q = Cv Where: q- charge stored C-

Where: q- charge stored

C- Capacitance

v- applied voltage

Voltage and Current Relation

Voltage and Current Relation CAPACITORS oppose changes in voltage by drawing or supplying current as they

CAPACITORS oppose changes in voltage by drawing or supplying current as they charge or discharge to the new voltage level.

The flow of electrons “through” a capacitor is directly proportional to the rate of change of

voltage across the capacitor.

V

C

i dt

c

C

V ( t 0 )

i

C

C

dV

C

dt

Energy

The energy stored in the capacitor is:

W

1

2

Cv

2

Where: C - Capacitance

v - Voltage

Important Properties of Capacitor

The capacitor is an open circuit to DC.

Important Properties of Capacitor The capacitor is an open circuit to DC.
Important Properties of Capacitor The capacitor is an open circuit to DC.

Important Properties of Capacitor

The voltage on capacitor cannot change abruptly.

Waveform of the Voltage across the capacitor:

abruptly. Waveform of the Voltage across the capacitor: (a) is ALLOWED (b) NOT ALLOWED ( an

(a) is ALLOWED

abruptly. Waveform of the Voltage across the capacitor: (a) is ALLOWED (b) NOT ALLOWED ( an

(b) NOT ALLOWED ( an abrupt change is not possible)

Capacitors in Series

Capacitors in Series The equivalent capacitance of series-connected capacitors is the reciprocal of the sum of
Capacitors in Series The equivalent capacitance of series-connected capacitors is the reciprocal of the sum of

The equivalent capacitance of series-connected capacitors is

the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal of the individual

capacitance.

Capacitors in Parallel

Capacitors in Parallel The equivalent capacitance of N-parallel connected capacitors is the sum of the individual
Capacitors in Parallel The equivalent capacitance of N-parallel connected capacitors is the sum of the individual

The equivalent capacitance of N-parallel connected capacitors is the sum of the individual capacitance.

Problems:

1.

Problems: 1.

Problems:

2.

Problems: 2.

Problems:

Problems: 3. 4.

3.

4.

Problems: 3. 4.

Problems:

Problems: 5. 6.

5.

6.

7. Change in voltage as shown in the figure : 0V – 50V between 0

7.

Change in voltage as shown in the figure :

0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec

shown in the figure : 0V – 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec ( 0

( 0 < t < 1 )

( 1 < t < 3 )

( 3 < t < 4 )

50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec

between 3 sec. to 4 sec

(-50V) 0V

Note: The line equation is Y = mX + b;

Therefore:

V(t) = mt + b

Recall that:

Recall that: (a) is ALLOWED (b) NOT ALLOWED ( an abrupt change is not possible)
Recall that: (a) is ALLOWED (b) NOT ALLOWED ( an abrupt change is not possible)

(a) is ALLOWED

Recall that: (a) is ALLOWED (b) NOT ALLOWED ( an abrupt change is not possible)

(b) NOT ALLOWED

( an abrupt change is not possible)

Change of voltage as shown in the figure : 0V – 50V between 0 sec.

Change of voltage as shown in the figure :

0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec

50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec

(-50V) 0V

between 3 sec. to 4 sec

( 0 < t < 1 ) ( 1 < t < 3 ) ( 3 < t < 4 )

0 < t < 1

1 < t < 3 ) ( 3 < t < 4 ) 0 < t

V(t) = mt + b

When t = 0, V(t) = 0V

0 = m*0 + b

t = 1, V(t) = 50V

50 = m*1 + 0

m = 50

Voltage equation w/ respect to time:

1 < t < 3

t = 1;

50 = m*1 + b

t = 3;

-50 = m*3 + b

m = -50

b

=

100

V(t) = -50t + 100

Change of voltage as shown in the figure : 0V – 50V between 0 sec.

Change of voltage as shown in the figure :

0V 50V between 0 sec. to 1 sec 50V (-50V) between 1 sec. to 3 sec

(-50V) 0V

( 0 < t < 1 ) ( 1 < t < 3 )

( 3 < t < 4 )

between 3 sec. to 4 sec

t < 3 ) ( 3 < t < 4 ) between 3 sec. to 4

3 < t < 4

t = 3;

-50 = m*3 + b

t = 4;

0 = m*4 + b

m = 50

b

=

-200

V(t) = 50t - 200

4 ) between 3 sec. to 4 sec 3 < t < 4 t = 3;
0 < t < 1 i = 200 (1x10 - 6 ) d 50t i
0 < t < 1 i = 200 (1x10 - 6 ) d 50t i

0 < t < 1

i = 200 (1x10 -6 ) d 50t

0 < t < 1 i = 200 (1x10 - 6 ) d 50t i =

i = 10 mA

dt

0 < t < 1 i = 200 (1x10 - 6 ) d 50t i =

Change of voltage as shown in the figure :

bet. 0 sec. to 1 sec

50V (-50V) bet. 1 sec. to 3 sec

0V 50V

(-50V) 0V

bet. 3 sec. to 4 sec

( 0 < t < 1 )

( 1 < t < 3 )

( 3 < t < 4 )

3 sec 0V – 50V (-50V) – 0V bet. 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 0
3 sec 0V – 50V (-50V) – 0V bet. 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 0
3 sec 0V – 50V (-50V) – 0V bet. 3 sec. to 4 sec ( 0

Inductors

Inductors

Inductor

It is a passive element designed to store energy in

its magnetic field. (Electro magnetic energy)

designed to store energy in its magnetic field. (Electro magnetic energy) - It is consists of

- It is consists of coil of conducting wires.

INDUCTANCE is the property whereby an inductor

exhibits opposition to the change of current flowing

through it and it is measured in Henrys (H).

L

N

2

A

l

where: N number of turns

- permeability of the core

A cross-sectional area l - length

2  A l where: N – number of turns  - permeability of the core

Voltage and Current Relationship

INDUCTOR oppose changes in current through them, by dropping a voltage

directly proportional to the rate of

change of current.

directly proportional to the rate of change of current. V L  L di dt 1

V L

L

di

dt

to the rate of change of current. V L  L di dt 1 L 

1

L

i L

V L

dt

(

i t 0

t

i L  V L dt  ( i t 0 t )
i L  V L dt  ( i t 0 t )

)

Energy

The energy stored in the inductor is:

W

1

2

Li

2

Where: L - Inductance

i - current

Important Properties of Inductor

The inductor is a short circuit to dc.

Important Properties of Inductor The inductor is a short circuit to dc.
Important Properties of Inductor The inductor is a short circuit to dc.
Important Properties of Inductor The inductor is a short circuit to dc.

Important Properties of Inductor

The current through an inductor cannot change

instantaneously.

Current though an inductor:

cannot change instantaneously. Current though an inductor: a) Allowed b) Not allowable (an abrupt change is

a) Allowed

change instantaneously. Current though an inductor: a) Allowed b) Not allowable (an abrupt change is not

b) Not allowable (an abrupt change is not possible)

Inductors in Series

Inductors in Series The equivalent inductance of series-connected inductors is the sum of the of the
Inductors in Series The equivalent inductance of series-connected inductors is the sum of the of the

The equivalent inductance of series-connected inductors is

the sum of the of the individual inductance.

Inductors in Parallel

Inductors in Parallel The equivalent capacitance of N-parallel connected inductors is the reciprocal of the sum
Inductors in Parallel The equivalent capacitance of N-parallel connected inductors is the reciprocal of the sum

The equivalent capacitance of N-parallel connected inductors

is the reciprocal of the sum of the reciprocal individual

inductance.

1.

Problems:

1. Problems:
1. Problems:

Problems:

2.

Problems: 2. 3.
Problems: 2. 3.

3.

4.

Problems:

4. Problems:
4. Problems: