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THE

LABORATORY?
OR,

SCHOOL OF ARTS:
CONTAINING

A LARGE COLLECTION OF VALUABLE


SECRETS, EXPERIMENTS,

AND MANUAL OPERATIONS


IN

ARTS AND MANUFACTURES,


HIGHLY USEFUL TO
GILDERS,
JEWELLERS,

ENAMELLERS,

||

II

GOLDSMITHS,
DYERS,
CUTLERS,

JOINERS,

BOOK-BINDERS,
PLASTERERS,

II

JAPANNERS,

ARTISTS,

||

PEWTERERS,

AND TO THE WORKERS IN METALS IN GENERAL


AND

IN

PLASTER OF PARIS, WOOD, IVORY, BONE, HORN,

AND OTHER MATERIALS.

COMPILED ORIGINALLY BY
G.

SMITH.

S>iptlJ
v

<5ition,

NUMBER OF ADDITIONAL RECEIPTS, CORRECTIONS, AND AMENDMENTS


A COMPLETE TREATISE OH FIRE-WORKS, AN D THE ART OF SHORT- HAND WRI TING.

"if

.A

r.KEAT

ILLUSTRATED WITH EXGRA VINGS.

VOL

I.

LONDON:
PRINTED BY

FOR

C.

WHlTlINGIIAM

WYNNE AND SCHOLEY,


PATERNOSTER-ROW; AND YERNORAND HOOD, POULTRY.
H. D.

SYMONDS,

J.

WALLIS, AND

1799.

PREFACE
TO

THE SIXTH EDITION.

THEon

have so necessary a dependance


each other, that it would he an usearts

less task to

endeavour

tage to mankind.

to point

out their advan-

Daily experience, and in-

deed the mere operation of our

senses,

confirm

the impossibility of detailing the utility which

must

result

ventions.

from the publication of

The

human

in-

rapid progress of the physical

sciences has been the occasion of

much

labour

whose works have been often


rendered useless by the appearance of new
Volumes, and has given rise to many compilations and abridgments.
But for these compresto the learned,

sions of matter into reasonable bounds, in the

forms of Dictionaries and Encyclopaedias, the

knowledge would be less extenbecause the price would be too high for

diffusion of
sive

a 2

the


PREFACE.

IV

would
chance to remain scattered and uncollected.
But whilst the succession of every year may
have thrown a light upon the principles of
many facts which were before unknown to us,
we should take heed that many of the facts
the generality of readers, and discoveries

themselves do not escape

The

us.

history of

former ages has furnished the wofiil certainty


of the

loss

of

many

which the unwearied

arts,

attention of succeeding times

Had

restoring.
art

may

be long in

manual of every

the simple

been recorded, without attempting

to

be-

in the possession of

we should
what we may

Of

these valuable

wilder by the addition of theory,

probably be

wistfully require in vain.


secrets which have been

dering glass malleable,

lost,

is

the one of ren-

alone sufficient

to

claim our sorrow.

The
which

original plan
is

and intention of the work

now announced

to the

Public, was to

way, what had


been collected at great cost and expence such
as the secret methods of working which were
practised by artists in their several employdisseminate,

in

a reasonable

ments, and various other valuable receipts.

With the same view, this new edition appears,


which is no fewer than the sixth from its first
publication.

Why


PREFACE.

Why

work of

so distant a date

in such great request,

assigned above, that

owing

is

it

to the

reasons

a repository of

is

held

is still

many

operations which are employed at this very time,

from theoretical descriptions, and therefore intelligible to the meanest capacity.


Moreover, the terms of art, and the names of
the several ingredients, are conformable to
free

those in

common

under those

it

and such
be

shops will

druggists

at

use,

as

on enquiry

known and

sold

titles.

A work of this

kind

be not adapted

to the

reading of philosophi-

for unless

some such publications

cal students

is

ever useful, although

are afloat, philosophers themselves, in distant

would be deprived of the very mateof their own labours


it is
by the esta-

periods,
rials

custom of tradesmen

blished

following

the

occupation of their fathers, that the manual


arts

have been preserved

Many
found

in the East.

of the passages in this edition will be

entirely

by comparing it
many of them are abridg-

expunged,

with former ones

most of them are corrected

and a variety
Sometimes whole
paragraphs, and even chapters, have been
transposed
which has been purposely done,
to arrange it in a series more orderly and coned
of

new

matter

is

added.

venient.

PREFACE.

VI

The chapter on

venient.

Fire-works, for

stance, here begins the work, because

one of the

it

iri^

forms

amusements of youth, and


employ their first attention to

earliest

will be likely to

experiment; thence, gradually acquiring a manual expertness, they will be led

more

undertake

elaborate operations, and be initiated in

a fondness for philosophy.

some

to

peculiarities,

such

For the retention of

and

as the usual

ordi-

nary appellations of drugs and chemicals, in lieu


of modern philosophical names, a fair reason
has been assigned

and, indeed, to employ

new

terms would totally defeat the intention of the


worl?^ which

compiled for a valuable class of


men, whose operations must be couched in their
own technical terms. Quickening is a singular
is

employed

expression to be
ter-gilders are

employ
also

it

pendent of
their use

accustomed

constantly.

known

to

every

artists

yet

it

to

Black-lead pencils are


class

Some

is

inde-

a notorious fact that they


in their

compo-

terms, then, cannot be corrected,

unless a display of

the

of society,

who are more acquainted with

have not a particle of lead


sition.*

wathe phrase, and

in gilding; but

knowledge be preferred

to

more valuable requisite of being intelligible*

What was supposed, by the old chemists,


lead, is now well-known, to be a compound of
*

to be black-

iron; called

carbure of iron, in modern chemical language.


It

PREFACE.

Vii

must be confessed, indeed, that a number


of the receipts might be greatly amended, and
the processes of many of them be curtailed and
cheapened; but it has been thought better to
retain all, except such as are impracticable at
It

the

first

glance, and to

original stock

them

for this reason, that

in request

still

additions to the

many

of

by workmen, whose

effects, and are litof


the causes of such
anxious
and
observant

time
tle

are

make

principally busied in

is

effects.

therefore,

Till,

command, will condescend


the chase after new discoveries, and give

whose time
to leave

some able chemist,

is

at his

the condensed hiftory, the rationale, and improved manual of the operative arts, we mull:
be content to offer such as is known, and add

occasionally (as will be found in this Edition)


fresh receipts as fresh matter

the addition of
tirely

new

that the

merly known,
whereby a basis

will
is

old, another

still

left for

The

just

obsolete experiments

sure

removed

class of

and

advantage

methods of working
be

in

for-

preservation,

improvement, by the

ingenious, as the theory of the arts

unfolding.

By

produced.

processes, in lieu of en-

expunging the

will accrue

is

is

gradually

and obvious objection

is,

therefore, in

it is

to

some mea-

hoped, that the large

young people, whom

these recreations

concern,

vm

PREFACE,

concern,
tion

may

which

find the

it

is

so

amusement and

much

instruc-

their interest to cul-

tivate.

Before a
scrvations,

final close
it

may

is

put

be proper

to the
to

above

ob->

remark, that

a,

useful treatise has been introduced, in this edition,

on the practice of Short-hand writing.

"When a quick and easy mode of committing


cither our

own

thoughts, or those of others, to

the safe-guard of manuscript,

is

attainable,

one surely will forego the application of a


hours

to the

no
few

occasional practice of the art!

thousand thoughts which daily strike us

may

from destruction, to
be
the future benefit of ourselves, and the probable
and if our ideas be, at
benefit of posterity
thus instantly preserved

first,

crude and undigested, which will be too

frequently the case in sudden flights of imagination, they will be recorded

in

symbols of

more than ordinary usage, of course, free from


observation till matured by time.
The few explanatory notes, marked Ed. are,
by the

Editor.

ix

CONTENTS
THE FIRST VOLUME.

PART

I.

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS
Of

2
3

Nitre
sulphur, or brimstone

Charcoal
How to break or granulate sulphur

To combine

oil

4>

ib.

with sulphur

make
make moulds
prepare cases

camphor, and

artificial

5
ib.

its oil

for rockets

ib.

swarmers, or rockets
Preliminary observations in preparing the charges for rockets;
and to order their fires of various colours
Charges for land swarmers, or small rockets
A general charge for rockets of two or three ounces
Charges for rockets of four, five, and six ounces
water rockets
For eight, nine, arid twelve ounce rockets
one, and one and a half pound rockets

for

two and three pound rockets

8
10

ib.

ib.
ib.

12
ib.

pound rockets
or nine pounders
ten ami twelve pounders
fourteen, fifteen, and sixteen pounders
eighteen or twenty pounders
four or rive

13

six, eight,

ib.

and fifty pounders


and a hundred pounders
rockets, or ram them over the piercer

thirty, forty,

sixty, eighty,

To

bore the
For garnishing of rockets
flow to proportion the rocket-poles and sticks
a

ib.
14>

ib.
ib.
ib.
ib.

15
16

Rockets

CONTENTS.

Page

Rockets without

Of

16

sticks

how, and with what, the rockets are

girandel chests;
tired therein

17
18

Their composition
Of rockets that run upon lines, or ropes, from one place to
another
Charges for the line rockets
How to join two rockets to one another; the one to burn in
the water, and the other suddenly to fly up into the air
How to make water-rockets, water-brands, water-cats, water-ducks, &c. that turn themselves in the water
Charges for water-rockets

ib.

19

20
21
23

water-crackers
tumbling water-crackers
water-cats
Some general remarks upon rockets
Observations for discovering defective rockets
Of rocket-flyers, and the manner of charging them

fire-wheels
tourbillons

24-

ib.
lb.

25
ib.

26
27
28

Charges for fire-flyers and wheels, of four, five, and six


ounce rockets
For wheels of one pound rockets
one and a half, and two pound rockets
three and four pound rockets
To make single and double cartouches, or boxes, tubes,
stars, sparks,

30
31
ib.

ib.

&c

ib.

Double boxes, or cartouches


Another sort of lire tubes

33
ib.

The

following stars are of a mote yellow cast, inclining to


white
Sparks are prepared thus

3j
ib.

36

Single tubes, or cases


fire tube

Another

37
3S

Of salvo's
Charges

for cartouches, or

boxes

ib.

hie tubes
A preservative for wood against fire
The manner of preparing, and making letters and names in

ib.
ib.

fire- works

Charges

for

burning

39
letters with cases

To

order and preserve leading-tires, trains, and quick-matches


Charges for fuzees, or leading-matches

ib.

Of

ib.

water-balls

How

To

many crackers
prepare a water-mortar, or water pump, with se-

to charge a water-globe with

veral tubes

charge a large water-globe with several little ones,


and with crackers
prepare the water bee-hive, or bee-swarm, both single
and double

42
44
45

46
47

How

CONTENTS.

XI
Page

How

to prepare a water-globe, on the outside, with running


rockets
To prepare water-globes with single or double ascending
rockets
Charges for single water-globes
double water-globes
.'.

bee-swarms
perfumed water-balls
The c ampositioBs for, them
The manner, of preparing the melted stu ft

cold melted stuff


ibe which burns like a star, and leaps about
To pre
both on land ^nd water
charge globes, which leap on land, with iron and paper
riferous, or

..

..

48
ib.

49
50
ib.

51
ib.

52
ib.

crackers
the globes, discharged out of a mortar, are

How

ib.

made and

ordered

Fo prepare

the light balls, proper to be used at bonfires ...


paste for stars and sparks
To project globes from a mortar, and the quantity of powder required for that purpose
fixed sun, with a transparent face
Explanation of plate iv
Form and dimensions of a furnace
Use of the furnace

Observation

Of

Method

of testing gold by cupellation


used also in testing
of silver
Of separating gold from silver
Parting of gold from silver, by solution

69
71

in

Of

57
58
00
62
64

II.

gold

Purification of gold

56

67

variety of curious and valuable experiments on Gold and


Silver; shewing the method of testing, refining, separating, allaying, and toughening those metals; together
with other receipts, for gilding. &c

Of

54
55

66

.'

lutes

PART
A

53

cementation
the dry way

ib.

75

76

by antimony

ib.

77
7S

silver

Purification of silver by nitre


To prepare a crucible, so as not to contract any gold
it be for several hours in the greatest heat
Other receipts for cements

73
74

though
79
80

To

CONTENTS.

Xll

Pa*

To

separate gold and silver out of the sweepings


the gold from gilt copper

Another method
separate copper from

To

ib.

or any other allay


extract the silver out of a ring that is thick gilded, so as
the gold may remain intire
a curious secret
make brittle gold malleable
silver that is brittle, pliable
give gold, silver, or other metals, a quick fusion
try whether granulated silver contains any gold
amalgamate gold, or to mix it with mercury, which is of
use to gilders
silver,

Gilding upon

81
ib.

silver, brass,

copper, andiron

ib.

ib.

83
ib.

84
ib.

ib.

particular secret to gild silver to the greatest perfection

Another advantageous manner of gilding on silver


A particular method of gilding, which may be done

82

...

85
ib.

in a

mo-

ment, better than with quicksilver


Gilding after the Grecian manner

ib.

The

ib.

To

86

true Italian gilding


deaden quicksilver for gilding
boil silver white

87
ib.

A gold powder
Another for cold gilding
powder to gild with
A

87
88
ib.

quickening water"

89

Another water-gilding upon silver


A water which will give silver a gold colour
A method to work a cup, one side gold and the other silver
To adorn gold, silver, or brass, with embellishments of glass
Of heightening the colour of gold and gilt works
Gilding wax, used for gold, or gilded work

To

give gold a high colour

Of

to

quicken brass

90
ib.

91
ib.
ib.

92

Nuremberg gilding-wax
To make all metals malleable

How

ib.

ib.

93

for gilding

ib.

whereby gold, or gilt work, after it


has been heightened with gilding- wax, receives its proper colour
A silver gold-colour, or a colour for gilt silver
green gold-colour
French gold-colour
line gold-colour
Another gold-colour
A green gold-colour
white colour for gold
To colour an old gold chain as if it were new
A green colour for gold chains
To give gold a high and line colour
Another line colour for gold
To bring pale gold to an high colour
make silver yellow throughout, and to give it the colour
of go! d
several gold colours,

ib.

ib.

ib.

ib.

94
ib.

ib.
<>j

ib.
ib.
ib.

96
ib.

ib.

A water

CONTENTS.

XIH
Page

water to give any metal a gold-colour


Another water wherewith one may tinge any metal of a gold

To

Of
To

colour.
A curious secret
colour gold
give gold a fine and high colour
gilded work a line colour
brighten spots in gilding
give old silver-lace, or trimmings, the beauty and colour
of new
the hell, or helling of gold
hell gold, or gilt

How

work

to lake off the gold

Another method
An improved method

i*7

ifa.

ib.

ib.

93
ib.

ib.

99
ib.

from

gilt silver

tankards or cups

...

100
ib.

to take off the gilding

from

101

silver

How

ib.

To

ib.

to get the gold out of aqua-fortis


give silver utensils a lustre
separate gold from gilded silver, by cementation
Of several sorts of solder for gold and silver
Filings-solder for siUer chain-work
A solder for silver
Another for coarse silver
silver solder
Of good solder for gold
The' manner and way of soldering gold or silver
To solder a ring set with stones
A powder tor soldering, equal to borax
To melt in a moment several sorts of metals, over a table

Another manner of doing

To make aurum

102
ib.
ib.
ib.

103
ib.
ib.

ib.

104
ib,.
...

ib.

it

sophisticum, or mimick gold

ib.

Another
Another

106
ib.

To make

yellow-mixed metal, resembling gold,


and which may be drawn into tine wire
Another method to make a metal resembling gold

To make

silver

a curious

brass

copper, or brass

What metal are


To silver brass,
powder

10.9

most proper

to silver

silvering

To

silver

to incorporate with silver

copper or brass with, by rubbing

it

with

thumb

ib.

on copper

copper, or brass, bv boiling

ib.

it

boil brass, like silver

copper, brass, steel, or iron, so as not


except it be made red hot
silver all sorts of metals

silver

ib.

110

in lire

the finger or

ib.

107
108
ib.

Another way

105

ib.

to
ib.

113

PART

CONTENTS.

XIV

PART

III.
Page

The

art of

Enamelling

in

Ordinary, and the method of pro-

paring the Colours ; the art of painting in enamel ;


curious instructions how to make artificial pearls; of
doublets and foils, and the manner of colouring them ;
the art of counterfeiting precious stones, with other rare
secrets

Of enamelling

in

ordinary

13

and of preparing the enamel-

colours

ib.

To

prepare the flux for enamel-colours


Another sort of flux, -which is very soft
A green colour
Dark green

14

ib.
ib.

J15

Yellow colour

ib.

ib.

high yellow
Brimstone colour
A black colour
A good red

ib.
ib.
1 ]<i

Another

ib.

good red

ib.

Blue colours

ib.

Green
Grass green

Brown

ib.

colours

Purple colour

ib.
ib.

Hair colour

ib.

Fawn

colour
Carnation colour
steel red for enamel
Of the art of painting on enamel
To prepare the principal matter for enamel colours
t make enamel of a milk-white colour
A turcoise blue enamel
fine blue enamel
green enamel
black enamel
velvet- black enamel
purple-colour enamel

ib.

118

ib.
ib.

120
121

122
123

violet enamel
yellow enamel

ib.

124
ib.

<

An

excellent red enamel, of a very splendid ruby colour


A rose colour enamel
fine purple
-! good red enamel colour
flux for red enamel
Some general observations
Of artificial pearls

To imitate fine oriental pearls

17

ib.

125
ib.
...

ib.

126
ib.

127
128
ib.

130
ib.

Another

CONTEXTS.

XV
Page

Another way to make

artificial pear's

132
133

way
method

Uk

To form

large pearls out of small ones, as directed by


dorffer
make of small pearls a fine necklace of large ones
Best method of imitating pearls
To clean pearls when of a foul colour
blanch and cleanse pearls
Other methods used in blanching pearls

Korn
ib.

135
135
ib.

137

Of doublets
Method of making doublets
The crystal glue of Milan

138
139
141

Instructions concerning

foils,

ib.

or metallic leaves, which are

laid under precious stones


Hoy, to polish and colour foils

142,

143
145

To

colour foils of a green colour, for an emerald


colour the foils of a ruby colour
The colour of an amethyst
How foils are to be mixed with copper and other metals

ib.
ib.
...

The

art of imitating precious stones, or of

making

artificial

gems

ib.

The way

To

of preparing natural crystal


counterfeit an opal
make a fair emerald

A deeper emerald
To make a paste for imitating an
make an artificial chrysolite

Oriental topaz

counterfeit a beryl, or aqua marina


sapphire colour
Another, more beautiful, and nearer the Oriental
deeper coloured sapphire
To make a paste for an Oriental garnet
Anotiier, deeper garnet
process for counterfeiting of precicu, stones
An approved composition
To melt these compositions ; and how to tinge and finish

To

your work

make

fine

ib.

150
ib.
ib.

ib.

151
ib.
ib.
ib.

152

ib.

by

make a
The opal
Of crystal

ib.

153-

a sapphire

prepare crocus martis with vinegar


sulphur

147
148

149

ib.

US

Another way

aqua-fortis
a reverberatory fire

hyacinth

to make a diamond of a
natural crystal
to make a diamond out of a sapphire, according to
Porta's description

ib.

15*
ib.

ib.

155
ib.

ib.

Bartholomew Korndorfer's secret

ib.

How

156

To

CONTENTS.

XVI

tage

To make
Another

a fine amethyst
ruby, or a line hyacinth

1.^7

>

artificial

ib.

ruby

158

To make

a ruby balass
harden Bohemian diamonds

ib.
ib.

Plain directions for polishing the counterfeits, and also natural gems
powder for polishing

PART
The

159
160

soft stones

IV.

art of Making Glass


with the art of painting, and
making impressions upon glass, and of laying thereon
gold or silver; together with the method of preparing
;

the colours for Potters-work, or delft-ware

Of

161

glass

ib.

Materials of glass
To prepare ashes for making glass
Description of a calcar
Another method of preparing ashes

162
163
165

To make

166
167
168
16y
170

ib.

the glass frit


Description of a glass-furnace
smaller furnace, for glass, and other experiments
Instruments for making of glass
Of the sorts of glass

Compositions

for

white and crystal glass

ib.

171

flint glass

172

harder glass than the foregoing

To
To

calcine brass, which in glass makes a sky or sea-green ...


calcine brass after another manner, for a transparent
red colour, or a yellow
General observations for all colours
To make glass of lead, which is the fittest for receiving of
most colours
to work the said glass

How

Blue
t\

lay silver

on

drinking cups,

&c

glass utensils,

ib.

upon

176
ib.

dishes, salts,

of glass globes, so as to

like looking-glass

art of painting

plates,

ib.
ib.

177
17S

A curious drinking glass


How to quicksilver the inside
The

171

175

sapphire green glass


To make fine green glass of tin
a ruby-coloured glass
The ait of glass in miniature
is performed by the flame of a lamp

them look

ib.

ib.

chrysolite glass

to

173

ib.

glass

How

ib.

glass

make
ib.

179

Neceffary

CONTENTS.

XVX1
Page

Necessary observations
the colours, after

baking of
painted

in the

it is

glass, or

burning-in
180
182

.-

For a carnation colour

Of

black colours

ib.

A brown colour
A reJ colour
A blue colour

183
ib.

ib.

Another blue olour

18^j

green colour
fine yellow paint for glass
pale yellow
How to "deaden the glass, and fit it to paint upon
Some general observations on the management of painting
and baking of glass
A particular way to paint upon a drinking glass

-.

write or

The

draw upon

fine

called Delft ware


to prepare the clay for Delft
prepare a white glazing

How
To

Another

fine white for

ibi

ib.

ib.

189

earthen ware

white
Saltzburg white

To

ib.
ib.

upon earthen ware, on which the white

lay a ground

The

glass will spread the better


right Dutch mastirat for white porcelain

common

ware

is

ib.
ib.

190

thus glazed

Colours for potter's glaze-work


fine yellow

ib.

ib.

191

citron colour

green colour
blue colour
brown colour

colour
purple brown

ib.

ib.

l$3

flesh

An

ib.

ib.

iron grev

black

ib.
ib.

...."....,

brown on white
red

193

fine

To glaze
A green
fine

ib.

with Venice glass

yellow
giod yellow
blue glass
brown

colour
sea green

ib.

ib.
ib-

J94
to paint

with

ib.
ib.

liver

To

ib.

188

ware

shining white

line

186

earthen ware, com-

monly

The Rotterdam

ib.

187

glass

mid painting on

art of glazing

ib.

185

ib.

fine gilding for gla<s

To

ib.

,..
,

*'.

lay gold, silver or copper on earthen ware, so as to resemble either of these metals
.-..,.
:

ib.

195

PART

XV 111

CONTENTS.

PART

V.
Page

Several receipts for casting in Silver, Copper, Brass, Tin,


Steel, and other Metals; likewise in Wax, Plaster of
Paris, Wood, Horn, &c. with the management of the
respective Moulds
To prepare clay for making all sorts of moulds to cast gold,
silver, and other metals in ..;
make moulds of clay to cast brass or other metals in
prepare moulds, which need not to be heated, for casting metal in
The preparation of Mantua earth, for moulds
A particular sort of mould, in which one may cast very fine
and sharp
To impress basso relievo, or medals, in imitation of ivory
medals and other things in basso relievo, on paper
cast vegetables in moulds peculiarly prepared for silver ...
Powders for moulds to cast all sorts of things in gold, in silver, or in other metals
To cast vegetables and insects
prepare the mould
cast vegetables, or insects, in another manner
figures, or medals, in sulphur
How to form and cast all sorts of small birds, frogs, fish, &c.
cast small shot
images of plaster of Paris ; to cast wax, either
solid or hollow ; alo to form images in wax, and cast
them afterwards in any metal, either solid or hollow
To prepare the wax
cast medals and other things in basso relievo
r
Medals and figures in basso relievo, like jasper

196
ib.

197

IDS
ib.

ib.

199
ib.

200
201
ib.

202
203
204
ib.

205

.-.'

Another

To

cast fish, reptiles, fruit, or any kind of things, in a


ter plate, or di^h
figures in imitation of ivory

ib.
ib.

208

T.

ib.

207

pewib.

20V

Another

ib.

mixture to cast figures in basso relievo


To cast with marble colours in plaster
A sand in which one may cast things to the greatest nicety,
whether flat, or in basso relievo
To make horn soft
cast horn into moulds
^
wood in moulds, as line as ivory, of a fragrant

ib.

210
ib.
ib.

211

ib.
smell, and in several colours
Mixtures for casting mirrors, and for casting other things ...
21.2.
ih.For reflecting mirrors
$
21.3

Ant ther

214
sort of steel mixture for mirrors
.. 215
Peter Shot's metallic mixture for minors

An

CONTENTS.

XIX
P.ige

An uncommon way
To cast iron

of preparing a mirror-mixture on brass

2 17
2 18
ib.

steel

iron as white as silver

219

Another method

ib-

How
Of

to take impressions with isinglass, from copper-plates


the colours fit to be mixed wita isinglass, for impressions

To

of plates
cast plaster of Paris

ib.

221

on copperplates
mixture which may be used for making impressions of
any kind, and which will grow as hard as stone

To

impress tigures in imitation of porcelain

PART
A

220

ib.
got

.,

VI.

collection of very Valuable Secrets for the use of Smiths.


Cutlers, Pewterers, Braziers, Book-binders, Joiners,

Turners, Japanners,

&c

Choice experiments on iron and

To

223
steel

ib.

Damascan blades

ib.

harden sword-blades

How

to imitate the

ib.

Damascan blades

are hardened
a sword-blade, so as to retain always an odoriferous Scent
harden steel and iron, which will resist and cut common
iron
temper steel, so as to cut iron like lead
Several other temperings of steel and iron
A particular secret to harden armour
To temper steel or iron, so as to make excellent knives
i

the

2J-t

To perfume

ib.

ib.

225
ib.

226
ib.

Another method

ib.

To

ib.

bring gravers and other tools to a softer temper


.General rules to be observed in tempering of iron or steel ..
A curious method of hammering iron without fire, and making it red hot
To soften iron or steei that is brittle
A particular powder and oil, to take oif rusts and spots from
iron, and to preserve it from rust for a long time
very
useful in armories

227
ib.

288

The powder

To

ib.
ib.

oil

Another

229

230

oil

etch upon sword or knife-blades

prepare the etch-water


make the ground

Another water to etch with


To etch one hundred or more knife blades
b 2

ib.

ib.

ib.
ib.

at

once

231
Tfl

XX

CONTENTS.

To make

231

232

blue letters on sword-blades


- harden fishing hooks ....,
gild upon iron or steel
A ground for gilding steel or iron
Of lead and pewter^

ib.

ib.

233

To make

pewter hard
Another method to make pewter

ib.

234

as white as silver

To make

tin, or lead, ashes


gold colour upon lead or tin
water to be used in tinning

ib.

235
all sorts

of metals, especially

iron

ib.

To make

tin

which

and colour of

shall

have the weight, hardness, sound,

silver

ib

237

flow easy

A particular method to make tin resemble silver


Solder, to solder tin with
Another

solder, for

To make

ib.

ib.

pewter

ib.

tin coat-buttons, in imitation

of worked buttons of

gold and silk


art of making tin plates, or latten
To gild upon tin, pewter or lead ...
Another method to gild pewter, or lead

238

The

ib.

241
ib.

pewter

A method to
To gild lead

242

gild with pewter, or with tin-foil

ib.

Some experiments relating


To make brass

melt copper and


make brass that

ib.

to

copper and brass

243
ib.

and give it a quick fusion


brittle, and apt to crack in the work-

brass,
is

ing, malleable

ib.

solder for brass


To precipitate copper from aqua-fortis

24<<-

ib.

make copper

as white as silver
Choice secrets for book-binders
To prepare a lack varnish for book- binders, for

ib.

240

French

bindings

ib.

for binding of books


make white tables for memorandum books, to write
with a silver bodkin or wire
prepare parchment that resembles jafper or marble

French leather

To

green transparent parchment


For a transparent red

247
248

ib.

250

violet or purple colour

ib.

gild the edges of books


make red Brasil ink

prepare Brasil ink without

ib.

251
fire

in sticks

ib.
ib.

or extract lake-colours from flowers


eild

upon

ib.

black colour

To

ib.

249

blue
.

ib.

paper

252
ib.

To

CONTENTS.

XXI
Page

To make Indian ink


Another method

To

233
ib.

prepare blue ink

make good

For

ib.

254

writing ink

a small quantity of writing-ink

ib.

Ink for parchment

255

Another receipt for writing-ink


ink powder

256

ib.

To make

prepare red ink

ib.

Yellow ink

To make

257
or other characters,

letters,

colour

of a gold or silver
ib.

of gold or silver embossed


A rare Secret to prepare gold the ancient way, to paint orwrite with
To write golden letters with a pen
Fine red ink of vermilion
An artificial water for writing letters of secrecy
Another secret, to write a letter, white upon white, which
cannot be read but in fair water
The manner of marbling paper or books ..,
To silver paper, after the Chinese manner, without silver ...
prepare ink, so that what is written therewith cannot be
read but in a dark place
make line red paper
prepare ink, for drawing of lines to write upon evenlv,
"..
which may be rubbed out again
write so that the letters may appear white, and the ground
of the parchment black

make

paper
Choice secrets for cabinet-makers, and turners
To prepare a black colour for staining wood

oil

ebony wood
Another, but more costly, method
Another method
An excellent secret to dye wood of any colour
To dye wood of a red colour
Another red for dying wood
To etch figures upon wood
marble upon wood

ib.

262
263
ib.

264
ib.

266
ib.

261
ib.

26&

wood of a mie green


A "red colour, for wood
A. violet colour, for wood
To adorn wood with ornaments of silver or tin
emboss, or trace all manner of ornaments on

it).

ib.

ggg
ib.

stain

ib.

270

260

ib.

A gold, silver, or'copper-colour, on wood


To colour wood of a walnut-tree colour

smooth pannel, the gold being


any other colour
do this upon a blue ground

ib.

ib.

ib.

25'J

ib.

25$

265

imitate

ib.

ib.

271
a gilded

laid over with black, or


fly,

272
Varieties

contents.

inra

Pag

Varieties of glues and cements, for joining wood, stone,

and metais

glas-s,

272

An excellent
A good stone

glue for wood, stone, glass, and metals


glue, or cement for grotto-work
A wood glue, which stands water
Another hne glue
extraordinary glue

ib.

273
ib.

274

ib.

A good

water-cement
Stone-glue, wherewith you may glue either stone or glass ...
An exceeding fine cement to mend broken china, or glasses
A cement for broken glasses
A lute or cement, for cracksin glasses used for chemical preparations, which will stand the lire
To join broken amber
....
,.
An excellent glue or cement to mix with stone, glass, marble, &c. in order to make utensils, images, and other
,

things therewith
glue-sticks

ib^

275
ib.

ib.

276

ib.

Another cement, which

Good

ib.

dries quickly
or spittle glue, tit for book-binders

ib.

277

water cement, which grows the harder for being in water


as hard as iron
Several curious secrets relating to ivory, bone, and horn ....
To whiten ivory that is become red or yellow
Another method to whiten green ivory
M o imitate marble upon ivory
stain ivory of a fine green
d}e ivory, or bone, of a fine coral red
stain ivory, or bone, of a black colour
dye bones of a green colour
or ivory, the colour of an emerald
red, blue, or any other colour
make horn soft

A cement

ib.
ib.

ib.
ib.

278
ib.
ib.

27^
ib.

ib.

280

ib.

Another

ib.

To prepare horn
Another method

ib.

281

leaves in imitation of tortoise-shell


to counterfeit tortoise-shell on horn

ib.

To

solder horn together, after it has been lined with proper


foils or colours
^ dye horn of a green colour
-J
red colour
stain horn of a brown colour
dye horn of a blue colour
Of varnishing, or japanning on wood, &c
white varnish
Another varnish iit to mix with red or dark colours, and to
japan the work
Another lac varnish

Another
fine varnish for blue,

them

ib.

2S3
ib.
ib.
ib.

ib.

28J
ib

285

A white or clear lac varnish


A

282

and other colours, which

bright, like looking-glass

ib.

will

make
2SS

A Chinese

XXUi

CONTENTS.
A Chinese

varnish for all sorts of colours .......


to varnish chairs, tables, and other furniture, to imitate tortoise-shell; so as not to be defaced by oil or
spirituous liquors

287

How

Avery

Indian varnish
To japan with gold, glass, or any other metallic spangles ...
A very fine varnish for a violin
choice varnish which cannot be hurt by wet
good varnish for paintings
fine marbling on wood, or japanning
gold varnish, wherewith you may gild any silvered
or tinned articles, with such lustre as if done with gold

fine

Of

coral

To make

work
red coral branches, for the embellishment of grottos

PART

>b.

288
289
ib.

290
|b.

ib.

231
298
ib.

VII.

The

art of preparing Colours for Painters ; with several methods of Gilding, &c
Of blue colours
To make, or prepare, ultramarine
Another method, less troublesome
To prepare a curious blue colour, little inferior to ultramarine, from blue smalt

from

ib.

ib.

ib.

298

Another method
Turnsol, a beautiful colour

....

Prussian blue
Of several red colours
Lake, or laque
To extract lake from scarlet wool
make fine vermilion
How to purify vermilion
To make a fine purple colour
Colours extracted from Howers, &c
How to extract yellow, blue, violet, and other colours
Kunkel's method of extracting the colours from flowers, &c.
Of yellow colours
'["rue Naples' yellow
Masticot, or massicot
Orange colour

ib.
290'

297

prepare a blue colour from verdigrise

To prepare blue Tornisel, or


A blue of egg-shells
To make Venetian sky-blue

ib.

ib.

silver

Another method
Anot her

To

294

ib.

299
ib.
ib.

300
ib.

301

302
303
ib.

304
ib.

305
306
ib.
ib.
ib.

Ot

CONTENTS.

XXIV

Of

green colours

How

to

306

make good

verdigrise

ib.

Another

307

easier method to

To make

make

line verdigrise for

verdigrise

ib.

dyers

30S

Fine verdigrise for painters


How to make sap-green
Another finer sap-green
To prepare a fine green colour
A good and cheap green
Of white colours

To make

fine

ib.

309
ib.

310
ib.

311

white lead

Another method

to

ib,

make white

lead

ib.

of preparing white lead

312

Nottingham white

ib.

To

ib.

prepare another white colour


A good white colour
A fine white colour for painting in miniature
How to refine white lead
prepare egg shells, for a white colour

313
ib.
ib.

314

White

Of

for water-colours,

fit

for paper-stainers,

&c

ib.

315

several black colours

To burn

lamp-black,

in

order to

make

it

finer,

and of

a bet-

ter colour

How

ib.

make

a finer lamp-black than is ordinarily sold in


colour shops
To make a black of trotter-bones
ivory-black
Another method to burn ivory either black or white
A cherry-stone black
To make Indian ink
a fine ink-powder, to write or draw with
Several methods of gilding
A particular way of gilding; in the open air, where leafgold cannot be managed, on account of the wind
How to prepare the size for gilding in burnished gold
gild in burnish upon wood, picture-frames, or any
other sort of work
prepare the Nurimberg metallic powder, which
gives a beautiful lustre, when strewed upon writing, or
;

to

ib.

316
ib.

ib.
ib.

317
ib.

ib.

ib.

318
319

letters

bronze images of plaster of Paris


To spot a white horse with black spot?
How to dapple ahorse

ib.

ib.

ib.

3~0

PART

CONTENTS.

PART

XXV

VI H.

Several Choice Curiosities

A particular method

32j|

to furnish a iish-poud with variety offish

To

illuminate an apartment with various beautiful colours


Arbor Diana;, or the philosophical tree

...

Another method

ib.
ib.

much

323

shorter

less fallible

ib.

322

ib.

To

preserve tilings from corruption


The preparation of the spirit or oil of salt, a preserver of
things from corruption, and a great restorer and preserver of health
A regeneration of coral

324<

To make

326

phosphorus
Another method to prepare phosphorus
process for making phosphorus

To

luminous matter
prepare a room, or closet,

ib.

327
328

in such a manner that any one,


entering with a lighted candle, will think himself sur-

rounded by

fire

ib.

luminous stone
The preparation of pyrophorus
a species of

329
ib.

pyrophorus

How

to prepare thunder powder


prepare a stone, which being wetted, produces lire
represent the four elements in a glass phial
An elementary world in a phial
To ornament a room with a continually moving picture
make microscopes to great perfection
How to extract the quintessence of roses
Ansther method to extract the quintessence of any vege

To

tables
to extract oil from herbs, flowers or seeds
curious secret to distil herbs, so that the water will retain
both their colour and taste

How
A

ib.

525

To make

vinegar of wine

ib.

331
ib.

332
ib.

333
ib.

335
ib.

336
ib.

PART
Several Secrets relating to Marble

marble
Stained marble
Artificial

A more

330

expeditious process

IX.
337
ib.

338
339

How

CONTENTS.

XXVI

Pag*

How

to prepare two colours, of gold and silver, to stain


marble that is white, and paint upon it : which will penetrate into the stone, so as to bear polishing

To
-ft

imitate marble
paint on wood in imitation of marble
imitate, and counterfeit, agate
imitate jasper
to clean alabaster, or white marble

ib.

342
ib.

How
To

stain alabaster-images of

imitate marble,
How

in

all

343

sorts of colours

ib.

sulphur

ib.

344
345

prophyry, on a glass
tomake fret-work ceilings

Mosaic-work

How to

perform

340
341

ib.
it

skilfully

ib.

PART

X.

Plain instructions fof Painting in Water-colours ; and an


troduction to the Art of Drawing in Perfpective
Of the colours generally used in the art
To paint or colour a clear sky
1
lay a ground on the walls of chambers, halls, &c
Of carnation or flesh-colour

in*-

34i
ib.

350
351

ib.

How

352
354

Of

355

Paper-black
to paint or colour cattle
birds

flowers
metals

356

fruit

A short introduction to the art


To raise a perpendicular line

of drawing in perspective

...

divide a given line into any number of equal parts


the visual rays
horizon
-
point of sight, the base, the point of distance and
the point accidental
direct, or front
The oblique point of sight
Of the diagonals and their sections
Deep sinking in drawing of perspective
Of elevationin perspective, or scenography

Of

357
353
359
360
ib.

361

362
ib.

363
ib.

ib.

364
ib.

PART

CONTENTS.

XXVAA

PART XL
Page

Of Cosmetics,

How

Odoriferous-waters, Oils, &c.


to beautify the skin

.,

368

.,..,,

ib*

Another

ib.

A fine water for beautifying the face


An odoriferous water
To prepare the cloth of the Levant,

369

M.

ib.

for ladies to colour

their faces with

To

prepare

oil

ib.

370

of Benjamin, or benzoin

371

Oil of roses
cloves

ib.

Queen of Hungary's water


To make balls for taking out

ib.

372

spots of oil or grease

prepare a leather strap


make the hair grow
the same purpose
A liniment,
compound
the same
remedy corns

i!>.

...

373

for

oil,

for

An

ib.

for

ib.

374

excellent tooth-powder

ib.

Another dentifrice

ib.

375

Imperial water
Venetian water, to clear a sun-burnt complexion

ib.

To

preserve flowers
liniment to destroy vermin
fine varnish for the skin
remedy for whitloes

Fine perfumed powder,

ib.

37<>
ib.
ib.

for the hair

>

Almond

paste, for the skin


Cold cream, for the complexion
Lip salve

ib.
ib.

378

White pomatum
A pomatum to remove wrinkles

ib.
jb.

for the skin


of scenting pomatum
Common scented powder
For the eyes
Balls to take out spots of oil or grease
Cosmetic lotion, resembling the celebrated Gowland's lotion
in its effects, smell, and properties

Method

PART

ib.

37.0

ib.
ib.
ib.

380

XII.

Of dying Silk, Worsted, Cotton, &c. of various colours


to dye silk, or worsted, of a fine carnation colour

How

377.

...

380
3S1

Another

CONTENTS.

KXV1U

Another method to dye silk of a crimson red


General observations in dying crimson, scarlet, or purple...
How to dissolve pewter, for an article called " Djer's
aqua fortis"
To dye a crimson with archil
violet colour

worsted,

stuff,

ib.

3&4
ib.

or yarn of a crimson colour

ib.

Another method

385

for silk

ib.

line carnation

ib.

A carnation, for woollen


To dye a carnation, on silk,
Another method
fmethod
To dye yarn, or linen, of

How

382
383

386
or cotton

ib.

387
..

a lasting violet colour

ib.

ib.

to prepare, or set, a blue vat, for dying


to set a blue vat ; together with se-

388

Another direction how

veral observations in the

management, both

for silk

and

worsted

3S9
390

Another method, for woollen


To dye silk of a straw yellow
Another method

Of dying

silk,

ib.-

391

&c. of different green colours

ib.

A fine green for dying silk


How to dye linen of a green
To

ib.

392

colour
dye yarn of a yellow colour
dye green yarn, or linen, black
dye silk an orange colour

ib.

393
ib.

Another orangecolour

ib.

brimstone yellow for worsted


lemon colour
To dye an olive colour
dve a gold colour
The t)utch manner of dying scarlet
General observations for dying cloth of a red or scarlet co-

fine

lour

ib.
ib.

ib.

395
ib.
ib.

To

396

prepare the cloth for dying of scarlet


dye cloth of a common red
Another method
To dve a brown colour
A nutmeg colour, on stuffs
How to make flax soft and mellow

An excellent water for taking out spots


To dye woollen stuffs of a black colour

394

black colour
dye woollen of a good black
Another black colour for woollen
fur plush
To dye silk of a good black
Another manner for dying silk
To dve a grey colour

ib.

ib.

3L'7
ib.

398

in cloth, stuff,

...

i!>.

ib.
3'39

d'ye linen of a

ib.
ib.

400

&c.

ib.

401

"

,,.,...

402

CONTENTS.

XXIX
Page

To dye

brown-red colour either on

silk or

402

worsted

Another

403

Of madder, and

its

use in dying of silk, worsted, cotton, &c.

ib.

Concerning the dying with madder


To dye silk of a madder colour
Another method
Of cochineal, and its usefulness in dying
Of Kermes, and its use in dying

404
405

Of

407

ib.

406
ib.

indigo

Turmeric

ib.

Brasil-wood
Archil
Orleans' yellow

408

Gall-nuts, or galls

409

ib.
ib.

PART
Stenography;

or, the

The

universal regulator of
Short-hand writing

409
410

work and workmen

ib.

PART
Miscellaneous.

XIII.

Art of Short-hand Writing

XIV.

Of Snuff-making

414
417

How to reduce
>

tobacco into powder


purge snuff, and prepare it for admitting of odours

...

perfume snuff with flowers


Another way to do the same

ib.

method

419

Snuff of Mille-fleur
after the

ib.

method practised

at

Rome

ib.

The

snuff with the odour of civet


,
Amber- snuff
Snuff, Malthese fashion
The true Malthese method of preparing snuff
Spanish method of preparing perfumed snuff
To give a red or yellow colour to snuff
Secrets entertaining and useful

To

whiten

*.

420
ib.

ib.
ib.
...

wax

421
ib.

422
ib.

Another way of whitening wax,

in large

manufactories

How to

multiply wax
mutton-suet candles, in imitation of
make soap
prevent any thing from burning in the fire

To make

ib.

418

wax candles

423
424
425
ib.

4 Jo

To

CONTENTS.

**X

Page

prevent burning one's fingers in melted lead


Afire which Cannot be extinguished by water
I'o prevent the oil of a lamp from smoking
Another receipt for the same purpose
J'o make an incombustible wick
A stone which is inflammable with water

4-2G

Secrets relative to wine


....
To make wine to have the taste and flavour of French muscat

the Vin-doux
Vin-bourru, of an excellent taste
- imitate Malvoisie
change red wine into white, and white into red
prevent wine from fusting, otherwise tasting of the cask,
and to give it both a taste and flavour quite agreeable ...
make a vine produce sweet wine
a sweet wine of a very agreeable flavour, and be-

428

I'o

ib.

427
ib.
ib.

ib.

sides very

To

wholesome

restore a wine turned sour or sharp


corrupted and glairy
prevent wine from growing sour, and turning

ib.

ib

431
ib.
ib.
ib.

ib.
ib.

into

vi-

432

new wine

taste

an old wine

restore a wine turned


fusted, or tasting of the cask

prevent wine from pricking


make wine keep

wine
prevent wine from turning
clarify

taste in

To correct

ib.

ib.

ib.

ib.

wine

sweeten a tart wine

Another way

To

prevent "tartness in wine


heighten a wine inliquor, and give it an agreeable flavour
give wine a most agreeable flavour
How to find out whether or not there be water mixed in a
cask of wine
To separate the water from wine
ungrease wine in less than twenty-four hours

ib.

433

wine

a sour, or bitter taste in


restore spoiled wine

ib.

ib.

ib.

easily

. correct a musty
Another method

ib.

ib.

ib.

for twelve

'.

negar

429

430

months
wine turn black
clarify wine which is turned
correct a bad flavour in wine
prevent wine from spoiling and turning
thunder and lightning from hurting wine
wine from corrupting

make

ib.
ib-

ib.

two days, new wine when muddy


make the wine keep mout, or unfermented,
clarify, in

ib:

ib.

434
ib.
ib.

ib.
ib.

435
ib.

ib.
ib.

436

To

CONTENTS.

XXXI
Page

To

restore a wine
correct a bad taste

43b"

and sourness

in

wine

ib.

Another way

ib.

way

437

To cure those who are too much addicted to drink wine


Another method, not less certain
To prevent one from getting intoxicated with drinking
Another way

...

way
way
method
way
A method of making people drunk, without endangering
their health

Another way

To

ib.
ib.
ib.

438
ib.
ib.
ib.

ib.

43V

recover a person from intoxication

ib.

prevent the breath from smelling of wine

...

ib.

preserve wine good to the last

ib.
...

ib

THE

LABORATORY
OR,

SCHOOL OF ARTS.

PART

I.

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

AS

the principal ingredient in Artificial Fire-works

compounded of three

substances, of the nature

which the reader may not be acquainted,

we

shall set out

with giving a short account of gunpowder, and

nent parts

Nitre,

Gunpowder
it

is

i$

of

its

compo-

Sulphur, and Charcoal.

so well

known by

its effects,

as to render

unnecessary to give any particular description, further

than to

state, that

it is

an intimate mixture of seventy-five

parts of purified nitre, nine

and

fifteen

and a half parts of sulphur,

and a half parts of charcoal.

Many

Other pro-

portions have been employed, but the above are found to

succeed, for general uses, the best of any other

because

on the total decomposition of the nitre, and the rapidity with which it is performed. The accuracy and intimacy of the mixture must

its

force and goodness greatly depends

of course be as great a requisite as the very ingredients


themselves and the combination is attended with no small
;

degree of danger.

vol.

i,

In large manufactories, a mill


b

is

em-

ployed,

THE LABORATORY.

ployed, in which

and

in

wooden mortars
is a wooden

are disposed in rows,

each of which

moved by the
The matewooden mortars, for

pestle,

arbor of a wheel turned by water, or wind.

pounded and mixed

are

rials

in these

twelve hours together, being occasionally moistened during


the trituration, to prevent any sudden explosion.

now

powder

into grains,

which

powers, and renders

its

Nothing

remains, after the above operation, but to form the

found wonderfully to improve

is

less liable to soil

it

foul the barrels of fire-arms

the grains

the fingers, or

are

made

larger

and smaller for muskets. No process can be


well imagined more simple than the granulation of the
powder. It is placed to a certain thickness upon sieves,

for cannon,

the holes of which are of a certain diameter, and a

fiat

wood is horizontally pressed upon the surface of


powder. The powder being damp when taken from

piece of
the

the mill,

for.

the reasons stated above,

is

into molecules of the size of the holes,

rendered smoother,

less liable to

readily

formed

and

surface

its

adhere to the surfaces of

other bodies,- and admitting a freer contact of atmosphe-

between its particles. A still greater smoothness,


and even lustre, is given to it, by putting a portion into a
barrel, which turns upon an axis, by means of wheel-

rical air

and produces a certain degree of friction. After


the whole grains are separated from the finer powder,

work,
this,

by

sifting

it

and the

finished like the rest.

finer

powder

is

again granulated, and

We now proceed

the several ingredients

and

first

to treat briefly of

of

NITRE.

Nitre,

or

common

saltpetre,

the nitric acid with potash.

and

its

ing in

This

is

formed by the union of

salt

is

of a fresh taste,

crystals are, uniformly, six-sided prisms, terminat-

dihedral pyramids,

is

and
There

or cut off with a slope,

channelled, frequently, from one end to the other.


great abundance of this salt in nature, as

it

is

continually

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
ally

forming

frequented by animals, and on walls

in places

secured from rain, and in the rubbish and plaster of old


buildings.

Three circumstances seem


mation of
nidus for

animal

reception in buildings, &c.

its

substances

for

liquors,

it is

known

and in a

state

Thirdly, the contact of

be formed.
beds of

fact, that

Secondly, animal

places watered

by

of putrefaction, such as dung-

jakes, &c. afford great quantities of nitre

stables,

hills,

be necessary to the for-

to

calcareous earth, which forms a

First,

nitre.

Upon

artificial

without which no nitre could

air,

the above principles are founded the

To

nitre-works.

this effect,

number of

proposals have been made, from time to time, by ingeni-

ous men, whereby vast quantities of nitre might certainly

be formed, to the great advantage of the

lument of the speculator.


to in England,

which

the East-Indies, with

is

But

this

all

Europe with

principally for her

own

use,

France also manufactures

nies.

attended

supplied from her settlements in

Spain alone could furnish

it

and emo-

little

more than perhaps she can consume.

according to the information of Mr.

keeps

state,

has been

this

commodity,

Townsend

but she
and that of her colo;

abun-

this article in great

dance, of as excellent and pure a quality as any on the

When

globe.

nitre has

been dissolved, and freed of its


it is fitted for the making

impurities, and re-crystallized,

of gunpowder.

OF SULPHUR, OR BRIMSTONE.
Sulphur,
brittle,

burnt
tible.

a combustible body;

drv,

of a citron yellow colour, without smell, except

when

or brimstone,

of a peculiar
It is electric

taste,

when

is

which

is

weak though percep-

rubbed, and crackles and breaks

on being instantly exposed to heat. Sulphur is combined


with a number of substances, and pervades all nature
but we shall here only speak of it pure and uncombined. It
is

usually obtained

by the decomposition of a mineral subB 2

stance

THE LABORATORY.

stance termed pyrites.

In Saxony and Bohemia,

it is

nufactured in a more elaborate manner than elsewhere


is

ma;

it

put in earthen tubes, in small pieces, and placed on an

One end

oblong furnace.

of the tube stands in the fur-

nace, and the other passes into a vessel of cast-iron, con-

In this receiver the sulphur accumulates,

taining water.

though impure

and

it is

afterwards purified by melting

which causes the impurities

in an iron ladle,

pitated to the bottom.

to

it

be preci-

again kept in fusion in a copand


then poured into wooden cylindrical
moulds, which give it the form in which we usually see it
in commerce.

per

boiler,

It is

it is

CHARCOAL.

Charcoal

is

the black residue

of vegetable matter,

whose volatile principles have been decomposed and set at


liberty by fire.
Different vegetable matters afford coal in
greater or less abundance, according to the soliditv and form
of their texture.

which
which

It

has a strong attraction for

contain vital or
is

pure

air,

all

one reason for the phenomena we sec

plosion of gunpowder.
preferred,

by many,

The

substances

(now termed oxygenc)


in the ex-

charcoal of willow-wood

is

gunpowder
of hard woods is

for the manufacture of

though others maintain, that the coal

equally fitted for the purpose, provided

it

be thoroughly

burned, and preserved from the contact of the atmosphere


during the operation.

Having now mentioned,


of gunpowder, and

we

detail a

its

in a cursory

several parts,

it

way, the nature

remains only that

few other ingredients, and processes, employed

in the composition of fire-works,

previous to describing

the fire-works themselves.

How
Take some
and

let it

to

break or granulate Sulphur.

spirits

dissolve

put a handful of sulphur therein,

then take a broad

stick,

and

stir it

about

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
about

grows mealy, and

it

till

again have

strong and hard, fling a

it

To combine

sand.

like

little

you would

If

nitre kito

it.

Oil with Sulphur.

a matrass with fine pulverised sulphur, about one-

Fill
third full

on

this

the matrass half

pour

full:

as

set

for eight or nine hours,

much nut
it in warm

and the

or elder oil as will


ashes, and let

oil will

it

fill

stand

change the sulphur

to a high red colour.

To make

Take

artificial

in a glass phial

then take

set

it

and you
measure
is

for

will

it

expose

it

it

them together

close

warm

to the sun for a

camphor

pulverized by grinding

of camphor

is

it

this,

mortar with a pestle

To

Rockets

??iake

will turn

Moulds for

bearing the

it

little
it

some

oil

of

in a brass

into a green

oil.

fiockets,

pre-eminence,

principal things belonging to fire-works,

some account of every

month,

in

with sulphur in a mortar.

made by adding

which

is

for use in fire-

sweet almonds to the camphor, and working

give

horse dung

out into another glass,

have a concreted camphor, which

like the natural

oil

it

twenty days in

out again, and pour

it

with a wide mouth to

The

its Oil.

of pulverised juniper-gum two pounds, and of


vinegar enough to cover

distilled

works,

Camphor, and

part of

and being the


it

is

requisite to

them how

they are

made, finished and fired. In order to do this, I shall first


endeavour to give the curious some idea concerning the
moulds they are formed in these are turned commonly
of close and hard wood, as of white plumb-tree, box,
;

chesnut, cypress, juniper,


are

made of

ivory

Indian wood, &c.

Some

also

and for rockets of an extraordinary

large size, they are cast in brass or copper, and turned in

the inside in a nice

manner

the foot, or basis, with

its

cylinder,

THE LABORATORY.
may in these, as in
wood. The whole is commonly

cylinder, wart, or half-bullet,

others,

remain of solid
turned
of the size and form of a column in architecture
and
embellished with ornaments, according to the taste of the
;

fire-worker.

The

size

diameters

is

for rockets

but for

agreed, by the most famous


from a half to six pounds, six
the larger size, four, four and a half,

of the cylinder

artificers, to be,

or five diameters of the height of the

Those

ones, are those


ball that

orifice.

rockets which go under the denomination of small

whose inward diameter cannot receive a

The

exceeds one pound.

whose diameter can admit

middling sort are those

of one,

balls

two,

or three

pounds and great ones are such, whose bore will receive
balls from three to a hundred pounds.
Rocket moulds, from some ounces to three pounds, are
;

ordinarily seven diameters of their bore long

the foot,

two or three diameters thick the wart, two-thirds of the


diameters
and the piercer, one-third of the bore the
roller, two-thirds, and always one or two diameters, from
the handle, longer than the mould
the rammer, one
diameter shorter than the mould, and somewhat thinner
than the roller, to prevent the sacking of the paper when
;

is rammed in
having, always, one still shorter,
when the shell of the rocket is rammed half full,
you may use that with more ease. For the better illustra-

the charge

that,

tion,

see

fig.

1.

representing

cylinder, bore and piercer.

the

AB

mould with

its

basis,

the interior diameter of

C D the height of the mould, seven diamefrom D to E is the height of the breech at bottom,
which stops the mould when the rocket is driving and;
the mould
ters

this is

one and one-third diameter.

have a

solid cylinder,

orifice

AB

Upon

this

bottom you

whose height is one diameter of the


crowned with a wart, or half
bullet I, having a hole in the centre, in which is fixed the
iron, or copper piercer F.
G. a pin that keeps the bottom
and
;

this cylinder is

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
and cylinder together.

The

2.

roller.

The rammer.

3.

4.

The shorter rammer.


It is to

made

be observed, that some of these moulds are

nine diameters of their orifice long

with the wart,

the shell therefore,

These

be twelve diameters.

will

sort

of

rockets fly very high, because of their length, containing


a greater charge than the short

nevertheless, the piercer

needs to be no longer than seven diameters, but substanso as to keep in

tial,

proper attitude

its

it

will require

the dimension of two-thirds of the diameter at bottom,

and from thence, tapering,

To prepare

The

Cases for Szcarmcrs, or Rockets.

made of

cases, or trunks, of rockets, are

of things,

sorts

to half the diameter.

viz.

paper, wood,

tin,

different

pasteboard, linen,

leather, &c.

In paper cases, which are for the most part


of,

it

taken in winding, or

and

close.

2.

use

1.

That the concave

stroke be struck clean,

smooth, and without large wrinkles;


sort of cases

made

That great care ought to be


rolling them, upon the roller, tight

must be observed,

That each

and, 3.

be of an equal length and

size.

The rocket-shells being very tiresome for two persons to


make by hand, a machine has been invented for the easement. It is made of an oaken board, about two foot wide,
and three or four inches

thick, planed

smooth, and cut out

into channels, or groves, of different sizes,


greater,

or lesser,

saddle.

To

these

to serve for

commonly called the


sort of saddles are also made pressers,
on the roller are pressed down with a
rockets

and

is

whereby the cases


heavy hand the handle of the

roller

middle, a small iron bar

in,

is

put

having a hole in the

and

as the

man

presses

with one hand, he turns the roller with the other

by

means, the paper


See fig. 5 and 6..

this

be.

For four and

six

is

pound

brought as tight as

shells

it

is

to

it

and,

ought to

be observed, that
each


THE LABORATORY.

each sheet of paper (except the first and last, in the part
where the neck is formed) be a little moistened.

The

necks of rockets

may be formed

several ways:

for those of three quarters of a pound,

a well twisted

pack-thread will do, which, having one end tied to a stick

and put between one's legs, and the other to a post, will
draw it close with ease. The large shells require more
one end of a strong cord being fastened to a
and the other to a leathern belt, with a hook, as

strength
post,
fig.

and

this,

by main

about the neck of the case,

Some make

draws the cord, twisted

force,

as you see

in fig. 8.

use of a bench, on one end of which

fixed a post, to

which a cord

is

fixed,

is

and conveyed over

a pully, and through a hole in the bench, to a treddle, to

which

is

it

See

tight.

The

fastened,

whereby the necks are forced very

fig. 9.

of extraordinary large sized rockets are

necks

and round-necked

forced, with strong cords, over screws,

irons, proportioned to the size of the shell.

The wooden,

See

fig.

10.

and paste-board rockets, are supplied


with necks, turned of wood, joined, and fastened through
tin,

the sides of the shell with

wooden

pegs.

Preliminary Observations in preparing the Charges fox


Rockets; and to order their Fires of various Colours

Before you

begin to charge the shell of the rocket, be

very careful that the powder


that the nitre

is

is

well

palpable powder

dried,

or

and

made

other soft wood,

sifted

into

an im-

and
of
powdered,

that the sulphur be well cleansed,

brought to the highest perfection;


lime-tree,

worked and cleaned

thoroughly refined, and

and

all

that the coals be

well

burnt,

these ingredients be well

mixed

together and searsed through a fine sieve.

When

you are

satisfied in these things,

and have weigh-

ed the proportionable quantities of each, put the mixture


into the

work board,

fig.

11.

and grind

it

with the grinder,

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

then try your charge, by sifting a


and if, when lighted, it burns away in an

an hour:

for

fig. 12.
little

on a

table,

even

fire,

and does not

fly up,

a sign that

it is

it is

worked

one place it burns quicker than another,


or stops its course, then you must grind it more.
The
charge being thus prepared, you must put it up safe in a

enough

but

place that

is

if at

neither too hot, cold, nor

or other dry vessel; and

damp,

in a box,

when you charge your

then sprinkle and mix the charge with a

little

rocket,

brandy.

Having rammed a rocket, for trial, fire it in a secure


open place if it mounts even and high, and gives a re;

port as soon as
fection

it

turns,

then the charge

is

too fierce

back, then the charge

falls

a sign of being

it is

but if the rocket burst as soon as

is

or if

foul

it

made

to per-

is

lighted,

it

rises a little,

and weak

and

: the former

by adding more charcoal -and the latter, by


For the rest, it must be observed,
that the larger the rockets arc, the weaker must be the
charge
and on the contrary, the smaller they are, the
stronger must be their charge.
If you would represent a fiery rain falling from the
rocket, mix among your charge a composition of powdered glass, filings of iron, and saw-dust this shower is
commonly called the peacock's tail, on account of the

is

rectified

some meal-powder.

various colours that appear in

You may

it.

also exhibit a variety of colours issuing forth

from a rocket, by mixing among the charge a certain


quantity of camphor, which produces a white, or pale
fire
rosin, a red and copper colour
blood-stone, which
has been nealed and beaten to a palpable powder, a blood
red sulphur, a blue
sal ammoniac, a green
antimony,
a reddish, or honey colour
ivory shavings, a shining silver filed agate-stone, an orange
and pitch, a dark and
deep coloured fire. This must be managed with discretion
and practice will be the best teacher in that parti;

cular,

THE LABORATORY.

10

for long lessons are

cular,

more

fit

young

to perplex a

beginner than put him forwards.

The

charges are

commonly

divided into three sorts, or

degrees, viz. white, grey, and black.


to guide beginners in this art, set

down

have, the better


several

sorts

of

charges, according to the proportion of rockets, but with-

out distinguishing the three several colours

you have

ingredients, viz.

charcoal

mealed gunpowder *,

the

to

wherefore

observe, that to the grey charges are four

to

and charcoal

nitre, sulphur,

two ingredients,

nitre,

sulphur and

white charges three ingredients,

viz.

viz.

and to the black charges


mealed gunpowder and charcoal.
;

Charges for Land Sn'armers, or Small Rockets.

Mealed
ounce.

gunpowder one pound, and charcoal one

Or,

Mealed powder five ounces, and charcoal half an ounce.


Mealed powder fifteen ounces, and charcoal two ounces.
Mealed powder six ounces, nitre four ounces, sulphur
one ounce, charcoal one ounce and three quarters. This
last

may

be used for the fuzee of others.

Charges for Water Rockets.

Nitre,

or

saltpetre,

two ounces,

ounce, and charcoal one ounce and a

Mealed powder one pound and

half an

sulphur

half.

a half, nitre four

pounds,

sulphur two pounds, and charcoal five ounces.

Mealed powder four ounces,

nitre

one pound, sulphur

eight ounces, and charcoal one ounce.

Nitre two ounces, sulphur half an ounce, and charcoal


half an ounce.
"

Wherever the term mealed powder, or poiuder

mt^nsjinely bruised gunpowder : corn powder

is

onlv,

is

used,

it

whole gunpowder.

general

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

II

A general

Charge for Rockets of two or three Ounces.

Mealed

powder twelve ounces,

two ounces,

nitre

sulphur half an ounce, charcoal one ounce and a half.

Charges for Rockets of four,

Powder,

i.e.

gunpowder,

five,

and

six Ounces.

fifteen ounces, nitre twelve

ounces, sulphur one ounce and a half, and charcoal four


ounces.

Powder one pound and


half, sulphur ten

pound and

a half, nitre one

ounces and a

half,

and charcoal twelve

ounces.

Powder two pounds,

nitre

one pound,

sulphur three

ounces, and charcoal fourteen ounces and a half.

Powder

eight pounds, nitre twelve pounds, sulphur

two

pounds, and charcoal four pounds.

Powder twelve ounces,

nitre

two ounces, sulphur two

ounces, and charcoal two ounces.

Nitre four pounds, sulphur fourteen ounces, and charcoal one pound.

Powder three ounces, nitre half an ounce, sulphur half


an ounce, and charcoal half an ounce.
Powder one pound and a half, charcoal three ounces
and three quarters.

For

eight, nine,

Mealed

and twelve Ounce Rockets.

powder eighteen pounds,

nitre eight pounds,'

sulphur one pound, and charcoal four pounds.

Powder

four pounds,

nitre three

pounds and a

half,

sulphur fifteen ounces, charcoal one pound four ounces.

Powder three pounds,

nitre

two pounds, sulphur two

pounds, and charcoal one pound.

Powder three pounds,

nitre

two pounds, sulphur one

ounce, and charcoal one pound.

Powder nine pounds, charcoal one pound

eight ounces.

Nitre

THE LABORATORY.

12

Nitre two pounds four ounces, sulphur eight ounces,


charcoal fourteen ounces, and antimony four ounces.
Nitre one pound two ounces, sulphur two ounces, and
charcoal four ounces.

Nitre ten ounces and a half, sulphur one ounce, charcoal three ounces, and brass file-dust half an ounce.

Nitre two pounds four ounces,


and charcoal fourteen ounces.

For

one,

sulphur eight ounces,

and one and a half Pound Pockets.

Mealed powder three pounds, nitre four ounces, suL


phur one ounce, and charcoal four ounces and a half.
Powder thirty-two pounds, sulphur two pounds, and
charcoal six pounds.

Powder two pounds, nitre two pounds and a half, sulphur twelve ounces, and charcoal one pound three ounces.

Powder
Powder

six

pounds and

a half, charcoal

one pound.

three pounds, nitre fifteen ounces, sulphur four

ounces, and charcoal seven ounces and a half.

Powder four pounds,

nitre

one pound eight ounces,

sul-

phur ten ounces, and charcoal one pound twelve ounces.

Powder two pounds,

nitre

one pound four ounces,

phur one ounce, and charcoal eight ounces and a

sul-

half.

For two and three Pound Rockets.

Mealed powder three pounds eight ounces, nitre three


pounds ten ounces, sulphur one pound four ounces, and
charcoal one pound three ounces.
Nitre four pounds eight ounces, sulphur one pound
eight ounces, and charcoal one pound four ounces.
Nitre sixty pounds,, sulphur two pounds, and charcoal
fifteen pounds.

Powder two pounds


sulphur four ounces,

thirteen ounces, nitre fifteen ounces,

and charcoal seven ounces and a

half.

Powder

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
Powder twelve ounces, nitre one pound

13
eight ounces,

sulphur six ounces, and charcoal six ounces.

Powder

four pounds, nitre nine ounces, sulphur three

ounces and a

and charcoal ten ounces and a

half,

Powder one pound,

nitre

eight ounces,

half.

sulphur two

ounces, and charcoal three ounces.

Powfler eleven pounds, and charcoal two pounds ten


ounces.

Nitre six pounds four ounces, sulphur one pound, and


charcoal two pounds and a half.

For four or

Mealed

powder
phur one pound and

Jive

Pound

Rockets.

pounds, nitre four pounds, sul-

and charcoal two pounds

a half,

six

Or,

ounces.

Nitre

six

sulphur eight pounds,

sixty-four pounds,

and

charcoal eight pounds.

For

six, eight, or nine

Pounders.

Mealed powder twelve pounds three quarters, nitre


six pounds, sulphur two pounds and a half, and charcoal
five

pounds and a

half.

Or,

Nitre thirty-five pounds, sulphur five pounds, charcoal


ten pounds.

Mealed powder twenty-two pounds and a

half,

and

charcoal five pounds twelve ounces.

Mealed powder one pound, nitre half a pound, sulphur


two ounces, and charcoal three ounces.
Nitre nine pounds, sulphur one pound nine ounces, and
charcoal three pounds and a half.

For

Nitre

ten

and twelve Pounders.

sixty-two pounds,

sulphur nine pounds, char-

coal twenty pounds.

Powder eleven pounds,

nitre

seven pounds,

sulphur

three pounds, and charcoal six pounds.

For

:;

THE LABORATORY.

14

For fourteen,

Powder

fifteen,

and

sixteen Pounders.

ten pounds and a half, sulphur nine pound's

three quarters, and charcoal seven pounds*

Nitre twenty-three pounds, sulphur eight pounds, and


charcoal sixteen pounds.

For eighteen or twenty Pounders.

Powder

twenty-two pounds, nitre sixteen pounds,

sul-

phur seven pounds, charcoal thirteen pounds and a half.


Nitre twenty-four pounds, sulphur twelve pounds, and
charcoal twenty-six pounds.

For

Powder

thirty, forty,

eight pounds,

and ffty Pounders.


nitre sixteen

pounds, sulphur

two pounds, and charcoal four pounds.


Nitre thirty pounds, sulphur seven pounds, and charcoal eighteen pounds.

For

Nitre

sixty, eighty,

thirty-six

and a hundred Pounders.

pounds, sulphur ten pounds, and char-

coal eighteen pounds.

Nitre

fifty

pounds, sulphur twenty pounds, and char-

coal thirty pounds.

To

bore the Rockets, or

ram them

Since the boring of rockets


things belonging to them,

is

over the Piercer.

one of the principal

(for their operating well)

made in proportion to the


some of them are bored tapering

the

of the

bores are to be

size

rockets

to a point

others are hollowed square, running also to a point

others are

rammed

over a round piercer, which

in the wart of the rocket-mould.

See

fig.

1.

is

I,

stands perpendicular, running tapering to a point.

and
fixed

which

The

stronger the charge of the rockets, the narrower should

be the bore

and the weaker the charge, the deeper and


wider

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

^der

for if a strong charge

break in ascending

and

charge too slow,

it

effect

commonly,

they are

bored too deep,

is

if it is

will fall to

in

15
it

will

and the
the ground without any
middling charges, bored

bored too

little,

two-thirds of the tube from the neck.

The boring must be performed strait and even and


although some will give themselves the trouble to bore
them by hand, it is better, when a quantity is to be bored,
;

them

to send

The

to a turner.

rockets should be bored but a few days before they

are to be used

and kept

in

dry places

which you must

also observe in other materials for fire-works.

For garnishing of Rockets.


for they may be both within
and without furnished with crackers. On the outside it is
done in the following manner, viz. That end of the rocket
which is solid is divided into three equal parts, and then
bored in the middle of each, quite to the charge at the
bottom of these holes paste a ring of thin paper, upon
which fling some mealed powder then fix in the crackers,
stuffing the sides with some tow or flax
and over that,
paste a covering of paper, to close the opening between
the rocket and crackers.
The inside is finished thus: put a small round board (in
which you have bored several holes) upon the charge
then strew mealed powder in them, and fix your crackers
cover it with a cap, and paste it to the outside of the

This

is

done several ways,

rocket.

You may
with sparks,

both within and without,

also furnish rockets,


stars,

and

when

fire-rain,

those materials are

You may

joined either within or without.

also fix to the

by boring a touch-hole in both,


filling them with mealed powder, and, after the touchholes are fixed exactly on one another, glue them together with a bandage of paper
thus you may mark a
large rockets, swarmers,

winding

THE LABORATORY.

1G

winding figure with a thread on a rocket, and place your


swarmers accordingly. See fig. 13. You may also, instead of swarmers, place a globe on the top of the rocket,

charged with the composition of rockets, and


crackers

filled

with

must have a touch-hole, and be lighted before the rocket is let off, and it will have a good
effect.
Several other things may be done that way, as
;

this globe

the genius of every virtuoso will direct him.

See

fig.

14,

15.

How
It

is

to

proportion the Rocket-Poles and Sticks.

common
may be

or seven

to tie but

one rocket

to a stick

but six

placed round the thick end, which must

be worked with grooves, as you see

fig. 17.
But as no
were not for the true
balance observed in the pole or stick, you must further
observe, that these sticks are made of light, dry, and
strait wood, and must (to one and two pound rockets) be
seven times as long as the rocket which proportion, of
the small ones of seven diameters, must also be observed
in the larger sort.
That end where the rocket is tied to,
must be two-fifths and below, one sixth of the diameter.
It is best to give the turner an unborcd rocket, and one
that is bored, thereby not only to measure the length, but

rocket would ascend high,

if

it

also balance the weight.


stick,

take

which

is

it

After the rocket

is

tied to the

four inches from the neck of that

rocket

and from the neck of the bored


one, about two or three fingers, so as to stand on the back
of a knife, or one's finger, in an equilibrium. In large
rockets, the poles must be eight or nine rockets long
and to find their balance, you take their libration twelve
not yet bored

inches from the neck.

Rockets without Sticks.

There

are rockets

made without

sticks.

Fix to the

small ones (from four, to eight, nine, or ten ounces after

they

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
IT
they are bored and rammed) four wings, in the nature of
arrow-feathers, made either of light wood or paste-board,
and glued crossways to the rocket their length must be
and the breadth, below, one-sixth of the length
:

two-thirds

of the rocket

the thickness

diameter of the mouth.

See

may
fig.

be one-eighth of the

18,

and

These

19.

sort

on a board or stand, placed between


as you see in fig. 20.
four small sticks
Others fasten one end of a wire, which is about a foot
of rockets are

fired
;

long, twisted like a screw, to the

and hang an iron


with the rocket.

Of Girandel

ball to

See

Chests

mouth of

the rocket,

the other end, of an equal weight

fig.

21.

how, and with what, the Rockets are


fired therein.

The

fig. 16, is made of wood, of


you think proper, according to the number of
rockets you design to fire at once.
The method of firing the rockets is performed several
ways some fill the necks of them with mealed powder
wherewith, or with gun match,
others, with quick match

what

girandel chest, see

size

they

fire

them

fire-works,

is

the best

way

to light the girandel, or other

with a match, prepared on purpose in the

manner
Cut some slips of paper, of the length of half a sheet,
and about one or two inches wide roll, and glue, each
of them together over a little round and smooth stick, of
following

a quarter of an inch thick


dry, and

done, take

this

it

off,

when

with the composition hereafter-mentioned ;


in, by little and little, with a less stick than

fill it

ramming it
These sort of
that upon which you rolled the shell.
matches are put upon pinchers, as you see in fig. 22 and
;

when they

are lighted, they cannot be extinguished either

by rain or wind.
vol.

I.

Their

THE LABORATORY.".

18

Their Composition.

Mealed

powder three ounces and a

half, nitre severt

ounces, and sulphur three ounces three quarters, moisten-

ed with linseed

oil.

Mealed powder one pound, nitre one pound, and sulphur thirteen ounces, moistened with linseed oil.
Mealed powder one pound, nitre one pound four ounces,
sulphur four ounces, charcoal two ounces, resin two ounces
and a half, moistened with turpentine and linseed oil, and
worked well together.
Mealed powder twelve ounces, nitre two ounces, sulphur three ounces and a half, charcoal an ounce and a
and tallow three ounces

quarter, turpentine one ounce,

and a quarter

first

melt the turpentine and tallow toge-

ther, then stir the other ingredients

in the paper

Of

shells

when

among

dry, they are

it,

and pour

from

Rockets that run upon Lines, or Ropes,

it

for use.

fit

one place

another.

to

These are made several


them the more shew, some

different

ways

and

them wiih

garnish

to

give

figures

of

various devices.

The first
wooden

sort

is

contrived by fixing two iron rings, or a

tube, to a rocket, filled with a certain quantity of

a suitable composition, and bored as usual


rings, or tubes, is put a line,

run;

this is

sented in

it

fig.

is

to

of the most simple kind, for being arrived at

the place where the duration of


will allow

through these

on which the rocket

to reach,

it

its

there stops.

combustible matter

This

sort is repre-

23.

For the second

sort,

fill

any rocket, whose

equal to that of the former,


height of four diameters

bore

but
it

much

orifice is

longer, to the

to the depth of three

and

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

Upon

19

composition put a cap, or little


wooden partition, without any hole through it; glue this
to the inside of the rocket, or secure it any other way, to

and a

half.

prevent the

this

when

fire,

arrived at that place,

from catching

hold of the composition contained in the other part of the

This done, charge the remainder of the rocket to

case.

the

same height

as before, viz. to four diameters

and a half must be bored)


top,

and make a

the other end

little

or else,

after this

(three

choak the rocket

fit

round piece of wood to

with a hole through the middle, as you see in A,

which you cover with a


side, a

little

made of very

tube

mealed powder

cap

to this add,

which

thin iron plate,

fill

fig.

it,

24.

on one
fill

with

then bore a hole through the side of the

rocket, near the other side of the partition that

middle, and

at

receptacle for the priming, as at

it

with mealed powder

is

this is

in the

done

to

convey the fire through the tube to the receptable A,


where it lights the other rocket, and consequently obliges
it to return back to the place whence it came
the upper
part which holds the priming must be covered with paper,
as well as the small tube that conveys the fire from that
This rocket must also have two iron
to the other end.
;

rings, or a

make

wooden

all

You

The

the greater,

You may

by tying small paper

The contrivance of this rocket is very


have the representation plain in fig. 24, 25.

round.

crackers
pretty.

these

tube, to run along the line.

the diversion

decorations and devices that are usually fixed to

running rockets,

may be

pigeons, Mercuries, Cupids,

either

flying

dragons,

or any other fancy, as the

occasion of a feast or rejoicing requires.

Charges for the Line Rockets.

Mealed powder
half,

three ounces, nitre one ounce and a

and charcoal three ounces,

for three, four, or six

will

be a right proportion

ounce rockets.
c 2

Mealed

THE LABORATORY.

20

Mealed powder eight ounces,

nitre

two ounces, sulphur

half an ounce, and charcoal one ounce.

Mealed powder nine ounces, nitre one ounce, sulphur


three quarters of an ounce, and charcoal four ounces.
Mealed powder fourteen ounces,

nitre seven

ounces,

sulphur two ounces, and charcoal four ounces.

These charges may be used

and twenty-four

for sixteen

pounders.

Mealed powder one pound,

nitre half a

pound, sulphur

three ounces, and charcoal five ounces.

This charge
proper for three quarters and one pound line rockets.

is

be adviseable to make some trials of the charges,


you may be sure of not failing in the performance
see fig. 23, 24, 25, where a is the rocket; b the tube, or,
instead thereof, some rings that slide upon the cord
c
the partition d the pipe, for the communication of the
fire from one rocket to another.
It will

that

How

to

join two Bockeis

and

the Water,

Take
w

ith

to

two rocket

a stick, as usual

to the

middle of the

full

a leaden

ball,

to the

which

the one

up

to

burn in

into the Air.


;

fill

one

the other charge, bore and

the former you glue, upside down,

latter

round with a cord, which


rocket stick

of equal dimensions

shells

a good charge, quite

tie to

one another

the other suddenly to fly

and, towards the end,

is

tie

it

somewhat longer than the

end thereof fasten a ring, and, in that,


is to keep both rockets in a due posi-

on the surface of the water through this ring put


stick, which is provided with a cross that is
somewhat wider than the diameter of the ring, and keeps
the cord, ring and ball under water the communication
of the fire must be made below the rockets, by a small
pipe, filled with mealed powder very secure, so as to keep
it from the water
for, as soon as the water rocket is burnt
tion

the end of the

io the

end, the

fire will

make

its

way through

the pipe,

and

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
and

the land rocket will disengage itself

by

21
its

force from

the case of the other, and leave the cord, ring and ball,

behind in the water: see

How

make

to

fig.

26.

Water-rockets, Water-brands, Water-cats,

Water-ducks, Nc. that turn themselves in the Water.

The cases for the water-brands, and also their sticks,


must be made something longer than ordinary, and be
filled with a composition of coarse coal-dust, small rubbed
same method

tanner's-bark, or saw-dust, but in the

The whole

rockets.

case

and must be divided

long,

charged two-fifths

full

is

to

into five equal parts,

of composition

a report of a quarter high, and


in order to sink

it

then cover

upon
it

as sky-

be nine or ten diameters

upon

this,

and be
charge

that, fine iron flakes,

with paper, and draw

the charge

it

up a little in
the neck, and supplied with brandy-dough, or mealed
powder moistened with brandy, and glued over with
paper and having fixed a wooden swimmer below the
neck, it is dipped in wax and pitch, and is ready for use.
together with a cord

is lifted

Water-crackers, which turn in the water, are thus pre-

pared

This case

made nine

or ten diameters long the neck


and charged with mealed powder
almost half full
upon this, a partition is made with a
hole in it then put corned powder for a report upon
is

drawn

is

quite close,
:

that

is

placed another partition

mealed powder, and the end

the rest

is

filled

with

and the paper


cut short at both ends
when these crackers are to be
fired, make a touch-hole at the end of both, reversed,
and having filled them up with mealed-powder, and covered them well with brandy-dough, you may fire and
fling them into the water, having before dipt them in
tied close,

melted wax, or pitch.


It

is

to

be observed, that, to the water cat-cases,

we
may

;;

THE LABORATORY.

22

may proceed thus

(from one ounce to half pound crackers)

and

but, if larger, they are too heavy,

soon

will not so

some parts of them are


consumed wherefore, to remedy this, put in the case,
upon this, put a little
first, three measures of charge
corn powder; then again, two measures of charge, and
turn up again in the water,

till

little

corn powder, and proceed thus as

far-

as the report

upon the charge is placed a partition of wood, with a hole


in it
on that, a report of good corn-powder then tie it
close further, open it a little, putting some mealed powder to it mixed with brandy and when you would use it,
;

anoint

it all

over with grease or linseed

The

oil.

commonly rammed

water-

one
and a half, and two ounce, cases, stratified in the manner
just mentioned, taking two measures for each lay of water
cat-charge, and a little corn powder between each.
There are other sorts of rockets, that may be represented swimming on the water these are made in the
same manner as the one, or one ounce and a half rockets,
crackers, or divers, are

in one,

bored one-third in the charge, then put into a paper cylin-

wooden

der with two small

heads, or bases, having a hole

bored to the centre of each

must be equal

the centre of each head

you have

the height of this cylinder

fitted

and the hole through

exactly to the rocket

fixed every thing to a nicety, put

wax, or pitch

and when

into the water.

You may
full

See

fig.

cold,

it

you may

it

fire

when

into

melted

and

fling

it

27, 28, 29.

also put these

cone, and fasten

bladder

to half of the rocket,

to the

sorts

of rockets into a paper

neck of the rocket

or else in a

of wind, which, instead of dipping in melted

wax, do over with a mixture of four parts of linseed oil,


parts of bole armenic, one part of white lead, and
See fig. 30, 31.
half a part of ashes.

two

You may mix


tain sparks

powder

and

to this

along with the reports of the rockets, cerstars,


is

intermixed with meal and corn

fixed an iron or

wooden tube

from
each

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

23

each end of this goes another smaller tube, all having


communication with one another. These are filled with
mealed powder, covered over with paper, dipped in wax
or pitch, and a counterpoise being fixed below, it is fired.
As soon as the composition is burnt down to the cap, it is
conveyed through small tubes to the lower part, where
beating out the partition,

&c. into the

air.

See

fig.

it

disperses the powder, stars,

32,

Charges for Water-rockets.

Mealed

powder

six ounces, resin

one ounce, charcoal

three quarters of an ounce, nitre one ounce, corn

powder

one ounce.
Nitre one pound, sulphur eight ounces, mealed powder
eight ounces, and charcoal four ounces and a half.
Nitre four ounces, sulphur three ounces, and charcoal
three quarters of an ounce.
Mealed powder one pound and a half, nitre half a
pound, sulphur four ounces and a half, charcoal six ounces,
coarse coal two ounces and a half, and lead, for sinking,
one ounce.
Mealed powder two pounds, nitre one pound, sulphur
ten ounces, charcoal eight ounces, coarse coal three ounces,
sinking lead one ounce and three quarters (for three quarter

ounce rockets.)

Mealed powder two pounds, nitre two pounds, sulphur


one pound, charcoal four ounces, coarse coal three
ounces, tanner's-dust two ounces and a half, saw-dust two
ounces, glass powder one ounce, sinking lead one ounce
and three quarters, for one pound rockets.
Mealed powder half a pound, nitre three quarters of a
pound, charcoal five ounces, saw-dust half an ounce, and
a quarter of an ounce of fine chopped cotton, boiled in
nitre lye.

Charges

THE LABORATORY.

24-

Charges for Water-crackers.

Mealed

powder two pounds and a

pound and a

half,

half,

nitre

one

sulphur ten ounces, charcoal eleven

ounces, coarse coals nine ounces the sinking is, to two


ounce crackers, a quarter of an ounce of lead.
Mealed powder two pounds and a half, nitre two pounds
and a half, sulphur one pound five ounces, saw-dust twelve
;

ounces, charcoal three quarters of a pound, coarse coals

pound the sinking, a quarter of an ounce.


Mealed powder four ounces, nitre five pounds, sulphur
two pounds and three quarters, tanner's-dust one pound
and a half, charcoal one pound, coarse coals two pounds
and three quarters, glass-dust four ounces, lead three
half a

quarters of an ounce to sink

it.

Charges for Tumbling Water-crackers.

Mealed

powder one pound,

nitre

one ounce,

and

charcoal one ounce and a half.-

Mealed powder one pound,

nitre eight ounces, sulphur

three quarters of an ounce, and charcoal one ounce and


three quarters.

Mealed powder three quarters of a pound, charcoal four


for one and a half, or two pound rockets.

ounces

Charges for Water -cats.

Mealed powder two parts, nitre four parts, sulphur


one part, coarse coals two parts, saw-dust two parts, and
antimony three parts, moistened with linseed oil.
Mealed powder two ounces and a half, nitre three ounces
and a half, sulphur two ounces and a half, and antimony
half an ounce.

Mealed

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

25

Mealed flour one pound, nitre two pounds, sulphur


one pound, and charcoal one pound.
Nitre fifteen ounces, sulphur five ounces, saw-dust eight
ounces, and antimony two ounces.

Some general Remarks upon


1.

Your

rockets must have their proportionable height,

according to the diameters of their


2.

orifices.

Their necks must be drawn, or choaked, firm

to prevent the cord giving

it

Rockets.

3.

Prepare your composition just before you want

4.

Let

it

5.

tities

6.

When

damp nor

be neither too

over with a

little

you

and,

way, they must be glued over.


it.

too dry, but sprinkle

oily substance, or a little brandy.

drive your rockets, put always equal quan-

of composition in your cases at a time.

Carry with your mallet an even and perpendicular


when you charge your rockets.

stroke,
7.

The

cavity

must be bored upright and perpendicular,

exactly in the middle of the composition.

Bore your rockets just before you use them then


handle them carefully, lest their form should be spoiled.
8.

9. Let the sticks and rods be well proportioned, strait


and smooth.
10. Put your rockets, when completed, in a place that
is

neither very
1 1

damp nor

by that means they


12.

dry.

Let most of your rockets have


Avoid,

will the easier

if possible,

at

top a conic figure,

shoot through the

air.

damp, foggy, rainy or windy

night, to play your rockets.

Defective Rockets are chiefly discovered by the following


Observations.
I.

When

they are

fired,

perches,

and in mounting two or three

they break and disperse,


their proper effects.
/

without performing

2.

When

THE LABORATORY.

26

When

2.

away

slowly, without rising at

When

3.

nail,

and waste

all.

they form an arch in their ascent, or a semi~

and return

circle,
is

they remain suspended on the

to the

ground before their composition

burnt out.
4.

When

they mount in a winding posture, without an

uniform motion.

When
When

5.

6.

they

move on

slowly and heavy.

com-

the cases remain on the nails, and the

position rises and disperses in the

air.

More of

these vexatious accidents will sometimes fruhopes of a young practitioner but as the above
are the principal ones, he must endeavour to avoid them
strate the

in his

first

Of

beginning.

Rocket-flyers,

These
ble

are of

two

the latter are

Have

and

the

Manner of charging

sorts,

made

them.

namely, the single and dou-

after the following

manner

a nave, or button, turned, the dimension of three

two knots upon it, perpendicular,


one against the other, of an inch and a half long, and so

inches, together with

thick that both rocket-cases

must be a hole, of the

may

third of

fit

over them

(there

an inch in the centre of

the nave, for the iron pin to go through, on which

it is

to

two rocket cases, of equal dimensions, which are choaked quite close at the neck, and
glued ram in the charge, so far as to leave only room
to fix them on the two knobs upon the nave
this done,
fly;)

after this, take

bore into both rockets, near the closed-up necks, small

more near the

touch-holes, (and one


is

to

burn

first

from

pin) in that

hole near the neck of the other rocket, having


it

which

this hole, carry a little pipe to the

with mealed powder, that

burnt out, the second

when

may be

the rocket

is

almost

by the first. The


one row and you may
on

lighted

three touch-holes are to stand in

first filled

;;

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

27

of reports, which

.on the other side fix a couple

will

cause

a swifter motion.

The

single flyers are

made with more

in these

must not be

must be

fired in that place

made

as those that are

Of

some of

hexagonal,

all

but these do not turn so well

Fire-wheels.

their fells are of a circular form, others

or decagonal form

octagonal,

without

made

the neck

these there are three sorts, viz. single, double, and


;

star,

double.

Of
triple

ease

tied close, as in the former, but they

fells

some,

some

like

an
a

and the most of them, are

to run perpendicular to the earth

may be

others horizontal

ordered so as to serve either on land or water.

Horizontal wheels are often fired two at a time, and

made to keep time like vertical wheels


made without any slow or dead fire ten
:

will

only they are

or twelve inches

be enough for the diameter of wheels with

Fig. 34, represents such a

wheel on

fire,

six spokes.

with the

first

case

burning.

The

upon an
drawn or screwed into a post. The nave
turned of close and firm wood, in which the joiners
fire-wheels that are used on land, turn

iron pin or bolt,


is

according to the number of the fells,


which must be carefully joined together
then have a
groove hollowed round, so deep that the rocket or case
glue the spokes,

may be about half lodged therein. See fig. 35.


The double wheels must have their fells turned

stronger

and wider, with a groove for the rockets, not only at top,
but also on one side thereof; plying the necks of the
rockets at top, to the right, and those of the sides to the
left

hand.

Your
ing,

See

fig.

36.

rockets being ready, and cut behind a

bore them

the

first,

three diameters of

the second, two and three quarters

little
its

shelv-

orifice

the third, two and a


quarter

THE LABORATORY.

28
quarter

the fourth, two diameters

three quarters

the

one and a quarter the eighth, one diameter always the


something shorter than the preceding
after this,
they are primed with mealed powder worked up with
brandy, and when dry, glued in the above described
grooves you must bear the first-fired rocket's neck above
;

latter

*-*

one and

fifth,

the sixth, one and a half; the seventh,

the

rest,

underlaying

it

with a

tin plate,

or any thing else

the same you must observe in the head of the last fired

one, wherein you put the charge of a report


also glue

on every end of the

you may

rockets, a report of paper,

or goose-quills, which are


one end in the side of the rocket, and the other in

with small pipes of copper,


fixed

When all is dry, then you may cover your


wheel on one or both sides, with linen or paper, in what
form you would have it.
the report.

Of

Having

Tourbillons.

some cases within about one and a haff


diameter, drive in some clay then pinch their ends close,
and drive them down with a mallet when done, find the
centre of gravity of each case, where nail and tic a stick,
filled

which should be half an inch broad


little

narrower

ends

at the

at

may

turn horizon-

at the opposite side

of the cases,

ends turned upwards, so that the cases


tally

at

on

their centres

the middle, and a

these sticks must have their

each end, bore a hole close to the clay with a gimlet

from these holes draw a

fine

round the case, and

at the

under part of the case bore a hole, with the same gimlet,
within half a diameter of each line towards the centre
;

then from one hole to the other draw a right line


this line into
pi. 2.

three equal parts, and at

bore a hole, and from

lead a quick match, over

this

and Y,

divide
fig.

38.

hole to the other two,

which paste a thin paper.


Afire

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

A fire wheel which


must be thus ordered
Take
broad

is

rim

(see

to whirl horizontally in the water

wooden

a pretty large

flat

29

39

fig.

;)

dish, or bowl, that has a

also a

smooth dry board,

something larger than the dish, and formed into an octagon in the middle of this board make a round hole that
will hold a water-ball, so that one half be received in the
dish, and the other half rise above the surface of the
;

board

board upon the rim of the dish, and fix


then glue
it fast with wire

nail this

the ball in the middle, tying

your rockets in the grooves which are made round the


edges of the board, laying them close to one another, so
that successively taking fire from one another, they may

keep the wheel in an equal rotation. You may add, if


you please, on each side of the wheel, a few boxes, filled
with crackers or cartouches, erected perpendicular and
;

and single crackers, following in a range,

also fix double

one

two or three

after another, for

fires

or as

many

as

the extent of the wheel will admit.

For your private fuzees, observe that you conduct one


from the rocket, which is to be fixed to the composition
of the
Fill

a channel.

ball, in

them
communi-

these channels with mealed powder, and cover

close with paper

also lay a train of fusees of

cation from the rockets to a cartouch, and from that to

the

See

rest.

Lastly,

machine
you place

To

rest

ready and covered, dip the whole

it

the ball

is

and secure

it

from the injury

fired first, and,

when

lighted,

gently on the surface of the water, and then

rocket.

try a fire-wheel

tie it to
little

40.

all is

into melted pitch,

of the water

lire the.

fig.

when

fell,

long bags

of the

first

weigh one of the rockets, and

with cord, and according to the weight,

fells

full
;

fill

of sand, tying them likewise on the

then, hang the wheel

on an iron pin,
and

*m

THE LABORATORY.

30
and

may

fire

the rocket, and

assure yourself

Wheels formed

it

if it

turns the wheel, then

yon

will be complete.

like stars, are to

have their spokes fixed

upright in the nave, like other wheels, only with grooves

on one of the sides of each, where you glue the rockets;


the bottom of each rocket is made a little hole,
whence the fire is conveyed through little pipes, filled
with mealed powder up to the next, and so on, all round
at

then cover
star,

it

with linen cloth, or paper, in the shape of a

and place

it

Observe, that

on the iron
all

axis.

the rockets used in fire-wheels have

conveyance
from one rocket to another
the last of all must be well
secured below, where you may place a strong report of
corn powder.
their necks tied close, leaving only a small
:

Charges for Fire-flyers and Wheels,


sir Ounce Rockets.

Mealed

powder three pounds,

nitre

of four,

five,

and

two pounds, char-

coal five ounces, and sea-coal three ounces.

Mealed powder fourteen ounces,

nitre six ounces, char-

coal three ounces and a half, sulphur three ounces, and


sea-coal three ounces.

Mealed powder

fifteen ounces, nitre six ounces, sulphur

three ounces, and charcoal three ounces.

Nitre five pounds, sulphur three quarters of a pound,


charcoal one pound four ounces.

These charges are bored with a round bodkin.


Mealed powder two pounds, sea-coal eight ounces, and
charcoal ten ounces.

Mealed powder three pounds, sulphur

eight ounces,

and

charcoal ten ounces.

These charges may be used for triple wheels, and


must be bored, one-third, with a bodkin.

For

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

For Wheels of one Pound

Mealed powder

six

31

Rockets.

pounds, nitre three pounds, sul-

phur one pound seven ounces, charcoal two pounds nine


ounces, and tanner's-dust one ounce.

The

bore must be an inch and a

half.

For Wheels of one and a half and two Pound

Mealed powder

six

Pockets.

pounds, nitre three pounds and a

sulphur one pound and a half, charcoal two pounds

half,

three quarters, and saw-dust one ounce and a half.

The
ters

first

rocket in the wheel

and a half of

For Wheels of

Mealed
half,

is,

in length,

two diame-

its orifice.

three

and four Pound Pockets.

powder nine pounds,

nitre

one pound and a

sulphur one pound two ounces, and charcoal three

pounds four ounces.

The

first

rocket

is

bored but one and a half of

its

diameter.

TO MAKE SINGLE AND DOUBLE CARTOUCHES, OR


BOXES, TUBES, STARS, SPARKS,

When
and fixed

among

&c.

some hundred boxes or cartouches


in

are adjusted

machines of great fire-works, they afford

the towering rockets great delight to the spectators.

These boxes are made either of wood, paste-board, or


copper and are charged and proportioned according to
their strength.
If made of wood, they must fit exactly,
and receive each other, so as to seem but one continual
piece
and if paste-board, you must glue on a foot at
;

bottom,

THE LABORATORY.

32

bottom, of a hand high, to each of them


these machines must exactly

the inside of

and correspond with the


outside of the cartouches themselves, and be so contrived
as to slip into one another.

The

engine,

fig.

41.

fit

very proper for the construction

is

of those boxes, and represents the bench

the other,

fig.

upon which, (having greased


42.
soap)
you fashion your boxes, just as
them first over with
you think proper, by pasting one thickness of paper upon
another, and fixing a handle to the end of the cylinder.
Having formed them, put them to dry in a moderate
heat too great a heat will shrivel them up when dry,
take one after another off the cylinder, and immediately
clap round wooden bottoms (the edges being first done
over with glue) into them, and sprig them on the outside,
shews the cylinders,

to

make them

secure.

The

boxes are to be changed in the following

single

manner
1

2.

Put in some corn powder.


charge, fix a round paste-board, well

Upon that

to the concave side of the box,

which has

five or six

fitted

small

and is on both sides laid over with mealed powder


tempered with brandy.
3. Put upon the paste-board a little mealed powder, and
holes,

upon

that, well pierced crackers, so as to stand

necks downwards

the principal rocket

is

with their

put in the mid-

with the neck downwards, open at both ends


that being lighted above, and burning down, it may
dle,

so

fire

the rest of the crackers, which are blown up in the air

by

the corn powder.


4.

The empty

spaces between the large fire-case and

the crackers, are carefully filled up, and the cartouch

is

stuffed at top with tow, or else with saw-dust boiled in


nitre lye.
5.

The

cartouch

covered with a cap, which

is

very closely thereon*

and

is

glued

for the great case reaching out

of

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

33

Of the cartouch, make in the middle of the cap a hole,


through which it is put, and close the opening by glueing

some

slips

of paper round

The

it.

fire-case

is

loose,

covered with a paste-board cap.

Double Boxes, or Cartouches.

In

fig.

43,

a double one
to

is

exhibited the construction of a case, called

to enlarge

on the description thereof seems

be needless, only observe, that the bottoms of the upper

boxes serve for the covers of the lower,

made, through
after the

fired,

whkh

a hole being

the composition of the lower

box

is

upper rocket has forced away the empty

box, which already has discharged its load.


The upper
box you cover, as has been shewn above. If there are
more than two cartouches upon one another, they are
called Burning Tubes, which, when fired, shorten by degrees, the cartouches following one another till all are
fired
some are intermixed with artificial globes, and several other fancies, which afford great pleasure to the spec;

tators.

These boxes, or cartouches,


made for that purpose. The
touches

may be

filled

up with sand.

Another Sort of

These

are

are placed in long cases

vacancies about the car-

made of solid,

iFire

See

wood

hard, and dry wood, of

one-third, or a quarter of

which divide the whole height


actly corresponding

44.

Tubes.

height and thickness you think proper.

of the

fig.

what

Bore the middle


its

diameter, after

into equal parts,

each ex-

with the sky-roskets you design to

upon them, but rather

a small matter shorter:

all

fix

these

divisions are cut sloping downwards, except the uppermost,


which must run out in a cylinder. On the rims of each
of these divisions make a groove all round, of about a
vol. i.
finger's
u

THE LABORATORY.

34
breadth

finger's

which the

in

may

fire

these grooves bore small holes, by

be conveyed through, pipes from the

cavity of the tube, to light the rockets that stand behind

the paper cartouches, which must be

wood,

The

lest

they should

flv

made

secure to the

up along with the rockets.

construction of the hollow tube in this and other

such-like tubes

is

expressed in

45.

fig.

A, the

interspersed with corn powder.

sparks,

with paper or crackers.

which you

C, a

13,

fire-ball,

fire-stars

box

and

filled

or water-globe,

D, another box filled with crackers.


The hollows between these fires are filled up with corn
powder, to blow up the globes and boxes one after
please.

another.

The

stars

and sparks made use of on

this

occasion arc

prepared in the following manner

Take of beaten nitre five pounds and a half, mealed


powder two pounds four ounces, and sulphur one pound
twelve ounces.

Mealed powder three pounds, nitre six pounds, sulphur


one pound, camphor half an ounce, tanner's-bark two
ounces, or else saw-dust all finely sifted and moistened
;

with linseed

oil.

Mealed powder one pound, nitre four pounds, sulphur


half a pound, and pounded glass six ounces, moistened
with linseed

oil.

Nitre half a pound, sulphur two ounces, antimony one


ounce, and mealed powder three ounces.
Nitre half a pound, sulphur three ounces, antimony one
ounce, and iron file-dust half an. ounce.

Nitre two pounds, mealed powder ten pounds, and sul-

phur one pound.


Nitre one pound, sulphur half a pound, mealed powder
three ounces, and antimony one ounce.
Nitre one pound, sulphur two ounces, powder of yellow
amber one ounce, crude antimony one ounce, mealed

powder three ounces.


Sulohur

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

35

Sulphur two ounces and a half, nitre six ounces, fine


frankincense in drops,
mealed powder five ounces
four ounces
of
each
white
mastich, corrosive-sublimate,
one
ounce
antimony and
each
amber and camphor, of
;

orpiment, of each half an ounce.

These ingredients being well beaten, and finely sifted,


must be sprinkled over with a little glue or gum-water, and
formed into

little balls,

of the bigness of a small nut, then

dried in the sun, or near a

and

fire,

laid

up in a dry place,

to be ready, on occasion, for playing off with fire-works.

When you

use them, wrap

The following

them up

Stars are of a more

in tow.

i/ellozc)

Cast, inclining

to white.

Take

four ounces of gum-tragacanth, or gum-arabic,

pounded and sifted through a fine sieve, camphor dissolved


in brandy two ounces, nitre one pound, sulphur half a
pound, coarse powder of glass four ounces, white amber
one ounce and a half, orpiment two ounces incorporate
them, and make balls of them, as directed before.
;

Sparks are prepared

thus.

Take nitre one ounce, melted nitre half an ounce,


mealed powder half an ounce, and camphor two ounces
having melted these things by themselves (only when you
use them) in an earthen pot, pour on them water of gum
tragacanth, or brandy that has gum arabic, or gum tra,

whole may have the conthis done, take one


ounce of lint, which before has been boiled in brandy,
vinegar, or nitre
when dry, throw it into the composition, and mix and stir it about, till it has soaked it up
then roll them up in pills, about the size of great pins-

gacanth dissolved in
sistence

it,

that the

of a pretty thick liquid

heads,

THE LABORATORY.

J>">

heads, and set

them

to dry, having

first

sprinkled

them

with mealed powder.

Some
now and
ments,

of these pyramidical tubes and fire-works,

miniature, wherein are employed odoriferous

in

and other ingredients, that have a fragrant smell

pills,

these

pills

are

commonly composed of

stora.v calamita,

benjamin, gum-juniper, of each two ounces


mastich, frankincense,

tree-coal four ounces

nitre three

them

you may form them

in the sun,

ounces

lime-

or before a

together, and moisten with

rose-water wherein you have dissolved

them

olibanum,

beat these ingredients very fine

pulverize and incorporate

tragacanth

yellow amber, and

white amber,

camphor, of each one ounce

gum

are

then fired in large rooms, upon grand entertain-

some gum
into pills,

arabic or

and dry

fire.

Single Tubes, or Cases.

These

are only filled with compositions, and to the out-

side are fastened

some

crackers, serpents, or cartouches

and uniform, like a


cylinder, you are to trace out a winding line from the top
to the bottom, on which cut holes to the depth of two or

these cases being generally round

three inches.
fix

See

fig.

paper-cases with

46.

Into these holes contrive to

wooden bottoms, wherein you may

put any sort of rockets vou please

provide

little

holes, to

but take care you

lead from the great tube to the

corn powder under these rockets.

Another fire tube is delineated, fig. 47. This is surrounded with cartouches, disposed in a serpentine order,
like the first, which are glued and nailed as secure as possible
out of these are dispersed great numbers of squibs.
As for the rest, they have nothing but what is common
;

in others.

Another

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

JH

Another Fire Tube.

by a cord, divided
into a certain number or" equal parts, and being brought
into a poligonal figure, cutting away the convex part, it is

The

circumference of a cylinder

is,

brought into angles.

Bore the plain sides with a number of boles, perpendicularly, so as to penetrate obliquely to the great boring in

the middle
serpents.

See

fig.

48.

Fig. 49, exhibits a tube,

of

its

squibs, or

into these holes thrust crackers,

The

thickness.

whose length

is

six

diameters

cylinder being divided round the

rim into six parts, and each of those into seven parts, reserve one of them for the list, between each of which
make channels, which being six in number, place little
mortars of the same dimensions therein.

The

wood

mortars must be turned of

bore the bot-

each chamber must


be one-third, or one-half, of the depth of the fluting
toms, and add a chamber to them

and the breadth, one-sixth

only.

These chambers

are de-

signed to hold corn-powder.

Secure the mortars on the outside with strong paper


cases,

and

nail

them

cavity they are to


to their breadth

of paper,

fit

the hollow channels, whose

fast in

exactly

their length

may

be double

each mortar must contain a globe made

with a wooden bottom

and

their

chambers

must be charged with corn-powder.


These mortars fix in a spiral line, one onlv in each fluting, with iron stays, and bind the middle with an iron
plate, fastened on each side of the interstices
but before
you fix the mortars, you must not forget to pierce little
holes in the tube, and to fix the touch-holes of your mortars exactly upon them, priming both with mealed-powdcr.
Every thing relating to this may be plainly conceived in
;

the

THE LABORATORY.

38
the figure, where

and B describe the mortars, and

the

globe or cartouch.

Of
These,

Salvo's.

in fire-works, are a great

number of strong

iron

reports, fixed either in a post or plank, and, with a fire,

discharged at once.

Charges for Cartouches, or Boxes.

Mealed

powder

six ounces,

nitre

one pound eight

ounces, sulphur four ounces, and charcoal four ounces and


a half.

Mealed powder fourteen ounces, nitre five ounces, sulphur two ounces, and charcoal three ounces.
Mealed powder one pound, nitre three quarters of a.
pound, sulphur four ounces and a half, tanner's-bark or
saw-dust two ounces, and charcoal four ounces.

Charges for Fire Tubes,

Mealed

powder

six

pounds, nitre four pounds, char-

coal two pounds, resin half a pound,

ounces, moistened with a

little

linseed

Mealed powder three-quarters of

tanner's-bark five

oil.

a pound,

nitre

four

pounds, sulphur ten ounces, and saw-dust four ounces.

This charge may be used dry.


Mealed powder five pounds, nitre three pounds, charcoal one pound six ounces, resin three-quarters of a

nound

not moistened.

Preservative for

This being
;,

it

Wood against

a" necessary article

will not

be improper

Fire.

in the execution of fire-

to set

it

down

in this place.

Take

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
Take

39

each

brick-dust, ashes, iron-filings, pulverized, of

an equal quantity
water or

size

put

them together

upon thein

in a pot

pour gluc-

then put them near the

fire,

them together. With this size,


wash over your wood- work and when dry, repeat it, and

when warm,

and,

stfc

it

will

The

be proof against

?Jctn)icr

tire.

nf preparing, and making Letters and Navies


in Fire-works.

Burning

letters

may

be represented, after several me-

thods.

Order a joiner to cut any capital letters, of what length


and breadth you please, or about two feet long, and three
or four inches wide, and an inch and a half thick, fig. 50.

hollow out

of the body of the letters a groove, a quarof an inch deep, reserving for the edges of the letters
a quarter, or half, an inch of wood. If you design to
ter

have the
cotton or

burn of a blue

letters
flax,

fire,

then make wicks ot

according to the bigness and depth of the

grooves in the

letters,

and draw them

and place them

melted sulphur,

through

leisurely

in the

grooves

again, with brandy

brush

them over with brandy, and strew mealed powder on

and,

and thin dissolved gum-tragacanth, and

mealed powder also when dry, drive small


round
all
the edges of the grooves, and twist small
wire to those tacks, that it may cross the letters, and keep
the cotton or flax close therein; then, lay over it brandy

on

that strew

tacks

paste

strew,

glue over

it

over that,

mealed powder

you would have the


pounds of nitre, and add to
If

burn

letters
it

little

dry touchwood,

them in melted
.s

and, at

cut into pieces of


nitre

over a

quite soaked through the

fire

wood

w hite,
7

last,

let
;

dissolve six

corn-powder

You may,

dip your wicks of cotton or flax.

a single paper.

in that

instead, use

an inch thick;

them

after

lay

till

put

the nitre

which, mix powdered

THE LABORATORY.

40

dered nitre with good strong brandy

take

and with a spatula, or your hands, work

and brandy, together

then squeeze

cotton,

strew the cot-

make wicks

ten over with powdered nitre, and


first

out

it

some

that, the nitre

having

placed the touchwood in the grooves, lay the wicks

over that and the vacancies about

and then proceed to

it,

make it tight and secure, as has been directed above.


There is another method of burning letters, without
grooves, and this is done by boiing small holes in the letthe diaters, about an inch distance one from the other
meter of the holes must not be above the eighth of an
;

inch

them

into

ing charges

and

put,

these

rammed with

glue, cases,

letters

do

not burn so long

burnas the

others, except the charges are very long.

Another method for burning of letters is, when they are


formed, by a smith, of coarse wire, about a quarter of an
inch thick when this is done, get some cotton spun into
;

match-thread, but not

much

twisted

to

two yards of this,

take one pound of sulphur, six ounces of nitre, and two

ounces of antimony
the sulphur by

first

when
till

it

strew

and then the rest


the match-thread and

melted, put in

has drawn in

melt these ingredients in a

itself,

the matter

all

over with mealed powder

it

about the white

letters

stir

a board, that

has been well laid over with a preservative to keep

When

firing.

take

fire

you have

lighted one letter,

about,

out,

it

let it dry,

upon

it

and
wind
it
and

then take

fasten these

kettle,

together

all

from

it

the rest will

all

immediately.

Letters cut through a


slide in the

of the box

smooth board, which

is

grooves of a chest, are ordered thus


is

made

full

made
:

the

of holes, for dispersing the smoke

of the lamps, or wax tapers, which are set behind to

minate the
paper,

letters

behind the cut-out

of various colours,

lighted, has a fine tfkei.

tnay be

made

to
lid

which,

Bv

letters

when

is

illu-

pasted

the lamps

oil

are

these means, various changes

in representing devices,

names, coats of
arms.

ARTIFICIAL FJRE-WORKS.
But this way is more practised on

arms, &c.

41
the stage,

in plays, than in fire-works.

Charges for burning Letters with Cases.

Mealed

powder

six ounces, nitre

with rock-oil, or petroleum

one pound, mixed

oil.

quarters of a pound, nitre nine

Mealed powder three

ounces, and sulphur three ounces, mixed up dry.

Mealed powder five ounces, nitre seven ounces, sulphur three ounces, and file-dust half an ounce moisten;

ed with linseed

oil.

To order and preserve

Trams, and Stack-

Leading-fires,

mate lies.

Fire-works being of
is

various kinds and inventions,

it

impossible to assign certain rules for their several perfor-

But to say something of what concerns a mas-

mances.

ter's praise, it is

observed, that great fire-works are not to

above once or twice at most for it would not be


deemed an artful performance to fire one cartouch after
another likewise, the match pipes, the most preferable
be

fired

of which are either iron, lead, or wood, and should be


(Strengthened or closely twisted round with the sinews of
beasts,

and

well tried

filled

with slow charges, which ought to be

or else furnished with match-thread, dry and

well prepared, and afterwards cither joined to the grooves

made

ill

the boards, or only laid free from one

another.

The

;.nd luted

with potters clay, so as

breaking out

flame

may

to

prevent the

these pipes must also have

to give the fire air, or else

the pipes

work

to

joinings of the pipes must be well closed

it

would be

little

stifled,

fire

from

vent holes

and burst

but these holes must be so contrived, that the

vent itself in the open

air,

and

at

some

dis-

tance from the works, so as to prevent touching them.


All

IKE LABORATORY.

42

All burning matches are to be as distant from the

ma-

chines as possible, to prevent accidents.

particular direction for conducting your trains and fu-

zees, cannot be given, because of the variety of postures,


situations,

and contrivances of machinerv

those rules

ready given will be sufficient for the ingenious


in

dustry, have

add

al

to this.

may gather from


much care and

the advantage a novice in this art


direction

the

the figures, which, with

been traced out

in-

for their information.

Charges for Fuzees, or Leading-inafeiies.

Mealed

powder three ounces and

a half, nitre foui

ounces, sulphur one ounce and three quarters, and charcoal one ounce and three quarters.

Mealed powder three ounces,

nitre nine ounces, sulphur

four ounces and a half, and charcoal half an ounce.

Mealed powder four ounces, charcoal half an ounce,


and coarse coal half an ounce.

Mealed powder half a


two

parts,

Of
Balls,

some

some

The

three parts, sulphur

this last

is

very slow.

Water-balls.

in fire -works, are

are globular,

drical,

part, nitre

and charcoal one part

made of different fashions


some conical, some cylin-

oval,

others in the form of a pendant, or drop.


water-balls are

bags, or of

wood

commonly made of knitted cordmade of bags are shaped like

those

ostriches eggs, and are,


I*,

tilled with their

The
hemp or flax,-

outside

2.

3.

This

ball

the touch-hole

is

proper charge.

dipped

till it is

in glue,

and wound about with

a quarter of an inch thick with

it.

is

then coated over with cloth, and about

is

glued over with a piece of leather.


4.

The

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
43
The touch-hole is bored with a gimlet, and stopped
a wooden peg.

4.

with

At the bottom of the globe,

5.

pierce a small hole

through to the composition, in which fasten a small copperpipe, furnished with a paper report, together with a leaden

balance
in

glue the report fast to the ball

melted pitch

then dip the

open the touch-hole, and prime

ball

with a

it

quick-burning charge.

These
rise

balls

and

the ball

if a

not observed in the lead, or

is

overcharged, they will sink to the bottom, and

is

burn out

keep a long time under water before they


true balance

therefore you must well observe, that

give

but, if

weighs one pound and a

it

four,

three, or three ounces

and a

Water-balls, or globes,

half,

thus

with

it

half.

and double

single

balance

made of wood, which swim and

burn upon the water without any further


sorts, viz.

is

you must
it

when

two pounds weight,


or four ounces and a half of lead

without the balance,

water-ball,

effect,

are of

two

made

the single ones are

have a hollow globe, turned somewhat oblong, with

a vent-hole

good and approved charge,


some mealed powder then glue a stopple in* the hole, which must be thrice
as thick as the shell of tbe globe, in which beforehand
;

fill

but not too close

that with a
;

prime the end with

the counterpoise
at top, large

through
quite

this,

full

cast of lead

is

enough

for a

ram down

when

make

a hole

the charge in the globe, and

with tbe same composition

with a paste-board

dry,

two-ounce cracker to enter

and,

lastly,

fix.

then glue

through the stopple, having bored a hole through


done, dip the whole in pitch

water-globes.
rity,

Both

sorts

over

a small copper pipe

that purpose; to the pipe fasten a paper report


is

fill it

it

it

when

for
this

these are called single

of globes are, for better secu-

twisted and tied round with several rows of strong

packthread.

Double

THE LABORATORY.

H-

Double water-globes

which after one is fired,


have
chambers at bottom,
These
with gunpowder on these put a cover oi
are such,

discharges another.

which are

filled

thick leather, which has several holes in the middle, and

goes close to the side

on

strew mealed powder, and

this

place thereon arlre-globe, which

demonstrate the construction.


1.

fifth

That

the

Fig. 52, will

Observe,

bottom, ought to be one-

at

That the

The

powder

water-ball

partition

in it shall

EFG,

pipes

its

height

half.

water-ball composition, as
3.

charged.

of the breadth of the whole globe, and that

be one and a
2.

chamber,

little

is

it

the body of the

is

should be encompassed with


vou see by H.

for this purpose, that

have the

may

fire

conveyed

to

it

when

the

through the

with more force blow up the ball in

first

this

taking

fire

at the

hole D, will

burn upon the water for some time, and then, to the astonishment of the spectators, on a sudden, it will blow up
the ball that was in
4.

You must

it.

be very careful to secure the piece of lea-

ther or board tlr.it covers the little chamber, lest it should


be blown up by the composition of the greater globe, before it is all burned out.

llow

io

Takk,

may

charge a Water-globe with

for this purpose,

in several places, to the size

which arc

to be fixed in

which

is

be

to

manner

the riutings

fitted to

to

filled

the

which
same with

Hollow the

outside,

each of the crackers


with mealed pow dcr,
r

the small holes in the flutings, in

as expressed in the print,


;

fill

of your reports, or crackers,

them

belongs a small copper tube,

Crackers.

a single water-globe,

be round, or of an oval form, and

the composition hereafter-mentioned.

fhe

many

where

B. the little holes for the fuzes

fig.
;

53.

A, are

C, the upper
orifice

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS,
orifice tor

priming

the ball

primed

is

to be fixed in theflutings; F,

How

to

45

D, the hollow stopple, through which


E, the form of the crackers, which are
little

fuzees belonging to them.

prepare a Water-mortar, or Water-pump, with


several Tubes.

Take
that

is

seven wooden tubes

wrap them about with cloth


them

either pitched or dipped in glue, twisting

round very tight with packthread. Their height, thickness, and diameter, you may order as you think proper,
only allowing the middlemost a greater height than the
rest

bind

bottom

fix

them together

in

one cylindrical body

to the

a round board, with nails, and then with strong-

glue stop up

all

the composition

the crevices to prevent the air getting to


:

this done,

order represented in

fig. 5

fill

4-.

the tubes according to the

First

pour into each tube a

upon that put


upon that a slow composition then again
corn-powder upon which put a water-globe, filled with
squibs, as you see in B
on that again a slow composition
then corn-powder and then a light bail, as may be seen
in C
over this put, a third time, a slow composition upon
corn-powder, as before, which you must cover with a
wooden cap on this fix running rockets, not too close,
but to leave room enough between for a wooden case filled
with a water composition the remainder of the tube fill
with a slow charge, and close it up. Your tubes being all
filled in this manner, get a square,
or round, piece of
plank, with a round hole in the middle, large enough to
receive the ends of all the tubes, which cover close, to
preserve the powder and composition from being wet
this
float-board is marked with the letter D, fig. 55.
Thus prepared, dip it in a quantity of tar, or melted pitch
then
little

corn-powder, about half an inch high

a water-ball

put the rocket E,

or a small

wooden tube

filled

with a

stroag composition that will burn on the water, into the


orifice

THE LABORATORY.

46
orifice

of the middle tube

be more slow than the

the composition of which should

rest.

If you would have the tubes take fire all round at once,
you must pierce the sides of the great one with small holes,
corresponding with those in each of the other tubes by
this means the fire may be conveyed to all of them at
once, and consume them equally and at one time but, if
you would have them burn one after another, you must
close them well up with paste-board
and to each tube fix
a fuzee of communication, filled with mealed powder, or
a slow composition, through which the fire may be conveyed from the bottom of that which is consumed, to the
;

orifice

of that next to

it

and so on, successively, to such

as have not been fired.

How to charge

a large Water-globe with several

little ones,

arid with Crackers.

Gkt a wooden cylinder made let its orifice be at least


one foot diameter, and its height one and a half: let there
be a lodge, or chamber, at bottom, to hold the powder,
which must be confined by a tampion, or stopple, joined to
a round board, fitted exactly to the inside of the globe
;

through the middle of the stopple must pass an iron tube


with mealed powder

filled

more,

if

you think

fit,

then prepare

so that

when

all

the circumference of the globe, they


cle

six water-balls, or

are set together in

may

fill

up that

cir-

each of these balls must be provided with an iron

fuzee in

its

orifice, filled

with mealed powder.

Having

charged the chamber of the globe with corn-powder,

down

the fore-mentioned board, with the stopple

then arrange the

six water-balls

round board, that has

six little

with the six iron.fuzees of the

surmount

it.

Spread

this last

upon

let
it;

cover them with another

round holes, corresponding


balls,

which must a

little

board over with mealed and

corn-po.vder, mixed together, and upon

it

place as

many

rockets

ARTIFTCIAL FIRE-WORKS.
rockets as the globe can hold

in the midst of these fix a

whose orifice the


the same you see in E, fig.

iron

which

56.

This tube must have holes drilled


the said partition or board, that the
nication through them,

the

at

same time

of the board
to the

fire

may

having a

commu-

the water-balls, whose tubes rise out

chamber below, may blow up the whole

middle of the running ones

fire

round the plane of

and, thence, after having penetrated

points out the six water-balls

der

enter,

reach the running rockets, and

and make a great noise.

air,

all

fire,

may

tube

large rocket, into


is

47

See the figure,


;

down

into the

where

B, the great rocket in the

C, the chamber for the pow-

D, a communication, or the iron pipe, to convey the


F, the globe which having been
to the paper cracker
;

adjusted after the

and dip

it

manner dire&ed, cover

in tar, to preserve

To prepare

single

bee-swarm

close rcun<J ?

Bees-warm, both single

double.

is

long globe turned, whose

it

from the water.

the JVater Bee-hive, or

and

The

it

thus prepared.

breadth, or proportioned to

Have an ob-

two diameters of its


the height of your rounding

length

is

which place round the wooden tube marked with


must be of an equal height with the globe, and be
filled with a composition of three parts of powder, two of
nitre, and one of sulphur
at the lower end of the globe
fix a paper cracker C.
The letter D is a counterpoise of
rockets,

this

lead, through

which you convey a

communicate with the charge

little

in the

pipe, or fuzee, to

wooden tube

at top,

round board for a balance, and two little holes, which


convey the fire to the charge for blowing up the rockets
fix a

See

fig.

57.

Ho:

;;

THE LABORATORY.

45

How

to

prepare a Water-globe, on the Outside, with Run'fiing-rockets.

Get

wooden globe

on the outside several

perfectly round and hollow; bore

cavities, sufficient to receive

rockets, leaving a quarter of an inch

running

between the extre-

mities of them, and the composition within the ball; then

bore the

wood

left

between each, with a small gimlet

fill

them with mealed powder; then put in your rockets;


close the top of the globe with a wooden cylinder, that has
a hollow top, with a touch-hole to receive the priming
stop with a stopple, which likewise has a
conveyance to the cracker that is commonly fixed beneath
it ; between which and the stopple fix also a leaden counSee
terpoise, to keep the whole upright in the water.

the bottom

fig.

58.

To prepare Water-globes with

single or double ascending

Rockets.

For

the

first

sort,

the middle, half

its

have a globe turned with a tube

wood

the placing of solid

in

diameter wide, leaving two inches for


at the

bottom

round

this tube,

which, burn, with

bore holes for small rockets

red hot wire, or small iron,

touch-holes out of the large

tubes into the

ones; then

little

lowing composition,

Two

pounds of

fill

a.

the globe with the fol-

xiz.

nitre, eight

ounces of mealed powder,


this

after

ounces of sulphur, eight

twelve

ounces of saw-dust

done, close the top with a stopple which has a touch-

hole in the middle

then put a good deal of mealed pow-

and after
you have placed your rockets upon that, fill the vacancy
round with a little corn-powder glue over them papercaps then dip the globe into pitch, but not over the paper

der into the small tubes, up to the touch-holes

covering

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
covering; fix a counterpoise at

49

bottom; and when the

fire

has burned half way, or further, in the large tube, it will


communicate through the touch-holes, and discharge all
the rockets at once.

The second

sort are

the middle tube

more room

made

after the

same manner, only

not bored so wide, because of giving

is

two rows of small tubes round it the first


is bored a little below the middle
the second almost near to the end the touch-holes for the
former are burnt from the inside of the great tube, and
those of the latter, from the outside -hole, are closed again
with a wooden pin in the large tube you may lodge a
strong report of iron, charged with corn-powder, having a
for

row, next to the tube,

touch-hole

left at top.

Sec

fig.

59, 60.

Charges for single V/ater-ghbes.

Corn-powder

half a pound,

nitre

sixteen

pounds,

sulphur four pounds, ivory shavings four ounces, saw-dust,


boiled in saltpetre-lye, four pounds.

Mealed powder one pound, nitre six pounds, sulphur


pounds, iron filings two pounds, and resin half a

three

pound.

Mealed powder four pounds,

nitre twenty-four

pounds

sulphur twelve pounds, saw-dust eight pounds, powdered

pound, and camphor half a pound.


Corn-powder one ounce, nitre twelve ounces, sulphur

glass half a

four ounces, and saw-dust three ounces.

Nitre twelve ounces, sulphur four ounces, saw-dust two


ounces, melted stufF three quarters

this

must be rammed

in tight.

Mealed powder one pound four ounces,

nitre

one pound

eight ounces, sulphur nine ounces, saw-dust five ounces,

pounded

glass

one ounce, melted

them together with


vol.

i.

little

linseed

stufF four

ounces

mix

oil.

Mealed

THE LABORATORY.
Mealed powder eight ounces, nitre five pounds,
phur two pounds, copper filings eight ounces and a
and coarse coal-dust eight ounces and a half.

sulhalf,

Nitre eight ounces, sulphur three ounces, saw-dust one

ounce, and tanner's-bark two ounces.


Nitre six pounds twelve ounces, sulphur two pounds
fourteen ounces, melted stuff half a pound, saw-dust one

pound, coarse coal-dust one pound, and pounded glass one


pound* mixed up and moistened with vinegar.
Nitre two pounds twelve ounces, sulphur two pounds
six ounces,

melted stuff four ounces, saw-dust eight ounces,

charcoal one ounce and a half, and pounded glass three


quarters of an

ounce, moistened with

mixed up with a

little

linseed

oil,

and

corn-powder.

Charges for doable Water-globes.

Nitre

four

pound

six ounces,

sulphur one

pound four

ounces, saw-dust half a pound, and coarse coal-dust six

ounces, moistened with a

little

vinegar or linseed

oil.

Mealed powder one pound four ounces, sulphur four


ounces, and charcoal two ounces, moistened with Petroleum oil, or rock oil.
Nitre three pounds, sulphur a quarter of a pound, and

saw-dust

boiled

with nitre

ten

ounces,

moistened

little.

Charges for Bee-smarms.

Mealed

powder

thirteen ounces

and a

'

half, nitre six

ounces, sulphur two ounces and a half, fine charcoal three


ounces, coarse charcoal one ounce, and fine saw-dust three

ounces.

Mealed powder three quarters of

a pound, nitre six

ounces, sulphur three ounces and a half, fine charcoal four

ounces, and coarse charcoal two ounces and a half.

Mealed

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

51

Mealed powder four parts, nitre eight parts, sulphur


two parts, coarse charcoal two parts, and fine charcoal one
part.

Odoriferous, or

Have

perfumed Water-balls.

about the size of large walnuts

balls turned,

fill

them with any of the compositions specified below after


they are filled and ready, light and put them into water.
This is generally done in a large room, or hall, at grand
;

entertainments.

The Compositions for them are

Nitre
ounce;
ounces

four ounces

civet,

storax calamita, one ounce

mastich, one ounce

saw-dust of cypress, two ounces

frank-

amber half an
half an ounce; saw-dust of juniper, two

one ounce

incense,

as follows

and

oil

of spike,

one ounce.
Nitre two ounces, flowers of sulphur one ounce, camphor half an ounce, raspings of yellow amber half an
ounce, coal of lime-tree wood one ounce, flowers of benjamin half an ounce let those which are to be powdered
;

be done very

fine

then mix them together, as usual.

Nitre two ounces, myrrh four ounces, frankincense three


ounces,

amber three ounces, mastich one ounce, camphor

half an ounce, resin one ounce, boiled saw-dust one ounce,


lime-tree

coal, half

mix them up with

an ounce, bees-wax half an ounce;

little oil

of juniper.

Nitre one ounce, myrrh four ounces, frankincense two

ounces and a

half,

amber two ounces, mother of pearl four

and resin half an


mix them up with oil of roses.
Mealed powder three ounces, nitre twelve ounces, frankincense one ounce, myrrh half an ounce, and charcoal
three ounces, mixed with oil of spike.
ounces,

ounce

melted stuff half an ounce,

e 2

The

THE LABORATORY.

52

The manner of preparing

Melt

twenty-four pounds of sulphur

earthen pan, over a clear


sixteen pounds of nitre
iron spatula

and add

fire,

the melted Stuff.

fire,

and

them

stir

as

it

in

shallow

melts, fling in

well together with

as

soon as they are melted, take

to

it

eight pounds of corn-powder

well together, and, being cooled, pour out this

an

off the

it

mix it
compo-

upon a polished marble, or metal-plates, and then


This
a walnut.
it into pieces about the size of
composition is chiefly used in military fire-works, and not
for those I am treating of; but for those fire-works which
are only for pleasure, it is distinguished by warm and cold
melted stuff, and is prepared in the following manner.
Take for the first sort half a pound of nitre grind
among it three quarters of an ounce of antimony, till one
cannot be distinguished from the other then melt one
pound and a half of sulphur, put the mixed nitre and antimony to it, and mix them well together this done, put
it warm into a wooden mould of two pieces, which should
be well greased on the inside this stuff you break afterwards into less pieces it is, on account of its clear fire,
sition

divide

used to imitate

stars.

The Manner of preparing

the cold melted Stuff.

Grind the above ingredients, or eight ounces of mealed


powder, four ounces of nitre, three ounces of sulphur,
and one ounce of coal-dust, together, till all is of one colour

this

done, moisten that stuff with the white of eggs,

size, and make a stiff dough


then strew,
on a smooth board, some mealed powder roll the dough
upon that a quarter of an inch thick strew, again, mealed
powder upon it; then cut it in square pieces, and let them
dry or else form small balls of it, of the size of a small

gum-water, or

nut,

siut,

53
ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
put
then roll them in mealed powder, and

or larger;

them up

to dry.

To prepare a Globe which burns like a Star, and


about both on Land and Water.

Cause
meter

is

a globe to be turned, of dry

pound

the length of a half

vide this globe into two equal parts

or a
;

leaps

wood, whose
pound rocket

in the middle of

dia
:

di-

one

of the half globes, on the inside, make a cavity, deep,


and wide enough to hold three or four rockets, or
crackers, so that the other half of the globe may be easily
long,

and closely fitted upon them after this take three crackers,
one with strong reports, and two without any place them
so into the hollow, that the head of the one may lay to the
other's, neck, and be so ordered that as soon as the one is
spent, the other may take fire and force the globe back,
and thus alternately from one to the other till it comes to
Care must be taken that the
the report, which finishes.
fire passes not from the first to the next cracker, before it
has quite consumed the first but as I have given a caution
in the article about rockets that run on a cord, the same
;

may

be observed here.

Having taken care


the other half globe,

to fix the rockets, cover

them with

and join them firmly with strong

pasted paper.

To charge

Globes, which

Paper

Take

a hollow

at the top, in

wooden

leap on

globe,

five or six holes,

them

petards, or
at

which has

the form of a small cylinder

aquatic composition, quite full

iron

Land, with Iron and

CracJters.

touch-hole

fill it

with an

then bore into the charge

about half an inch wide, in which put


crackers,

which run tapering; provide

the lower end with a small touch-hole, and cover

the

THE LABORATORY.

5-t

the top with a tin-plate, in which there

four holes, which


wads of paper or tow, after you
have filled them with the best corn-powder and when
you fire them on even ground, you will see them leap as

you must

is

close up with

often as a cracker goes

The

other sort

is

off.

not

See

much

61.

fig.

unlike the

except that

first,

you add a certain number of crackers, which are


disposed as you may observe in fig. 62. A the crackers,

to this

the touch-hole.

How

the Globes, discharged out of a Mortar, arc

made

and ordered.

First

mouth of

find the

twelve parts

a mortar, and divide

two diameters of the mortar's mouth high


diameter in six equal parts, and

and

it

into

then have a globe turned of wood, which


the height between

let

be the diameter of the globe

is

divide the

the thickness of the

H I, should be one-twelfth of the above diameter,


and the thickness of the cover of the globe the height
of the priming chamber F shall be one-sixth and a half of

wood

the diameter, but

its

of the touch-hole B

breadth only one-sixth


is

the diameter

one-fourth, or one-sixth, of that of

the chamber: for the better understanding these directions, see fig. 63.

The manner
Take

of

these globes

filling

hollow canes, or

lengths, to

fit

common

is

thus

reeds

the cavity of the globe, and

them into
them with a

cut
fill

weak composition made of

three parts mealed powder,


and one of sulphur, moistened with a little
linseed oil (excepting the lower ends of them, which rest
upon the bottom of the globe, which must have mealed
powder only, moistened likewise with the same oil, or
sprinkled over with brandy, and dried :) the bottom of the
globe cover with mealed powder, mixed with an equal

two of

coal,

quantity of corn-powder

the reed being

filled in this

manner,

ner,

as

set

globe, as

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
of them upright in the

many

will contain

it

then cover

up with a cloth dipped

well at top

it

in glue

55
cavity of the

and

the priming must

wrap
be of the same composition with the reeds.
The globes represented at 64, and 65, are contrived
it

the above, only the

first

of these

is

filled

like

with running

stars, and sparks, inand


put promiscuously
terspersed with mealed powder,
figures
are
so
plain, that I need
over the crackers. The

and the

rockets,

with crackers,

last

not give any further explanation.

No. 66
shews

its

the lesser,

is

the representation of a globe, which plainly

construction:
is

the

same

the great globe, which contains

as described

globe in a cylindrical form, with a

The

ber and touch-hole.

above

it is

charged

cavity of this inner globe

to

is

be

filled

flat

fix

is filled

covering

the

with the same composi-

been directed for the above globes


with good mealed powder.

tion as has

must be

for

bottom, and a cham-

flat

with iron crackers, and covered with a

priming chamber

In the midst of these rockets

with running rockets.

the fuzees

filled

To prepare

the

Light Baits, proper

to

be used at Bonfires.

Take

two pounds of crude-antimony, four pounds of


and
half a pound of pitch
having powdered all these ingre-

sulphur, four pounds of resin, four pounds of coal,


:

dients,

put them into a kettle,

over a coal

hemp,

fire,

and

or flax, into

then take

it

off the

let

it

as

fire,

or glazed earthen pan,

them melt

may be

then throw as

sufficient to

and whilst

it is

soak

cooling,

much

up
form it
it

into balls.

You may wrap them up

in tow,

and put them either

into rockets or globes.

To

:;

THE LABORATORY

56

To prepare

Take

five

the Paste

for Stars and Sparks.

ounces and a half of mealed powder, one

pound twelve ounces of sulphur. Or,


Take three pounds of mealed powder, six pounds of
nitre, one pound of sulphur, two pounds of camphor,
and two ounces of tanner's-bark, or saw-dust. Moisten
all

these ingredients with linseed

oil.

Take mealed powder one pound,


moistened with a

little

nitre

and powdered

sulphur half a pound,

linseed

four pounds,

glass six

ounces

oil.

Nitre half a pound, sulphur two ounces, antimony one

ounce, and mealed powder three ounces.


Nitre half a pound, sulphur three ounces, antimony one

ounce, and iron file-dust half an ounce.


Nitre two pounds, mealed powder ten pounds, and sulphur one pound.
Nitre one pound, sulphur half a pound, mealed powder three ounces, and antimony one ounce.
Having mixed and prepared your ingredients, boil some
flax in nitre-lye and camphor
then cut it small, and mix
with
any
of
the
above
compositions,
which must be
up
it
either
moistened with
the white of eggs, gum, or size
;

form

this into little balls,

of the size of a hazel-nut

them over with mealed powder, and

To

let

them

cause the stars to burn very bright,

strew

dry.

make your com-

position of one ounce and three quarters of nitre, three

quarters of an ounce of sulphur, and a quarter of an ounce

of powder.
Nitre two pounds, sulphur fourteen pounds and a
and mealed powder six ounces.

The
made

paste,

or melted stuff above-mentioned,

is

half,

also

use of for the same purpose, wrapped in tow.

To

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.

To

project Globes

from

The

that Purpose.

globes being of wood,

charges for

and the Quantity of

a Mortar,

Powder required for

57

is

it

them should be agreeable

requisite that the


to their substance

for which end they are first weighed, allowing for each
pound of its weight a quarter of an ounce of gunpowder.
For example, if your globe weighs forty pounds, you

must, to discharge

it,

allow ten ounces of powder.

put the powder into the


chamber of the mortar, and cover it with straw, hay,
hemp, or flax, so as to fill it quite full or if the chamber
of the mortar be too big, get one turned of wood, equal
in height and breadth to the chamber of the mortar that
pierce this with
contains the charge of powder required
wood
to the centre
a red hot wire, from the bottom of the
of the bottom of the chamber in it, not perpendicular,
but slanting.
The place where the touch-hole begins
must be marked, so that you may turn it to correspond
When you would load
with the touch-hole of the mortar.
your mortar, cover the bottom of the chamber with a little
mealed and corn-powder, mixed together and upon that
put the wooden chamber, in which is the powder required

The

charge

is

thus performed

to discharge

the

globe, exactly,

make

&c. to

it

globe

then

fix

the touch-hole of the

upon the chamber, wrapping

it

in

hemp,

stand upright.

The mortars contrived on purpose for globes are more


commodious, and we are more certain in projecting them
:

these are cast as follows

the length of the mortar with the

chamber, without the bottom,

two diameters of the


the chamber is half
the diameter of the mouth long, and a quarter wide
oval
at bottom
the sides are an eighth of the diameter of the
mouth thick, which is encreased at bottom to a third; the
thickness about the chamber is a fourth part.

mouth

the bottom

is

is

one-fifth thick

Some

THE LABORATORY.

53

Some

prepare these balls with nitre four pounds, sul-

phur one pound and a half, powder half a pound,


mony six ounces, and charcoal half an ounce.
Nitre four pounds, sulphur three pounds,
quarter of a pound, and

powder half

fired Sun, with a

To make

anti-

camphor a

a pound.

Transparent Face.

be twe
which will shew a double glory,
and make the rays strong and full. The frame, or sun
wheel, must be made thus have a circular flat nave made

rows of

a sun of the

cases, as in

fig.

best sort, there should

67,

very strong, twelve inches diameter


spokes, A. B. C. D. E. F.

flat

circular

less

five feet diameter,

fell,

within this

to this fix six strong

within which

fix

fix

another

fix

a third

fell,

whose diameter must be

than the second, by the length of one case and one-

The wheel

third.

many

being made,

divide the fells into as

equal parts as you would have cases (namely, from

24 to 44)

at

must be made
wheel let the
:

m ay

on the front of these

the length of one of the sua cases less in diame-

fell,

ter

lie in

each division
to

fit

fix a flat iron staple,

them

the cases to hold

staples be so placed, that

fast

which
on the

one row of cases

the middle of the intervals of the other.

In the centre of the block of the sun drive a spindle, on


which put a small hexagonal wheel, whose cases must be
Two
ii!Ied with the same charge as the cases of the sun.
but begin with
cases of this wheel must burn at a time
them on the fells. Having fixed on all the cases, carry
pipes of communication from one to the other, as you see
and from one side of the sun to the wheel
in the figure
and thence to the other side of the sun.
the
middle,
in
hold the wheel steady while the sun is
leaders
will
These
aiso be a sure method of lighting both
will
fixing up, and
A sun thus made is called a
cases of the wheel together.
;

brilliant sun,

because

tire

wood-work

is

entirely covered

with

ARTIFICIAL FIRE-WORKS.
with

fire

59

from the wheel in the middle, so that there ap-

pears nothing but brilliant

fire

but, if

you would have a

transparent face in the centre, you must follow this

thod

me-

take a piece of paste-board of a circular figure, like

the sun's face, and cut out the eyes, nose, and mouth, for
the sparks of the wheel to appear through
this,

paint a face on oiled paper, or Persian

hoop

tight over a small

or, instead
silk,

of

struined

either of the faces are to be

supported by three or four pieces of wire, at six inches


distance from the centre of the wheel, so that the light

may illuminate

the face.

transparent motto's

vices, suitable to the


filled

In a similar way, you

" Vivat

day of exhibition.

may

place

or any other de-

Half pound

cases,

up ten inches with composition, will be a good size

for a sun of five feet diameter

must

Rex;"

also

be pronortionably

but, if larger, the cases

larger.

EXPLANATION

THE LABORATORY.

EXPLANATION OF PLATE

THAT
chemical

the reader

work,

it

may have some

IV.

many

idea of

of the

apparatus employed and mentioned in this

has been thought expedient to engrave them on

whereby the whole may be seen at one view.


it be thoroughly committed to memory, which will save the tediousness of a frequent reference, and give a quickness and facility in performing the

one

It is

plate,

adviseable, that

operations themselves.

Fig.

1.

perpendicular section of a Cupel or Test: c


the powdered bones kneaded with water, and
firmly pressed into the iron ring, of
section

which

seen at a

is

b.

There

is

which a
d

a part at

hollowed, or dished out, for the re-

is

ception of the metal to be tested.

Fig.

2.

Muffel,

in

which

all articles

are placed

which

are to undergo the operation of a strong


free

fire,

from smoke, such as enamelled work,

stained glass, &c.

Fig.

3.

An

Ingot-Mould,

into

the

grooves

of which

melted metals are poured.


Fig. 4.

A Retort,

made

and used
Fig.

5.

Fig.

6.

An

either of glass or earthen-ware,

in various distillations.

Crucible.

Iron Cone, inverted, with a handle and foot,


into which metals, and other results of opera-

tions, are occasionally directed to

be poured.
Fig. 1.


EXPLANATION OF PLATE
Fig. 7.

&l

IV.

A Reverberating Furnace.
a,
b,

The
The

c c c

c,

ash-hole door.
fire-place door.

Registers, to regulate the heat.

d f The dome, or reverberatory,


e,

f
gt

Fig.

8.

9.

>

Fig.

The conical funnel.


The retort in the furnace.
The receiver.

h lit Iron bars to sustain the retort.


Furnace for colouring of Foils, where the
hand is represented in the act of performing
the operation. See the article " Foil-making"
long-necked Glass Alembic.

A, The body of the matrass.


B, The neck of the matrass.
C,

Fig. 10.

The head

of the alembic.

Glass Alembic.

At The

cucurbit.

The head.
C, The aperture
D, The beak.
B,

Fig. 11.

in the head,

Bolt-head, or cap,

upper opening of a

which

is

still.

with the stopple.

affixed

still

on the

of this kind

nearly resembles the reverberating furnace externally, fig. 7.

d,

which

is

there the

dome,

may

be supposed to be the upper half of the


body of the still, the under half being hid
within the cavity of the fire-place

of the conical funnel


bolt-head.

The

opening of the

e,

is

and

in lieu

substituted the above

exact proportions between the

still,

and the neck of the bolt-

head, are not preserved in the plate, because


the furnace would be, by

this,

too large for

the work, or, on the Contrary, the bolt-head

would be too

small.

Fig

THE LABORATORY.

62
Fig. 12.

Melting Furnace, with its parts, A. B* C>


D. F, taken from " Cramer's Art of Assaying

We

Metals."

account of

be very particular in the

shall

this furnace, as

it is

extremely well

constructed, and usefuL

Form and Dimensions

The

melting furnace

is

of this Furnace.

made of

iron-plates, the inner

which are covered with lute*. The cavity of


may be formed according to an elliptical mould. 1st,..

surfaces of
it

Make

a hollow

ellipsis,

and the ordinate


focusses, that

may assume

it

the hollow body, near


lines

in

diameter,

Fasten two

focusses 12 inches asunder,

the

5 inches long

its

and

cut

it

off in

the figure A.

2dly,

both

its

Make

in

lower aperture, four holes, eight


directly

opposite

(c,

3dly,

c,).

and a half
broad, at both the upper and the lower inward edge of
this oval cavity
and fill the inside of it with small iron
hooks, jutting out about six lines, and three or four inches
distant from each other.
These, together with the rings
iron-rings (d,) almost an inch

flat

just

mentioned, serve to fasten the

lute.

Thus

will the

body of the furnace be made only you must add at the


outside, two iron handles (e, e,) to be rivetted on each
side of it, that it may be taken hold of and moved. 4thly,
Make the cover of the furnace, which may be formed like
Let this
the part cut off from the ellipsis, see fg. B.
have an opening (b) made in it, four inches high, five
inches broad at bottom, and four inches at the top and
adapt to this an iron door, hung on hinges, to shut close,
and having at the inside a border fastened to it, answering
exactly to the circumference of the door, and as promi:

nent inwardly as the thickness of the lute to be applied to


* Lute will be described at large in the next article.
it:

EXPLANATION OF PLATE
it

for the

same purpose,

which

to the inside of the door,

And

border.

lest this

63

IV.

small iron hooks be fastened

let

intercepted by the said

is

cover should be burnt within by the

force of the fire, you must cover the inside of it with the
same lute ; therefore it must be likewise furnished with a
ring and iron hooks, as was done to the part A.
Besides
this, you must fasten two iron handles on the outside of
this cover (fig. B. c c,)
then a round hole must be made
:

in the top of

it,

being three inches in diameter, prolonged

into a hollow tube (d) almost cylindrical, and a

upon which an

high,
sity,

is

nace two moveable bottoms,


and admit the air the other

viz.

made with an
at

top,

orbicular iron plate,

it

may

of the body of the furnace


fig.

The

formed into a hollow cyand to be shut at bottom with an


as with a basis, five inches high, pf
iron plate,

such a diameter, as that


inch, see

one to receive the ashes,

to serve for reductions.

open

few inches
of neces-

5thly,

fore-mentioned.

linder,

in case

The lining both of the body and


made of the same materials as beMoreover, you must make for this fur-

be adapted.

cover of the furnace

first is

may,

iron funnel

receive the inferior orifice

(fig.

A)

the depth of half an

therefore, let an iron ring (c) half an

inch broad, fastened on the inside of the said bottom, the


distance of half an inch from

its

the body of the furnace put into

upper border,
it.

Again,

to support

but-

let this

torn have a square door, four inches high, and as many-

inches broad, that

may

be shut closely, that

crease or diminish the draught of the

On

the

bottom,

left

air,

ou

may

in-

at pleasure.

side of this door, about half the height of the

let a

round hole

(d)

be made, one inch and a

when
Next to this, let another bottom part be
made of the same matter and figure as the foregoing let
it be likewise of the same diameter, but two inches higher,
half in a diameter, to admit the pipe of the bellows

need

requires.

so as to be seven inches high.


it

a similar iron ring below

its

Let

it

likewise have round

upper border,

to

support the

bod

THE LABORATORY.

64

body of the furnace to be received in it. But


two or three inches broad, and one inch high

a hole,

let
(fig.

D.

c,)

be cut out just below the ring in the side of this bottom
part; and let another round hole be made in the left side
of this first hole, fit to admit the pipe of the bellows (d).
Further, let another round hole like the foregoing

made on

the right, one inch from the bottom

(e)

be

then

let

the whole inside of this bottom part (the part above the
ring excepted) be over-laid with lute, and a

bed be made
by the line

at the bottom, of a figure like, that represented

The

(f, g, h,).

matter of which this

is

made

is

common

and mixed with


may be lightly
coherent, when moistened, mixed together, and pressed
down. Of this matter the bed is made at bottom, like a
segment of a sphere, having in the middle a small cavity
somewhat lower, and made extremely smooth.

lute pulverized, passed through a sieve,

such a quantity of sifted charcoal dust, as

Use of

this

This furnace is chiefly fit


made in it, with or without

Furnace,
for fusions,
vessels.

which may be
you are to

When

vessel, put the body of the furnace (fig. A.)


upon the first bottom (fig. C\) which has a door to it, to
open or. hinges introduce two iron bars through the holes
put upon them the ironof the furnace, (fig. A. c, c,)
introduce
through the upper
are
to
which
you
grate,

melt with a

mouth of

the furnace

grate a brick or square

dry

otherwise,

then put in the middle of


tile,

the vessels put upon

be

it

by the

heat.

it,

especially the

by the moist vapours coming

large ones, are easily split

out of

Let the height and width of these

a small matter broader

and higher than the bottom of

the crucible or vessel set up'on

it

for if

it

were

the bottom of the vessel could not be sufficiently

and

if

it

were

less

this

very smooth, warmed, and

broad,

the

vessel

might

less high,

warmed

easily

fall

from

EXPLANATION OF PLATE
from

it

then put upon this

matter to be

tile

65

IV.

the vessel containing the

melted, and surround

it

immediately with

which must be ranged with care.


The fire is governed and regulated by opening or shutting
you may excite it,
the door of the ash-hole (fig. C. b)
by putting the cover (fig. B) upon the body of the furnace and if, besides, you put a funnel upon the cylindrical mouth (d) of this cover, the melting fire becomes
coals on every side,

still

more

you moreover introduce the beland


(fig. C. d)
of the furnace with the bottom part and the

violent

but

if

lows through the hole of the bottom part


the joint

door of the ash-hole (unless it can be stopped very close


of itself) be tightly closed with Windsor loam, the fire
may be excited to so powerful a degree, as to surpass the
heat of a smith's forge. Another advantage of this method is, that the vessels are not so easily broken, because
the blowing of the bellows cannot affect them immedi-

and because a

ately,

every

how

side.

One may

fire

perfectly equal

easily

examine with

is

this

excited

on

apparatus,

by the violence of the fire only.


you have a mind to perform any operation without a vessel, and with a naked fire for instance, to melt
and reduce copper, tin, lead, and iron, or their ores
the body of the furnace must be put upon the other pedistals, having a bed in it (fig. D).
However, you must,
before this, open with a knife the oblong hole (c), and the
round one (d) of this bottom part, which are stopped
with the lute sticking to the inside then you apply at the
round hole (d), on the left side, the bellows, in such
manner that the nozzle of it being directed obliquely
downwards, may blow strongly against the bed {f,g,h,)
by this means, all the ashes that fall into the bed are
blown away, and the strength of the fire determined to
such a degree, that all the melted bodies that fall into
the said bed, remain in their state of fusion and were it
otherwise, the melted bodies would immediately wax

Now,

stones are affected


if

vol.

i,

eold,

THE LABORATORY.

66
cold,

and adhere

whereas they ought

in grains to the bed,

The oblong

to have melted into one regular mass.


in the fore part of this

by means of

a poker,

bottom part

hole

serves to discover,

(c)

whether the matter

in the

bed be

away through it
whatever might stop the bellows, and in some cases to
take away the scoria: then you put, first, coals into the
furnace, one span high, and blow them well with the
bellows, to make them burn, that the bed may be very
melted or not

it

serves likewise to take

hot before the matter to be melted

is

put in

for if this

is

not previously done, the melted mass seldom runs into a


regains, but remains dispersed among the scoria, which

soon grow hard.

The bed

coals added to the

fire,

being well heated, and fresh

put into

such quantity of the

it

matter to be melted as cannot hinder the


carried to the requisite degree

fire from being


which cannot be deter-

mined otherwise than by experience again, put fresh


coals, and upon them another quantity of the matter to
be melted ; they may be, like strata, one upon another
:

but if the mass, once melted, could not long sustain the
strength of the

fire,

or if

you had

mind

to melt a greater

quantity of the matter than what can be contained in the

bed, you must open the round lower hole

you may make a channel passing from

(fig.

D,

e,)

that

that hole through

the lute, and reaching to the small cavity at the bottom of

the bed (g)

to this hole, at the outside, apply

an earthen

bed within, or any other proper recipient,


surrounded with burning coals, into which the matter
melted, running from the bed through the hole (fig. D. t)
may be collected, as is represented by figure E.
dish like the

OBSERVATION.

Furnaces of

the foregoing description, together with

crucibles, black-lead pots,

and many other chemical appa-

ratus, were formerly imported, from Germany, at great

cost

EXPLANATION OF PLATE IV.


67
They are now made in England *,

cost and trouble.

and with considerable advantages, being more portable,


A complete furnace, capable of
being worked in a parlour chimney, may be had, from

cheaper, and readier.

3, to a

and

higher cxpence, which will create

will require

no assistance from the

little

trouble,

bricklayer.

OF LUTES.
In many chemical operations, the

vessels

must be co-

vered with something to preserve them from the violence

of the

fire,

from being broken or melted, and

exactly their joinings to each other,


stances

which they contain when they are

reduced to vapour.

employed, called

The

lutes

also to close

to retain the sub-

volatile

and

<For this purpose, several matters are

in general lutes.

with which glass and earthen-ware retorts are

composed of nearly equal parts of


coarse sand and refractory clay. These matters are to be
well mixed with water and a little hair, so as to form a
liquid paste, with which vessels are to be covered, layer
upon layer, till it is of the required thickness. The sand
mixed with the clay is necessary in this lute, to prevent the
cracks which are occasioned by the contracting of clay
during its drying, which it always does when it is pure.
covered, ought to be

The

hair serves also to bind the parts of the lute,

keep
is

it

applied to the vessel

introduced into

would be

The

it,

for,

and to

notwithstanding the sand

some cracks are always formed, which

tumble off in pieces.


with which the joinings of vessels are closed,

likely to

lutes

are of different kinds, according to the nature of the operations to

be made, and of the substances to be

They may be had, of

Speck,

all sizes

at their manufactory,

and

at the

distilled in

prices, of Mess.

Pugh and

bottom of Booth

Street,

Spital Fields.

f 2

these

THE LABORATORY.

63

When vapours

these vessels.

of watery liquors, and such

as are not corrosive, are to be contained,

it is

sufficient to

surround the joining of the receiver to the nose of the


alembic, or of the retort, with slips of paper or linen,

covered with a tough paste of flour and water.


cases also,

slips

of wet bladder, which will

In such

affix

them-

When

selves close to the parts, are highly convenient.

more penetrating and dissolving vapours are to be contained, a lute is to be employed of quick-lime slaked by the
and beat into a

air,

liquid paste

This

with whites of eggs.

which are to be apThis lute is


plied exactly to the joining of the vessels.
convenient it easily dries, becomes solid, and sufficiently
paste

is

be spread on linen

to

slips,

when saline, acid, and corrosive vapours are


be contained, we must then have recourse to the lute
called fat lute.
This lute is made by forming into a paste
some dried clay finely powdered, sifted through a fine
lawn sieve, and moistened with water, and then by beatfirm.

Lastly,

to

ing this paste well in a mortar with boiled linseed

oil,

i. e.

which has been made drying by boiling it with


litharge
sold by the colourmen.
This lute will take and
retain the form that is given it.
It is generally rolled in
linseed oil

cylinders of a convenient size.

by

These

are to be applied,

them, to the joinings of the

flattening

ought to be perfectly dry, because the


prevent the lute from adhering.

least

When

well closed with this fat lute, the whole

with
eggs.

The

slips

which

the joinings are


is

to be covered

of linen, spread with lute of lime and whites of

These
second

cause this

vessels,

moisture would

be bound round with pack-thread.

slips are to

lute

latter

is

necessary to keep on the fat lute, be-

remains

soft,

and does not become

solid

enougfr to stick on alone.

PART

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

PART

69

II.

VARIETY OF

CURIOUS AND VALUABLE EXPERIMENTS


ON

GOLD AND

SILVER-,

SHEWING THE METHOD OF TESTING, REFINING, SEPARATING,


ALLAYING, AND TOUGHENING THOSE METALS; TOGETHER
WITH OTHER RECEIPTS, FOR GILDING, &C.

PREVIOUS to
ceipts

entering

upon gold and

upon the
silver,

a brief sketch of metallurgy


art

it

or,

several detached re-

may be

proper to give
" The

in other words,

of extracting and purifying of metals, in the great

way."
trial has been made on a small scale (which is
an Assay) that any particular mine is likely to be

After
called

profitable,

the

workmen proceed

perpendicular square

pit,

large

as follows

enough

to

They

dig a

admit ladders,

whereby they may descend. Across the mouth of this pit,


which is called a shaft, an axis is usually laid, for the purpose of raising buckets loaded with

pumps

the

mineral

and

are also placed, for carrying off the drainage water.

If the depth of the

mine be so great

as to

exceed the due


proportion


THE LABORATORY.

70

proportion of the rst square

pit, an horizontal drift is


end of which a new shaft is sunk, and so
on alternately till they reach the bottom of the ore-mine.

formed,

The

at the

which resemble galleries in some measure, are


propped up by art, if the stratum through which they pass
is of too crumbly
a texture to support itself.
Regular
drifts,

supplies of fresh air

Sometimes

it is

shaft

is

furthest

but

if this

air

fire is

nace over the mouth of one of the

shafts,

is

employed

to

it

and thus a supare usually

the purpose, for a sudden burst of water

moment

when

When,

kindled in a fur-

pumps which

inundate the galleries

workmen, having warning by the


rock

is

take off the drainage water are sometimes

insufficient for
will in a

Again, the

gained.

is

one of these

easily circulates.

however, they are equally high, a


ply of air

which

drift or gallery

shaft, so that if

higher than the other, the

new

cannot be effected, a

sunk at that part of the

from the former

times to be kept up.

all

open an immediate passage

practicable to

below

to the plane

ought at

is

in this case, the

peculiar sound of the

struck, cut the rock to give vent to the

water, and retreat behind a door which they have pre-

pared, which shuts out the fluid from overtaking them.

Mines

are subject to elastic vapours,

dangerous to the workmen


rapid currents of fresh

When

the mineral

pounded,

washed,

air,
is

which are extremely

their effects are prevented

by

or by detonation.

brought out of the mine,

roasted,

it

is

For

melted and refined.

moved by some strong


and after it is pounded, it is put on
inclined tables, to be washed, that the water may carrv off
the gangue, matrix, or immediate bed of the ore.
When
pounding

it,

large knockers are

mechanical power

ores contain sulphur they should be roasted in the open


air,

otherwise they

may be

roasted in the furnaces in which

they are to be afterwards melted.


themselves

Some

ores will melt by

others require a flux for fusing them,

xnust be brought in contact with charcoal.

The

and

furnaces

which

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.


which arc employed arc of various kinds

71

but,

sometimes,

the same furnace will answer two purposes.

Although

means reduced to a metallic state, yet


they are frequently mixed together, of various kinds, and
they therefore require some further processes to separate
metals are by these

them.

OF GOLD.

Gold, which
of metals,

and not

is

has been termed

the

sol,

and king

suit*,

a perfect metal, of a splendid yellow colour,

When

liable to alteration.

gold

very pure

is

between a nineteenth and a twentieth of


cubic foot of gold weighs 1326 pounds:

loses in water

weight.

hardness

is

state

its

not very considerable, being in an intermediate

between the hard and

soft metals.

malleable, and spreads readily under the

the hand of a skilful

artist

From

nearly exceed belief.

It is

into

is its

absolute

extremely

hammer; and by

may be wrought

So wonderful and surprising

or form.

it

its

any shape

ductility as to

experiments,

an

ounce of gold may be beaten into a leaf that will cover


ten acres of ground
and an ounce of gold mav be made
;

also to cover, perfectly, a silver wire that

is

444 leagues,

or 1332 miles, or 2,344,320 yards, or 7,032,960 feet, or

84,395,520 inches,

in length.

single grain of pure gold

has been extended over an area that

hundred inches square

is

more than fourteen

and a wire of the same metal,


only one-tenth of an inch in diameter, has been found so
tenacious as to support five hundred pounds weight, with-

out breaking.

Long hammering

but heat soon restores

is

pure,

is

it

owing

silver or

make

it

rather brittle,

to

its ductility,

some mixture

called gold of 24 carats

earats decrease, so

of

will

which is termed nealThe colour of gold sometimes varies,

ing or annealing.

but this

copper)

much
;

the

thus,

more

or alloy.

When

and

number of

is

as the

it is

the alloy (generally

one quarter of

silver,

and one

quarter of copper, to one half of gold, incorporated together,

72

THE LABORATORY.
make

gether,

a gold of

2 carats

and

on

this is specified

the bars or ingots.

Gold is unalterable by air or water


and the dulness which may appear occasionally on its surface

The

redness,
loss

it

extraneous matters, and not to

to

action even of

alteration of

no

owing

entirely

is

rust.

its

soon melts

When

but

long continued, makes no

fire,

substance.

of weight whilst in fusion.

loss

to

Simple chemical agents are unable

of a single grain.

fully.

Gold has

in

make any impression on

such as aqua regia and

Kunckel kept gold

month and Mr. Boyle kept it


much longer time, without the

a glass-house furnace for a


in a similar furnace for a

has acquired a vivid

it

emits no fumes, and suffers

it

liver

much

gold, but

compound

of sulphur*, dissolve

it

bodies,

power-

greater affinity for mercury than

any other metallic substance has, and

it

will therefore

de-

compose amalgams of any other metals with mercury.


The amalgam of gold with mercury is of a higher and
more solid colour in proportion to the greater quantity of
gold.
This amalgam is liquified by heat, and will crytallize on cooling, like most of the compounds of this kind.
It is used principally by the workmen in gilding in water-

An

gold, termed water-gilders.

produces green-gold, which

As gold

is

is

alloy of silver with gold

used by the jewellers.

a standard, used by

most

nations, to repre-

sent the value of the productions of nature and

art,

highly necessary and important to discover

extreme

purity, and to be able


been used to encrease

session of a
is

its

it is

any fraud which may have


Chemists are in the posit, and this peculiar process

to detect
its

method of

bulk.

testing

termed cupellation ; which

is

as follows.

* These old names are retained, in lieu of nitro-muriatic acid


and
new nomenclature, because they are sold
by these names in the shops, and are so called by the workmen in
sulphure of potash of the

gold and

silver.

Ed.

Method

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

Method of

testing

Gold by Cupellalion

IS

used also in

testing of Silver.

The

process of cupellation

and scorifying

trifying

is

the art of destroying, vi-

the imperfect metals which are de-

all

and which are extraneous to pure gold and

structible,

We see then,
of gold or

silver.

that the examination, or assay, of the purity

silver,

separately considered (for

when they

are

mixed, and purified from their several ores, on a large


scale, it is termed refining) is no other than ascertaining
the difference of weight between the residue of the metal,
after the operation,

and

lead, proportionate

to the

mixed with
put into

its

primitive state.

either of the purer metals.

flat

quantity of

supposed quantity of

porous vessels, called cupels,

made of

powder of calcined bones kneaded with water


composition

latter

plate

iv.

fig.

crammed

is

After

this,

an iron

into

it is

alloy, is

This mixture

or the

ringle,

is

which ever

is

gold, or silver,

see

exposed, for a length of

time, to the strongest heat of a reverberating furnace,

the imperfect metal, lead,

is

the

totally scorified, or,

till

till

the

the subject of the operation,

assume a dazzling brightness.


At this time it will be
found, that the bone ashes have absorbed the impurities,
and the pure metal forms a bright metallic button in the
centre of the cupel.

In determining the quantity of im-

purity the purer metal contained,


sisting

of twelve parts,

which are

it

is

considered as con-

called

penny -weights,

each of which are divided into twenty-four grains. If the


mass under consideration has lost in the cupel only the
twelfth-part of

its

weights

has lost only a twenty-fourth part of

weight,

grains

if it
it is

weight,

said to be

it is

said to

be of eleven pennyits

of eleven penny-weights and twelve

fine.

Of

THE LABORATORY".

74-

Of

separating Gold from Silver.

Although gold and silver may be perfectly separated


from the more imperfect metals by the afore-mentioned
process, yet they cannot be separated from each other
by the same means, because they equally withstand the
heat of the furnace

other methods, therefore, are emwhich


are
termed
ployed,
parting, viz. bv solution, by cementation, and in the dry -jtaij oi which, separately,
:

Parting of Gold from

by Solution.

Sliver,

Parting by solution is usually termed


The aqua fortis, which is used
fortis.

parting by

aqua

pose, must be

extremely

pure,

and

free

for this pur-

from any ad-

otherwise the other acids will

mixture of other acids,

keep a part of the silver dissolved within themselves,


forming other compounds, which remaining mingled with
the gold, will keep some of the silver unpurified by the
process.
Another material circumstance, beside the purity of the aqua fortis, is, a due knowledge of the profor if the
portions of the two metals to each other
gold exceed the silver in quantity, the latter will be covered by the former, and thus be guarded from the ac;

tion of the acid; which,

solvent of gold.

When

it

should be observed,

assayers, therefore,

want

the proportion of gold to silver in the mass,


the mass upon a touch-stone., so as to leave a
it;

they then

make

similar

marks with

is

not a

to

know

they rub

mark upon

their proof needles

(which are needles composed of gold and

silver

allayed

together in graduated proportions), and by comparing the

colour of the several marks, they discover the probable


scale of admixture.

add more

silver,

if

Having ascertained this point, they


necessary, and the mixed metal is

cither rolled up spirally into cornets,

or

is

reduced into
grains.

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.


grains, and

aqua

placed in a matrass

is

fortis is

now

IS

(See plate 4.)


the
it, in the propor;

poured upon

to be

by weight, of three parts to two of the silver, and


the solution is to be assisted by the heat of a sand-bath.
When no further solution goes on, the aqua fortis is thoroughly charged with the silver, and is to be decanted
off; fresh aqua fortis is to be added, and to be repeated
the gold is now to be washed
to a third time, as before
with boiling water, which will make it perfectly pure, if
the operation has been duly performed, and this gold is
tion,

called gold of parting.

Parting of Gold from Silver, by Cementation.


Parting by cementation, which

ployed
the

when

the quantity of gold

as to render

silver,

The mixed

an appropriate term,

is

by concentration, and

also called parting

it

plates, as thin as small pieces of

of the crucible, or melting pot,

to

is

be

to

by aqua

fortis.

be reduced to

At the bottom

money.
is

is

em-

so great to that of

is

difficult task

metal to be cemented

usually

is

laid

a stratum of

cement, composed of four parts of bricks powdered and


sifted,

one part of green

vitriol,

ness of a finger in depth.


plates of the

metal

It is

now

to

be placed

top has been

out,

to

be

till

it is

the

crucible)

The

is

cement,

process

and

water.
;

filled.

and exposed for

made red

fire

is

oven, (after a

or

now

permitted to cool, that

is

large quantities of pure

the

the crucible

gradually

to be tried on a touch-stone
purified,

till

furnace,

in a

melted.

and the metal

separated from

be placed, and then another

on the

luted

twenty-four hours,

no means

to

is

and so on

stratum of cement,

copperas, calcined to

e.

i.

common salt about the thickUpon this stratum a layer of

redness, and one part of

boiled

by
go
may be

hot, but
left to
it

repeatedly in

This gold is afterwards


and if it is not sufficiently

must be formed a second time.

By

THE LABORATORY.
method we see how powerfully

16

By

the above

by marine acid, when in a state of


pour, which is disengaged from the common
dissolved

cement.

Instead of

common

the nitrous acid readily dissolves

of

common

salt

and

nitre

salt,

silver

silver

subtile vasalt

may be

of the

used, as

but the mixing

nitre together, is highly injudicious,

because the joint acids are able to dissolve some of the gold

with the

by

Whatever

silver.

now remain in

silver

the cement, but

lead, in the

it

method described

Parting of Goldfrom

has been separated will

may be

freed from this

in cupeUation.

Silver, in the

dry Way.

Besides the two former methods of parting, there is a


which is termed dry parting, or parting by fusion,
which is performed by means of sulphur. This dry parting is troublesome, and even expensive, and ought not
third,

to

be undertaken

but

when

gold, because sulphur will

aqua

and

fortis,

will,

the silver far exceeds the

not

therefore,

separate

it

so easily

as

require a further appli-

cation to cupellation and solution.

we

Before

treat of silver separately,

we

shall

mention

the purification of gold by antimony.

Purification

Gold

is

purified

of Gold by Antimony.

from

its

allays

by melting

it

in a cru-

and throwweight of crude

cible that will hold twice its quantity at least,

ing upon

antimony.

whole
nutes

it,

whilst in fusion, twice

The

crucible

is

its

then to be covered, and the

to be kept in a melting state


and when the surface sparkles, it

is

for

some mi-

is

quickly to

4.) which has


been previously heated and greased. By striking the
cone on the ground, the descent of the metal will be
assisted, and will come out, compactly, when cold, by

be poured into an inverted cone (see plate

simply

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.


it.
The compact mass

Ti
two

consists of

simply inverting

the upper part is the sulphur of the crude


substances
antimony united with the impure allay and the lower:

part

is

the gold united to

some of the

regulus of an-

timony, proportionable to the quantity of metals which

have been separated from the gold, and which are now
This regulus
united with the sulphur of the antimony.
of gold

may

be separated from the regulus of antimony

by simple exposure
gold, because

then dissipated.

is

by

heat than will melt

a less

to

antimony

is

volatile

If the gold

this first process,

(which

often the case)

be repeated a second and even a third time.


part

is

dissipated,

more heat

the

such a heat, and

not sufficiently purified

is

is

in

required

is

to

must

it

When

a
keep the

therefore the fire must be encreased towards the end of the operation. The purification is
completed by means of a little nitre thrown into the
crucible, which effectually calcines the remaining regulus
of antimony. Sometimes after these operations, the
gold is found to be deprived of much of its usual duc-

gold in fusion

tility,
it

which, however,

is

easily

restored to

it

by fusing

with nitre and borax.

OF
Silver,

called

Luna and Diana, by

metal of a white colour,


neither taste nor
cific

less

gravity

is,

SILVER.'

smell,

although

than that of gold, as

and

when
it

the chemists,
brilliancy.

perfectly pure.

considerable,

It

Its

is

has
spe-

nearly one half

loses in the hydrostatic ba-

lance about an eleventh part of

of

lively

its

weight.

cubic foot

metal weighs seven hundred and twenty pounds.


tenacity of silver is also very considerable, for a

this

The

wire of

this metal, only one-tenth of an inch in diameter, will sustain a weight of two hundred and seventy
pounds, without breaking. Although gold exceed it in

ductility,

THE LABORATORY.
may be drawn into wires

78
ductility, yet it

as fine as hairs,

and extended into very thin leaves ; so thin, that a


grain only may be spread under the hammer, and be
made to contain an ounce of water. It is inferior even
to copper in hardness and elasticity, and next after it

Under the hammer

the most sonorous.


hardness, which

seems
kept

to

be

silver,

may be

it

as fixed

as well

it

acquires

deprived of by heating.

and indestructible as gold.


as

gold,

in

a
It

Kunckel

glass-house furnace

month, without alteration. Silver is apt to


and even to turn black, but it does not lose its
property of being brightened to brilliancy. All the strong
during

tarnish,

acids are capable of dissolving

Silver

may be

purified

metals, by treating

it

from an

and the

we

shall

now

or aqua fortis.

allay with other inferior

the

termed cupellation or re-

is

latter purification

given a description

but the muriatic and


nitric,

with lead, and also with nitre

former of which methods


fining,

it,

powerful than the

vitriolic are less

by

nitre.

of the one, under the

As we have
article gold,

proceed to treat briefly of the other.

Purification of Silver by Kit re.

Silver that is to be purified by nitre ought first to


be granulated,* and then mixed with a fourth part of
an eighth part of potash, and
its weight of dry nitre,
a little common glass, all in powder. This mixture is
to be put into a good crucible, of such a size as to be
only two-thirds filled with it and it is then to be co;

vered with a small inverted crucible, with a small hole in


the bottom, and luted on

fast.

Several, thus disposed^

may

be placed in a furnace, to which a ready access


of air can be admitted, in order to melt the silver. Char* Granulation is easily performed, by pouring, leisurely, the
melted metal between the twigs of a new birch-broom, whilst they
are agitated, in

pan of water.

coal

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.


coal

is

now

them

but not above


vessels

made

over the
light

is

little

be kindled, and the


If a shining

hole of the inverted crucible.

and a

operation proceeds

be kept up equally

melt

hissing

slight

well.

the appearance cease,

till

be encreased to

to

fire is to

moderately red, a lighted coal being placed

noise be heard, the


fire

and the

observed round this hole,

be

79

to surround the crucibles even with the tops,

Let the

when

it

the metal thoroughly, and

then removed from the furnace.

The

larger crucible

is

be broken when it is cold, and the silver will be


at the bottom, covered with a green alkaline
scoria.
If the metal be not sufficiently pure and ductile,

to

found

Some

the operation must be again repeated.

silver is

apt

by the swelling and detonation


which often forces it through the hole in

to be lost in this operation,

of the

nitre,

the upper crucible, unless great care be used

method has

this

its

advantages, being

nevertheless,

much more expe-

ditious than cupellation.

We

now proceed to detail some of the various methods


known and practised by workmen in gold and

that are
silver.

To prepare a
it

Crucible, so as not to contract any

be for several

Hours in

Gold though

the greatest Heat.

Take

a good crucible, that will stand the fire, warm it


and smear or rub it over with a rhind of bacon,
both inside and outside then put it in a warm place to
a

little,

when

it over again as before, and


do for three or four times. This done,
warm your crucible again, and smear it, both out and inside, plentifully, with soap
then put it to dry and before
you use it, put it on a charcoal fire, and the soap will burn

dry

let it

dry

dry, repeat rubbing

this

when

it is

burnt out, you

ing gold or

silver,

and

it

in a flame

your

common

will

may

use

it

for melt-

not attract these metals, as

crucible will.

Other

THE LABORATORY

80

Othw

Take
one part

Receipts for Cements.

one

fine brick-dust

part,

and

finely

pounded

moisten and mix them with vinegar, and

crucible half full

then

close

it

repeat this as you have occasion, and put a thick

laver at top

then cover and lute the crucible close, that

may

nothing

evaporate

when

done,

this is

your cru-

fix

cible upon a high brick, in the middle of the furnace


it

of gold, or gold coin,

stratify plates

with the aforesaid mixture, or paste, and press

down

salt,;
fill

a violent heat, for twelve hours, and the

sume the

give

con-

salt will

impurities of the gold, and attract

into the

it

Or,

brick-dust.

of alum, and of sal-ammotwo parts of vitriol four parts of salt j


cither parts of brick-dust, and mix them with vinegar
stratify this mixture and the gold, as before directed, in
cover and lute it well, and give it a viothe crucible
lent fire for an hour or two, and let it cool of itself; but

Take,

in weight, of nitre,

one part

niac,

before

it is

quite cold, take out the gold, fling

into white-

it

wine vinegar, and boil it therein then brush it and


after you have done this, heat it red hot upon an iron
;

Oi\

plate.

Take blood-stone two


menian
each

bole,

tutty, nitre,

moisten

negar

let it

rust of iron,

calcined

and repeat

it

ar-

alum, a quarter of an ounce of

mixture three or four times with vi-

this

dry between while

proceed as directed

To

ounces,

sal-ammoniac, verdigrise, one ounce of each

vitriol,

give

it

then grind

it

fine,

and

a strong fire for three hours,

three times.

bring the silver out of the cementing powder, or

mix

brick-dust,

melt together
pellation,

it

put

and you

in the gold.

with glass and granulated lead


it

to the test, that

will

have the

silver

let

it

by cuagain which was

is,

test

it

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

To

81

separate Gold and Silver out of the Sweepings.

Take

pan well glazed add


a proportionable quantity of mercury to them mix the
dust and mercury, with your hands, well together, till
you think the mercury has extracted all the gold and
silver from the dust
then put the mass into a pie^e of
wash-leather, and wring out the mercury what remains
sweepings

put

them

into a

in the leather will be like a paste

put that into an alembic*

and drive the mercury from it into a dish with water,


which put under the head to receive it what remains,
put to the test refine it with lead, and separate it with
;

aquafortis.

To

Take

separate the Gold from gilt Copper.

four ounces of sulphur, two ounces of sal-am-

moniac, one ounce of

nitre,

half an ounce of borax

grind them fine, with strong vinegar, to a paste, which


lay thin over the gilded

copper; give it a gentle heat,


burned away, and the copper looks
then take it out, and with a knife, or other such

until the paste is

black

instrument, scrape

come

will

off the

gold in a clean dish, and

it

off very easy.

Another Method.

Take

the root of bertram;* cut

it

of strong white-wine vinegar upon

it

pot

cover

it

with a

lid

lute

it

well,

fine
;

put

and

pour one quart


into aboiiing-

it

let it boil a little

then take it off the fire, and let it cool. After this, take a
copper cup, or any other thing that is gilt neal it well ;
;

quench

it

in that
*

vol.

Not

liquid,
a

and the gold

commonly known
c

root.

will fali off

from

Ed.

the

;
;

THE LABORATORY.

S2

the copper to the bottom


a crucible.

wash

it,

and then melt

in

it

Or,

Take fine sal-ammoniac two parts, and sulphur one part


them well together anoint with linseed oil strew

grind

the

it

hold the

earthen dish, with water


gold will

Take
in a

nitre

To

piece to the

water

in this

fire,

over an

with an iron, and the

it

Or,

and borax, one ounce of each

fall to

dissolve

them

then neal your copper, and

repeat this several times, and the

the bottom.

separate Copper from Silver, or any other Allay.

Take
white

strike

quantity of water

it

gold will

gilt

off into the dish.

fall

little

quench

half an ounce of verditer, or Spanish green

vitriol

an ounce

and sulphur, one ounce of each


boil all together in vinegar, in

your mixt

in

powder upon

silver

this

will dissolve

alum half

a glass

put

and extract the

copper, and the silver remain whole.

To

extract the Silver out of a

as the Gold

Take

may remain

a silver ring that

through the gold into the


fortis in a

warm

place

is

Ring
intire

thick

silver
it

that is thick gilded, so


:

a curious Secret.

gilt

make

little

hole

then put the ring into aqua

will dissolve the silver,

and the

gold will remain whole.

To make

brittle

Gold malleable.

Put gold into a crucible, and give it a brisk fire in a


wind furnace, or before the bellows when the gold is
ready to melt, fling gently upon it some good, dry, and
clear nitre, which will presently flame, and promote the
fusion of the gold, and will spread and cover the gold
;

then

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

83

into an ingot, which before has been

then cast it
and anointed with wax.

warmed

Or,

A good way to make gold

malleable,

is

this

take

human

excrements, dry and calcine them


powder when the gold is in fusion, fling some of this
powder upon it, and give it a brisk fire when the powder
is consumed, cast the gold into an ingot, and it will be
if you extract the salt from the black
fine and malleable
powder before you use it, it will still have a better effect,
in a crucible to a black

and that with a

less quantity.

To make

Silver that

is brittle,

pliable.

Take a mark of silver, half an ounce of glass, one


ounce of nitre, a quarter of an ounce of borax, half an
ounce of sal gemnice, or rock salt put all this into a crucible, and cover it with a lesser one that has a vent-hole
;

at the bottom,

and continue

and

it

cover the crucible


hole, and

and you

lute

leave

it

well

then give

you think the

till

all

over with
to cool

it

a brisk

live coals,

except the vent-

all

the impurities the

and which occasioned its hardness


again in a crucible, and throw into

silver contained,

melt the

it

silver

an ounce of
it

tartar finely ground, and,

into an ingot, and

To

you

will

fire,

then

take off the upper crucible,

therein hanging

will find

it

silver is dissolved

have

fine

when

then
half

in fusion, cast

and malleable

silver.

give Gold, Silver, or other Metals, a quickfusion.

Take

calcined Venetian soap, borax, glass-gall, or Ve-

an equal quantity

nice glass,

gether

this will

Take
quantities

grind and

cause a quick fusion.

mix

it

well to-

Or,

yellow amber, borax, glass-gall and soap, equal


;

grind

design to melt,

them together to

let

powder; and what you

be done with that composition.

G 2

IV

THE LABORATORY.

84

To

try whether granulated Silver contains any Gold.

Take some

and make strokes with them


on a touch-stone then, with the end of a feather, let
fall a drop or two of aqua fortis upon the strokes, and
if it conlet them continue upon it for a little while
silver grains,
;

tains gold,
if not,

you

will see

some remains of the

strokes, but

the strokes will vanish.

To amalgamate

Gold, or

Take

mix

to

is of use

to

it

with Mercury, which

Gilders.

a pennyweight of fine gold, beat

small plates

it

into very thin

heat them in a crucible red hot

then take

from the fire, and pour upon them eight pennyweights


of pure quicksilver stir the matter with a little iron rod,
and when you see it begin to rise in fumes, which quickly
happens, cast your mixture into an earthen pan filled with
water, it will coagulate, and become tractable wash it
thus you have
several times to take away its blackness
from which separate that mercury which
an amalgam
is not united, by pressing it between your fingers, after
you have wrapt it up in a linen cloth.
it

Gilding upon Silver, Brass, Copper, and Iron.


If you would gild over

gam, and with

it

every where, that


it

over a charcoal

the quicksilver to

silver,

take of the above amal-

rub that which you design to gild, close,


it

may

fire,

fly

receive gold

or lay

away

it

after

upon

all

over

it,

and

which, you

it

then hold
will

may

cause

heighten

the colour with gilding wax, as shall be directed.

A par-

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

J particular
Take

Secret

to

gild Silver

85

the greatest Perfection.

to

crocus veneris* and vinegar, add to

them quick-

till they come to the consistence


with this quicken or anoint the silver you inand wherever you quicken, it will turn of a

heat them together,

silver,

of a paste
tend to

gild,

reddish gold colour, which doth not happen

with quicksilver only, for then

looks white

it

when done
cu-

this is a

you may gild upon this paste with leaf-gold,


which otherwise would require to be ground it makes the
gilding look rich, and of an high colour.
rious secret

Another advantageous Manner of gilding on

Take

tartar

one

part, salt

them, and add some


until

it

part of

two

steel filings

parts
:

Silver.

pour water upon

boil the silver therein

becomes reddish and it will require only the


what gold you would otherwise use.

third

A particular

Method of Gilding, which may he done


Moment, better than with Quicksilver.

Take

the finest gold

has been prepared with


*
until

Take
it

slips

dissolve
salt

let

it

in

aqua regia f, which

the aqua regia be evapo-

of copper, and quench them in urine

The powder you will


which workmen term Crocus Veneris.

easily pulverizes.

of the urine,

in

repeat this

find at the

bottom

and muriatic acids. The


work it is to be employed in
some make it of equal parts, whilst others double one
or other of the acids, as experience in working has directed
them. Aqua regia may be also made by dissolving in nitrous acid
any salt which contains the muriatic acid, viz. common salt, and
sal ammoniac.
It must be kept in a phial closely flopped, to keep
in the suffocating fumes which are constantly rising.
f Anna repa

is

a mixture of the nitric

proportions vary, according to the nature of the


;

rated

THE LABORATORY.

86

rated to half the quantity

distilled

vinegar

put

will over night shoot into

let

them

dissolve again in

again upon the

it

half thereof evaporate, then

and

fire,

Dissolve these in rain water

evaporate that to half the quantity, and again


grind

it

when

the

it

and

will shoot

done, take the crystaline gold,

this is

powder with a

to

let

put the glass again in the

moist sand, and over night the gold

cellar, as before, in

will shoot into crystals.

into crystals

damp

then put the glass into a

on sand, and the gold


crystals, which take out, and
cellar,

knife, put that

powder

into the

white of an hard-boiled egg, after the yolk has been taken


out

set

in a cool

it

dissolve into an oil

though ever so

and damp place, and over night it will


and what silver you anoint with it,

thin,

drying

it

you

gently,

will find the

gilding of a perfectly high and fine colour.

Gilding after the Grecian Manner.

Take

mercury-sublimate* and sal-ammoniac, of each

one ounce

make

dissolve in

it

evaporate over a

and

silver wire,

in the

fire,

a solution thereof in aqua fortis

line gold,

beaten very thin

then

becomes thickish dip in it a


comes out black, and, by nealing it

fire until it

if it

let this solution

turns out gilded,

it is fit

to be used for gilding

silver.

The

Take common
white

vitriol

and

is fit

for use.

vitriol

four ounces, alum two ounces,

one ounce, white lead one ounce,

handfuls, river
tity,

true Italian gilding.

let it

water one quart


stand until

it

let it boil to

settles

and looks

* Mercury sublimate, orcorrofive sublimate,

by the muriatic acid

and, by

fire,

is

salt

two

half the quanclear,

then

it

mercury dissolved

raised to the top of a matrass,

or other veffel.

To

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.


To deaden

Take
lead
fine

put

Quicksilver for Gilding.

pure quicksilver,

white

i.

salt

shake

it

e.

from any mixture of


it a handful of

free

and

into a matrass,

it

87

fling into

and

well together,

two days then pour upon it


.day, and you will find a good quicksilver

let it

strong vinegar

stand for

let it rest

for gilding,

and

very cheap.

To

boil Silver white.

First neal your silver on a charcoal fire, till it becomes a little reddish then, having boiled it with an
:

equal quantity of

it

and

in clean water

in a paper, put

it

ing and smoking

powdered, with water,

tartar,

of an hour, take

quarter

for a

salt

out and scratch-brush

it

then take good

tartar, tie it

in the fire so long until


;

grind

it

done, neal

this

it

again,

boil

it

for

two minutes

it

work

in

cold water

and

then rince in clean

with a dry rag, your

it

leaf-gold, or

Gold Powder.

any other thin beaten gold, to the


as much as you please
weight of aqua regia. Let half the

quantity of a penny-weight, or
dissolve

with

be done.

will

Take

it

with a hair brush

in tartar water

water, and, after you have wiped

it

rub over your silver

it

and quench

brush what remains black upon

up close

has done burn-

powder, mix

to a fine

clean water into a paste, and with

it

it

in twice

its

solution evaporate in a sand heat

then take dried linen

soak them in the remaining liquid

dry them by a
and burn them on a slow fire, in a crucible
the powder will remain at the bottom, and be of a yellowish colour and with this the gilding is performed.
rags

gentle heat

Another

THE LABORATORY.

88

Another for Cold Gilding.

Take half a pound of aqua fortis, put into it two


ounces of sal-ammoniac, finely pulverized let it dissolve
over a fire, and then filtrate it through a paper put it into
;

a matrass, with as

penny-weights

much

set

it

beaten gold as will weigh two

fine

on a slow lire,

"When

gold into this aqua regia.

in order to dissolve
this is

two ounces of powdered sai-g amine,


clear, and let it dissolve upon the

or rock
fire

them

dip

it

and

salt, fine

then take fine

of an ounce in

clean linen rags, each about a quarter

weight

the

done, add to

into that liquid, until

all

the solution

and having dried them, burn them to a powder, which preserve for use.
When you gild any thing
with this powder, let the metal vou intend to gild be boiled
is

soaked

and scraped, that

may be

wet a piece
spittle, or water, and with it take up some of
the powder, rubbing the places of the metal you are
about to gild, until it is yellow after which, brush and
it

clean and fresh

of cork with

polish

You may

it.

sewed or

round end of a

tied to the

Take of

use, instead of cork, a soft leather,

weights, and dissolve

it

tion the weight of the


also dissolve

this

has soaked up

With

aqua regia

done, dip a fine

all

dry

it

gently,

Take
a slow

add to

little

nitre

this solulet

that

linen rag until

and burn

it

your

gild

to

it

powder.

silver,

by

stick.

Another Powder

little rolls

gold of refined

with a cork, or a leather fastened to the nob

it

end of a

in

powder, and fresh water,

this

rubbing

Or,

little stick.

the finest gold the quantity of two penny-

refined
;

fire,

fling

it

gold

beat

gild with.

to

it

very thin

into aqua regia

until all the gold

is

put

it

dissolved,

make

it

into

in a matrass

over

and the solution


is

GOLD AND STLVER WORKS.


turned of a yellow colour

is

verized nitre,

by

little

and

89

then throw into

much

(as

little,

it

as

some

pul-

will

con-

it

sume) now take some long narrow slips of old fine linen,
draw them through the liquid, and when they are thoroughly
wet, hang them in the air to dry, in a glass bowl, or a
piece of a broken bottle, and, when dry, light them with
a coal, and let them thus, without flaming, consume to
:

With

ashes.

may

these ashes you

rubbing

gild,

it

on the

Or,
with a piece of cork.
Take a penny-weight of gold, with an equal weight of

silver

nitre,

and sal-ammoniac,

which put

all

with three quarts of aqua fortis


ing hot, into

it,

some dry

take

and

as

soon as the gold

them

linen rags, dip

a matrass,

into

then put the gold, neal-

dissolved,

is

therein, dry

them, by a candle, to tinder, and preserve

it

and burn

for use, as

has been said above.

A quickening
Take
let

one ounce of quicksilver, and

them be put together

silver is dissolved,

warm

it,

and

it

into a glass,

add to

will

be

fit

it

to

solve

it

five

much

as

and

aquafortis

fortis

Or,
;

put

into a matrass

it

a quarter of an ounce of mercury, and

then take fresh river water, and mix

it

let

it

dis-

with that in

lukewarm let it stand close shut up,


have a good quickening water for gilding.

the glass, and

and you will

make

after the quick-

ounces of fresh water

for use.

Take one ounce of aqua


add

Water.

it

Another Water-gilding upon

Silver.

Take

copper-flakes, pour strong vinegar thereon, add


alum and salt, equal quantities of both set them on a
fire, and when the vinegar is boiled to a fourth part, throw
into it what metal you design to gild, and it will acquire a
copper colour. If you continue boiling it, it will change
to

it

into

THE LABORATORY.

90

into a fine gold colour.

This

to gild silver, for the

boiling

is

a fine secret for goldsmiths


in that liquid gives the

it

gilding a high and rich colour.

A
Take

Water which

will give Silver a

sulphur and nitre, of each an

grind them together very fine, and put

glazed vessel
fire for

Gold Colour.

cover and lute

well

it

equal quantity;

them

then set

it

into

an un-

over a slow

twenty-four hours, and what you find remaining,

put into a strong crucible, and


into a phial,

and whatever

have a gold colour.

let it dissolve

silver

then put

you anoint with

it,

it

will

Or,

Take sulphur half a pound, nitre three quarters of a


pound, mix both together, and grind it fine, and proceed
as above, or set

take
third

it
;

mix it
which

it

twenty-four hours on hot ashes

out and grind

mix

it

then
powder, take one
;

up with three quarterns of running water


and you will have a red water, like blood,

will tinge silver,


it

copper, or brass of a fine gold co-

has lain therein ten days.

A Method to work a
Take

this

it

well,

lour, after

Of

again.

Cup, one side Gold and the other Silver.

a piece of fine silver

Qver on one side

flat it,

aud

file it

rough

all

upon it.
Then take a piece of gold in proportion to what thickness you would have it form it exactly to the dimensions of the silver, in a flat square
neal both the gold and
the silver red hot then lay them quick on one another,
and with a wooden hammer strike them gently together
when thus you have united these two metals, you may
make thereof what you please one side will be silver
and the other gold.
;

raise

with a graver

little

points

To

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

To adorn Gold, Siher,

Take
please

melt

it

or Brass, with Embellishments of


Glass.

fine pulverized

grind

Venice

upon a stone

it

91

over a clear charcoal

beautiful, espechllv if the

of what colour you

glass,

temper

fire

it

with

it

will

oil

and

look fine and

ornaments are well designed on


it with glass.

the metal, previously to covering

OF HEIGHTENING THE COLOUR OF GOLD


GILT WORKS.

Unwrought

AND

gold and silver want considerably of that

and brightness they appear in at goldsmiths shops ;


for there they undergo several operations, and are heightened by gilding wax, colouring and helling. each of which

lustre

shall

be separately explained.

Gilding Wax, nsed for Gold, or gilded IVork.

Take four ounces of clear wax, three-quarters of an


ounce of verditer, half an ounce of copper flakes, half an
ounce of red chalk, quarter of an ounce of alum melt
the wax, and put the other things, finely powdered, into
;

it,

and

stir it

well together

round

sticks like

make

use of

with

this

it,

wax

first

deep colour

cool

and form thereof

when you have

occasion to

heat your gold, and then rub

then neal

boiling hot water

let it

sealing-wax

and

it,

tartar,

and draw

and

it

it

it

over

nimbly through

will give the gold a

To

THE LABORATORY.

To give Gold a high

Colour.

Take clear wax one pound crocus of copper an ounce


and a half; sal-ammoniac, fine terra-verte and alum, one
ounce of each red chalk, half an ounce and one drachm
crocus martis and tutty, of each half an ounce nitre, two
;

drachms mix all these ingredients together, and after you


have pulverized them, stir and mix it well with melted
wax, which being spread over the gilded work, and then
;

nealed, as has been observed before,

it

will give the gold

Or,

a surprising beauty.

Take two pounds of wax, one pound of


pound of white

and four ounces of

vitriol,

red chalk, one


ces iistum.

Or,

Take eight ounces of clear wax, one ounce and a half


of terra verte, one ounce f
chalk, and half an

ces

ustum, one ounce of red

ounce of alum

put these ingredients into


sticks like sealing-wax

it

let it

with

after

this,

your gilded metal, rub it over


will give the gold a deep colour.

dissolve the wax,

cool

then form

it

and
into

you have heated

then burn

it

off,

and

it

Nuremberg Gilding-Wax.

Take

two pound of wax, two pound and one ounce of


one ounce of vitriol, half an ounce of ces
ustum, three ounces of verdigrise, and half an ounce of
red chalk,

Or,

borax.

Take

four pounds of clear wax, one

pound eight ounces

of red chalk, one pound eight ounces of white vitriol, fifteen ounces of verdigrise, three ounces of borax, and
fifteen ounces of ces ustum ; beat them fine, and mix them
together
ceive

them

it

when

to cool,

wax

the

is

melted,

and then put

well together

when

stir

it

until

in the ingredients,

cold,

you perand stir

form them into

sticks

like sealing-wax.

To

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

To make

Take

mastich,

all

93

Metals malleable.
myrrh,

frankincense,

and borax,

of

each half an ounce, pulverize and mix them together, and

when your metal


and you

will

is

melted,

be surprised

How

to

fling in

some of the powder,

it

at the effect.

quicken Brass for gilding.

Dissolve sal-ammoniac in white-wine


it anoint your work
this will cause it

with

and

vinegar,

to receive the

mercury.

OF SEVERAL GOLD COLOURS, WHEREBY GOLD, OR


GILT WORK, AFTER IT HAS BEEN HEIGHTENED
WITH GILDING-WAX, RECEIVES ITS PROPER COLOUR.

A Silver
Take

Gold-Colour, or a Colour for Gilt Silver.

one ounce of

ounce of

vitriol,

ounce of borax

verdigrise,

grind

them

fine

of urine, to half the quantity


this liquid,

the

fire

brush over your

nitre,

one

fire,

gilt

boil

them

in half a pint

then with a brush dipt in

work

and when you see


and quench it in urine.

charcoal

one ounce of

half an ounce of sal-ammoniac, half an

it

put

it

upon a

turn black, take

clear
it

off

Green Gold-Colour.

Take two ounces of nitre, two ounces of vitriol, two


ounces of verdigrise, and one ounce of sal-ammoniac
mix and grind them with vinegar. Or>
Take

THE LABORATORY.

94

Take

four ounces of verdigrise, four ounces of sal-am-

moniac, two ounces of

one ounce of

nitre

your gold with

it.

A
Take

two ounces of as ustum,


them with vinegar, and colour

vitriol,

grind

French Gold-Colour.

two ounces of alum, two


two ounces of as ustum, one

four ounces of

salt,

ounces of sal-ammoniac,

ounce of

Take

nitre

grind

them with

digrise,

two ounces of

clean copper-flakes

Take

melted

of each

let

nitre,

nitre,

them

one ounce and a half of

them with

grind

A fine
tity

Or,

vinegar.

four ounces of sal-ammoniac, four ounces of ver-

vinegar.

Gold-Colour.

and black
boil half

an equal quan-

vitriol,

away

in a clean pipkin.

Another Gold-Colour.

Take

one ounce of

verdigrise,

one ounce of sal-am-

moniac, one ounce of red chalk, one ounce of


grind

all

together, and boil

them with

fine salt

Or,

vinegar.

Take one ounce of

nitre, one ounce of verdigrise, one


one ounce of sal-ammoniac grind each
ingredient, separately, in a clean mortar then mix and

ounce of

vitriol,

put them in a clean pan, with water, and boil them nearly
half an hour.

A
Take

Green Gold-Colour.

four ounces of sal-ammoniac,

verdigrise,

two grains of

nitre,

four ounces of

and grind them

in vinegar.

White

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

A
Take

White Colour for Gold.

two ounces of

one ounce of

salt

95

nitre,

one ounce of alum, and


mix them well together ;

pulverize and

then take a piece of a broken crucible

put

it

in the fire,

be red-hot. Wet the work you design to colour^


then put it on the red-hot piece
it in the powder

and
and roll
of crucible, and the colour
let it

will boil

up

when

melts,

it

turn the piece of work with your tongs, and when the

colour

quite fluid, and

is

and lay

Then

it

upon

is

growing yellow, take

a clean brick, or anvil, until

take an unglazed pot, or a large crucible

almost with clean water

put into

it

a handful of

it

out,

cold.

is

it

fill

salt,

it

and

the quantity of a filbert of ground tartar, and six or eight

drops of aqua fortis


into

and

it,

boil

it

let

them

taken off; then scratch-brush

To

colour

Take

urine,

Take

then put your work

of the white colour

it

were new.

and dissolve therein sal-ammoniac


it

is

it.

an old Gold Chain as if

the gold chain in this, and

boil

until the dross

will

have a

boil

fine colour.

Green Colour for Gold Chains.

four ounces of sal-ammoniac, four ounces ofver-

one ounce and a half of nitre, half an ounce of


white vitriol make a powder thereof, mix it with vinegar,
digrise,

and boil your chain

To

Take
ounces,

ounce

in

it.

give Gold a high and fine Colour.

red calcined

vitriol,

or colcothar of vitriol, three

sal-ammoniac two ounces,


grind

and verdigrise one

them together and keep them

dry.

When
vou

THE LABORATORY.

96

you would colour your gold, moisten it, and strew this
powder over it ; neal it often, and quench it in pumpwater.

Another fine Colour for Gold.

Take

verdigrise,

sal-ammoniac,

equal quantity of each

colours,

again

repeat this for several times

with urine

upon

an
pour

vitriol,

your powder
it

and

nitre

them well together

them grind them again, as painters do their


and let them dry then moisten, grind, and dry

vinegar upon

them

grind

carefully.
;

rub

it

When

then lay up

you would colour

with a brush

fling the

gold,

wet

above powder

and lay it on red hot coals, and it will turn black


then quench it in urine, and rub it with a wire brush in
tliis manner you may proceed with the other colours.
it,

To bring pale Gold

Take

an high Colour.

to

verdigrise; pour vinegar

anoint your gold therewith

heat

it

upon

it;

stir

in the fire,

it

well;

and quench

it

in urine.

To make

Silver yellow throughout,

and

to

give

it

the Co-

lour of Gold.

Take common
silver as

aqua fort is

you please

dissolve therein as

much

to eight ounces, take four ounces

of

two ounces of
times quenched in

hepatic aloes, six ounces of turmeric, and

prepared tutty that has been several


urine

put these to the solution of the silver

disssolve, but rise

up

they will

in the glass like a spungc, so the glass

must be large, to prevent the running over then draw


off, and you will have ten ounces of silver, which is
;

it

as

yellow as gold.

N. B. The two ounces

increase in the weight, by the


tutty,

down with

91

but be lost

when melted

Water

Take

to

give any Metal a Gold Colour.

fine sulphur,

and pulverize

or rain, water

well together

stir it

test,

lead, in cupellation.

stale spring,

and

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.


not stand the

will

tutty,

of dragon's blood

after

well,

boil

it,

is

it

it

it

then boil some

hot upon the powder,

and put into

it

well boiled, take

one ounce
it off and

through a fine cloth put this water into a matrass,


you have put in what you design to colour close it
and boil it, and the metal will be of a fine gold

filter it

after

pour

colour.

Another Water wherewith one may tinge any Metal of a


Gold Colour. A curious Secret.

Take

hepatic aloes, nitre, and Romayi vitriol, each equal

quantities

distil

them with water

the spirits are extracted

it

in

an alembic,

till

all

will at last yield a yellowish

water, which will tinge any sort of metal of a gold colour.

To

Take
lay

it

over

on

it,

a lock of
live coals,

colour Gold.

human

hair,

of about a finger thick

to receive the

fumes thereof.

To give Gold a fine and high

Take

Colour.

one ounce of sal-ammoniac, two ounces of copone ounce of distilled verdigrise grind all well

per-flakes,

together

and hold the gold with a pair of tongs

pour upon it
one quart of good distilled white-wine vinegar let it thus
dry and boil away; then grind it fine, strew it on a glass
plate, and set it in a cellar, where it will turn into an oil
vol. i.
this
H
;

put the mixture into a matrass

THE LABORATORY.

95

be gently coagulated, and then ground and


mixed with sublimate mercury put half an ounce of it,
this is again to

wrapt up in bees-wax, into the quantity of a pound of


gold that is in fusion, and it will give it a high and fine
colour.

To give

Take

Work

gilded

clean salt and sulphur

a fine Colour.

take care you do not give too


shell

with

this liquid

them together, with


away the inside film

boil

water, in an egg-shell, after taking

much

to

fire

wipe over your

burn the egg-

and

gilding,

it

make it of a much brighter colour than it was before.


Take powder of sulphur, and bruised garlic boil
;

in urine

give

it

neal your gold

Take
:

To

quench

therein,

it

and

Or,
these

it

will

a fine colour.

To

it

will

alum

brighten Spots in gilding.

boil

it

water

in clear

this will restore the colour again,

put your work into

and remove the

spots.

give old Silver-Lace, or Trimmings, the Beauty and

Colour of new.

Take
powder
it

can

powder of
put

it

off the fire;

when

let

it

of Paris in

boil as long as

cold, lay your lace

comb-brush, take up some of


and rub therewith both sides, till it is as

cloth, and, with a

that powder,
bright as

smooth

you would have

stone.

Take
;

alabaster, or fresh plaster

dry into a pipkin, and

then take

upon a

water

it

ox-gall,

mix

and you

it

afterwards polish

it

with a

Or,
or the gall of a large jack, and

together, and with

will see the colour

it

rub your gold or

change to your

some
silver,

liking.

OF

COLD AND SILVER WORKS.

99

OF THE HELL, OR HELLING OF GOLD.


This

is

the finishing stroke of either gold or

gilt

work

and

is

per-

has undergone the operations with the gilding


wax and gold colours, as has been shewn in tlie foregoing artiThe following are the different receipts of different mascles.
The ingenious and judicious will, by experiments, soon
ters.

formed, after

it

discover which of

them

is

best,

and make

his

choice of such as

he approves.

To Hell

Gold, or Gilt Work.

Take

two ounces of tartar, two ounces of sulphur, and


boil this in half water and half urine
dip your gold, or gilt work, into it, and it will give it a
four ounces of salt

Or,

fine lustre.

Take

eight ounces of

salt,

two ounces of

ounces of sulphur, half an ounce of alum

tartar,

water and urine, and draw your work through, and

answer your expectation.

Take

eight ounces of sulphur,

Take

boil

it

will

Or,
eight ounces of alum,

eight ounces of yellow arsenic, sixteen ounces of

sixteen ounces of salt

two

boil these in

them

in

tartar,"

water and urine.

Or,

three ounces of sulphur, one ounce of alum, one

ounce of arsenic, half an ounce of turmeric, and half a


grain of antimony grind them very finely together
then
boil them in urine and water, and stir the ingredients
;

gently together
plate into

Take

it,

and

boil the mixture a


boil

it till

the colour

little,
is

put the gilded

bright.

Or,

eight ounces of yellow arsenic, sixteen ounces of

sulphur, sixteen ounces of tartar, sixteen ounces of burnt

alum, three ounces and a half of


urine and water.

salt

boil the mixture in

Or,

Take sifted ashes and antimony finely pulverized; with


make a lye, and with a brush rub over the gilt silver.

these

Or,

H2

Take

THE LABORATORY.
Take one ounce of white tartar, one ounce of grain
sulphur, and nine ounces of salt grind them together like
100

flour

then take a copper sauce-pan with fresh water,

and let the water boil put into it one grain of crude yellow arsenic take of the ground ingredients three spoonfuls, and let it boil
after that, you may draw your work
through it, and make it as high as you will and it will
come out clear and with a fine lustve.
:

How to take off the Goldfrom


To

take off the gold from such plate, take sal-ammo-

niac one part, nitre half a part

der

upon

Tankards or Cups.

Gilt Silver

grind

wipe over the gilded part with


it,

and lay your plate into the

then take

it

out

them both

oil

to a

pow-

strew the powder

to heat

fire

it

well

hold your plate over an earthen dish, in

one hand, and, with the other, beat

powder will fall into the


which you may separate

dish,

it

with an iron

the

together with the gold;

in the

manner

has

as

been

directed.

Another Method.

Put

quicksilver in an earthen dish

in this turn

your

will separate

when you

silver cup,

from the

see the gold

heat

it

lukewarm

or other utensil, and the gold

silver,

and join the quicksilver

come

is all

off the plate, take

out and pour the quicksilver with the gold, after

it

is

it

cold,

any place still retains some gold,


repeat it, till you perceive no more upon it then strain the
what remains put into a
quicksilver through a leather
retort, on hot sand, or ashes, and force the rest of the
mercury from it into a receiver with water what is left,
melt together, and refine the gold as has been shewn
into another dish

if

before.

An

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

An approved Method
Take

101

take off the Gilding

to

a glass utensil, put aqua-fortis in

from

Silver.

the quantity

it,

whereof must be according to the bigness of your work


take no more than one-eighth of an ounce of sal-ammobeat your sal-ammoniac
niac to one ounce of aqua-fortis
and set it over the fire
aqua-fortis,
fine
put it into the
perceive the sal-ammoyou
and when
till it grows warm
silver, and when you
gilded
the
niac to work, then put in
;

observe your work to become of a black colour, then the


gold

is

taken off of

of work,,
take

it

pliers

neal

it,

it

if

there

a pretty large quantity

is

for half an hour, or an hour, before

let it lie

you

which you must do with a pair of wooden

out,

when

it is

taken out, put

and afterwards boil

times successively,

it

it

into clean water

with tartar

and your

silver

then

repeat this three

will

look fresh and

new.

How
Take

to

get the Gold out of

a copper bowl, or cup

Aqua

Fortis.

put into

it

a glass

full

of

which contains gold


then add to it a quarter of an ounce of borax, and boil it
up let it stand all night in the morning pour it off gently,
dry it by
and the gold will be settled at the bottom
degrees
and, when dry, put a little borax to it, and
water, and pour in the aqua-fortis

melt

it,

To

give Silver Utensils a Lustre.

Dissolve alum in a strong lye scum it


mix it up with soap, and wash your silver
;

carefully

then

utensils there-

with, with a linen rag.

To

THE LABORATORY.

102

To

separate Gold

from

gilded Silver, by Cementation.


,

Take
one

red calcined *

well together

all

or cokothar, one part,

vitriol,

part, red lead, half a part

with

it

a slow

fire,

mixed powder cover your gilded

this

put

into a furnace,

it

to prevent the melting of the silver

may reduce by

the powder will attract the gold, which you

melting

it

salt,

mix them

pulverize and

over in an earthen pan

silver all

and give

with lead, and by separating

it

by cupellation.

OF SEVERAL

SORTS OF SOLDER FOR

GOLD AND

SILVER.

Filings-solder for Silver Chai?i-zcork.

Melt
when

three parts of fine silver, and one part of brass

in fusion,

arsenic.

fling

into

it

little

quantity of yellow

Or,

Take one
per,
fine

part of vellow arsenic, and one part of copand melt and granulate of this take one part, and of
melt them together cast them into
silver four parts
:

an ingot, and, when cold,

A
Melt

file

to a fine dust.

Solder for Silver.

two parts of

silver

thin beaten brass, or tinsel

then put to

fusion, lest the brass should fly

away

one part of

it

but do not keep

it

too long in

in fumes.

put what quancalcination of vitriol is performed thus


you please of green vitriol into an earthen pot, unglazed ; set
the pot over the fire, and boil it till the moisture is consumed, and
the matter turns into a greyish mass, drawing towards white this
If you calcine this white vitriol a
is called white calcined vitriol.
good while over a strong fire, it will turn as red as blood this is
Cokothar of vitriol may be had at the shops.
called cokothar.
*

The

tity

Another

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

Another for Coarse

Four ounces of
them out

Silver.

three ounces of brass, a quarter

silver,

of an ounce of arsenic

103

melt them together,

and pour

quick.

Another Silver Solder.

Melt
to

them

two ounces of

silver,

one ounce of tinsel; add


pour it out quick,

half an ounce of white arsenic

and it is a very good solder. Or,


Melt one ounce of fine silver, and one ounce of thin
brass when both are well melted together, fling one ounce
of white arsenic upon it let it melt, stir it well together,
:

and pour

it

out quickly.

Of

Melt
of

good Solder for Gold.

copper and

fine gold,

two

Or,

Take one penny-weight of


and allay

of,

it

of each one part

fine silver together,

parts.

the

same gold your work

with three grains of copper,

is

and three

grains of silver.

The Manner and Way of

Beat
lions

Solderiyig

the solder thin, and cut

it

then take the work which

is

together with fine

Gold or

into

Silver,

little bits,

or pal-

be soldered, join it
wire twisted over it wet the joinings
to

with a pencil with water, mixed up with borax; then lay

and strew some


be a button or
some other small thing, upon a large coal, and blow with
your blow-pipe through a large lamp-flame upon it, to

the

bits,

or pallions, of solder

powdered borax over

melt

upon

it,

lay the work, if

it

it.

After

THE LABORATORY.

IQi
After

this,

work

boil the

in aqua-fortis, to clear

coal

fire

then

or turn

file

either in alum-water, or else

from the borax

it

it

manner
Take the work lay it on

if

be

it

dry

on a char-

it

boil

silver,

white

it

in the following

a clear

take

it

and put

out,

by

it

to cool

fire,

when red hot,


mean while, set

and,

in the

a copper-pan, not tinned, with water upon the

which put one part of

boil these together, yet not too fiercely, to prevent

ing over

after

it

cold, into

little

then take

it

and

it,

off the

let

it

peat

and

burnt

tartar,

take

brush, to clear

work over again

this

tartar

neal

take

it

of the coat

once more

it

and mix

with a

it

little

it is

minutes
it

it

then re-

boil

im-

and scratch

out,

it

it

and proceed as before

salt,

with which rub over the work


fire

boil about six

boil-

its

take out the work, and put

fire,

mediately into clean water;


well with a wire

tartar

when

well boiled, lay the work,

is

into

fire,

and one part of

fine salt,

it

in

then take black

water into a paste,

then neal

it

on a

clear coal

and brush the work well of the burnt

out,

tartar in clean water

put

it

once more in the tartar-water

which it was boiled, and let it boil four minutes then


wash it in cold water, and dry it with a clean rag, and it
wiilbe of a white and beautiful pearl colour.
in

To

Take
of

silver

lamp

Ring

Solder a

a large charcoal

upon

it

melt

it

set

with Stones.

put two or three penny-weights

with your blow-pipe and the

then, after you have clapped a thin pallion of silver

solder betwixt the opening of the ring, dip


as soon as

you see the

pallion run, take

it

into

it

but

off your ring

instantly.

A Powder for soldering,


Take
possible

equal

the best hard Venice soap


let it dry,

to

Borax.

scrape

between two papers,

it

as thin as

in the air

then
rub

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

105

rub it to a powder; put it into an unglazed pipkin; set


it on a gentle coal fire, and let it, by degrees, fumigate unmoisture at all then it is right. This you
til it has no
for
all
manner of work, and it will do, equal to
use
may
;

Venice borax.

To melt in a Moment

Take

two ounces of
;

one ounce of

filed

coal

put

light

one ounce, sulphur

with a

powder
mix

metal, (of any sort)

into a small crucible,

it

it

tartar

nitre,

beat in a mortar to a

half an ounce

gether

several sorts of Metals, over a Table,

little splinter,

and

then take

it

well to-

or a hollow charit

will

melt imme-

diately.

Another Manner of doing

it.

Take one ounce of nitre, half an ounce of sulphur,


and a quarter of an ounce of gunpowder; grind them well
together, and put half of this powder into a small cruthen put a farcible, or, if you will, into an egg-shell
;

thing, or six-pence, or
that,

put the other half of the powder

with your finger


will

then set

it

on a stone

it,

and,

press
light

it
it,

upon

down
and

it

melt immediately.

N. B.
oil,

any other metal, upon

and

gold,

A
this

cup, or other plate, if anointed with salad

gilt

powder

and melts

it

flung

To make Aarum

Take
ounces,

fine

upon

it

and lighted, takes off the

to a mass.

Sophisticum, or

distilled verdigrise eight

borax twelve ounces, nitre

Mimick

Gold.

ounces, tutty four

ounce and a
temper
them with oil, with a
spatula, to the consistence of a paste; then put a crucible into a windhalf;

pulverize,

furnace,

heat

it

them
wooden

and mix

red hot,

all

one

together

and convey your mass into


it

THE LABORATORY.

106
it

with a wooden spatula, by


cover

is in,

cible

let

it

it

stand in a fierce

bottom, a fine metal

like gold,

little

all

to melt

fire,

then break the crucible, and you

itself;

when

all

over the crucool of

let it

will find, at

the

weighing about four ounces,

may form and make what you

out of which you


it

and

little

your furnace with coals

fill

please

be as malleable as real gold.

will

Another.

Take

fine

then

and clear wire-copper four ounces

fling into

one ounce of spelter, i. e. zinc stir


blow the fire brisk,

it

it

it

well together with an iron spatula

to bring

some
it

into fusion, but, before

it

borax, and

into an ingot

will give

it

it

you pour

work

it

out, put in

a peculiar beauty

out of this ingot you

melt

then cast

may draw

wire for

what form or shape you please after


you have filed it, and rubbed your work well with tripoli,
then give it the finishing, with a mixture of one grain of
tripoli, and six grains of flower of sulphur, put upon a
piece of leather rub your work as usual, and it will have

chains, and

it

in

a fine gold colour.

Another.

Take

spelter

per two ounces

one ounce, of the

grains

and,

and you

ingot,

finest

and

softest cop-

melt the copper in a crucible

melted, fling into

two

it

lastly,

will

when

borax two grains, and sal-ammoniac


fling in the spelter

have a

pour

it

into

an

fine gold-coloured metal.

To make a

curious Yellow-mixed Metal, resembling Gold,


and which may be drawn into fine Wire.

Take
neal

it

eight ounces of tartar

by degrees

put

it

into a crucible,

then take pulverized dry

nitre,

and
and
fiins:

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

101

on the red hot tartar, and it will melt into a yellow


mass; take it from the fire, and Jet it cool; then take
clean copper; keep it in fusion until it is like water, and
fling

it

ounces of copper) the

fling in (to eight

mass

first

give the

crucible a strong reverberatory heat, until in fusion

then

take the best spelter, or zinc, half an ounce, tutty and Vt*
nice salqcani* half an ounce

put

to the

it

melted copper,

and presently vou will hear a crackling noise, and see a


yellow fume and flame ascend stir this copper, and the
;

other ingredients together, with an iron wire,


burnt away

stand a

let it

little

in the flux,

until

it is

and then,

after

you have rubbed your ingot with wax, pour it in, and it
be so pliable as to be drawn into wire, and of a high
gold colour you may work, form, finish, and colour it as
you do other gold.

will

Another Method

Take

make

to

copper

fine

filings

a Metal resembling Gold.

one pound,

nitre eight

fine

ounces, prepared tutty six ounces, borax six ounces, hepatic aloes four ounces

mix

all

well together, and

porate the mixture with linseed

and cover

into a clean crucible,

with

fill

upon them,
downwards blow it

live coals

top, to go
fierce fire

and break

then

at top,

the same

it,

i.

e.

for

mass

into a

incor;

put

it

a finger's height,

pulverised Venice glass; lute

subtilly

into a wind-furnace

then put

it

oil

it

well; put

it

with dead coals, and


light the fire

from the

an hour, and give

it

cool of itself; take out the crucible,

let it

and you

will find at the

bottom a very

fine

one pound
two ounces of mercury sublimate, and two ounces of prepared tutty, both clapped up in red sealing-wax stir it
metal, like gold

melt again, and add to

this

it

well with a dry stick

of
*

it

what you

An

receipt.

article

then cast

please.

unknown

it

into a

mould, and make

Or,
and

it

is,

probably, of

little

use in the

Ed.

Take

THE LABORATORY.

103

Take

six

ounces of

marble mortar
ounces of

powder

distilled verdigrise

grind

it

fine in a

beat eight ounces of prepared tutty, four

and four ounces of borax, into a coarse


oil of turnips,* and stir them

nitre,

moisten them with

in an earthen dish, together, until

all

is

well mixed

then

when red hot, conwith a wooden spatula cover

put a crucible into a wind-furnace, and,

vey the
it

said mixture into

add more

if

your

you

stick

find
;

little

cover
:

some matter remain,

still

dissolved

it is all

all

fire

put a

and try whether the matter be dissolved, and


if so, then it is time to pour it out

it,

in fusion like water

but

In about half an hour,

over the crucible.


stick into

it

and give a brisk and strong

coals,

and give

it,

then pour

it

it

a brisk

stir it

fire,

about with

until

you

find

out into a mortar,' or brass

cone, and you will have a fine gold-coloured metal.

To make Brass.

Take

of copper what quantity you please; add

third part of

powdered

lapis calaminaris

to. it

put them toge-

ther into a melting pot, and be in fusion for about an hour

then pour out the brass.

To

Silver Copper, or Brass.

Take

of fine silver one ounce sal-gemmae, i. e. rockand sal-ammoniac of each six ounces; glass-gall six
ounces beat the silver thin, and then put it into one
;

salt,

ounce of aqua-fortis let it dissolve ; when dissolved, fling


a little salt into it, and the silver will settle like a white
powder at the bottom; then pour off that water, and put
;

on

fresh

repeat

it,

until

vour of the aqua-fortis


gredicnts, and
*

grind

the silver calx has lost

dry

them

Common

this,

the

fla-

then take the above

in-*

all

well on a clean stone

oil will

probably do.

when

Ed.

von

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

109

you have well ground them, mix and grind them and the
with a

silver calx together,

like a thick paste

you would
on

it

rub

live coals

and rub

well,

it

is

when

take care that your metal be riled and

silver,

brushed clean

water, until the mixture

little

put this up in a clean glass, and

over with the above matter, and lay

it

when

has done smoking,

it

scratch

over again with the silver matter

and you

three times successively,

do

have a fine

will

it

this
sil-

vering.

Another way.

Take
to

it

fine silver; dissolve

aqua-fortis

mixed
tom,

like

and

water to

common

powder

sweeten

and

salt,

Then

when

fling

into

it

the

it

pour off the mixed

settled,

calx by

silver

this

shifting

it,

moved.
dry

take

as

waters, and the silver will precipitate to the bot-

water,

cined

then add
you had done of

in aqua-fortis

it

same quantity of water

the

until

drain off the water,

pouring

sharpness

the

all

and

let

of which take a quarter of an ounce,


tartar

one ounce,

common

salt

half

fresh
re-

is

the silver

white cal-

an ounce

then beat and mix them well together, and with aquafortis grind

them upon a stone

and you have a powder ready

would

silver

either poor silver,

powder well

rub the

in,

with water, with a piece


lay

it

on

then boil
is

boiled,

it

coal
in

wash

What Metals
Silver

fire

until

to

after

then

copper,

them

it

is

dry,

If

you
then

or brass,

you have moistened

of cork, to your mind


red hot

water with tartar and


it

let

silver with.

salt

let

and

it

it

then
cool

after

it

in clean water.

are most proper

will easily

to

incorporate with Silver.

mix and incorporate with fine clean


if you add more

ropper, of each an equal quantity

copper

THE LABORATORY.

110
than

copper

silver

and

whiteness,

your composition,

to

not

is

fit

make

to

utensils with.

nature

are of a contrary

All other metals

the

loses

it

any

to

silver,

as

lead, tin, iron, brass, &c. therefore they are to be avoided.

To

TAKe

silver Brass, in Fire.

calx of fine silver half an ounce, one ounce of

sal-ammoniac, three ounces of

salt

mix and grind these

When

you use it, grind and temper it


together with water, and rub your brass therewith
then quench it in water wherein tartar
neal it brown
has been dissolved scratch it, and finish your work by

well

together.

polishing

it

Powder

as

you see

to silver
it

requisite.

Copper or Brass with, by rubbing

with the Finger or Thumb.

Dissolve

a little silver in aqua-fortis


add to it as
and sal-ammoniac as to make it like a
dry and pulverize them
paste, whereof make little balls
if you take some of this powder on your wetted thumb,
and rub it upon the copper or brass, it will give it the co-

much

tartar

lour of silver.

A silvering on
Dissolve
pulverized
clear off,

fine

tartar;

and

in

aqua-fortis;

then

draw

pour

your

and there remains a black matter

rub your copper

and

silver

Copper.

then neal

it

well,

and

boil

it

upon

aqua-fortis
;

with
it

this

in tartar

salt.

To

GOLD AND SILVER WORKS.

To

Take

silver Copper, or Brass,

three ounces of

Ill

by boiling

it.

twenty-six leaves of

salt,

silver,

a quarter of an ounce of tartar, and half an ounce of

alum
ther

put what you design to silver into

upon

an earthen pipkin, and

boil these in

and

it,

brush
again,

it

let

put

it

and repeat

To

boil

it

after

and

in again,
this until

boil

it is

it

is

boil

stir
it

well toge-

pour water

well boiled, scratchit

to your

then scratch

it

mind.

Brass, like Silver.

Take one part of the filings of good pewter add to


one part of white tartar, and mix together then take
an unglazed pipkin put these two ingredients, and the
brass (which before must be well scratched and cleaned)
into it, and let it boil.
;

it

To

silver Copper,
off,

Brass, Steel, or Iron, so as


except

be

it

made red

?iot to

come

hot.

Take

urine which is made in the morning


cover
and let it stand a whole month put it into an earthen
pot, and let it boil
skim it, and when the third part is
evaporated, take two pints of urine, one ounce of tartar,
and an ounce of gall-stone put it in, and let it boil once
up.
This liquid keep clean and if you would silver any
,

it,

metal, take brick-dust

on a wet woollen

therewith your iron, or other metal, until

rag,
is

it

and rub
and

clear

and put it 24 hours in the prepared urine; afterwards dry it, and where you design to silver, rub it over
line,

you must lay it on thin, with an iron


then rub it
lain two hours in the urine
woollen rag, and it is a fine bright silvering.

with quicksilver
spatula

which has

on with a

soft

To

THE LABORATORY.

112

To

Take

as

casion for

silver all Sorts of Metals.

much
put

it

aqna-fortis as you think there


in a glass,

and

then put in your quantity of

silver,

beaten very thin, and cut into

little

silver is dissolved, take

much

with as

you rub
will

be

it

oc-

it

When your
and mix that liquid

shreds.

off the ashes,

white tartar as will

brass,

is

on hot ashes
which first has been

set

make

it

like a paste

copper, or any other metal, with

if

this, it

like silver.

PART

ENAMELLING

IN ORDINARY.

PART

113

111.

THE ART OF

ENAMELLING IN ORDINARY,
AND THE METHOD

OF

PREPARING THE COLOURS.

THE ART OF PAINTING IN ENAMEL. CURIOUS INSTRUCTIONS


HOW TO MAKE ARTIFICIAL PEARLS. OF DOUBLETS AND
FOILS, AND THE MANNER OF COLOURING THEM. THE ART
OF COUNTERFEITING PRECIOUS STONES, WITH OTHER RARE

SECRETS.

Of Enamelling in Ordinary and of prepaying the Enamel;

Colours.

ENAMELLING
upon metals,

is

the art of laying a coat of enamel

as

gold, silver,

burning-in various colours


indissoluble the figures

them.
tisfs,

shall

by the

and

copper,

fire,

letters

and of

which are formed of

Several receipts are in the possession of curious ar-

many of whom excel in this useful


now proceed to give the detail.

vol.

&c.

so as to preserve

i.

art

of these

we

To

THE LABORATORY.

114-

To prepare

Take

Flax for Enamel-colours.

the

four ounces of red lead, and one ounce of well

washed and clean sea sand

them

melt them together, and put

in a cold ingot.

Another Sort of Flux, which

Take

one ounce of white

hot,

and quench them

crumble them
fingers

in urine

then beat them fine

fire,

and

lute

repeat this until you can

put

them with the ingrediand when dry, give

well,

it

cool of

let it

and melt the contents again


pour

it

clean

into a

an ounce of

heat the pebbles red

a fierce fire for half an hour, or longer

off the

soft.

an impalpable powder between your

to

ents into a clean crucible


it

very

lead, a quarter of

of pebble

red lead, twelve grains

is

in

itself;

then take

it

another clean crucible, and


a bright brass weight-

or

ingot,

break the crucible,

beat and grind it in


an agat mortar*, to an impalpable powder. When you
mix your colours therewith, temper as much as you have

and then

scale,

it

occasion for with

will

oil

A green colour is
be dark.

fit

i.

e.

spike-lavender.

Green Colour.

best

made by miring

by adding a

The

for use

of spike,

A
together, and

be

reason

is,

little

brown,

if

blue
it

and yellow

be required to

that greens are otherwise

made

from copper, which must retain some portion of the acidwhich it was dissolved if it remain green and if you
dissipate all the acid it becomes dusky, which will happen
on exposing the enamel to fire.
Take copper, and dissolve it in aquafortis then evapo-

Take of

rate.

this

one

part,

and three parts of

mortar of Wedgwood's ware


Ed.

is

as good,

flux.

and much

Or,

easier

ob-

tained.

Take

ENAMELLING

ORDINARY.

IN

115

and with a piece of pumice-stone


receive the water into a bason or
pour off the water, and neal the
dish, and let it settle
then take thereof one part and three parts of
settling
a copper plate,

Take

with water, rub

it

over

flux

and

makes

this

good and

fine green.

Dark Green.

Take

enamel two

green

eighth part,

and

six parts

one-

yellow smalt

parts,

of verditer.

Yellow Colour.

Take

and neal

fine King's yellow,

it

in a crucible

one

part yellow, and three parts flux.

A high Yellow.
Take

gold-yellow enamel,

temper them

to

and

vitriol

your mind with

oil

flux; grind

and

of spike.

Brimstone Colour.

Take calcined Naples-y z\\o\v one part, three parts of


burned lead-yellow, and three parts of flux.

A -Black
Take

three-fourths of black enamel, and one-eighth of

scales of iron

very fine
plates-,

grind these with water, in an agate mortar,

draw the water from

then grind

it

Take manganese
comes

Colour.

with
neal

oil
it

and dry

it

upon hot

Or,

upon a tile the blacker it


take one part thereof with
;

off the fire the better

three parts of flux, ground with


i

it,

of spike.

oil

of spike.

A good

THE LABORATORY.

llG

A good lied.
Take

green

vitriol

grind

fine,

it

and dry

in the sun

it

between two crucibles, well luted, so as tor


prevent the air's coming to it. Take thereof one part,
and two parts and a half of Mux melt them together,
and when you use them, grind them with oil of spike.

then neal

it

Another.

Take
walnut

Roynan, or blue,
grind

then neal

them
them
it

it

vitriol,

it

to a brown colour

into a

about the quantity of a

in a stone mortar, very fine

new

dry

it,

and

take the lumps, and put

upon

glazed pipkin, and pour aqua-fortis

then wash the aqua-fortis from them again, and let


evaporate; take afterwards one part thereof, and three
;

parts of flux

grind

with

it

oil

of spike.

Another gbod

Take
and a

Take
pour a
it

flux

grind

them
it

of

till

and when dry, neal

of this one part, and three parts of

it

and

it

it

reef,

Or,

of spike.

in a clean crucible,

with clean water,

it

fire

or Paris

vitriol,

fine with oil

aqua-fortis and vinegar on

wash

over a

red, colcothar

calcine

vitriol,

little

after that

dry

brown

little

Tied.

when dry

neal

it

has no taste

again

well
;

then take

flux.

Blue Colours.

Take

fine smalt;

fine as possible
oil

of spike.

put a

wash
little

it

well with clean water, as

flux to

it,

and grind

it

with

Or,

Smalt may be used alone without


ground with oil of spike. Or,

the

flux-powder,

Take

IN ORDINARY.

1H

part, flux four parts

grind them,

ENAMELLING
Take ultramarine one
with

oil

of spike.

Green.

Take
with

oil

verditer,

and a

little

ground

flux

grind

them

of spike.

Grass Green.

Take
of

it,

verditer, and neal it in a crucible


and three parts and a half of flux.

Brown

Take

one part

Colours.

crocus martis one

them with

take,

part, flux

two

parts

grind

oil of spike.

Purple Colour.

Take

one part crocus martis, one part smalt, and three

parts flux.

Or,

Take blood-stone, and grind it with vinegar when it \s


fine, wash it clean, and burn it oyer a candle on a thin plate.
,

Hair

Take

umber, and neal

Colour.
it

in a crucible

part thereof, and three parts of flux

then take one

grind

them with

oil

of spike.

Jpawn Colour.

Take
give

it

vitriol,

a red heat

glow
;

it

as

hot as possibly you can,

then take of

it

one

part,

i.

e.

and three parts

flux.

Carnation

THE LABORATORY.

118

Carnation Colour.

Take

yellow ochre, and glow

after that let


it is

it

cool,

and beat

it

not of a fine colour, neal

it

it

in

an iron mortar, and,

again

and three parts and a half of

part,

in a crucible very hot

if

take of this one

flux.

A steel Red for Enamel.


Take

fine thin

into small shreds

beaten plates of
put

them

and cut them

steel,

into a vial with aqua-fortis,

and when reduced over a slow fire, neal


one part, and three parts of flux.

it

of

this take

OF THE ART OF PAINTING ON ENAMEL.

The

ancients that laboured in this noble

were un-

art,

acquainted with the beauties the moderns have discovered,


particularly in the art of

compounding colours

senting portraitures and history

for repre-

the fine performances in

those particulars are the admiration of every curious beBesides their peculiar beauty and lustre, they have

holder.
this

advantage over

other paintings, that they are not

all

subject to the injury of the air or weather, as paintings


in

oil

or water colours

and unless they are rubbed or

scratched with any thing harder than themselves, the colours will retain their beauty for ever,

bright as

when

first

and be as

fine

and

done.

This art cannot be effected without fire, which always


must be reverberatory, in a furnace so contrived that the
fire may play all over the mujfle that covers your work.

To

explain this

more

fully,

see plate 4.

When

your re-

verb eratorv

ENAMELLING
verberatory

IN

building, let the

is

ORDINARY.
mouth

119

part of the muffle

be placed fronting the mouth of the furnace, and be


such a manner that the furnace fire may not

fixed in

play into

it,

nor the ashes drop upon your work.

Your furnace may be

either round or square

of iron or earth, no matter which

much room
slice,

only

let

may

it

be

there be so

in the inside as will contain the muffle,

with a

round about to cover it you must have


or iron plate, to put your work upon, which, with

good charcoal
a

fire

a pair of tongs, convey into the furnace, and bring out


again.

The

metals

fittest to

enamel upon,

as has

been

said, are

silver, and copper


but the best work is performed
on gold, for silver makes the white enamel appear of a yellowish hue and copper is apt to scale, whereby the enamel

gold,

subject to break in pieces

besides, the colours lose a


a great deal of their charms and lustre to what they do
is

upon

gold.

The

gold used for this purpose should be the

bad allay will have the same


enamel colours as the silver or copper.
Your plate, of whatever metal it be, must be vervthin,
raised convex
both that and the concave side are laid over
with white enamel the convex side, whereon you paint,
must be laid a small matter thicker than the other. You
must observe, that the white enamel which you lay on the
finest,

else the impurities of a

effect in the

convex be ground with fair water in an agate mortar, and


with an agate pestle, until it be fit for use the enamel for
the other side must be tempered with water wherein vou
have before steeped some quince kernels.
:

As

enamel colours which you paint with, you must


tempered, or your
work wil. be spoiled if one be softer than the other, when
your work comes into the furnace and grows hot, the soft
to the

take great care that they be equally


;

colour will intermix with the hard, so as to deface vour

work
upon

intirely: this

a white

may

serve to caution

you

to

make

trial

enamelled plate for that purpose, of all your


enamels,

THE LABORATORY.

120

enamels, before you begin your work


rect

you

experience will di-

further.

Take particular care that not the least dirt imaginable


come to your colours, while you are either painting or
grinding them
for the least speck, when it is worked up
with it, and when the work comes to be put into the rever;

beratory to be red hot, will leave a hole, and deface your

work.
After you have prepared your plate with a white enamel,

and

is

it

ready to paint upon, apply your colours on an

ivory palette, or a piece of glass, in just order, and


delineate your design with a

martis ground with

oil

of spike

made of

dark red,
;

first

crocus

put the piece in the muffle,

and with a reverberatory fire, as before directed, fix that


and then proceed, remembering to dilute the thick
and opaque enamel colours with oil of spike and the
colour

bv mixing blue and yellow enamel colour you have a fair green blue and red a
violet
red and white a rose colour
and so of other cotransparent ones with

fair

water

lours.

We

shall

here set

down

several other receipts for pre-

paring enamel colours, which will not only serve for ordi-

nary work, but for enamel-painting in miniature,

To prepare

Take

the principal Matter for

lead

fifteen

pounds,

Enamel

plate-tin

Colours.

ashes

sixteen

pounds mix and calcine these, as directed in the first


part; after you have calcined your lead and tin, search out
;

the calx, and put


set
it

it

off,

over a

fire,

it

into an earthen pot filled with water

and

let it boil a little

after

which, take

and pour the water into another vessel, which

carry the

more

will

you
and the water comes off

subtil calx along with

it

repeat this

till

no more of the calx,


What gross part remains in
clean without any mixture.
the pot, calcine as before, and this repeat till you can draw
can

subtilize

off

ENAMELLING
more of the

off no

from
rate

Of
and

all

it

ORDINARY.
Then pour

IN

your receivers into one that

on a slow

tar purified

into a pot,

frit

of white sand, beaten

12 pounds, nitre purified 12 pounds,

* two ounces.
place

in a

it

Put these powders

Then

to an impalpable powder, and keep

Thus

is

your

salt

all

of tar-

together

ghss-housc furnace for ten or

twelve hours to digest and purify.

for use.

and evapo-

larger,

is

the water

fire.

take 12 pounds,

this calx

sifted,

121

subtil matter.

first

it

take and reduce

in a close,

it

dry place

enamel

or principal matter for

colours prepared.

To make Enamel of a Milk-white

Take

Colour.

pounds of the fore-mentioned principal


prepared magnesia, and arsenic two pounds
put these together into a melting-pot,
to melt and purify over a fierce fire
when the matter is
three

?natter, twenty-four grains of


;

melted, throw
*

You may buy

yourself.
It

out of the pot into fair water

it

or you

and having

may

purify

Calcine tartar of red wine in an earthen crucible,

comes black

Then put

salt of tartar purified,

it

continue

the

tire

till

it

into an .earthen pan, glazed;

vater, and boil

over a gentle

it

may evaporate

tire,

the fourth part

changes
till

to

it

till

white.

the pan with clear

so that in four hours the wa-

then take

it off the tire, and


and cold, pour it off by inclination into
Then pour
a clean glazed pan, and you will have a strong lye.
this repeat, till the
clean water on, and let them boil as before
then filter the lye
put it in glass veffels
water becomes infipid
upon a sand-bath, in a gentle heat, to evaporate, and at the bottom
there will remain a very white salt. Dissolve this salt again in
fair water, and let it stand two days to settle ; filter it, and
evaporate at a gentle fire, as before, and you will have a salt
repeat this three or four times, and your
whiter than the former
salt will be whiter than snow itself.
The same process may be employed on pot-ash, without calthe same may be done also on pearlcining it as the tartar is

fer

after the water

is

settled

ash.

afterwards

THE LABORATORY.

V22
afterwards dried

melt

it,

again as before

it

third time, changing the water


fied
is

done

but in case

has

it

still

this for the

and be

as white as milk,

metals

take

it

off the fire

it

to
;

again,

intent,

will

it

it

little

becoma

enamel with on gold or other


make it into cakes, and pre-

for use.

A
Take
purify

fit

thus puri-

add a

a greenish hue,

more magnesia, and, bv melting it over

when

do

and found the white colour answer your

it,

serve

when you have

it

Turcoise Blue Enamel.

of the principal matter three pounds

proper melting-pot, then cast

in a

dry, put

it

again, add to

it

melt and

into water

it

again into a pot, and being melted over


at four times

this

composition

scales,

two ounces and a half; prepared zaffre


forty-three grains prepared magnesia twenty-four grains
mix and reduce these to a very
stone-blue two ounces

thrice calcined*,

fine

powder

stir

the matter very well with an iron rod, for

When your matter is thus


whether vour colour answer vour intention before you empty the pot: if you perceive the
tinging powders are too predominant, add more of the
and if too faint, add more of the tingprincipal powder
the powders to incorporate.
tinged, observe well

Your own judgment must

ing powders.

management of
r

To

into a crucible

and

fift

in the

come from the hammer of


wash them from their foulness, put
it

in the

mouth of

after which, let

Put

them.

place

furnace, for four days;


grind,

you

calcine copper scales, such as

braziers or copper-smiths

them

direct

this preparation.

this

powder

a reverberator}'

them cool

then pound,
second time into the fur;

nace, to reverberate four days longer; proceed as before; and


after it has stood again the third time for four days, reduce it into

powder, and

it

will

be

lit

for the use

intended.

Afne

ENAMELLING

IN

ORDINARY.

123

A fine Blue Enamel.


pounds of the principal matter one ounce
or of indigo blue twenty-two grains

Take two
of prepared

zafFre,

of copper, thrice calcined

powder, and put them into


is

melted, cast

the pot again

corporated

take

water

into

it

let

then dry

stand upon the

it

it

mix and reduce these


a melting-pot

make

off;

it

when
it

to a fine

the metal

and put

fire until it is

into cakes,

it

into

well in-

and keep

it

for use.

A
Take two
copper

pounds of the principal matter, one ounce of


twenty-four grains of scales

scales, thrice calcined,

of iron,

ounce

Green Enamel.

blue

vitriol

two ounces, yellow

mix and reduce these

one

arsenic

an impalpable powder,

to

and, at three several times, or in three several portions,


fling

it

tinge

into the principal matter, stirring the metal so as to

it

When

equally.

the colour

stand for a while in the

then take

Take

it

off,

and you

fire,

will

to

is

your

to

liking, let

have a delicate green.

yellow

two ounces

arsenic

pulverize

and mix these well, and put them into a white glazed potf
* Feretto of Spain,

nace

Or,

* Feretto of Spain two ounces, forty-eight grains

of crocus martis,

per with

it

incorporate thoroughly

vitriol,

for three

is

thus prepared

in a crucible;

days; then take

layers of vitriol, stratifying

put
it

them

it

out,

stratify thin plates of

in the

mouth of

and add

as before

to the

now

cop-

a glass fur-

copper fresh

put the crucible

same place of the furnace; repeat it six times successively,


and you will have an excellent feretto. Beat this to powder, and

in the

it will

tinge glass of an extraordinary beautiful colour.

f The best melting-pots for glasses and fluxes are made of tobacco-pipe clay. They may be had of Meffrs. Pugh and Speck,
melting-pot manufactory, bottom of Booth-Street, Spital-Fields. Ed.
set

THE LABORATORV.

124-

set

it

melt, and refine the matter

in the furnace to

which

cast

it

into the pot

into

water

when

to your liking

and when dried, throw

after

again

melted, observe whether the colour

if so, let

it

If

is

some time longer to


faint, add more of

stand for

you find the colour loo


the tinging powder.

refine.

it

Black Enamel,

Take

of the principal matter two pounds, prepared


one ounce, and prepared manganese one ounce
pulverize and mix these, and proceed as directed in the
zaffre

preceding colours.

Take
ounce,

Or

ot the principal matter three pounds,

crocus

zaffrc

one

martis one ounce, feretto of Spain one

ounce; pound and mix them, and proceed as directed


before.

A
Of

Velvet-black

Enamel.

two pounds, red tartar two


manganese
one ounce
pulverize
ounces,
and
put
them
into
a
glazed
pot, bigger than orthese,
the principal matter

prepared

dinary, because the matter will rise

for the rest,

proceed

as directed before.

A Purple-colour Enamel.
Of

the principal matter two pounds, prepared

nese one ounce, indigo blue half an ounce


above.

manga-

proceed as

Or,

Principal

matter three pounds,

one ounce and an

half,

prepared

manganese

of twice calcined scales of cop-

per three ounces, stone blue one ounce

pulverize and

proceed as directed,

Violet

ENAMELLING

A
Of

ORDINARY-

IN

12:

Enamel.

Violet

the principal matter three pounds, prepared

manga-

nese one ounce, thrice calcined copper scales twenty-four


grains, terra verte

one ounce

pulverize and

mix these aU

together, and proceed as before directed.

A
Of

Yellow Enamel.

the principal matter three pounds, tartar one ounce

and a

half,

prepared manganese six grains, yellow orpi-

ment two ounces,

one ounce

arsenic

and proceed

as before directed.

An

Htd Eiunnel, of

excellent

This enamel
quantities

To

prepare

of manganese and nitre


in

hours; take

it

ter,

a very splendid ruby Colour.

of a surprising beauty, and

is

equals that of a red ruby.

and calcine

pulverize them,

crucible

then

off,

colour

sal-ammoniac

grind

dry

let

its

lustre

take equal

them reverberate

a furnace for twenty-four

and wash

to separate the nitre

be of a red

in

this,

it

it

well in

well,

warm wa-

and the mass will

add an equal quantity of


on a marble with distilled vinegar, as painters do their colours
dry it, and pulverize it
then put it into a strong matrass, and let it subbreak off the neck of your
limate for twelve hours
matrass, and mix all the volatile and fixed parts together,
;

this

to

this

adding the same quantity of sal-ammoniac as there are

weigh them before the compoand sublimate as before, repeating,


this until your manganese remains fuzible at the bottom
of the matrass this preserve to tinge your crystal with
and according to your liking, add either a greater or less
flowers, and take care to

sition

grind, pulverize

quantity

THE LABORATORY.

126

quantity of the manganese, or of the crystal, until

have brought

to its

it

A Rose
Take
cible

at

half of thrice calcined copper

then pour into


directed

let

the colour
until

it

it

stand

it

be of a

all

vitrify

hours to cleanse, and

six

more crocus

little

the colours,

(which

incorporated

with the

the better,

which

Some workmen make

easily do.

A fine
Take

else

thin plates

they would not

warm

ashes,

put
or

matter of nitre

drops of

oil

oil,

into a

when

all

its

dissolve

stand for

it,

four

in

and beat it
ounces of

and

put in

this until

set
it

hisses
to

no more.
it, and

settle

by enamellers.

Aflet it

at the bot-

put more fresh water

to the sediment, and repeat this until the water


* Crystal means crystal

on

then pour off the water leisurely

into an earthen, or glazed receiver

nt for use,

it

a small

then put in some more


it

some lukewarm rain-water


some time, and a powder will

of the cucurbit

crystal.

two or three
and stop the cucurbit

it,

ter this put

tom

but that

dissolved, drop

is

boiling over

and repeat

neal

this

glass cucurbit,

sand, to

of tartar into

close, to prevent

drops of

it

Purple.

dissolve

that

crystal,

use of rocaille

half an ounce of fine gold

aqua regia

if

martis,

not pure

are

does not answer the purpose so well as ground

into very

fine rose colour.

enamel,) must be

may

for

too light, add a

is

the metal every time

stir

crocus martis and manganese prepared as

Observe that
they

EnameL

Colour

pounds of ground crystal* melt it in a crufour different times, two ounces and a

five

add,

you

degree of perfection.

glass,
.

which

is

comes

off

usually kept in powder,

Ed.
clear,

ENAMELLING

When
from

then put

it,

ORDINARY.

it

warm

or in

tile,

six parts

and

spike,

of the principal matter; grind


will

it

upon a piece of whited-brown paper,


and dry it on a
rest of the water
the sun. To one part of this powder,

make

Take

green

vitriol

and

fire,

powder

it

oil

of

put

it

hold

it

Colour.

into a copper cup

with a copper wire until

stir it

with

a good purple.

A good Red Enamel


over a

127

it

from the

to separate

add

IN

and free from the sharpness of the aqua regia.


the powder is settled, and all the water poured

clear,

it is

reduced

upon a hot tile, on which let it


cool of itself; then wash it with rain water, and when
settled, pour off that, and put fresh water on, and thus
to a

repeat

it

burn

this

several times*.

But some

instead

artists,

of washing

this

powder,

method better than


that of washing.
With this powder you may tinge the
principal matter to what height you would have your coboil

in fair water,

it

and think

this

Or,

lour.

Melt

vitriol in a crucible,

when

with a cover, and burn over a

thus you have burned

it to a powder,
and dry it of this take one
part, of the principal powder three parts, and of transparent yellow one and one-eighth part.
Or,
Put vitriol into a crucible, pour a little aqua-fords upon
then put it in a clean earthen pipit, and neal it gently
kin, pour clean water upon it, and boil it one hour; then
pour off that, and put fresh water upon it wash it, and
when settled dry it neal it once more, and it is fit for use.

gentle
boil

it

fire

in clean

water

filter

* This, and some others are, in reality, the same thing with Colvitriol ; so are the following, with a little variation, viz.
scarlet ochre, Spanish brown, Indian red, Venetian red.
Ed.

cothar of

Of

THE LABORATORY.

12

Of

this

powder take two

parts,

and of the principal pow-

der, or Mux, three parts.

A
Take

of

one ounce

lead four ounces, white scouring sand

red

melt

Flux for Red Enamel.

it,

and pour

Some General

Before we
clude this
for

rules,

proceed

to

it

into an iron mortar.

Obserzafio?:

;.

we

another subject,

will

con-

few observations and general


the more easy apprehending of what has
article

with

been said already.


Observe that gold is the most proper metal to enamel
upon that every colour, except a violet or purple, receives an additional beauty from it, to what it does
from silver or copper that it is best to enrich gold with
;

such beautiful colours,


the beholder

when

since

the skilful

they

admiration in

raise

artist

places

them

in

due

order.

The

only painted in

ancients

black

and white, with

something of a carnation, or flesh colour in process of


time they indeed made some few improvements, but
colours were equally alike on gold,
all their enamel
;

silver,

or copper, every one transparent

lour wrought by

itself.

But

since

the

and every co-

modern

artists

have found out a way of enamelling with opaque colours, and of compounding them in such a manner as
to shade or heighten the painting in the same manner
as

is

done

gained the

in

miniature,

pre-eminence

or
in

oil

painting,

small portraits,

advantage of a natural and lasting

lustre,

this art

has

having the

which

is

never

tarnished, nor subiecTtc. decay

The

ENAMELLING
The
which

receives great beauty

green

opaque, do not
is

129

purple coloured enamel does best on silver, from


it

azure and

but

ORDINARY.

IN

suit

unfit for that

it

so does the ultramarine,

other colours,

all

copper

which

suits

with

as well

clear as

thick enamels,

all

clear.

is

Make choice of good, hard, and lasting enamel the


soft is commonly full of lead, which is apt to change
the colours and make them look sullied and foul but
:

if

you follow the

you

prescriptions,

meet with no

will

such inconvenience.

Remember, when you


nels, as

has been directed

only

with

fair

with

flux,

or

water;
the

white enamel on gold,

lay

or copper, to dilute

silver,

it
:

with water of quince-kerclean enamel

and the

principal

matter,

colours,

mix

when mixed

opaque,

dilute

with

oil

of

spike.

Be

not

careful

furnace, but take

per glazing

keep your work too long in the

to

often out, to see

it

and then

it is

Before you use your enamels,

have occasion
thus

do with

and by

this

with

for,

when

it

has the pro-

finished.

fair

much as you
an agate mortar

grind as

water,

in

your clear and transparent enamels,

all

means you will have all things


work with pleasure.

in readiness

to proceed in your

All

opaque colours that

be used

in painting

at a loss,

but

enamel.

will

will stand the fire, are

The

ingenious

meet probably with

artist will

fit

to

not be

several colours

not yet discovered, as frequently happens to those

who

try experiments.

vol.

1.

OF

230

THE LABORATORY.
OF ARTIFICIAL PEARLS.

It

will

not be improper to treat in this place of

pearls, as

The

artificial

a branch of jewellery.

it is

who wrote on the several sorts of precious


among the jewels of the first class

ancients

stones, ranged pearls

they have at

employed

The

;.

times been in high esteem, and have been

all

particularly in adorning the fair sex.

oriental pearls are the finest,

size, colour,

and beauty, being of a

on account of

silver

white

their

whereas,

the occidental or western pearls seldom exceed the colour

The

of milk.

Bohemia, and

though those of the


Art, which

been
tion

is

They

Ormus and Bassora*.

found in Europe, both in


Silesia,

from the Persian

best pearls are brought

Gulf, above the isles of

salt

and fresh waters

Frisia f,

latter

are

Scotland,

produce very fine ones

country arc very small.

always busy to

mimic

nature, has not

idle to bring counterfeit pearls to the greatest perfec-

they are imitated so near, that the naked eye cannot

distinguish

them from

pearls of the

first

class,

or the real

ones.

We shall
how

here present the curious with several receipts

to counterfeit pearls in

the best manner, and after a

method both easy and satisfactory,


labour pleasant, and make it answer

To

Take
tine

of

so

as to render his

his expectations.

imitate fine Oriental Pearls*

vinegar two pounds, Venice turpenmix them together into a mass, and put

distilled

one pound

them

into a cucurbit

after

you have

fit

a head and receiver to

luted the joints,

set

it,

when

it,

dry,

and,

on a

* Called also Bahora and Basrah.

Ed.
f That part of Germany lying between the Rhine and the Ems.

Ed.

sand

ARTIFICIAL PEARLS.
sand furnace, to

much

too

After

of thin

the vinegar from

do not give

it

put the vinegar into another glass cucurbit,

this,

a quantity of seed pearl, wrapt in a piece

is

but so as not to touch the vinegar

silk,

cover or head upon the cucurbit


:

let it

The

heat of the

gar,

and they

them

to

take

them

Balneum

lute

Maria* where you may

Bal.

it

heat, lest the stuff should swell up.

which there

in

distil

131

it

well,

put a

and put

it

in

remain a fortnight.

fumes of the vineand bring


which being done,

will raise the

will soften the pearls in the silk,

the consistence of a paste

and mould them

out,

what

bigness, shape,

Your mould should be of

and form you please.


ver, the inside gilt

to

you must

fine sil-

from touching the

refrain

paste with your fingers, but use silver gilt utensils, with

which

your moulds

fill

when you have moulded them,

bore them through with a hog's


let

them dry

wire, and put

little

them

in the sun to dry

or gold wire, and

bristle,

then thread them again on a gold

in a glass

after

close

it

them

up, and set

they are thoroughly dry, put them

into a glass matrass in a stream of running water,

leave

them

tract the

there twenty days

by that time they

will

natural hardness and solidity of pearls.

and
con-

Then

them out of the matrass, and hang them in mercurywater f, where they will moisten, swell, and assume their
take

oriental
* Balneum Maris, sometimes called
of sand, heated by a

fire,

in

Balneum Maris, is a bath


which chemical apparatus are plung-

ed, to submit their contents to a digestive heat.

Ed.

f Mercury-water, so called by the workmen, is thus prepared.


Take plate-tin of Cornwall ; calcine it, and let the calx be pure

and line then with one ounce of the calx, and two ounces of pure
mercury, make an amalgam wash it with fair water, till the water
remains insipid and clear ; then dry the amalgam thoroughly ; put
;

on a sand bath, giving it such a heat as is requiWhen the matter is well sublimated, take off
the matrass, and let it cool. Take out that sublimate ; add one
ounce of Venice sublimate to it, and grind it together on a marble ;
k. 2
put
it

into a matrass,

site for sublimation.

THE LABORATORY.

1-52

oriental beauty

which

after

them

shift

into a matrass,

hermetically closed up, to prevent any water coming to

them, and
eight days

down

let it

into a well, to continue there about

then draw the matrass up, and on opening

it

you will find pearls exactly resembling oriental ones. This


method is very excellent, and welt worth the trouble.

Way

Another

Take

make

seed-pearls

oriental,

powder, on

to

marble

Artificial Pearls.

reduce them into a fine

then dissolve

them

them

patch, set

mercury-wa-

in

To make more

or clarified juice of lemons.

ter,

dis-

mar. and you wilf

in a cucurbit, in bal.

see presently a cream arise at the top, which take off

im-

when

set-

mediately: take the solution

You

have the pearl paste

will

your

moulds

silver-gilt

four hours

and save

glass,

it.

the bottom, with which

at

then put them by for twenty-

bore them through with a

and,

fire,

pour off the liquid into another

tled,

fill

the

off"

moulds, in barley dough, and put

bristle

close

up the

an oven to bake,

in

it

and when about half baked, draw it out, take out your
and steep them in the liquor you saved before,

pearls,

them in and taking them out several times then


them up in their moulds, and bake them again with
the like dough but let it remain in the oven till it is almost burnt, before you draw it out. After you have taken
your pearls out of their moulds, string them on one or

putting

close

put

tFiis

into another matrass; close

water

in a pail of
this

done,

filter it

to coagulate,

and

it

it

will turn into a crystalline

fine sieve,

set

and put

it

in bain, mar'ut

into water

which

it

it

substance

there

let

it

remain
fit

till it

tor the

down
time

this beat

powder;

into a matrass; stop

the mercury? waief,

upside

on a gentle sand heat

a glass pestle, to a line

and place

is

and

will dissolve in a little

into a glass receiver; set

in a glass mortar, with

through a

well,

it

and the whole mass

it

sift

it

close up,

resolves again

above-mentioned

use.

mora

ARTIFICIAL PEARLS.
more gold or

silver threads,

water for about a fortnight

13

and steep them in mercuryafter which time, take and

dry them in the sun, in a well-closed glass, and you will

have very

fine

and bright

pearls.

Another Way.

Dissolve very
when the

water

ajum-

line pulverised oriental pearls in

solution

and wash the paste

first

settled,

is

in

distilled water,

water, and afterwards set

it

to digest for a fortnight

this

pour off the water,

mar ice,

in bed.

then in bean

or horse-dung,

done, take out your glass,

and the matter being come to the consistence of a paste,


mould it as you have been directed before bore and string
the pearls on a silver thread, and hang them in a wellclosed glass alembic, to prevent the air coming to them
thus dried, wrap every one up in leaves of silver then
split a barbel, and close them up in the belly thereof.;
make a dough of barlev meal, and bake the fish, as you
do bread then draw him, take out your pearls, and dry
;

jthem in a closed glass in the sun.

To

them

give

mercury-water;
squeeze

in

it

or, instead, take

water

six

in

put therein six ounces of seed-pearl,

nitre,

and then dip them


about

them

the herb gratuli*, and

one ounce of roach alum, one ounce


the whole being dissolved, heat first the pearls,

one ounce of
of litharge

a transparency and splendor, dip

in this solution to cool

repeat this

times successively.

If your pearls shoukl not have their natural hardness,

then take two ounces of lapis caUuninaris, in impalpable

powder add to this two ounces of acid of vitriol, and;


two ounces of whites of eggs beaten into a water
put
them together into a retort lute a receiver to it, and you
;

::

Probably gratiola,

known term

gratuli.

i.

e.

hedge-/n>ssop,

is

here meant by the un-

Ed.
will

THE LABORATORY.

134
will distil
flour,

them

a fair water, with which, and

make

some

fine barley-

which put your pearls, and bake


thus they will become exceedingly hard.

a paste, in

as before

Another Method.

Take

chalk well purified and cleansed from

ness and sand,

form

pearls, in a

through with a

an oven

them

whiten

mould

let

them dry

gross-

all

and

a paste,
;

them

pierce

in the

silver

thread

un or in

colour

with Armenian boie, diluted in the white

and when dry, drench them with a pencil and

water; lay them over with leaf

under a

glass in the sun to dry

a dog's

ooth.

To

make

this

for that purpose

and

bristle,

of

then string them on a

lightly over

of eggs
fair

e.

i.

them the

give

shavings, thus:

when

true colour,

jilver,

and put them

dry, polish

make

a glue of vellum

you have washed them

after

them with

in

warm

them in fair water, in a new earthen pot or


to some thickness, and then strain them through a
When you w ould use it, warm it first, and dip

water, boil
pipkin,
cloth.

your

string of pearls into

between each
will give

it,

but let there be an interval

pearl, so as not to touch

your pearls a natural

To form large Pearls

one another

this

lustre.

out of small ones, as directed by

Korndorffer.

Take of mercurial water fourteen ounces put two


ounces of sulph. soils*, into a low matrass, pour the mer;

curial

water upon

it,

and

let it dissolve

and extract.

take of the whitest small pearls twr enty ounces, put


into a proper matrass,
* Sulphur

now

in use.

So/is

may

and pour the

said

Then
them

w ater upon
r

probably mean a preparation of

silver,

it.

not

Ed.

The

ARTIFICIAL PEARLS.

The

by degrees

pearls will

clear calx,

much

mercurial water

dissolve,

like dissolved

and

135
at last turn to a

pour off the


and dry it; then

calx

silver

boil the calx well out,

into a clean crucible by itself, and melt and cast it


what form you please. When cold, polish it in the
same manner as you do gems or crystals and you will
have your work of the consistence and beauty of the finest

put

it

into

and clearest oriental pearL

To make of small Pearls a

Take
them

fine Necklace of large ones.

many

small oriental pearls, as

into mercurial

and they

turn

will

water

fifteen

like

soft,

mould, made of silver; into

as

you

will

put

days and nights together,

a paste

then have a pearl

convey the paste by a


but you must not
silver spatula, or such like implement
touch the paste with your fingers, and be very careful to
have every thing nice and clean about this work when it
is in the mould, let it dry
bore a hole with a silver wire
this

through

it,

and

let

it

stick there

till

you have more, but

take care they do not touch one another

wherein you

may

with the pearls


harden, and

fix,

as

then have a glass

pair of stands, your wires

put them, well closed up, in the sun to

when you

into a matrass

upon a

lute the

find

them hard enough, put them

neck very

close,

and sink

it

in a

running spring of water for twenty days, in which time


they will contract their natural colour.
It

is

asserted,

by those who have wearied themselves

with the hopes of forming small imperfect pearls into


larger ones, that artificial pearls cannot be

materials of original pearls.


laborious and expensive

some reward

The

we

shall

the

and that the reader may have

for his exertions, shouJd the

wis expectations,

made of

foregoing receipts are

add

to this

experiments balk

edition a tried and

approved method of imitating pearls from other materials,


which,

THE LABORATORY.

136

when

which,

from the
mishes.

many

well executed,

can only be distinguished

by their absolutely containing fewer bleThe method was kept a profound secret for
real

years.

Best Method of imitating Pearls.

Take

the blay or bleak-fish, which

the rivers near London, and scrape

off,

the fine silvery scales from the belly.

is

very

common

Wash

in

way,

in a delicate

and rub these

changing the water, and permitting the seveliquors to settle


the water being carefully poured off,

in fair water,
ral

the pearly matter will be found at the bottom, of an oily

by the French essence d'orient.


A
is dropped into a little hollow glass
bead of a bluish tinge, and shaken about, so as to fill up
all the cavities and surface of the internal part.
When
consistence,

little

called

of this essence

the essence

is

thoroughly dry, melted white

ped into the beads,

them weight,

give

to

wax

is

drop-

and

solidity,

security.

To

Take

when of

clean Pearls

pigeon's dung

moisten

the consistence of a paste


to

put

hold four times the quantity

a foul Colour.
it

them

them stand for


fling them into fresh
Jet

fully,

in a

warm

month

enough

put into this your yellow-

coloured or foul pearls, so that they


over, and set

with alum-water, tq

this into a glass, big

may be

covered

all

place, or behind an oven

then take them out, and


cold alum-water, and dry them care-

and your pearls

will

become

fine

and white

if

you

repeat the operation once or twice, they will be done to


greater perfection.

To

ARTIFICIAL PEARLS.

To

blanch

and

J$7

cleanse Pearls,

First soak and cleanse them in bran-water; then in


milk-warm water, and last of all, steep them in mercurywater then string and hang them in a glass close it well,
and set them in the sun to dry.
The bran water is made thus: boil two large handfuls
of wheaten bran in a quart of water, till all the strength
of the bran is drawn out use it thus take a new glazed
earthen pan, in which put your pearls on a string, and
pour the third part of the bran water upon it when they
have soaked, and the water is just warm, rub your pearls
gently with your hands, to clean them the better continue this until the water is cold then throw off that, and
pour on another third part of the bran water that is boiling; proceed with this as you did before, and when cold
throw it away, and pour on the remainder of the water,
still proceeding as before
after this, heat fair water, and
pour it on your pearls, to refresh them, and to wash away
the remains of the bran, by shifting them, and pouring on
:

fresh
pearls

warm
;

water

this

do

thrice,

without handling your

then lay them on a sheet of clean white paper

and dry them


water, to bring

in the shade

them

then dip them into mercury

to perfection.

Other Methods used in blanching Pearls.

Pound

plaster

of Paris to an impalable powder

pearls therewith very gently

them, but

if

vou

let

this will

them remain

four hours afterwards, they will

in this

still

rub the

not only cleanse

powder twenty-

be the better for

it,

White coral has the same effect, used in the like manner.
White tartar calcined and divested of all its moisture, is
very good for the same purpose.
Salt,

THE LABORATORY.

!38

well dried and ground,

Salt,

former things,
therewith

ground

and

millet,

is

as effectual as

for cleansing of pearls,


if

it

afterwards you lay

any of the

by rubbing them

them up

in

some

will contribute to their natural brightness.

OF DOUBLETS.

Doublet, among

lapidaries,

implies a counterfeit

stone composed of two pieces of crystal, with proper co-

between them

lours

so that they

appearance to the eye as

if

may make

had been tinged with these colours.

crystal

The

body of

impracticability of imparting tinges to the

genuine natural
brilliancy,

crystals,

without depriving them of their

gave inducements to the introduction of colour-

ing the surface of them, so as to give them,

the appearance of a gem.

which

the same

the whole substance of the

artificial

They have

when

finished,

not the property

stones have of being set transparent, as

is

required for drops of earings, &c. but they suit very well
for rings,

and other ornaments which allow of an opaque

back-ground.

A
by

crystal,

They

are

made

after the following

or glass in imitation of crystal,

is

manner

to be cut

a lapidarv into the shape of the precious stone

it is

to

must be composed of
two separate stones, or two parts of one stone, forming
the upper and under parts of the brilliant, dividing the.
whole stone in a horiz ontal plane, a little lower than the
resemble; a

middle.

when

No

brilliant,

division

for instance,

appearing between the two pieces

duly polished and placed on one another, the colour

of the intended stone


lowing method

is

put between them, after the

fol-

Take of Venice
add

to

it

or Cyprus turpentine two scruples, and


one scruple of the grains of mastich, chosen perfectlv

OF DOUBLETS.
feetlv pure, free

139

from foulness, and previously powdered.

Melt them together in a small silver or brass spoon ladle,


and put to them some one of the colour rig substances
mentioned hereafter, they being also finely powdered

them together

stir

as the colour

put

is

that they

in,

may

Warm

then the doublets to the


same degree of heat as the melted mixture, and paint the
upper surface of the lower part, putting the upper one

be thoroughly commixed.

instantly

upon

it

and press them to each other, taking

care that they are conjoined in the most perfectly even

manner.

When

cement is quite cold and set,


it which has been pressed
leave no colour on the outside of

the paint or

scrape off the redundant part of


out of the joint, so as to

They

the doublet.

should be so set as skilfully to carry

the mointing just above the joint, which will hide the arti-

and secure the pieces from separating.

fice

As

the proportions vary in the receipt given in the former

editions of this work,

thought, on

trial,

to

we

shall

here insert

have the preference

it,

it is

lest it

be

as follows

Method of making Doublets.

Take

two drachms of clear mastich, and of the

Venetian or Cyprian turpentine sixteen drams


these together in a silver or brass spoon
is
it,

much

too

to bring

turpentine, then add a


it

to a right temper.

little

Then

if

you

clearest

dissolve

find there

more mastich to
what colour

take

you please, as lake, dragon's blood, distilled verdigrise, or


what colour else you design, for representing a particular
stone
grind each by itself, in the nicest manner you possibly can, and mix each apart with the mixture of mastich
and turpentine, which you ought to have ready by you
and you will find the lake to imitate the colour of a ruby,
;

the dragon's blood that of a hyacinth, and the verdigrise


the colour of an emerald.
But in case you would have
your colours, as it were, distilled, then get a little box,

made

JO

THE LABORATORY.

made

of lime-tree, in the shnpe of an egg or acorn.

box must be turned

may

that the light


tity

This

the bottom as thin as possible, so

at

be seen through

Then make

it.

a quan-

of any one of the abovcsaid colours, mixed with the

mixture of mastich and turpentine,


little

mer-time
distil

and put

box, hung over a gentle glowing coal


in

it

into the

or in sum-

fire,

the heat of the sun, where the colour will

through very fine

of ivory, to preserve

scrape and put this into

from

it

dust, for

little

your use

boxes

it is

ne-

cessary to have to every different colour such a different

wooden

box.

When

the colours are ready, take your crystals

ground exactly

to

(first

upon one another) and make vour

fit

colours and stone of an equal

warmth lay your colour


with a fine hair pencil on the sides of the crystals that are
to be joined together
then clap them against each other
;

nimbly

as

as possible

them

together; let

The

is

it is

fingers close

done.

thought by some ingenious

be best imitated by a fourth part of carmine, with

some of the

The

them with your

and

cool,

colour of the Itubxj

artists to

sia n

press

finest

Sapphire

blue,

crimson lake that can be procured.

may

be counterfeited by very high Prus-

mixed with a

crimson lake, to give

it

little

of the above-mentioned

a tinge of the purple hue.

Let not

the Prussian blue be too deep coloured, or you must use


the less of

it.

otherwise

it

will give a black

shade which

wiil obscure the brilliancy of the doublet.

The Emerald may be


grise,

well imitated by distilled vcrdi-

with a small portion of powdered aloes.

But the

mixture should not be strongly heated, nor kept over the


fire after

by

the verdigrise

is

added, for the colour

is

impaired

it.

The resemblance
gon's blood
brightness,

which,

may

of the Garnet
if it

may

be

made by

cannot be procured of

dra-

sufficient

be helped by a small quantity of carmine.

The

OF DOUBLETS.

The Amethyst

is

Ill

imitated by the mixture

Prussian blue with crimson lake

of some

but the proportions can

only be regulated bv experience, as the parcels of blue and


lake vary so

much

in their hues,

and are of such different

strengths of colours.

The Yellow Topaz may be counterfeited by mixing


powdered aloes with a little dragon's blood, or by good
Spanish anotto but the colour must be sparingly used, or
;

the colour will exceed that of the stone.

The Chrysolite, Hyacinth, Vinegar Garnet, Eagle


Marine, and other such weak and diluted colours, may be
formed and imitated in like manner, only with less proporfor which purpose, those who
tions of the due colours
ingenuity
and
leisure hours in this pursuit,
their
employ
;

should obtain an original stone of each of those

specified,,

keeping his eye perpetually watchful whilst mixing the

When these

colours.

ration

is

precautions are taken, and the ope-

well conducted,

it

is

practicable to

bring the

doublets to so near a resemblance of the true stones, as to

deceive the best judges (when they are well


joint hid) unless inspected in

set, and the


one direction only. The

to

hold them betwixt the light and

the eye, so that the light

may pass through the upper part


when it will be readily perceiv-

direction alluded to

is,

and corners of the stone


ed whether there be any colour in the crystal which cannot be learned by looking down upon the doublet.
;

The Crystal Glue of Milan.

This

is

nothing eise but grains of mastich, squeezed

out of a linen bag by degrees over a charcoai


clear turpentine.

Its

use

is,

to unite

fire, and like


two pieces of crystal

together, to form a doublet, precisely in the

manner be-

fore described.

INSTRUCTIONS

THE LABORATORY.

142

INSTRUCTIONS CONCERNING FOILS, OR METALLIC


LEAVES, WHICH ARE LAID UNDER PRECIOUS
STONES.
It

customary to place thin

is

under precious stones,

and

to give

pale

have

of that colour under

foil

foils,

transparent,

either deep or

colour,

to be of a pale colour,
it

again,

deep, lay a dark one under

it

or leaves of metaf

make them look

them an agreeable
if you want a stone

thus,

put a

to

it

if

you would

besides, as the

transparency of gems discovers the bottom of, the ring

they are set

have found out these means to

artificers

in,

give the stone an additional beauty.

These

foils

are

made

either of copper, or gold, or gold

and silver together we shall fust mention those made of


copper only, which are generally known by the name of
:

Nuremburg

or

German

foils.

Procure the thinnest copper plates you can, the thinner


they are the

them

less trouble

to a finer substance

a well polished
as

possible

two

they will give you in reducing

about

upon

beat these plates gently

with a polished hammer, as thin

but before you go

iron plates,

but no

anvil,

six

about

inches

thicker than writing-paper

this

long,

work, take

and

as wide,

bend them so

as to

between these neal the copper


one on the other
you design to hammer for the foils, to prevent ashes, or
fit

other impurities getting to

shake

the

until cool.

them

until

it

then, taking

them out r

and hammer the copper


Then take your foils to the anvil, and beat
they become very thin, and whilst you beat one
ashes from them,

number, put

in

another between the irons to neal

this

you may repeat eight times, until they are as thin as the
work requires. You must have a pipkin with water at
hand, in which put tartar and salt, of each an equal
boil, and put the foils in, and stir them conquantity
then
tinually, until, by boiling, they become white
wash them in clean water
take them from the fire
;

drv

METALLIC
dry them

H3

FOILS.

and give them another


until they are lit for your

with a clean fine rag,

hammering on the the

anvil,

purpose.

B, Care must be taken in the management of this


work, not to give the foils" too much heat, to prevent their
A'.

melting; neither must they be too long boiled, for fear of

much

attracting too

How
Tkke
about

fix

it

all

and colour

polish

this

some on the

laid

over, lay

your

as bright as a looking-glass

roll,

description

foils

your

lengthwise,

and with a polishthey are

until

foils,

then dry them between a

are coloured

of the oven,

and

and wetted the cop-

it,

and lay them up secure from

shew how these

long,

the greatest

to

then take some whiten,

upon

foils

stone and the whiten, polish

fine rag,

one foot

convex shape,

to a

bench, or table

to a

Foils.

inches wide, polished

bend

and having
per

to

a plate of the best copper,

five or six

perfection

and

salt.

or furnace,

now

I shall

dust.

but shall

give a short

first

requisite for

that

purpose.

The furnace must be but small and round (see plate 4,


and the explanation) about a foot high, and as wide ;
cover the same with a round iron plate, in which is a
round hole, about four inches wide ; upon this furnace
put another without a bottom, of the same dimension

and

as the former,

let

the

crevices of the sides round

about be well closed and luted

The lower

a hole at top.

this

furnace must

furnace must have a

at bottom, about five inches big.

Before this

funnel, like a smoke-funnel to an oven,


to the furnace

also,

have

little

door

fix

and

a sort of

lute

it

close-

then light some charcoal on your hearth,

and when they burn

clear,

and

free

from smoke, convey

them through

the funnel into the furnace,

up so high as

to

fill

half the funnel.

When

till

they

come

every thing

is

ready,

THE LABORATORY.

f44

you have

ready, and
foils in

the following

Lay the

the hole that

the coals

upon

foils
is

may

at

a clear

then begin to colour you?

fire,

manner
a pair of iron tongs

hold them ovey

top of the furnace, so that the fumes of

reverberate over them,

and move them

y and this is
done without any other vapour or smoke. When you
have done with this colour, put it by and if you would
colour others of a sky blue, then put the foils upon the

about

till

they are of a brownish violet colour

tongs as before

and whilst you, with one hand, are hold-

ing the foils over the holes, fling, with the other,

down-feathers of a goose, upon the

live coals in

some

the fun-,

and with a red-hot poker press them down, to drive


smoke of the feathers up through the holes of the
oven, which, by settling upon the foils, gives them a fine
sky colour but you must have your eyes very quick upon
them, and, as soon as you see that they have attracted the
colour you design, take them away from the oven, to prevent their changing to some other colour: if you would
have your foils of a sapphire blue, then first silver them
over; which is done in this manner
Take a little silver and dissolve it in aqua-fortis when
nel,

the

dissolved, put spring water to

it

fling thin bits

of copper

and the water will look troubled, and the silver


pour off that, sweeten
precipitate and hang to the copper
and
let
it
diy
in the sun
fair
water,
with
when
the silver
porphyry
then
take
one
ounce
on
a
of
tardry, grind it
common
salt
mix
and
grind
them
all
tar, and as much of
fling this powder upon
together, till they are well mixed
the thin foils, and rub them with your finger backwards
and forwards, and it will silver them then lay them upon
the polisher, pour water over them, and some of the
powder, and rub it with your thumb till they are as white
polish them with a polisher of
as you would have them
bloud-stone and then holding them over the goose-fea^
into

it,

ther smoke, they will take a line dark blue.

To

METALLIC

To

colour Foils of a

You

must

rected before

Green Colour, for an Emerald.

colour your

first

145

FOILS.

foils

of a sky blue, as di-

then hold them over the smoke-hole, and

below, in the funnel, lay, upon the red-hot iron plate,


leaves of box, from which ascends a smoke that gives the
foils

a green colour

but before they contract that colour

they undergo several changes, as blue, red, and yellow,


&c. wherefore you must hold them till you have the green
colour to your mind.

To

Put

colour Ike Foils of a lluby Colour.

the shearings of scarlet cloth upon the coals, and

holding the

over the smoke-hole, they will contract a

foils

fine red colour.

The Colour of an Amethyst'.

This may be

obtained by proceeding with your

for the blue or sapphire colour

comes,

it

perceive

How

first

this,

Foils are

These

are

their colour.

melt

for,

changes to an amethyst

take

to

them

off,

foils as

before that blue colour


;

as

soon as you

and polish them.

mixed with Copper and other Metals,

be

more difficult to make, but more lasting in


Take one pound and a half of copper, and

two ounces and eleven


pour it into a flat
ingot, and let it cool
this beat and work, as has been
taught, into thin foils
then boi! them in tartar and salt.
These sort of foils will take a fine ruby colour; nor can
that colour be well done without this mixture.
it

in a crucible

fling into this

penny-weights of gold

when

in fusion,

vofc-

I.

Another

THE LABORATORY.

146

Another Way.

Take
and

small-coal dust;

put

it

into a

small-coal dust

when

it is

little

iron oven,

blow it till all the


glow for two hours

in the midst thereof a live charcoal

:
and let this
glown out, add such another quantity
glow for an hour. At the top of your oven

is

nearly

lighted,
all

it, and let it


must be a round or square hole, with a close cover to it,
when
in which hang the foils to some copper or iron wire
your small-coal has glowed for about an hour, take a little
iron bowl, and warm it well
put in it a little quantity of*
fox hair, and then set it upon the small-coal dust shut
the oven door, and open the top this will draw the smoke
through, and give the foils, first, the colour of a ruby, then

to

of an amethyst, and,

lastly,

You may

a sapphire.

out such colours as will serve your purpose

want a green,

let

those

foils

and

take

if

you

hang, and burn sage leaves

the foils turn to a green colour.


Take care to put but
sage
leaves
in
at
time.
few
a
a
To the ruby and hyacinth-colours use pure copper but
for an emerald and sapphire, take one part of gold, two
till

parts of silver,

them

and eight parts of copper

melt, and

work

together.

THE ART OF IMITATING PRECIOUS STONES, OR OF


MAKING ARTIFICIAL GEMS.
This

curious art

is

arrived at such perfection, as to be

capable of imitating precious stones in their

and beauty, equal


to obtain

lustre, colour,

to the natural ones, except in hardness,

which has been, and no doubt

still is,

the endea-

vour of ingenious men.

The

ARTIFICIAL GEMS.

The

of making

aft

rightly imitating the

147

gems, consists chiefly in

artificial

of those that are real

tints

these

must be prepared from such things as resist the fire, and


do not change their colour.
You must therefore take such colours as change not,
when mixt together: therefore, since blue and yellow

make

you must take such blue as shall not hurt


and also such a yellow as
not be detrimental to the blue and so of the other
a green,

when you mix them

the yellow
shall

We shall

colours.

genious

give plain instructions to carry the in-

with ease through his experiments.

artist

The Way of preparing Natural

Take
how

ter

big the pieces are

cible,, to

put

it

with a

lid

fill

caji get,

broader than the mouth of the cru-

prevent the falling of ashes or coals into

on burning coke

into a small furnace,

it

no mata large crucible with them,

you

natural crystal, the clearest

and cover

Crystal.

the crystal

is

thorough hot, cast

Then

ot cold water.

an earthen

plate,

take

and put

it
it

it

it: then
and when

into a pretty large vessel

out of the water, dry

into the

same

it

on

crucible again

and proceed as before, repeating it twelve times


running, and changing each time the water when the crystal easily breaks and crumbles, and is thoroughly white, it

cover

it,

a sign that

is

it

is

calcined enough

if

there appear any

black parts in the veins, break off the white, and put these
again into the furnace, and proceed therewith as before,
till

only the white remain behind.

After you have dried this calcined crystal thoroughly,


grind

it

to

and

sift it

tal,

as

it

an impalpable powder, on a marble or porphyry,

through a lawn sieve.


is

used for

ail artificial

Of

this powder of crysgems of which we shah

it will be proper to have a sufficient quantity by you,


have recourse to when at work and if you would succeed in this art, you must not use ordinary frit of crystal,

treat,

to

l 2

be.

TH LABORATORY.

143

be

it

ever so good

to, the lustre or

beauty of natural

To

At Harlem
very

produced by
is

crystal.

counterfeit an Opal.

make

they

counterfeit opal glass,

which

is

and whose several colours are supposed to be

lively,

position

come up

for that will not answer, or

When

different degrees of heat.

thoroughly melted, some of

it,

the com-

taken out on the

point of an iron rod, being cooled, either in the air or


water,

the

is

colourless

and

pellucid, but being put again into

mouth of the furnace upon the same

round

for a

little

rod, and turned

time, acquires such various positions, as

that the light falling on

them being

variously modified, re-

presents the several colours observable in the true opal.


it is remarkable that these colours may be destroyed,
and restored again by different degrees of heat.

And

To make

Take

a fair

Emerald.

of natural crystal four ounces, of red-lead four

ounces, verdigrise forty-eight grains,

crocus martis, pre-

pared with vinegar, eight grains

the whole be finely

pulverized and sifted

let

put this together in a crucible, leav-

empty lute it well, and put it into a potter's


where they bake their earthen ware, and let it

ing one inch


furnace,

When

stand there as long as thev do their pots.

cold,

break the crucible, and you will find a matter of a fine

emerald colour, which,

after

it is

cut and set in gold, will

equal in beauty an oriental emerald.

matter

is

If

you find that your

not refined or purified enough, put

second time, in the same furnace, and in

it

again, the

lifting off

the

you may then break


the crucible, but not before for if you should put the
matter into another crucible, the paste would be cloudy
and full of blisters. If you cannot come to a potter'scover you will see the matter shining

furnace.

ARTIFICIAL GEMS.
you
which you

furnace,
in

may build one yourself at a


may put tvyenty crucibles at

149
small expencex*,

once, each with

a different colour, and one baking will produce a great

Heat your furnace with hard


and dry wood, and keep your matter in fusion twenty-four
hours, which time it will require to be thoroughly puriand if you let it stand four or six hours longer, it will
fied
variety of artificial gems.

not be the worse for

it.

A
Take

deeper Emerald.

one opnce of natural

half of red lead,

seventy-five

grains of crocus martis,

ounces and a

crystal, six

grains of verdigrise,

made with

vinegar

ten

proceed as

Or,

directed before.

Take prepared crystal two ounces, red led seven ounces,


eighteen grains, crocus martis ten grains, and

verdigrise

proceed as before directed.

To make

The

a Paste for imitating an Oriental Topaz.

colour of this stone

or rhubarb

to imitate

it,

is

like

water tinged with saffron

take of prepared natural crystal

one ounce, of red lead seven ounces, finely powdered and


sifted
mix the whole well together, and put it into a cru;

cible,

not quite

full

by an

inch, lest the matter should run

over, or stick to the cover of the crucible in rising

proceed as directed above.

then

Or,

Take prepared
ounces

<es

sifted), four

crystal two ounces, native cinnabar two


uslum two ounces (all finely pulverized and

times as

much calcined

into a crucible well covered,

'

tin; put

and proceed

it all

Tlje reverberating furnace, which belongs to the

able furnaces, will do for one crucible at a time.

together

as before.

common

port-

Ed.

To

THE LABORATORY.

150

To make an
This
of gold

stone

is

of a green colour, and some have the cast

to imitate

Artificial Chrysolite.

it,

take natural crystal prepared two

ounces, red lead eight ounces, crocus martis twelve grains;'

mix the whole


leaving

it

To
This

and proceed

finely together,

little

counterfeit a Beryl, or

stone

is

as before, only

longer than ordinary in the furnace.

Aqua Marina.

of a bluish sea-green: to imitate

take

it,

two ounces of natural crystal prepared, five ounces of red


lead,, twenty-one grains of zafFre prepared
(the whole
finely pulverized)
put them in a crucible, and cover and
lute it
then proceed as directed above, and you will have
;

a beautiful colour.

A
A
is

sapphire

is

Sapphire Colour.

generally of a verv clear sky-colour, and

highly esteemed for

its

beauty.

whitish colour, like diamonds

some, of a

To make

will

are

some of a
;

and

violet.

this paste, take

of prepared rock crystal two

ounces, red lead four ounces and a


grains

There

others, of a full blue

half,

smalt twenty-six

pulverize and proceed as directed.

come near

This colour

to a violet.

Another, more beautiful, and nearer the Oriental.

Take

two ounces of natural

crystal prepared, six ounces

of red lead, two scruples of prepared

of prepared manganese

(all

zafFre,

and

six grains

reduced to a fine powder)

mix, and proceed as before.

Another

ARTIFICIAL GEMS.

151

Another\ deeper coloured Sapphire.

Of

prepared natural crystal take two ounces, red lead

prepared zaffre 42 grains, prepared manganese

live ounces,

eight grains

the whole reduced to an impalpable powder,

and mixed together proceed as you have been directed,


and you will have a colour deeper than the former, tending
;

io a violet.

To make a Paste for an Oriental Garnet,

A garnet

much

is

to the sun, exhibit a

red and yellow

and

like a carbuncle

both, if exposed

colour like burning coals, between


this

is

the true colour of

To

fire.

imitate this stone, take two ounces of natural crystal pre-

pared, and six ounces of red lead, also 16 grains of pre-

pared manganese, and two grains of prepared


verize and

mix the whole

put

it

zaffre, pul-

into a crucible,

and pro-

ceed as directed.

Another, deeper Garnet.

Of
five

natural crystal prepared take

ounces and a

half,

two ounces, red lead

prepared manganese

5 grains

pul-

verize alL and proceed as before directed.

ANOTHER PROCESS FOR COUNTERFEITING OF


PRECIOUS STONES.

Take of black flint stones what quantity you please ;


put them into a pail of hot water, and, being wet, put
them

into a hot furnace, (this will prevent their flying into

small

152
small pieces

;)

before you put

or

THE LABORATORY.
else warm them thoroughly by

them

they are thoroughly red hot, quench them

and they

will look

degrees,

When you see

into the furnace.

of a fine white colour

in

fair

that

water,

dry and pulve-

you may do in an iron mortar, but, as the powder may contract some of the iron,
it will be proper, after you have taken it out, to pour
on it some muriatic acid, which will clear it of the iron,
and disengage it from impurities wash it in several clean

them very

rize

fine

this

hot waters, afterwards.

Powder, thus prepared,

to

fit

is

be used for making

the finest glass, and for imitating the clearest and most
transparent gems, especially those that require the lustre

of a diamond or ruby

as for a sapphire, emerald, topaz,

chrvsolite, amethyst, &c. your labour with the acid

may

be saved, if your mortar be bright and free from rust.


Such as have a mortar of porphyry, or such like stone,
have no occasion

to use

an iron one, but

will save

them-

selves a great deal of trouble.


If

you cannot get black

yourself with pebble

but

you may content


makes

stones,

flint

flint is far

preferable, and

made of

the glass of a harder substance than that

An
Qf
two

the above

parts,

Of

the

four parts.

Of
salt

the

approved Composition.

flint

powder take three

borax and arsenic one


flint

powder three

parts, refined nitre

part.

Or,

and borax

parts, nitre two,

Or,
flint

powder two

parts,

of refined pot-ash, or

of tartar and borax, of each one. part-

Take of flint powder seven


ash five parts.
Flint

pebble.

powder

parts

and a

Or,

half, purified pot-

Or,
six

parts

and an half;

half; borax one half; arsenic

nitre

one half; and

two and a
tartar one

part.

To

ARTIFICIAL GEMS.

To

and how
;
your Work.

melt these Compositions

153

tinge

to

and finish

Take

any one of the above specified compositions, and


weigh what quantity you please, (one or two ounces) then
mix it with the colour you design to have it of ; for
;

Instance,

To make

Take,
zaffre

to

one ounce of the composition, four grains of

mix well

together, and melt in a crucible

find the colour to

may make

a Sapphire.

your

liking,

proceed to

finish

may make

you

You

and

it is

the

practitioner in

experiments in small crucibles, in order

to acquaint himself with the nature of


I

if

a sapphire either deeper or paler, according to

what quantity you take of each ingredient


same with respect to other colours. A new
this art

it.

it.

have already given receipts of most colours for imi-

tating precious stones

down some

but, nevertheless, I shall here lay

experimental rules necessary to be observed-

Know then

that crocus martis

may

ways, and each will have a particular


crystals

one

is

be prepared different
effect in colouring

of

prepared with vinegar, another with sul-

phur, a third with aqua-fortis, and a fourth by only a rever-

beratory

fire.

To prepare

Crocus Martis with Vinegar.

Take iron, or, which is better, steel filings moisten and


mix them up with good strong vinegar, in an earthen dish,
or pan
after which, spread them, and let them dry in
the sun when dry, beat them fine in a mortar moisten
this powder with fresh vinegar, and dry and beat it again,
;

^s before

repeat this eight times running

afterwards, dry

and

THE LABORATORY.

154
and

sift

through a fine hair sieve, and

it

colour of brick-dust

crimson colour.
it

from

Put

but

when mixt with

this

powder up

will

be of the

glass,

of a fine

it

carefully, to preserve

dust.

To prepare Crocus Martis with Sulphur.

Take

parts;

iron, or steel

mix them

caver and lute


give

it

a strong

it

then shake

well

furnace
it

let

it

set

it

when

this

and place the same

it,

them

cold, pulverize

powder put
in the eye,

Moisten some

dry, grind

with fresh aqua-fortis


it

safe

from

it
;

several times,

then grind and

it

a crucible

or hole, of a glass

this is a

glass.

with Aqua-Fortis.

sift it

set

to a fine

dry
till

it,

it

to dry in the sun, or

powder

;'

moisten

it

again

and proceed as before,

you see

it

re-

of a high red colour

through a fine hair sieve, and lay

it

up

dust.

To prepare Crocus Martis by a

Take

sift

iron, or steel filings, in a glazed earthen

plate, cr dish, with aqua-fortis

peating

into

and

powder, inclining to purple

To prepare Crocus Martis

when

and

into a wind-furnace,

very useful ingredient for tinging of

sulphur three

stand there for fourteen days or more, and

will turn to a red

air

into a crucible

with charcoal, for four hours together

fire,

through a fine sieve


lute

then

out, and,

it

one part

filings,

together, and put

clean iron, or steel

pot, or pan,

reverberator^/ Fire.

filings,

and put

it

into a large

about the quantity of an inch high

cover

it

and put it into a reverberatory furnace, or any other


place where it may be surrounded with a strong heat and
flame the iron will swell and rise in a fine red powder, so
as to fill the pot, and even force up the lid
take off this
powder,
well,

ARTIFICIAL GEMS.

155

powder, and you will rind a good quantity of iron, caked


together at the bottom, which put again into the furnace,

where

it

will swell

and

powder

rise into a

as before

continue until you have a sufficient quantity.

most

and of great use

valuable, crocus,

This

in the

art

tliis

is

the

of co-

louring or tinging of glass for counterfeiting of precious


stones.

To make

Take

of crocus

a fine Hyacinth.

martis,

or of that iron

powder pre-

pared by reverberation, eight or ten grains to one ounce of


the composition.

The Opal
This
mix

it

is

by

pitated

made of

common

silv&r dissolved in
salt

add

to

it

aqua-fortis, preci-

some

up with the above composition

it

load-stone, and
gives divers co-

lours, so as to represent a natural opal.

Of
Such

as

v/ill

Chystal.

save themselves the trouble of preparing

the composition for counterfeiting precious stones,


fine crystal or Venice glass, beat in a clean

powder
fined

of

nitre

this

little

which mixture you may melt and

trouble.

Bartholomew Korndorfer's
mond of

Take

trie

best

large or small,
it

in a crucible,

use

take eight ounces, borax two ounces, re-

one ounce

colour, with

may

mortar to a fine

so

polished
it

Secret

to

make a Dia-

a natural Crystal.

is

crystal,

no matter whether

but clear and transparent

with three times as

sulphur of gold, so that the crystal

much

of

my

may be covered

all

put

fixed

over

with

THE LABORATORY,

156

you have put a lid over it, and luted the


crucible well, let it for three days and nights neal in a strong
then take it out and quench it in spring water, in
fire
which red hot steel is quenched forty-six times running,
and you will have a diamond which resembles a natural one
in every respect., and is right and good.
with

then, after

it;

Thus

Korndorffer, but as to his sulphur he has

far

left

us in the dark.

Hcrx

We
this

make

to

used to

manner

Diamond out of a Sapphire, according


Porta's Description.

to

make it, (the diamond) the surest way, in


we filled an earthen pipkin, or crucible, with

quick-lime, and laid the sapphire in the midst thereof, co-

vering
ing

it first

with a

them gently

too much,

it

tile,

until

may

we

whether

let
it

the

a clear fire

all

over, blow-

for if

bloAvn

it is

occasion the breaking of the stone.

When we thought
lour,

and then with coals

we had

fire

that the sapphire

go out of

was turned white

in the crucible, in order to let

itself,

if so,
it

had changed

and took
then we

cool with the

it

laid

fire

co-

its

out to see

it

again

but

if il

had not the right colour, then we augmented the heat again
as before, and looked often to sec whether the force of the
fire had taken away all the colour, which was done in about
if then the blue colour was not quite
five or six hours
gone, we began our operation afresh, until it Was white
and clear. It is to be observed, that the heat of the fire,
in the beginning of the operation, must increase by slow
degrees, and also in the same manner decrease
for if the
stone comes either too suddenly into the heat, or from the
;

heat into the cold,


In like manner
lour,

some

it is

all

apt to turn dark, or

fly to pieces.

other precious stones lose their co-

sooner' than others, according as they are ei-

ther harder or softer.

The amethyst

is

very

light,

and

re-

quires

ARTIFICIAL GEMSi
quires but a slow

for if

fire,

it

has too

15T

much

heat,

it

be-

dark, or turns to a chalky appearance.

comes

This is the art whereby inferior precious stones are


changed into diamonds they are afterwards cut in the
and hence become a semiddle, and a colour given them
;

cond

sort of false

diamonds, or doublets.

To make

a fine Amethyst.

Take calcined flint-stone, and sift it through cambric,


whereof take three quarters of an ounce of fixed nitre,
one quarter of an ounce of borax three quarters of an
ounce manganese one quarter of an ounce then add
fixed * nitre and borax, well mixed, to it
put it in a
;

wind furnace give it at first a gentle heat


until it is red hot, and thus keep it for a quarter of an hour
then give it a strong fire for two or three hours at last pour
it into a mould, and let it cool by
degrees, to prevent its
crucible into a

flying asunder.

To make a Ruby,

Take

acid of vitriol one ounce,

weight of water
steel

or a fine Hyacinth.

and mix with the same

in this dissolve filings, or very thin beaten

set the glass

then

on warm sand

the solution be-

filtrate

and it will shoot into


put it under a muffle, and stir it
crystals, which pulverize
then take it off the
until you see it of a crimson colour
fire, put it in a phial, pour on it good distilled vinegar, and
fore

it is

cold

set

it

in a cellar,

after

it

has stood four days in a gentle warmth, pour off

that vinegar, and pour fresh to

days more

make no

this

extraction

* Fixed nitre

is

it,

and

let

repeat until the vinegar


;

is

then pour off the

it

stand four

observed to
vinegar,

and

no other than purified pot-ash, the acid of the


by charcoal, in the process of deto-

nitre being set at liberty

nation.

Ecf,

there

THE LABORATORY.

158

there will remain at the bottom of your phial a crimson*

coloured powder

This

is

sweeten

with

this well

warm

water.

the tincture-powder for the ruby orhyacinthf.

Then

take black

flints

calcine

them

well, as has

been

already directed, in order to bring them to a white powder,

and

sift this

through cambric

of each half an ounce,

take thereof, and of borax,

and of the

aforesaid tincture-

and mix weil together in a


crucible, and give it, for half an hour, a gentle fire: "augment it by degrees, until you see your mixture in the cruthen
cible as clear as crystal, and of a crimson colour
pour into a mould of what shape you would have it.

powder

eight or nine grains

Another Artificial Ruby.

Brasilia^ topazes, of a smoky appearance, may be


made into rubies by giving them a gradual heat

artificially

in a crucible filled with ashes,

To make

Take
I.

e.

till it

Ruby

prepared powdered

flint

Balass.

three ounces, fixed nitre,

one quarter of an ounce borax three


some of the above-mentioned tincture-powder

purified pot-ash,

grains

of copper and iron fifty-four grains


nese

five

crucible

melt

be red-hot.

grains

give

it,

then give

cool of

it

mix

together,

all

a gentle

at first,

a strong

fire,

for

of prepared manga-

and put
fire,

till

it

it

into a

new

begins to

two hours, and

let it

itself.

To harden Bohemian Diamonds.

Take
powder

it

black lead two ounces, golden talc two ounces,


line,

and mix

f This

is

it

well together

then take off this

no other than crocus martis.

Ed.

mixture,

ARTIFICIAL GEMS.
mixture, put

new

into a

it

upon

place the said diamonds

touch one another

them

as will

full,

and

that powder, so as not to

then put of the powder as

the crucible

fill

159

crucible, about half

cover and lute

it,

much upon
and

set

it

in

a cupel with ashes, so as to have the ashes a hand's breadth

about the crucible

then give

it

a slow

fire,

and augment

the heat by degrees, in order to preserve the stones from

breaking, until the cupel which holds your crucible begins

be red hot; continue

to
let

it

will find

thus for forty-eight hours, then

it

and take the stones out of the crucible, and you

cool,

them look black

polish

them with ashes of

tin

not only have contracted a tolerable hardness, but

they

will

have

also a fine lustre,

much resembling natural diamonds.

Plain Directions for polishing these Counterfeits, and

also

natural Gems.

It is to be observed that all glass, or artificial stones, may


be cut and polished after one method, namely, bv strewing
fine

powdered emery upon a leaden

holding the stone firm, grinding

you
If

plate with water, and,


in

what form or shape

please.

you

ground

fling

tripoli,

pewter plate, and add a


it

it

little

mixed with water, upon a


copper ashes amongst it,

have the same effect.


Pulverized antimony strewed upon a smooth plate of

will

and vinegar, polishes not only glass,


and amethysts, but all other natural stones, except the diamond.
The diamond is only
cut with the diamond powder itself.
Any such diamonds
lead, with tripoli
crystal, garnets,

agates,

as can be touched by emery, lead, copper, or other


tals,

are false

and

this

is

good

test for

knowing a

mereal

diamond.
All other precious
cut,

and hard stones

with metal and emery

may be

but the

ground, or

polishing

is

dif-

ferent.

The

THE LABORATORY.

160

The

sapphire

is,

next to the diamond, the hardest

<

it

may

be polished best with antimony and vinegar, or lead, or


with calcined flint-stone and water, upon copper.

The ruby is polished like the sapphire.


The emerald and turquoise are polished with potter's clay
and water, on pear-tree wood or with tripoli, upon wood
;

or with emery, upon pewter.

The

beryl

is

polished with calcined mother-of-pearl, or

calcined muscle-shells,

upon a board covered with white

leather.

A balass is
The
with

polished with antimony upon copper.

upon tin
upon pear-tree wood

cornelian, onyx, agate, and jasper,

tripoli,

or calcined

flint,

or

or

with antimony upon lead.

The

amethyst, topaz, turquoise, and other soft stones,

upon a board of lime-tree wood, upon a plate


and upon a board with leather. First polish it, top
and bottom, upon the wood the small diamond cuts are
done upon the plate of tin, and receive the last polishing
upon the board that is covered with leather, with the following powder
are polished

of

tin,

A
Take
and

let

Powder for polishing

iron scales, and

them stand thus

soft Stones.

mix them with vinegar and

salt,

infused for three or four days,

then grind the mixture very fine


and put it in an earthen pot well luted give it a
good fire, and it will be fit for use*.
the longer the better

dry

* This
is

it,

is

simply a crocus, and therefore ordinary crocus martl?


Ed.

equally as good-

FART

.RT OF

MAKING

PART

OLASSo

l(l

IV,

THE

ART OF MAKING GLASS;


7HE ART OF PAINTING, AND MAKING IMPRESSIONS UPOV
GLASS, AND OF LAYING THEREON GOLD OR SILVER; TOGETHER WITH THE METHOD OF FREPARING THE COLOUR*
FOR rOTTERS-WORK, OR DELFT-WARE.

Of

GLASS

is

Glass.

a transparent,

duced from sand,

brittle,

flints,

factitious

alkaline salts, lead, slags,

&c. by the melting heat of a very strong


period the art of glass-making was
ther uncertain.

Some suppose

before the flood,

though they

body, pro-

it

first

to

lire.

invented

At what
is

altoge-

have been invented

but of this they can give no proof;.

rightly conjecture, that the vitrification

of the

and furnaces gave the first hint towards


glass-making, which in all probability happened as soon as
To those who are curious in forming
fire was discovered.
bricks of fire places

ppinions on this subject,

we recommend them

to Neri's

Art of Glass, with Dr. Merret's notes and improvements


,voj>. I.

and

THE LABORATORY.
now proceed to a branch of much more

162

and we

shall

real

utility.

Glass

is

so extremely elastic, that if the force with

glass balls strike

which they recede by

When

nearly 15.

which

each other be reckoned 16, that with


virtue of
is

it

their elasticity will

suddenly cooled,

be

becomes

it

which is oftentimes attended with surprising


Hollow
balls made of annealed glass, with
phenomena.
a small hole in them, will fly to pieces by the heat of the
hand only, if the hole by which the internal and external
highly

brittle,

Lately,
communicate be stopped with the finger.
balls have been found out to resist very
smart strokes of a hammer, although they are easily
shivered in pieces by the fall of very minute and light
bodies falling into their cavities. These glasses may be
made of any shape all that is to be observed is, that their
bottoms be made thicker than their sides. These experiments were made before the Royal Society, by whose
members various reasons have been assigned. Glass ap
air

however, such

pears
tallic

'#
t

the

more

fit

for the condensation

An open

substances are.

summer

of vapours than

glass filled

me-

with water, in

time, will gather drops of water on the put-

side, just as far as the

water in the inside reaches

person's breath blown on

it,

manifestly, moistens

it.

and a
Glass

becomes moist with dew, which metals do" not. A


drinking glass filled with water, and rubbed on the brim
also

with a wet finger, yields musical notes, higher or lower as


and will make the liquor
is more or less full

the glass
frisk

and

leap.

Glass

is

moreover possessed of great

elec-

trical virtues.

Materials of Glass.

It has been stated that glass is made of sand, flints, &c.


&c. but there are various saline matters which Ought to
be particularly mentioned, Pokerinc or rochctta is procured
;

ART OF MAKING GLASS.


cured from the Levant, and

which

kali,

cut

is

down

is

163

prepared from a plant called

in the

summer, dried

in the sun,

on the open ground, or on iron


the ashes falling into a pit, grow into a hard mass,
grates
Kelp, which grows
tit for use when it has been purified.
and burnt

in heaps, either

on our sea

and the ashes of the fucus vesiculosus,


Pearl-ash, and pot-ash, both of

coasts,

a similar

furnish

salt.

which are procured from vegetable matters, are purified,


so also is nitre and borax,
in glass-making

and employed

Other

soda.

of

more

glass,

soft,

In general

6rc.

it

may be

observed,

metallic preparations enter the composition

much

so

called

fluxes are used, such as calcined lead, arse-

nic, smith's clinkers,

that the

of Spain,

the purified barilla

occasionally,

and,

and coloured

the
it

more dense, ponderous,

will be.

fusible,

Besides the above materials,

employ a stone called tarso, which is in fact the


body of the glass, and similar to sand, except that being
of larger dimensions it may be picked and selected, so as
At
to preserve a clearer and more transparent crystal.
Venice they use a sort of pebble, found in the river Tethe artists

and indeed
would furnish as

resembling white marble, called cuogolo

sino,

many

of our

own

good materials

clear streams in Britain

any parts of the world, if we were at


Lynn, in Norfolk, and
Kent, produce the white sand for crystal
as

the pains of searching for them.

Maidstone,
glass

in

and Woolwich affords the coarser sand

for green

glass.

To prepare Ashes for making

Take what

Glass.

and what sort of wood-ashes you


have a tub ready with a spigot
and faucet towards the bottom, and in this tub put a laver
of straw, and fling your ashes on it then pour water upon
them, and let the ashes soak thoroughly until the water

will,

quantity,

except those of oak

stands above

them

let it

thus continue over night

then

draw

THE LABORATORY,

164

draw out the


under the

pour

it

faucet and receive the lye in another tub, put

first

for this purpose

if

again on the ashes, and

clear and

is

the lye looks troubled,

let it settle until in

of an amber colour.

This

runs

put

clarified lye

on the ashes let this also stand


over night then draw it off, and you will have a weak lye,
which, instead of water, pour upon fresh ashes the remaining ashes are of use in the manuring cf land.
After you have made a sufficient quantity of lye, pour
by, and pour fresh water

it

bricked up like a brewing, or

into an iron cauldron,

washing, copper
full.

On

with lye

but

let it

not be

filled

above three parts

the top of the brick-work place a


to-.vards the

put a small faucet

little

barrel

bottom of which bore a hole, and


the lye run gently into the

in, to let

cauldron, in a stream about the roundness of a straw

but

you must manage according to the quantity of lye, for


you ought to mind how much the lye evaporates, and
this

make

the lye in the barrel run proportionally to supply

that diminution.

run over in the

some

Care must be taken that the lye do not


but if you find it will, put
boiling

first

cold lye to

it,

and slacken the

lye boil gently to a dry salt

when

fire,

and

let all

this salt is cold,

the

break

it,

and put it into the calcar (see the next article) and raise
your fire by degrees until the salt is red hot, y et so as not
to melt it.
If you think it calcined enough, take out a
piece and let it cool then break it in two, and if it h
thoroughly white, it is done enough but if there remains
a blackness in the middle it must be put in the calcar again,
until it comes out thoroughly white.
If you will have it
still finer, you must dissolve it again,
filtrate it, boil it,
and calcine it as before the oftner this is repeated the
more will the salt be cleared from the earthy particles
and it may be made as clear as crystal, and as white as
snow.
Of this may be made the finest glass possible.
"According to M. Merret, the best ashes in England are
!-:::.'. frcm thistle?,
and hop-stalks, after the hops are
r

gathered

ART OF MAKING
gathered

and among

165

GLASS.

mulberry

trees, the

reckoned to

is

afford the best salt.

The most
yield better,

thorny and prickly plants are observed to


and more salt than others ; also all herbs that

Tobacco stalks,
wormwood, &c.
and it is
produce likewise plenty of salt
observed that fern ashes yield more salt than any other
as hops,

are bitter,

when

burnt,

ashes.

Description of a Calcdr.

In glass-making, the name of calcar is given to a small


oven or reverberatory furnace in which the first calcination of sand and salt of pot-ash is made, for the purpose of

them into frit. This furnace is fashioned much


manner of an ordinary baker's oven, ten feet long,

turning

after the

seven feet broad in the widest part, and two feet deep.

On

one

from

side of

which

part of

at the

it

it is

is

a trench six inches square, the upper

level with the calcar,

mouth by

and separated only

bricks nine inches wide.

trench they put sea-coal, the flame of which

this

ried into every part of the furnace,

from the roof upon the

and

it is

car-

reverberated

or other materials put within

frit,

over the surface of which the smoke

it,

Into

is

flies

very black,

and goes out at the mouth of the calcar: the coals are
placed on iron bars, laid in the trench; and the ashes
fall

through.

Another Method of preparing Ashes.

Take

pot-ash

stir

and

boil

it

In plenty of river or rain-water

and

settle

an iron kettle

beat

into pieces,

solve

it

let

it

earthen vessei,

stand over night

the next day pour off the clear liquor

this in
it

in a clean
;

until

and put
again in clear wat^r

it

becomes a hard mass

it
;

and

boil

it

boil

then

in a calcar to calcine

filtrate,

dis-

as before;

and

THE LABORATORY.

166

and the oftener you repeat it, the clearer and finer will be
your glass but if it is for coloured glass, once or twice
:

doing

will

it

be

sufficient.

To make

Take

white silver sand

impurities from

Of

it,

and

it

will

be

fit

colour you please.

If

it

it is

pared

melting the clearer will

with, or to tinge with

Before you work

it,

what

add forty pounds


Or,

it.

above, sixty pounds

ashes, prepared as

silver

thirty

then set them in the

of lead and half a pound of manganese to

Take

it.

stands for two days and two

work

to

the

all

and of prepared ashes

the longer

the glass be made.

and separate

it,

dry, or, rather, calcine

it

mix them well together

melting furnace

nights,

w^sh

,-

let

sixtv pounds,

this take

pounds

the Glass Frit.

of pre-

sand one handred and sixty pounds, arsenic

four pounds, white lead two pounds, clear dry nitre ten

pounds, borax two pounds

mix

all

proceed as has been directed, and you


ful crystal.

well
will

together,

and

have a beauti-

Or,

Take prepared

sand twenty pounds, clear and drv

silver

six pounds, arsenic eight pounds


mix these well together, and put them into fusion for fouldays
then add two pounds of manganese, and four
pounds of borax. Or,

nitre thirty

pounds, borax

Take prepared

silver

sand thirty-eight pounds, prepared

ashes twenty-five pounds,

arsenic one pound, nitre

pounds, antimony and borax four pounds.

Of

prepared

sand take forty pounds,

two

Or,
nitre

thirteen

pounds, arsenic and borax

pounds and
Or,
about one pound and a half.
pounds,
ashes
ten
Prepared silver sand

six

pounds,

pounds, nitre four pounds, lime

six

pounds, bo-

a half, tartar six

tar three

rax one pound.

But of

this,

more

tar-

hereafter will be said.

Description

ART OF MAKING GLASS.

167

Descriptioji of a Glass-furnace.

The

ordinary working furnace,

blowing of
yards high
it

glass,
;

is

or in these progressive proportions,

be built larger or smaller.

each of which

is

brisk fire,

It is

The lower part


made in that form.

is

which

is

whether

divided into three parts,

vaulted.

called the crozen, and

keep a

making and

for the

round, three yards diameter and two

properly

is

Its

use

is -to

The mouth

never put out.

is

There are several holes in the arch of


crown, through which the flame passes into another

called the bocca.


this

vault or partition,

and reverberates into the pots

Round

the proper ingredients.

filled

with

the insides are eight or

more pots placed, with pots piled again on them in short,


number of pots is double that of the boccas or mouths,
or of the number of workmen, that each man may have
one pot refined to work out of whilst the other is getting
ready.
Through the working holes the melted glass, cal;

the

led the metal,

is

taken out of the pots, and the pots are

put into the furnace through the same

stopped with moveable covers

these holes are

made of

brick luted,

screen the workmen's eves from the scorching flames.

each side of the bocca,

is

a smaller hole, or boccarella,

out of which coloured glass, or finer metal,


the upper,
there

is

or piling pots.

a third

yards long,

cooled

this

oven,

Above

which the flame


tower has two mouths,
in with a fork, and set
are drawn out on iron

taken from

about

oven

or

five

or six

vessels of glass are annealed or

part consists of a tower,

into

is

this furnace

called a leer,

where the

to

On

besides the leer,

The

ascends from the furnace.

through which the glasses are put

on the

floor or

bottom

but they

pans, called fraclies, through the

leer, to cool gradually, so that they are cold bv the time


they reach the mouth of the leer which enters the room

where the

glasses are to

be stowed, called the

sarosel.

ojeen-

THE LABORATORY.

168

green-glass furnace

is

square

and

at

each angle

it

has an arch for annealing or cooling glasses, or bottles.

The metal

is

wrought on two opposite

sides,

and on the

other two they have their colours, into which are


linnet holes for the fire to

the

frit,

and

come from

to discharge the

made

the furnace to bake

smoke.

Fires are

made

in

the arches to anneal the work, so that the whole proces*


is

done

in one furnace.
These furnaces must not be of

brick, but of hard

sandy

In France, they build the outside of brick

stones.

the inner part, to bear the


ler's earth,

fire,

is

made

or tobacco-pipe clay, of

which they

also

In Britain the pots are usually

their melting-pots.

of a sort of

and
ful-

make
made

of Stourbridge clay.
It is

work in this ait is the


worn out or cracked.
the great working hole must be uncovered

observed, that the roughest

changing the pots


In this case,

when they

are

the faulty pot must be taken out with iron hooks and
forks, arid a

new one must be

through the flames

speedily put in

(for glass-furnaces

its

place,

are always kept

by the hands only.


In doing this, the man
guards himself with a garment made of skins, in the shape
of a pantaloon, that covers him all but his eyes, and is
thoroughly wetted all over: his eyes arc defended by proSee plate 5.
per shaped glasses, of a green colour.
burning)

smaller Furnace, for Glass, and other Experiments.

Your

furnace must be built according to the situation

room, about a yard square at the


bottom leave a hole, A, lig. 1. plate 6. which is the receiver of the ashes, and also the drawer of the wind to
the lire, which you may make as fierce as you will, by exB, is an iron
posing it more or less to the open air.
grate, which is about a quarter and a half above the hole
tnd dimension of your

C, are

AR.T OF

MAKING

GLASS.

C, are holes over the grate, wherein


over the grate

is

169

you put the

fuel

wherein the flames draw

a bricked vault,

through the hole D, in the upper vault E.

two or more holes, through which you put the


you may make one on each side, and make
crucibles in
cakes of such clay as the glass makers use, to set them
F, are

before the holes, and by this

which sometimes may


vault, and give them a little
G, is a hole in the upper

means

mitigate the flames,

strike too fierce

upon the upper

vent.

vault, which may be covered


and uncovered as much as you will, and the flame may
either go strait through the funnel H, which at the top is
provided with the cover I, and which, on such occasions,
must be taken off; or else, in putting on the cover I, you
may convey a reverberatory fire through the funnel K,

into another

little

reverberatory furnace,

which

will

be

very useful for calcining and preparing several materials,


as

may happen to be
The inside of this

used.

furnace must be lined smooth, with


such potters clay as the glass-makers use, and two or three
And having finished it according to this
inches thick.

you may place a good many crucibles in at a


making the holes through which you convey your

direction,

time,
larger

crucibles

higher,

so that

the rim

of the cruci-

may come even with the bottom of the hole, and


you may easily convey a ladle, spatula, or any thing else

ble

through them.

This furnace

is

the most compendious and

useful that can be contrived for a novice in

glass-making.

Fig.

2.

plate C,

is

the art of

the appearance of the

outside.

Instruments for making of Glass.

The

absolutely necessary instruments in the art of ^lass-

making may be reduced to the following a blow-pipe,


made of iron, about two feet and a half long, with a
:

wooden

THE LABORATORY.

170

wooden

An

handle.

Sars to cut the glass

iron rod to take

up the

glass,

Scis-

and shears for the larger-shaped

glass

An iron ladle, with the end of the handle cased


with wood, to take the metal out of the refining pot and
vessels.

workmen's pots. A smaller iron ladle, cased


same manner, to skim the salt which swims at top.
Shovels
one like a peel, to take up the glasses another
like a fire-shovel, to feed the fire with coals.
A hooked

put

into the

it

in the

iron fork, to
for the

the matter in the pots.

stir

same purpose, and

to

the

stir

frit.

An iron rake,
An iron fork,

to change or pull the pots out of the furnace, &c.

Of

There

the Sorts of Glass.

three principal kinds of glasses,

are

distin-

guished by the form or manner of working them,

Round

such as

glass,

Window, or Table

phials,

viz.

&c.

drinking-glasses,

I.

2.

which there are divers kinds,

glass, of

such as crown-glass, jealous-glass,

&c.

3.

Plate-glass,

for mirrors, &c.

Compositions for White and Crystal Glass.

To make oysfal-glass,
ed small, and
of the

salt

mix them

the

heating

first

and keep

that they

two hundred pounds

of polverine one hundred and thirty pounds

together, and put

the calcar,
fire,

take of the whitest tarso, pound-

sifted as fine as flour,

may

into the furnace called

For an hour keep a moderate

it.

stirring the

them

materials with a proper rake,

incorporate and calcine together

fire for five

hours

after

increasing

which the matter is taken

being sufficiently calcined, and

is

called frit.

remove

it

cover

it

up from

make

the crvstal glass, take of the above crystal

After

out,
this,

immediately from the calcar to a dry place, and

also bollito,

and

dust, for three or four

set

it

months.

Now.
frit,

to

called

in the melting pots in the furnace,

adding

ART OF MAKING GLASS.


adding to

manganese

a due quantity of

it

Ill

when

are fused, cast the flour into fair water, to clear


salt called
tal

the two

of the
sandher, which would otherwise make the crys-

This washing must be repeated

obscure and cloudy.

again and again,

the crystal be fully purged

till

scum may be taken

it

Now

off by proper ladles.

or this

set

it

to

which being finished, see


and if it be yet
whether it have manganese enough
greenish, add more manganese, at discretion, by little and
boil for four, five,

or six days

little at

a time, taking care not to over dose

will incline

come of

it

Let

to a blackish hue.

a shining

hue

which done,

it

it,

because

clarify,

it is fit

to

it

and bebe used,

and blown into vessels of anv kind.

Compositions for Flint Glass.

Flint Glass, as it
same general kind with
crystal glass.

nally

It

made with

is

by us, is of the
which in other places is called
name from its having been origi-

has this

calcined

sand was understood

flints,

and

though there are

now no

This

from the

glass differs

usually called

that

it

flints

before the use of white

has

retained this

used in

its

crystal glass, in

name,

composition.

having lead in

for its body


whereas the fluxes used in the other are salts, or arsenic,
and the bodv consists of tarso, white river pebbles, and
such stones. To the lead and white sand a due proportion of nitre is added, and a small quantity of magnesia.
The most perfect kind of flint glass is made by fusing, in
a very strong fire, one hundred and twenty pounds of
white sand, fifty pounds of red-lead, forty pounds of the
purest pearl-ash, twenty pounds of nitre, and five ounces
of magnesia. Another composition of flint glass is said
to be the following: one hundred and twenty pounds of
white sand, fifty-four pounds of the purest pearl-ash,
thirty-six pounds of red-lead, twelve pounds of nitre, and
its

compositon, to flux

it,

and white sand

six

THE LABORATORY.
To either of the above compositions, a pound or two of arsenic may be added, to increase
the flux of the composition. A still cheaper flint glass may
172

ounces of magnesia.

six

be made with one hundred and twenty pounds of white


sand, thirty-five pounds of the best pearl-ash* forty pounds
of red-lead, thirteen pounds of nitre, six pounds of arand four ounces of magnesia; or, instead of the ar-

senic,

senic

may be

cheapest of
sists

pounds of

substituted fifteen

make

but this will

all

it

more

brittle

common

than the other.

salt

But the

the compositions hitherto employed, con-

of one hundred and twenty pounds of white sand,

thirty

pounds of red-lead, twenty pounds of the best pearipounds of nitre, fifteen pounds of common salt,

ash, ten

and

six

pounds of arsenic.

A harder Glass than


Take

four ounces of borax, and an ounce of fine

white sand

them together

in a large close crucible,

out the crucible, and

and there

will

fire for

let it

set in a

half an hour

grow

cold,

wind

served, that time

common
makes a

glass like a

fur-

then take

and then break

be found at the bottom a pure hard

capable of cutting

it,

glass,

diamond. It is obon glasses

sensible impression

which borax makes too great an

To calcine

washed

reduce both to a subtil powder, and melt

nace, keeping up a strong

in

the foregoing.

ingredient.

Brass, which in Glass makes a Sky or Sea-green.

Brass

is copper mixed and fused with Lapis Calamiwhich


not only changes it into a gold colour, but
Waris,

increases

weight

its

sky-co!our to

this

when

glass,

mixture gives a sea-green or


it

is

this, observe the following rules

well calcined

and

to

do

Take brass plates, and cut them into small slips, and put
them into a crucible cover and lute it well, and give it a
;

reverberatorv

fire

in a furnace, yet not a melting one, for


if

ART OF MAKING GLASS.


If

it

melts,

your labour

all

will

be

lost

heat for four days, by which time


then beat
fine

it

it

will

stand in that

be well calcined

an impalpable powder and

to

113

let it

sift it

grind

it

on a povphyrv, and you will have a black powder


burning coals, or the
it on tiles, and keep it on

spread

round hole of a furnace, for four days clear it of the ashes


have fallen upon it, pulverize and sift it, and keep it
;

that

To

whether it is calcined enough, fling a little


and if it swells, the calcination is enough,
but if not, then it is either not calcined enough, or else it
is burned, and will not colour the glass near so well as when
for use.

try

into melted glass,

the calcination

To

is

perfect,

calcine Brass after another

Red

Cut

Manner, for a transparent

Colour, or a Yellow.

your brass into small shreds, and lay

it

stratum su-

per stratum in a crucible, with powdered sulphur; set

on a charcoal
der and sift it

fire
:

in a

when

furnace for 24 hours, then

this is

done, put

it

covered into the

furnace hole, for 10 hours, to reverberate, and


grind

it

again very fine, and keep

it

General Observations for


1.

glass

All

the

it

pow-

when

cold,

for use.

all Colours.

melting pots must be glazed with white

on the inside

for a

new

earthen pot that

is

glazed will cause the colours to look bad and foul

unbut

the second time of using these pots they lose their foulness.
2.

Observe that these pots serve for one colour only,

may not be used for another every colour must have


its own pot, except they correspond together.
3. Let the powders be well calcined
neither too much
and

nor too
4.

little.

Your mixtures must be made

in

due proportion, and

the furnace must be heated with hard and drv wood.


5.

You

THE LABORATORY.

174

You must

5.

must put
it is

use your colours divided: one part vou

in the frit before

melted and become

it is

fine

melted, and the other after

and

clear.

To make

Glass of Lead, which is the fittest for receiving of


most Colours.

Take

of calcined lead 15 pounds; of rochetta, or pul-

verized crystal

them together
at the

frit

2 pounds

mix them

and put

well,

into a melting pot, then into a furnace, and,

end of ten hours,

cast

them

into water

clear the

melting pot of the lead that remains, and return the


tal into

it,

which, after 10 hours heat,

will

be

fit

me-

to work,

with.

Hon)

Before you
first

in the

for a

pot

to

take
a

work the said Glass.

upon the

it

little,

then take

of time,

small space

after

iron,
it

the glass

raise

out to

let it

which work

it

cool

on

clean and smooth iron plate.

Blue Glass.

Take

four ounces of calcined and pulverized rock


two ounces of nitre, one ounce of borax, half a
pound of manganese, one pound of indigo-blue.

crystal,

A
To

one pound of

ounces and a

half,

Chrysolite Glass,
frit

take pulverized verdigrise three

red lead one ounce.

Sapphire

ART OF MAKING GLASS.

A Sapphire
To

i*?5

Green Glass.

one pound of the above composition, or crystal

frit,

take one ounce of good zaffre, and of very fine pia-dust

two pounds.

To make fine

Take

the

them

solve

timony

aqua-fortis

tin,

nine parts

dis-

sweeten the calx with clean

then take 18 parts of nine-times calcined an-

must be repeated until it has done


Both these melted together, make a line

calcination

its

or shavings of

filings,

in

spring water

Gree?i Glass of Tin.

evaporating.

crysolite or emerald.

This

glass will

melt upon

silver,

like

enamel, and

may

be used, on several occasions, for such things as are proper for ornaments.

To make

Take
little

Ruby'^coloured

Glass.

good aqua-rcgia four ounces

and

little,

let it dissolve

and

dissolve

take the finest gold, as

it

fling into

in aqua-regia

much

as

you

you please, into

solution of the

colour
frit,

and

with
let it

glass in fire

becomes a

it

dry*

the

same quantity put

and the water

tin,

this

by
and

will,

take a clean glass with clear

spring-water, and pour the solution of the gold, as


as

it,

thin bits, or filings of tin, one ounce,

will

also to

it

much
of the

turn to a fine rose

water moisten several times your glass


;

at first

as you do with other


comes out white, but afterwards

then proceed
it

fine ruby.

* Inftead of letting it dry, let the purple colour subside, and


then pour off the liquor, and use the dry powder only. This powder is of various tints of purple, and is the more valuable in pro-

portion to the intensity.

Ed.

THE

Ho

THE LABORATORY.

THE ART OF GLASS


The Art

is

IN MINIATURE.

Flame of a Lamp,
Manner :

-performed by the

lowing

in

tk&foU

First, provide yourself from the glass-house with several pipes of glass, that are hollow in the inside, of se-

and different sizes


you see represented at

veral colours,
table,

as

artist,

who

is

then you must have a

fig. 3,

low, and a large wick of twisted cotton


is

When

a pair of bellows, B.

the

is

the

or with

tal-

plate 6.

furnished with a lamp and

artist

oil,

below the

table

treads the treadle

fastened to the bellows, the wind will be conveyed through


the pipes under the table to the small opening by

C C,

di-

which are placed the lighted wicks of the lamps.


The smoke which issues forth from the lamp, is conveyed
through a broad funnel made of tin or wood, E.
The wind, which strikes in a sharp point against the
rectly in

flame, occasions such a violent heat that

it

will dissolve

the most stubborn glass, and you may, after you have sof-

tened the end of your pipe in the flame, blow through the
hollow, and form, with small plyers and other useful tools,
tvhatever you please: small twisted nooses of wire

very convenient to hold your


join different colours to
chieflv

upon

The
poses

of

in

work in,

in order to

The whole

one piece.

are

shape and

art

depends

practice.

usefulness of such a table answers several other puras,

for trying of metal-ore

in this case

put

some

hallowed charcoal, &c. and by directing the


wind through the lamp upon the ore, the heat will melt it
it

immediately, and shew what


is

also very convenient

which such

it

contains.

In soldering,

it

not to mention the conveniency

a table affords to practitioners in chemistry.

Rffw

AR.T OF GLASS IN

How

to

Salts,

Take
it

of pure

very thin

Glass Utensils,

on

lay Silver

MINIATURE.

Drinking Caps,

silver

177

Dishes,

Plates,

S(c.

what quantity you

please, and beat

into a matrass,

and pour twice

then put

it

weight of aqua-fortis upon

and you will presently


perceive the silver dissolve: when you observe its ceasing
to work, put your matrass on warm sand or ashes, and it
let it thus stand till all your
will begin to work afresh
After this pour the solution out of that
silver is dissolved.
its

it,

matrass into another, and evaporate a


matrass remain on the sand

and

let

it

till it is

and

little,

cool

from these pour off the solution which

remains, and evaporate again the half of the liquor


it,

it off,

stand for twenty-four hours, and the silver will shoot

into white crystals

set

the

let

then take

as before, to

crystallize

turned into crystals

silver is

this

repeat,

then

them out of the

take

the

all

till

glass,

them upon whited-brown paper to dry, and preserve


them for use.
Of these crystals take as much as you will, and put them
into a matrass, and pour upon them two or three times their
weight of the strongest spirit of sal ammoniac lute it
well, and put it into a gentle warmth for eight or ten days
lay

to digest, and

it

will contract a blue colour

sand-bath a

pour

it

off,

and there
with this melt your glass,
will remain a glass-green liquid
and put it into a glass furnace, or into any gentle heat
your glass will look as if it were silver plate.

filter it,

and evaporate

in a

little,

But in case there should be an oversight, and the


much drawn off, and the

of sal-ammoniac be too
turned to a green

upon the

vol.

i.

silver

salt,

then pour as

again as will bring

:s

it

much

to a

spirit

silver

of that

green

spirit

liquid.

Acufioui

THE LABORATORY,

I7S

A curious Drinking
Take

two smooth drinking

glasses, fitted close to eacfi

may

other, so that the brims of both

on the
tion

inside of the larger glass with

cither in

will,

Glass.

be even
oil

then paint

colours,

what you

imitation of mosaic, or any other inven-

and when dry, you may with the point of a needle

open

fine veins or other embellishments,

it all

over with old linseed

clammy,

whilst

lay leaf gold

to the glass with cotton,

mean

oil

and

upon
let

it

it

Then

&c.

and before

it is

press

down
The

close

it

oil

quite dry,

dry thoroughly.

the other lesser glass, and Jay a thin


on the outside, and when almost dry, lay on
leaf gold, and the inside of the glass will look all over
while, take

clear varnish

When

gilded.

make

this is dry,

put

rims of the two glasses, so that


but look as

if it

it

it

may

this lute

it

the

not be perceived,

were made out of one piece

roughly dry, and give

and

into the larger glass,

and lack varnish, with

a paste of chalk

let it

tho-

another layer of lac varnish, with

then smooth

it with pumice
and when that is almost dry, gild it with leaf gold, and give it two or three
layers of lac varnish, and the gold will remain firm.
Instead of painting with oil colour, if you only anoint
the inside of the glass with linseed oil, and then strew
it over with spangles, and put the inside glass gilded, to
This hint will anijoin, it will have a singular beauty.

a fine pencil, and

stone,

and lay on

let it

it

mate the ingenious


amusing

to

try farther

experiments of this

kind..

How to Quicksilver
them

Take

dry

a thin varnish

the inside of Glass Globes, so as to

make

look like Looking-glass.

two ounces of quicksilver, one ounce of


muth, of lead and tin half an ounce each.

bis-

First

ART OF PAINTING UPON GLASS.


and

First put the lead

179

then put in the

tin into fusion,

and when you perceive that in fusion too, let it


almost cold, and pour the quicksilver into it.
After this, take the glass globe, which must be verymake a paper funnel*
clean, and the inside free from dust
bismuth
stand

till it is

and put
as

of the globe, as near to the glass

in the hole

it

you can, so that the amalgam when you pour

gently, and

move

every where.

and

to

be

If

fixed,

it

it in,

may

pour it
about, so that the amalgam may touch

not splash and cause the glass to be

you
hold

find the
it

full

of spots

amalgam begin

to be curdly,

over a gentle heat, and

it

will flow

you find the amalgam too thin, add a little


more lead, tin, and bismuth to it. The finer and clearer
your globe is, the better will be the looking-glass.
easily again.

If

THE ART OF PAINTING UPON


This

noble art being the admiration of

any tolerable
improper
tery

with

taste

of designing or painting,

to give the ingenious

some few
its

GLASS*

not only

hints,

into the practice of

it

who have

will not

enquirer after this


to

he be
which we

nature, but also, if

all
it

satisfy

his curiosity

inclined, to lead
shall

be

mys-

him

do in the plainest

and shortest manner possible.


First then,

chuse such panes of glass as are clear, even,

and smooth.

pane with a clean spunge, or


a soft hair pencil, dipt in gum-water, all over.
3. When it is dry, lay the clean side of the glass on the
outlined design you intend to copy, and with a small
pointed pencil (furnished with black colour, and prepared
2.

Strike

one

side of each

for that purpose, as shall be directed) delineate the outlines, or


soft,

capital strokes

work them by

and where the shades appear


and easy strokes, one into

dotting,

another.

4.

After

THE LABORATORY.

180

After you have finished your outlines and shades in

4.

manner you are able, take a larger pencil, and


on your colours in their respective places as a carna-

the best
lay

tion in the face, hands, &X. green, blue, red, or

any other

colour on the drapery, &c.

When you have

5.

work

off the colour, by


light

done

this,

heighten the

lights

of your

which take
such places where the

carefully with an unsplit stiff pen, with

is

way of etching,

to fall strongest,

in

and where

it is

of use to give the

beard, or hair, a graceful turn.

You may

6.

lay

all

sorts of colours

on the same side of

the glass you draw your design upon,

except yellow

which lay on the other side, in order to prevent its flowing


and mixing with other colours, and spoiling your work.

Necessary Observations

in the

baking of Glass, or burning-

in the Colours, after

Your

it is

painted.

furnace for baking painted glass must be built

The

square, with three divisions.

lower division

ceiving the ashes, and for a draught for the

The middle

for re-

is

fire.

is
for the fire, which has an
and three iron bars cross the top, to
set the square earthen pan upon, which contains the
.

division

iron grate below,

painted glass.

The

third division has the

bottom, and a

smoke and

The

lid

at

top,

in

aforementioned bars

which are

flame.

earthen pan

is

made of good

potters clay,

ing to the shape and dimensions of the


five or
fire

accord-

furnace, about

inches high, with a

fiat bottom.
It must be
no larger than to have at least two inches
round, free from the sides of the furnace*.

fix

proof, and

space

all

* Such
it

at the

five holes for the

is

the extreme simplicity of the

bears, that

towards

it is

wonderful so few

artists

art, and the high value


have turned their talents

it!

When

ART OF PAINTING UPON

GLASS.

181

When

you are going to bake your glass, take quickwhich previously has been well nealed, or made red
hot in a fierce coal fire when cold, powder it, and sift it
through a small sieve, as even as you can, all over the
bottom of the pan, about half an inch thick then with
lime,

smooth feather wipe

lay

many of your

as

This continue

it

even and level

when this is done,


is room.
upon every layer

painted glasses as there

the pan

till

is full,

sifting

of glass a layer of the mixed powder, very even, about

Upon

the thickness of a crown piece.


layer of painted

glass,

thick as the bottom.

the layer of

let

Put the pan, thus

upon the iron bars

cover the furnace with a cover


lute

very close

it

all

powder be

filled to

as

the brim,

middle of the furnace, and

the

in

the uppermost

round,

made of

to prevent

potter's earth

any vent but

what comes through the holes of the cover. After you


have ordered the furnace in this manner, and the luting

make

js dry,

wood, fire, at the


by degrees, lest
should be subject to crack

a slow charcoal, or dry

entrance of the

by a too quick

furnace

fire

increase

the glass

continue thus to augment your

it

fuel,

till

the furnace

is full

of charcoal, and the flame conveys

itself through every


keep thus a very violent fire for three
or four hours, and then you may draw out your essays,
which are pieces of glass on which you have painted
some yellow colour, and placed against the pan and

hole of the cover

when you
and of a

work

is

see the glass bended, and the colour melted,

you may conclude that your


you may also perceive by the in-

qualified yellow,

near done

crease of the

of the iron bars, or the light

sparklings

on the pan, how your work goes on.

streaks

When

you see your colours almost done, increase the fire with
some dry wood, and put it so that the flame may rever-p
round the pan then leave the fire, and let it
and the work cool of itself. Take it out, when
quite cold, and with a brush clear your glass gently from

berate

go

all

out,,

the

182

powder

the

that

THE LABORATORY.
may lie upon it, and

your work

is

done.

The

colours in use for painting

be treated

of,

and are

as follows

upon

next to

glass, are

For a Carnation

Colour.

Take

menning* one ounce, red enamel two ounces


them fine and clean with good brandy, upon a hard
stone this, if slightly baked, will produce a good car;

grind

Or,

nation.

Take

red chalk eight ounces

gum

each two ounces;

gether for half an hour, quite

and

let it settle for

iron scales and litharge,

stiff;

then put

grind
it

all

to-

in a glass,

4 days.

Of Black

Take

arabic half an ounce

Colours.

from the anvil, fourteen ounces


and a half; mix with it two ounces of white glass, one
ounce of antimony, manganese half an ounce
grind
them with good vinegar to an impalpable powder. Or,
Take scales of iron one part, and rochetta one part,
grind them together very fine upon an iron plate, for
scales of iron

when thev begin to be tough, and


one or two days
and clog to the muller, it is a sign that
Or,
it is fine enough.
Take one pound of enamel, three quarters of a pound
of copper flakes, and two ounces of antimony, grind them
;

look yellowish,

as before directed.

Take

glass

Or,

of lead three parts, copper flakes two parts,

and one part of antimony, proceed therewith as before.


* Unknown,

Ed.

Brown

ART OF PAINTING UPON GLASS.

A Brown

l83

Colour.

Take one ounce of white glass, or enamel half an


ounce of good manganese grind them first with vinegar
;

very

and then with brandy.

fine,

A Red Colour.
One

ounce of red chalk, ground, and mixed with two

ounces of ground white enamel and some copper


will
it

to

make

will stand

Take
;

the

fire,

flakes,

you may try, with a little, whether


if not, add some more copper flakes
;

Or,

it.

part

good red

red chalk, that

is

hard and unfit to draw with, one

of white enamel one part

orpiment

when you

grind

and one-fourth part of

them well together with vinegar; and

use them, avoid the smoke, which

poison-

is

ous.

0}\
Crocus martis, glass of antimony, and yellow lead

such as the potters use, of each an equal quantity

matter of silver calcined with sulphur


ther very fine, and they will be

duce a good red.

Take one

fit

grind

glass,

a small

them toge-

to paint with,

and pro-

Or,

half part of iron flakes, one half part of cop-

per ashes, one half part of bismuth, a

little silver filings,

three or four beads of red coral, six whole parts of red

from a

frit

one half of litharge, one half of gum,

glass house,

and thirteen whole parts of red chalk.

A Blue
Take Burgundy
an equal quantity

Colour.

blue, or blue verditer,

grind

them with water

and lead

glass,

to a very fine

powder, and when you use them, lay the flowers that are
to

THE LABORATORY.

184

to be of a blue colour,

all over therewith


then raise the
yellow parts opened, with a pen, and cover them with a
yellow glass colour observe, that blue upon yellow, and
;

yellow upon blue, always

make

a green.

Another Blue Colour.

Blue

mixed with enamel,

verditer or smalt,

will

make

a good blue paint.

A Green
Green

rocaille,

parts, brass file dust

them together

clear

Colour.

same colour, two


menning two parts grind
and you will have a good

or small beads of the

one
and

part,
line,

when it comes out of the pan. Or,


menning two ounces fine
js Ustum two ounces
white sand eight ounces grind them to a very fine powder, and put them into a crucible
then lute the lid, and
give it for one hour a good brisk fire in a w ind furnace.
when cold, pound it in a
After this, draw it off to cool
brass mortar, adding the fourth part in weight to the powgreen

der

for

grind and

cible

mix

it

well together, and put

then cover and lute

two hours

it

well,

and give

it

into a cru-

a good heat

it

in a furnace.

A fine Yellow Paint for Glass.


It has been found by experience, that the best yellow

upon glass, is prepared of silver wherefore,


if you would have a fine and good yellow, take fine silver,
beat it into thin plates, and dissolve and precipitate it in
aqua-fouis, as has been directed when it has settled, pour
off the aqua-fortis, and grind the silver w ith three times the
quantity of well burned clay from an oven, very fine
and
for painting

with

with a

ART OF PAINTING UPON GLASS.

185

on the smooth

side of the

soft hair pencil lay

and you

glass,

will

Melt as much
until

mix
ver

it
;

fine yellow.

Or,

you please in a crucible, and when


fling, by little and little, so much sulphur upon
is calcined
then grind it very fine on a stone

in fusion,
it,

have a

it

it

silver as

much antimony

with as

as

is

the weight of the

sil-

and when these are well ground together, take yellow

ochre, neal

quench

it

well,

mine,

in

above specified

ground

it

will turn to a

brown

red,

which

and take thereof double the quantity


r
it all together, and a ter you have

mix

very

it

and

fine, lay

on the smooth

it

side

of the

Or,

glass.

then cut them into


plates of silver
them with sulphur and antimony into
a crucible
when they are dissolved, pour them into clear
water, and thus mixed together, grind them very fine.

Neal some thin

small

put

bits;
;

A pale Yellow.
Stratify

thin plates of brass in an earthen

with powdered

pipkin

them

sulphur and antimony, and burn

no more flame then pour them red hot


into cold water
take out this and grind it fine.
Of
this powder one part
of yellow ochre, after it is nealed
and quenched in vinegar, five or six parts let it dry
then grind it on a stone, and it will be fit for use.
until

it

yields

TIozo to deaden the Glass,

Take

two parts of iron

and fit

it to

paint upon.

one part of copper


enamel grind them all tother, with clear water, on a marble stone, or upon a brass
or iron plate, for two or three days, as fine as possible
with this rub your glass well over, especially that side
you draw your design upon^ and you will finish your
flakes, three

parts of white

flakes

work much

neater.

Some

THE LABORATORY.

186

Some general Obsewations on

the

Management of

paint-

ing and baking of Glass.

First when you

lay your

in the pan,

glass

undermost,

side be placed

painted

the

let

and the yellow up-

permost.
all your colours with gum-water.
Grind the black and red upon a copper-plate

Dilute

2.
-

3.

colours you

a piece of glass, or a stone.

Glass-colours ready prepared are, glass enamel, which

4.
is

may grind on

other

brought from Venice in cakes of several sorts


over from

small glass beads that are brought


especially from

also the

Germany

',

Franckfort on the Main.

Old broken

good

pieces of painted glass are

that purpose

for

so

is

the green glass of potters, and the glass drops that run

from the ware

The

5.

in the furnace.
colours which are used by

ing on earthen ware,

may

also

potters, for paint-

be used for painting on

glass.

A particular
Take
it

for

Way

to

paint vpon a Drinking Glass.

a small quantity of linseed

four or five days in

bruise

it,

and put

canvas bag, in rain-

little

and change the water every day then press out


will have a clammy substance, like
then paint, or
glue with this grind your colours as usual
mark with a pencil, what you please upon the glass, and
give it by degrees a thorough heat with the same glue
water,

the moisture, and you

you may

also gild

the glass, before you put

it

into the

fire.

A fine Gilding for Glass.


Take gum-ammoniac um

dissolve

it

over night in good

white-wine vinegar, and grind the gum-ammoniacum, and


a

little

ART OF PAINTING UPON

GLASS.

187

powdered gum-arabic well together with clear water; when they are well incorporated and fine, then write
and when alor draw upon your glass what you please
most dry, so that it is but a little clammy, lay on your

little

gold, press

night

it

down with some

cotton, and let

rub the loose gold afterwards, with a

off the

gently

glass,

and you

will sec

it

make

wili look fine,

it

you designed then


it by degrees,
cooi of itself, and the gold
;

red hot

Take

two

write or

draw upon

parts of lead,

quantity of white

water

let it

and stand wind or water.

To

clear

cotton,

slowly over a gentle heat, increasing

so as to

little

stand over

the ornaments,

figures, or writing, to the perfection

dry

it

little

then

Glass.

one part of emery, and a

them very line with


them with gum-water, and

lead; grind

temper

with a soft hair pencil lay

all over the outside of your


and when dry, you may, with a pen, draw or
write upon it what you please
then increase the fire
from a gentle warmth, to make the glass red hot let
it cool, and you will see your drawing, or writing, fair
upon the glass, which will not be defaced either by

glass,

cold or hot water.

THE

ART OF GLAZING AND PAINTING ON FINE EARTHENWARE, COMMONLY CALLED DELFT WARE.
Potters who

paint with colours on earthen ware,


be ranged in the same class with painters upon
glass, since they use almost the same materials, and, in

may

pany

respects, the

same method.

What

THE LABORATORY.

188

What
is

has already been said under the foregoing head,

sufficient

and may serve novices

painting, as an instruction

however,

set

down some

glazing of earthen ware

How
Take

to

paint

We

shall,

receipts that chiefly relate to the

but

first

we

shall

shew,

prepare the Clay for Delft Ware.

one part of calcined

and one part of

work them

designing and

in

flowers, landscapes,

upon earthen ware.

or whatever else,

figures,

to

one part of chalk,


cream of clay mix and

flint,

capital, or the

well to a proper consistence.

To prepare a White Glazing.

Take

of lead two pounds, and of

tin one pound


calbeen directed before. Of this
take two parts calcined flint or pebble, one part salt,
one part ; mix them well together, and melt them into a

them

cine

to ashes, as has

rake.

The Rotterdam y?;z? shining White.

Take

of clean

tin

ashes two pounds, lead

ashes ten

pounds, fine Venice glass two pounds, tartar half a pound

melt them into a cake.

Or,

Lead ashes eight pounds


clear calcined

tin

flint, or pebble, six

melt them into a cake.

ashes three pounds

pounds

salt

fine

four pounds

Or,

Calcine eight pounds of lead, and four pounds of tin, into


ashes

of these take one quart,

one pound

salt

and pebble of each

melt them into a cake.

Another

GLAZING AND PAINTING EARTHEN WARE.

189

Another fine White for Earthen Ware.


six pounds of lead, and three pounds of tin,
whereof take two parts, salt three parts, peb-

Calcine
to ashes

ble or flint three parts

melt them into a cake.

Another White.

Take

eight pounds of lead, and four

among which mix


ful

of rock-salt

six

pounds of tin ashes


glass, and a hand;

pounds of Venice

melt them into a cake.

Saltzburg White.

Take

three parts of lead, and six parts of tin

and three parts

parts lead,

part

and pebble

Take
of

flint,

five

pounds of

six

pounds of

three parts

or six

one

tartar

Or,

he.
Or,
and one pound of

salt,

lead,

and burn them

to ashes

twelve of

and twelve of

flint,

salt

one pound of tin, three pounds

lead,

&c.

five parts,

three pounds of

Take

tin

tin

melt

whereof take twelve spoonfuls,


fine

wood

ashes.

To lay a Ground upon Earthen Ware, on which the White


Glass

Take

zcill

spread the better.

calcined taftar one pint, and

each one pint

mix them

flint

and

together, and use

salt,

them

of
for

a layer, or ground, over your earthen ware, before you


glaze them.

The right Dutch Mastirat for White Porcelain.

Take

calcined pebble,

of soda forty pounds;

flint,

wood

or sind, one hundred

pounds

ashes thirty pounds. This mixture

THE LABORATORY

190

by the Dutch

called mastirat : of this take one


hundred pounds, tin and lead ashes, together, eighty pounds,
common salt ten pounds melt them three times into a

ture

is

cake.

The

and lead ashes are made of one hundred pound*

tin

of lead, and thirty pounds of

tin.

The common Ware

Take

is

thus glazed,

pounds of clear sand, seventy-five pounds


of litharge or lead ashes, twenty-six pounds of pot ashes,
and ten pounds of salt melt them three times into a
cake, quenching it each time in clear cold water.
Or,
Take clean sand fifty pounds, lead ashes seventy pounds,
wood-ashes thirty pounds, salt twelve pounds: melt them to
forty

a cake.

With

this

mixture they glaze fine and coarse, and set

an earthen glazing pan, which

in
set

in them,

is

round

upon three-cornered bars

the like holes in the pan, and the ware

from touching one another

the

the ware

it

is

that go through
is

kept asunder

pan must be

entirely

closed up.

COLOURS FOR POTTER'S GLAZE-WORK.

A fine Yellow).
Take

red-lead three pints

two pounds
melt

it

again.

antimony and
;

grind

tin,
it

Repeat, this several times, and

have a good yellow.

Take

melt them into a cake

of each
fine,

and

you

witt

Or,

fifteen parts of lead

ore,

tharge, and fifteen parts of sand,

three parts of pale

li-

0/\

Take

potter's glaze-work.

Take

191

eight parts of litharge, nine parts of calcined

one part of antimony, and a


and melt them to a cake.

A fine
Takz

six

calcine

Citron Yellow.

parts of red

lead,

seven parts of fine red

two parts of antimony

brick-dust

iron filings

little

flint,

melt

them

to

cake.

A
Take

eight

glass, four parts

Take
ble,

Green Colour.
of

of litharge, eight parts

parts

of brass dust

;,

Venice

melt them for use.

ten parts of litharge, twelve parts of

Or,

flint

or peb-

one part of as ustum, or copper ashes.

Blue Colour.

Take lead ashes one pound, clear sand or pebble


two pounds, salt two pounds, white calcined tartar one
pound
Venice or other glass, sixteen pounds zafFre half
mix them well together, and melt them \
a pound
repeat
quench them in water, and melt them again
this several times: but if you will have it line and good,
proper to put the mixture into a glass furit will be
nace, for a day or two.
Or,
Take litharge four pounds, clear sand two pounds, zafcalcine and melt it together.
fre one pound
Or,
Take twelve pounds of lead, one pound of tin, and
one pound of zafFre, five pounds of sand, and three pounds
of salt tartar and glass one pound
calcine, and melt
;

into a cake.

Or,

Take two pounds of


sand, one

them

pound of

as directed.

litharge,

zafFre,

a quarter of a pound of

and one pound of

salt

melt

Or,

One

THE LABORATORY.

192

One
of

part of tartar,

one part of lead ashes, one part


one part of sand, and two parts of salt melt

zaffire,

as before.

A Brown
Take
part

of

common

glass

Colour.

and manganese, of each one

lead glass twelve parts.

A Flesh
Take

Colour.

and one of white

twelve parts of lead-ashes,

glass.

A Purple Brown.
Take

lead-ashes

fifteen

An
Take

fifteen parts

white sand,

five parts

clear sand

parts,

manganese one part, white


and one. measure of zaffre.
parts,

eighteen

glass fifteen measures,

Iron Grey.

of lead-ashes,

fourteen

of copper-ashes,

parts

of

one of manga-

nese, one of zaffre, and one of iron filings.

A Black.
Take

eighteen measures, iron

lead-ashes

copper ashes three,

make a brown black


some more zaffre to

two
but if you

zaffre
;

this,

will

when
have

it

filings three,

melted, will
blacker, put

it.

A Brown

potter's glaze-work.

A Broicn
Manganese two
part

193

on White,
glass

one

antimony two pounds, litharge three pounds,


grind it to a fine powder.

rust

parts, red lead

and white

melt them well together.

A fine
Take

of iron calcined one pound

Red.

To glaze with Venice Glass.

When
it all

your ware

is

well dried, and ready to bake, strike

over with white-wine lees

glass (ground fine

and bake

it

of tartar and litharge)

Green.

copper dust two parts

melt them twice.

Two

salt

as directed.

A
Take

then lay on the Venice

and mixed with

parts of copper filings,

of white glass

yellow glass two parts

one of lead-ashes, and one

melt them to a cake.

A
Menning

Or,

Yellozv.

three parts, brick-dust two parts, lead-ashes

antimony two parts, sand one part, of the above


Or,
white glass one part, well calcined, and melted.
Red lead four ounces, antimony two ounces melt them

two

parts,

to a cake.

vol

i.

good

THE LABORATORY.

194

A
Take
tity

good Yellow.

of antimony, red lead, and sand, an equal quan-

melt to a cake.

A fine Blue Glass to paint with.


Take

lead ashes one pound, clear sand two pounds,

two pounds, white calcined tartar one pound, flint


pound, zaffre half a pound melt them together,
and quench them in water then melt them again, and
salt

glass half a

repeat this several times.


Zaffre,

finely

ground by

itself,

makes a good blue

to

on white-glazed earthen ware.

paint

A
One

Brown.

part of manganese, one of lead, and one of white

glass.

A
Take
ble or

Liver Colour.
4

twelve parts of litharge, eight of

flint,

five

half a

peb-

Sea Green.

pounds of lead-ashes, one pound of

ashes, three pounds of


salt,

six of

and one of manganese.

A
Take

salt,

pound of

flint,

tartar,

three quarters of a

tin-

pound of

and half a pound of copper

dust.

To

POTTER

To

GLAZE-WORK.

lay Gold, Silver or Copper on

195

Earthen Ware,

so as to

resemble either of these Metals.

Make

any

utensil of fine potters earth

form and shape

and when
you wish
to silver, gild, or copper it, take a regulus of antimony and
melt any of the above metals with it, and beat it to a powder grind it with water, very fine, and glaze it therewith.
Then bake it, and when done, the whole utensil will look
it

thin, neat,

baked, glaze

and

it

silver fashion

but, before

then bake

you bake

it

it,

again, if

like silver

for

when

it

comes

into the fire, the

evaporates and leaves the silver, &c. behind.


will silver or gild

it

antimony

But

if

you

only for ornament sake, and keep

it

from any wet, then you may lay on the gold or silver
leaves with brandy, and afterwards polish and finish it in
the best manner, after the common method.

o 2

PART

THE LABORATORY.

196

PART

V.

SEVERAL

RECEIPTS FOR CASTING


IN

SILVER, COPPER, BRASS, TIN, STEEL,


AND OTHER METALS;
LIKEWISE

I>T

WAX, PLASTER OF PARIS, WOOD, HORN, &C. WITH THE


MANAGEMENT OF THE RESPECTIVE MOULDS.

To prepare Clay for making

all Sorts of Moulds


Gold, Silver, and other Metals in.

TAKE
pot

much

to cast

you will put it into an earthen


and cover and lute it very close
then put it into a potter's furnace, and let it stand as long
as other earthen ware.
After it is burned, and cold, grind
the clay upon a colour-stone very fine
sift it through a
fine hair sieve into clear water, and after it is settled, pour
off the water, and grind the clay once more upon the
stone, as fine as possible
then wash it again in fair water
clay, as

that

is

as

glazed,

as before, and set

it

in the sun, or in a

warm

place, to

dry.

After

CASTING SILVER, COPPER, &C.


After this burned and washed clay

take of

it

is

197

thoroughly dry,

three pounds, sal-ammoniac two pounds, tartar

two pounds,

vitriol

one pound

mix them

put this mixture into one or two pots

and

together,

pour upon

about

it

seven quarts of clean water, and boil this composition for


some time then take this water, whilst it is warm, and
mix your burned clay therewith to such a consistence that
you may form it into balls lay these in a warm place to
dry, and when dry, put them into an earthen pot as before, and give them another baking among the earthen
ware, and when cold, grind them fine, and that powder
;

be

will

The
put

for use.

into a glass with water, that holds about

it

put so
solve

fit

clay being thus prepared, take sal-ammoniac, and

much of

over a gentle warmth, and

it

hours closed up
per

it

two quarts

the sal-ammoniac to the water as will dis-

let

it

stand one or two

then take your powder of clay, and tem-

with this water to such a consistence as to form

it

and make what moulds you please thereof.


When you cast your metal, you must make your mould
red hot
and be also very nimble in the pouring out your

into

balls,

melted metal.

To make Moulds of Clay

Take

good

to

cast

Brass or other Metals

clear clay, such as the pewterers use

also cloth shaving, or fine short plucked cotton,

clear sand,

and

a colour-stone

if

the sand

mix

this

is

and

not fine enough, grind

in.

take
fine
it

on

with the clay to such a consis-

make or form your moulds thereof. Your


made soft with water, but with strong
and when you cast, let your mould be red hot.

tence as

is fit

to

clay must not be

beer
If

clay

you would have a fine and sharp cast, sift over your
some fine washed ashes, before you make the im-

pression*

To

THE LABORATORY.

198

To prepare Moulds, which need

not

ing Metal

Take

fine

much

as

with rape, or linseed

it

you think proper


oil,

cast-

in.

sand, such as the goldsmiths use

with lamp-black, as
per

for

be heated,

to

mix

it

make your moulds

to

fit

then tem-

thereof; whatever you cast in them, comes not only out

neat and sharp, but you have no occasion to heat your

mould,

as

is

that your sand

required in other cases


is

you must observe

very dry before you temper

with the

it

oil.

The Preparation of Mantua Earth, for Moulds.

Take

one part of Mantua earth, one part of charcoal

dust of burnt birch, and one part of salt

an equal quantity of

tartar

boil

per pan, three several times

mix with them

up the mixture

with

this water,

in a

cop-

which keeps

always good, moisten and temper your earth,

so as to

between your hands and when you


make your mould, roll your earth with a roller, till it is
smooth and pliable
then you may form it into what
fashion you please.
In this mould you may cast before it
is dried
and when you have cast, take off the earth which
is dried through the heat of the metal
grind the same
form

into balls

it

and temper

again,

it,

as

you did

at

first,

to use

particular Sort of Mould, in which one


fine and sharp.

Take horse muscle-shells


shells

let

them be

verize and temper

moulds, and you

or, for

them

may

again.

cast very

want of them, oyster-

calcined in a potter's

will cast

it

with urine

furnace

of

this

then pul-

make your

very fine and sharp.

To

CASTING SILVER, COPPER, &C.

199

Relievo, or Medals, in Imitation of

To impress Basso

Ivory.

Take

of prepared clay one pound, fine plaster of


mix these
Paris eight ounces, white starch eight ounces
white
of six or
with
the
mixture
up
the
together, and beat
;

eight eggs

put to

it

three ounces of clear

gum

arabic

stir it well together to a paste, and put so much of the dry


mixture to it as will knead it like dough then press it into
a mould with the palm of your hand, and let it dry in the
sun, observing to lay the paste side on a smooth board,
;

and

it

press

will

all

be clear and hard,

manner of medals and

like ivory.

You may im-

curiosities,

and make them

of what colour you please.

To impress Medals and other things in Basso Relievo,


Paper.

Take
them

qti

the shavings of superfine white paper, and steep

in fair

water for

six or eight

days

then put them in-

to a clean earthen pot, with water, and boil

or three hours

this

them

for

two

done, take them out of the pot, with

little moisture as possible, and stamp them in a stone


mortar very small and line then put them into a clean
linen bag, and hang that in a vessel with clean water,

as

when you have


you want out of the
bag, squeezing the water from it, and put it on the mould,
pressing it down gently with a spunge, which will soak up
the water, and make the impression more perfect
this
being done, set the mould to dry in the sun, or in a warm
room, and when dry, the impression will come off as fair
changing the water once or twice a week
occasion to use

it,

take as

much

as

and sharp as

if

cast in piaster of Paris,

To

THE LABORATORY.

200

To

Moulds peculiarly prepared for

cast Vegetables in

Silver.

Take
mortar

and clear clay that

fine

and give

and

pound it in a
put in your clay,

dry, and

is

then take a copper or iron pan

you have heated it


then take one part
of this clay, and one part of plume alum grind them together, and cast the mixture in little tents, which put into
a fire to neal beat it very fine and when you would form
your plant, take one part of this powder, and one part of
plume alum grind them together, and add as much of
the clay powder as the mixt matter contains, and mix and
a brisk

it

thoroughly, take

fire,

and

off

it

after

let it

cool

grind

them

make

a coffin

all

together.

Then

round your plant

you think proper

and

some

take

spread

it

after the coffin

is

inside thereof, as also the plant

potter's clay, to

in

what manner

dry, anoint the

with good brandy

dust

the before prepared clay, and the plant, gently through a


fine cambric

thick as

it

and when you have covered

will bear, strike the raised coffin

your hand or hammer, and the dust


plant,

and make the

After the powder

cover

it

fine

of

and heat
itself

it

all

over as

with

little

will settle closer to the

out the sharper.

well settled, and your coffin closed,

is

let

the

fire

by degrees

with the

sand, and

come

with dead charcoal, and then lay some

ones over them


fin,

silver

it

fire

some wool

live

gradually descend to the cof-

to a strong glue

take, afterwards,

shearings

then
fine

let it

clay,

mix these together

cool
fine

beat

and knead it well into one another then temper it with


and fill your coffin with it all over the plant, leaving
an opening at the stalk for the inlet then put it again into
the fire and make it red hot, and with a pair of bellows,
first closed, draw out the ashes from the inlet, and it will
be rpady for casting.
;

glue,

Then

CASTING SILVER, COPPER, &C.


201
which
is
made of pounded salt
Then take oil of tartar,
of
it

and scrape a

tartar,

little

sal-ammoniac into

the substance of a thin paste,

silver

and

some of

fling

After

cast,

it is

upon your

this

silver,

it,

to give

a good flux for

is

when

in fusion,

and sharp.

will cast fine

it

which

anoint the silver plant with

oil

of tartar

on live coals neal it, and then boil it in tartar, to


which add a little salt, and this will give it a fine bright
lay

it

pearl-colour.

Powders for Moulds

to cast

all Sorts

of things hi Goldy

in Silver, or in other Metals.

Take

powdered

plaster of Paris

baster in powder, and

sift

fine hair sieve,

and put

coal

about until

fire

stir it

it

it

or instead, take ala-

through cambric, or a very

into an iron pan, over


it

a clear

begins to boil and bubble up

keep it stirring recruit your fire, and continue


you find it so thick as not to be able to draw it
along with your stick then pour it into a bowl, and let it
like

water

this until

cool.

Take

powdered and sifted.


The miners find sometimes a matter in the iron mines
which they call liver-ore take this, and wash it from the
also brick-dust finely

coarser sand, and

cover

and

it,

sift

colour

when

into an earthen pot


and when cold, pound
When it is right burnt, it will be of a coppe.r
it.
put all these different powders into several boxes,
set

it

dry, put

and preserve them from dust and

To

Four

it

to neal thoroughly,

cast

for proper use.

soil,

Vegetables and Insects.

above plaster of Paris, two parts of


and two parts of liver ore mix them well to-

parts of the

brick-dust,

when you

gether, and

sift

are ready to

form your moulds, pour clean water

them through

a fine hair sieve

to

them,
and

THE LABORATORY.

202

and

stir

them

well together to the thickness of a thin paste

you must be pretty nimble with this work,


harden under your hands, and be of no use,

To prepare

Take
and

else

wijl

it

Mould.

the

the plant you design to cast, and spread the leaves

touch one another

stalks so as not to

make

then

of lead or clay, and put your plant in

coffin, either

as not to touch the sides

at the

may

bottom you

a
so

it

lay a

piece of paper to keep the stuff from sticking to the board,

but

your

let

it is

come

plants and

up

be neither too thick nor too thin, for

stuff

of a right consistence

for the inlet

do

plants,

to

lie close

while,

it

out sharp

one another with

needle, pouring

the mould the stronger.


in a

it

some more ready

drv place, and keep

to cast

upon vour
which might

this stuff

gently, and separate those leaves

hardened, put

if

the

the stalks be carefully kept

let

and when you pour

make

to

will force itself close to

it

it

all

the

After this

i$

you have

until

but you must secure

it

from

frost.

you would

If

anointed with
easier

can

upon a little
must be

will,

brown paper, or paste-board, which

board,

oil,

to

make the
make

about your insect

raise the insect so

paper,

it

will

the coffin, by which

it

and

may do by

and fastening them

will

come

little coffin,

off the
if

hang

in the

tying

at the top

middle

when

ready, pour, as before directed, your plaster gently

and

it,

mould

after the

is

you

be freed from the board or

as to

hairs,

first

plaster-stuff

be the better, which you

with two or three

is

any small animal, or rep-

cast insects, or

put them, in what position you

tile,

little

dry,

it

will

be

it

of

this

upon

fit

for

use.

If

you lay your

paper, you must


ter

upon

it

let

insect,

make
it

or

other creature, upon the

a wall about

stand a

little,

it,

and cast your plas-

and when dry, take of?


your

CASTING SILVER, COPPER,

20$

Sec.

and cut the plaster round about the insect and


taking the mould off the paper, there will be an opening
turn
at the bottom of the mould where the insect lies
your

wall,

this

mould, and anoint.it about the opening, and the part

on the

with

insect,

upon that

oil

then casting some fresh plaster

your mould

plate,

asunder, and be

will take

very convenient to draw out the ashes of the insect, after


it

has been burned, as

is

here directed.

Put your mould upon some


cover

with small-coal

it

and then

fling

some

then

over the small-coal lay charcoal,

lighted small-coal over them, to kindle

the others, so that the heat


the mould

warm wood-ashes

may be

gently conveyed to

some time, and you


think the insect, or plant, is consumed to ashes, let it cool
of itself, with the fire about it, to hinder the air coming
to it.
When your mould is cold, open an hole for an
after

has glowed

it

and, either with your breath, or with a

inlet,

spout that
is

and

draw out the

moist,

is

ashes,

little

hand

and your mould

ready.

You may

also burn

glow

coals on and

as has

it

taken out the mould,

having your

if you
and lay the

the moulds in a muffel,

close the muffel to prevent the air

coming

been directed.

put the same in

in,

After you have

warm

sand, and

or other metal, ready melted, pour

silver,

it

you cast silver, fling into the flux a little


sal-ammoniac and borax, mixed together. After it is cast,
then quench it in water, and
let the mould cool a little

in quick; but if

the plaster will

and neal and

To

little

dry a

it

off of itself; brush the silver clean,

as has

been already

cast Vegetables, or Insects,

Tie your
a

boil

fall

stick

little

plant, sprig, or insect,


;

dip either of

them

i?i

directed.

another manner.

with a fine thread, to


into brandy,

and

let it

then temper your plaster of Paris, prepared

as before directed, with water of sal-ammoniac,

pretty
thin,

;;

THE LABORATORY.

04

and dip you

thin,

the
let

little

it all

stick in the hole against a wall, or

hang

it

plant, or insect, in

free,

over

you may

and, in the drying,

then put

any thing

else

display the

you would
and when you have done this, hang it in the
coffin (the little stick may rest on each end of the coffin) ;
then, pouring your plaster over, you will have an exact
mould then proceed as directed before.
leaves of the plant, cr legs of the insect, as

have them

you would have a small

If

then dip the ends of

the plant before you dip


per, or any other insect
for the turpentine, kill

put

it

if it is

in vinegar

legs in the turpentine,

its

and put

and

leaf,
it

on

a spider, or grasshop-

which you think

it first

upon a

insect to stand

legs in turpentine,

its

be too strong

will
;

fix it to

and, after that,


the leaf of the

plant.

To

Melt

cast Figures, or

(in a glazed

over a gentle
milion

and

fire,

then cast
oil

fire

with

pipkin) half a
this

when you have


stir it
it

mix half

mould,

and take

pound of sulphur
pound of fine ver-

cleared the top, take

well together, and

into the

let it cool,

Medals, in Sulphur.

after

it

out

it

it

off the

will dissolve like oil

being

first

anointed with

but in case your figure

should change to a yellowish colour, you need only wipe


over with aqua-fortis,

it

and

it

will look like the finest

coral.

Hon)

to

form and

cast all Sb) ts of

Fish,

Take

an earthen, iron, or

wide enough

small Birds, Frogs,

&Tc*.

tin ring,

which

is

high and

animal you design to

cast, and
upon a clean board, or paste-board then lay the
animal upon it, and cast the mixture of fine plaster pretty
thick over it
the rest of the vacancy you may fill up

set

to hold the

it

with

CASTING IMAGES OF PLASTER OF FARIS.

205

when this is
with a coarser plaster, even to the brim
done, and pretty well dried, turn your ring, and putting
:

little

crust

body of the animal,

short stick close to the

on that

cast a

cover that part which before lay close

side, to

and when dry, burn it, and go about the


after you have burned it thoroughly,
you must draw the ashes out at the hole which is made by
the little stick, and this you may use for your inlet.
to the board,

casting as directed

How

Melt

to cast

small Shot.

your lead in a ladle

then pour

gently, in a

it

continual stream, into a pan or pail of water, on the sur-

whereof swims

face

oil

of a finger thick

thus you will

have good round small shot.

HOW TO

CAST IMAGES OF PLASTER OF PARIS TO


CAST WAX, EITHER SOLID OR HOLLOW: ALSO TO
FORM IMAGES IN WAX, AND CAST THEM AFTERWARDS IN ANY METAL, EITHER SOLID OR HOLLOW.

The

preparing the mixture for the moulds has been be-

fore shewn,

for

which reason

it

is

needless to repeat

it

again.

If
in,

you

will

make

a mould to cast an image, or animal

take clean potters clay,

and make thereof a

coffin

round about the image, which you lay long-ways on a


board, and anoint
plaster of Paris

first

it

mix

the image, so that

it

it

over with

may

cover

it

then take fine


it

all

over

way then give it


and when the plaster

every

a stronger coat, with a coarser sort,


is

oil

with water, and pour


;

and cut that side which is cast


making some notches or marks upon it

dry, take off the coffin,

something

flat,

then

TH LABORATORY.

206
then turn

it,

and make a

about

coffin

it

again, and casl

that side of the image, after

some

oil all

you have anointed it with


that the whole may be entirely in-

over, so

closed.

After the plaster has been a day or two upon the image,
it

will

be quite dry

then, with a

cautiously against the plaster,

till

wooden

mallet, beat

a piece thereof loosens,

which being taken off, the rest will come off easy and
after you have dismantled the whole, anoint the inside
;

thereof with linseed

oil,

and

do twice

let it

dry in

this

with a fine hair pencil brush,


;

or three days, cut in an inlet,

convenient

and,

when you

after

they have lain two

where you think

it

most

cast with plaster of Paris, be-

you do it, anoint the inside of the mould, and, after


you have put all the pieces in their proper places and tied
them together, cast your plaster, and let it stand half a
day take the pieces one after another carefully off, in
order to keep the image intire but if you will cast wax
in that mould, put only the mould for half an hour before
in water, and the wax will not stick to it.
If you will
have the image hollow, then mind that the wax be not too
hot pour it into the mould, and you will easily see how
When you think it is thick enough.
thick it sticks to it.
then turn your mould about, and pour out the wax that is
remaining, and after you have for a little while laid it in
water, take off the pieces of moulding, and you will have
the image done to perfection. You must observe, that
before you break the mould from the image ort which you
formed it, you must mark it all over with crosses, circles,
or strokes, by which you may afterwards fix them right
and exactly together, to cast again. If you will have the
wax figures solid, then let the mould with the images lie
fore

for half an hour, or more, to cool in fair water.

To

CASTING IMAGES OF PLASTER OF PARIS.

To prepare

207

Wax.

the

Take one pound of white resin that is not greasy, and


two pounds of wax melt the wax strain it through a
;

and

cloth into a glazed pan,

To

Lay

cast

stir it

about

Medals and other things

till it is

cool.

in Basso Relievo.

your medal on a clean piece of paper, or a clean

board; inclose

it

with a wall of clay or wax; then pour

the plaster of Paris half an inch thick

upon

it

when

it is

and anoint it with clear salad


two or three times, both within and without. If you

dry, take off the mould,


oil,

will cast plaster of Paris, lay the

of an hour in clear water


as

you

mould

first

for a quarter

then cast your plaster as thick

please.

You must

make

mould of
you must
always anoint it with oil, two or three times, which will
not only preserve them from the damage they otherwise
would sustain from the water, but make the cast pieces
plaster, let

come

observe that whenever you

it

be for basso relievo, or

out clear.

Medals and Figures

To

figures,

do

in Basso Relievo, like Jasper.

you must have a hand-spout, or a glysterend whereof fix a tin or iron plate, full of

this

pipe, at the

round holes, some larger than others.


a paste,

made of

fine chalk

In this spout put

of several colours

then force

them out in small shreds of mixed colours in one piece


cut them with a fine edged knife in thin round slices, and

down gently
when dry,

put one into your mould, pressing

it

pour the plaster of Paris upon

and,

first

will

over with

fish glue,

and

it,

after that varnish

it,

then
lay

it

and

it

be of singular beauty.

The

208

The

colours you

THE LABORATORY.
may first dilute with gum-water,

before

you mix the chalk with them.

Another

Take the above-mentioned chalk paste, and, after you


have mixed therewith a variety of colours, as smalt, white
lead, vermilion,
red, he.

red

masticot,

lead,

brown-

verdigrise,

and formed each colour separate, into

cakes,

little

them like pie-crust when


you have done as many colours as you think proper, lay
one leaf upon another roll them together from one end
then (with a rolling pin) spread

to the

other, and, with a knife, cut slices as thin as a

wafer

take these and cover your mould with

close
Paris

it

then varnish

To

press

down with your thumb, and pour the plaster of


over it when dry, do it over with fish-glue, and
it,

or give

it

a polish with a dog's tooth.

any kind of things, in

cast Fish, Reptiles, Fruit, or

a Pewter Plate, or Dish.

Take
fish,

a pewter plate, or dish

or reptiles,

fruits,

garnish the

plants,

proper order, as your fancy directs you.

Small animals,

or leaves of plants, fasten to the dish with a


tine,

and when every thing

is

in order, wall

pour your plaster of Paris over it


which the dish stands on, in order
the closer about the things

strike

to

make

the mould for the back part of the dish


to burn the things to ashes

little

turpen-

round

then

upon the

table

it

the casting

after the plaster

same with

Dispose them in

he.

is

glow

dry,
it,

fix

make

in order

having cleared your mould,

them together for casting, and tie them round with


cast your pewter, and in
wires, and make them red hot
too
heavy,
convey some little
order not to make the dish
openings from the back part of the mould to the body or
fix

hollow of the animals, stopping the outside close up again


till

:
;

209
CASTING IMAGES OF PLASTER OF PARIS.
is over
and when you think the pewter

your casting

till

then open these conveyances and pour

sufficiently fixed,

out the melted pewter which


If

you would

cast

may

remain, into an ingot.

model your

in silver, then

it

may

animals, &c. separate and hollow, that they

leaves,

be after-

wards soldered on.

To

Take

cast

Figures in Imitation of Ivory.

and strong brandy

isinglass

make

it

into a paste,

You may

with the powder of very fine ground egg-shells.


give

it

what colour you please

mould, having oiled

over

all

it

but cast

mould till cold then set them


have them resemble ivory.
;

warm

it

into

your

leave the figure in the

in the air to dry,

and you

will

Another.

Take

potter's furnace,

and they

after the first

lute

if

you

mass
will

fit

to

will

burn to a white calx

in

if,

mix it
them dry
of different colours, you must

moulds, wherein

for red, with brazil

to cast

let

for green, with

Figures in Basso Relievo*

mix
mould

flower of chalk, finely ground


;

pour

it

into your

the palm of your hand, and

you may do

i.

&c.

glue well together

vol.

let

then, with parchment-glue,

be cast

Another Mixture

Take

and

well,

have your figures

colour your glue


Verdigrise,

it

burning they are not white enough, burn

them a second time


into a

put them into


them be put in a

a sufficient quantity of egg-shells

an earthen vessel

this in

it

will

what colour you

come

it

with clear

press

it

with

out very fine

please.

To

THE LABORATORY.

210

To

Take

cast with

Marble Colours

in Plaster.

Dutch pink, yellow

several colours, as vermilion,

temper tnem with water, and mix


every one apart with plaster then take what colours yon
please, and, first sprinkling your mould, which is best of
sulphur, with one or more of them, with a little pencil
or feather then pour a colour different from what you
sprinkled into the mould, and after it is hardened, give it
ochre, smalt,

he.

a gloss with

A Sand

wax

in fvhich one

may

Take
pound

earth; put

fuller's

red hot

is

it

dissolve

it

in

furnace in a red-hot pan


;

when

the better

powder

and repeat

fire,

it

after

the heat

the above water again,

another

is

till

it

when
it

brass, iron, or

wood, but

aforesaid water

then

times

it

it

with

then give

it

the more,

to a

very fine

which may be

either of

grind

moisten

make your

water

into the

over, sprinkle

quenched

is

metal

first

this

it

has glown there, take

little

into the frame,-

it

about one

with

cool, put

this five or six

will receive the

put

in a reverberatory furnace

two quarts of water

moisten the burnt earth, and,


out again

lieliexo.

then take sal-ammoniac,

it

best.

cast things to the greatest nicety,

whether Flat, or in Basso

till

you

or varnish, as pleases

it

it

little

with the

impression, near the in-

and having dried it before the fire, while it is hot,


your metal the mould or impression will be better
the second than the first time using it, but every time you

got,

cast

use

it,

make

it first

red-hot.

To make Horn

Take
lime,

soft.

one pound of wood-ashes, two pounds of quick-

one quart of water;

let

it

boil together to

one third
then
;

TO CAST WOOD AND HORN IN MOULDS.


then dip a feather into

plume comes
longer

off,

when

it

put in shavings, or
three days

in

drawing

boiled enough

is

it

is

and

it,

if,

settled, filter
filings,

it

of horn

let

them soak

let

-,

first

with

boil

it

through a cloth

and, anointing your hands

out, the

it

if not,

211

then

therein

oil,

work

the horn shavings into a mass, and print, mould, or form


it

what shape you

in

To

Take

earthen pot

till it

over

all

it

as

into

many

Moulds.

as

you

and lay them

will,

take two parts of wood-ashes, and

the third part of lime

cover

Horn

cast

horn shavings

new

in a

please.

boil

pour clear lye upon


it

well

has the consistence of a paste

if

so as to

it,

with an iron

stir it

you

a red colour, then take red lead, or vermilion, as

you think proper, and temper


it

into a mould,

knife,

and

it

and

will

bring horn to

To

Wood

cast

with the paste

it

much

of
as

then cast

you may smooth it with a


you may in this
what colour you will have it.

let it

dry

be of one

manner

it

ladle,

have

will

solid piece

in Moulds, as fine as Ivory, of a

fragrant

Smell, and in several Colours.

Take

fine

clean pan

saw-dust of lime-tree

wood

put

it

into a

up with paper, and let it dry by a


gentle heat then beat it in a stone mortar to a very fine
powder sift it through cambric, and lay it, if you do not
use it presently, in a dry place, to keep it from dust.
;

tie it close

Then

take one pound of fine parchment glue

the finest

gum-tragacanth and gum-arabic, of each four ounces

them

boil in clear

pump-water, and

filter

let

through a clean

stir into it of the aforesaid powder of wood


becomes of the substance of a thick paste, and
set it in a glazed pan in hot sand
stir it well together,
and let the rest of the moisture evaporate till it be fit for

rag

add

then

till

it

P 2

casting.

THE LABORATORY.

f}9

Then

casting.

and put in
a scent

amber
lours,

pour, of mix, your colours with the paste,

of cloves, of roses, or the

oil

you may mix

it,

if

you

for a red colour, use brazil ink

such as

Your mould

binders.

than of plaster of Paris

anoint
it

it

beaten

article for

book-

be better of pewter, or brass,

will

and put your paste into

to give

little

and for other co-

be directed under the

will

like,

with a

will,

over with

it

let

oil

of almonds,

stand three or four days

it

then take off your mould, and it will


to dry and harden
be as hard as ivory you may cut, turn, carve, and plane
you may,
it will be of a sweet scent
it like other wood
if your mould will allow it, use several colours in one piece,
;

leaving only in
in order to

some

part the natural colour of the

convince the beholder what

it

wood,

It is a fine

is.

and curious experiment.

MIXTURES FOR CASTING MIRRORS, AND FOR CASTING OTHER THINGS.


Receipts

for preparing these mixtures are prescribed

by several authors,
Set

down

only

approved of

after different

a few,

and

three pounds

pour

it

out,

wherefore

I shall

are best

reflecting Mirrors.

of the best refined pewter, and

one pound of refined copper.


:tnd then add the pewter to it
sion,

first,

For

Take

ways

that for the generality

and,

when

First
:

melt the copper,

when both

cold,

beat

it

to

are in fu-

powder:

then take twelve ounces of red tartar, a little calcined


tartar, three ounces of nitre, one ounce and a half of
alum, and four ounces of arsenic: mix and stir these together,

MIXTURES FOR CASTING MIRRORS.


gether, and, after

213

has done evaporating, pour out the

it

metal into your mould

let

cool

it

you will have a fine mirror.


This is the composition which

is

and when polished

commonly

called the

mixture.

steel

Some

have the arsenic omitted, because

artists will

it is

apt to turn the mirror to a deadish blue colour, and re-

new

quires

polishing every time

it is

used

and they think

that copper and pewter are sufficient to answer the purpose

of a mirror without

it.

Another.

Take

an earthen pan that

not glazed, and has stood

is

two pounds of tartar, and the same


weight of crystalline arsenic, and melt them on a coal fire.
When this mixture begins to smoke, add to it fifty pounds
the

fire

put into

it

of old copper, and put


so that

may

it

it

into fusion for six or seven hours,

be well cleansed

of pewter, and

let

then add to

them melt together

some of

the mixture with an iron, to see whether

hard and

brittle

when you have


over

it,

and

then pour
cold, rub

it

if so,

Take

into your

it first

mould and

let it

it

cool

is
;

and

dissolved

when

with brimstone and then with emery


is

made smooth and


and give

it

even, polish

it

it is

and
with

the finishing stroke with

Or,

copper one

arsenic or tartar

them

more pewter

stand in the furnace until

let it

tripoly or tin ashes,

little

little

up

too

it is

the right temper, fling four ounces of bora:-:

after the surface

lamp-black.

then add a

pounds

it fifty

after this, take

part,
;

pewter three

when

parts,

and

a verv

these are put into fusion

let

incorporate.

Some take of copper three parts, of pewter one part,


and a little silver, antimony, and white flint.
Others do it with one part of lead, and two parts of
silver.

After

THE LABORATORY.

214
After the metal

is

formed and

cast,

it is

requisite to

have

smooth and well polished the first is done with emery,


and then with powdered sulphur or tin ashes, or else with
tripoly
the polishing is done with pulverized chimney
soot of wood fires, and the ashes of willow, or cedar,
which will give it a fine lustre the emery is ground to a
it

fine dust,

and moistened with water.

Or,

made out of one pound of pewof copper when these are melted, add

Steel mixtures are also

and one third


two ounces of tartar, and one ounce of orpiment and,
when evaporated, pour the mixture out into the mould.
The casting of a fiat mirror, or looking-glass, is done upon
a flat board, with a little edging all round it, made dry and
warm, and covered with resin or pitch; by this means the

ter,

mirror is fixed to the board when cold, rub it with sand


and water, then with emery, or flower of brimstone, and
at last polish it with tin-ashes, i. e. putty.
:

Another

Take
for

part

sort

good new copper, of that

copper wire,
;

cible,

of Steel Mixture for Mirrors.

bismuth

and melt.

eight parts

five parts

put

them together

Grease your mould

in order to cast your metal into

dip a hot iron into

it,

and what

which

sort

it,

used

is

English pewter one

fine

all

when

sticks to

into a cru-

over with tallow,

it

it is

let

in fusion

cool

if

the

but if to red, you


is inclining to white, it is right
must add some more pewter, until it has its right colour
observe, that whatever you put to the melted metal must
first be made hot.
After this manner you may form and
Or,
cast whatever you please.
Melt one pound of copper fling into it eight ounces of
spelter*, and when the spelter is in flame, stir it with a
stick, or hot iron rod, well together
then add five or six

colour

* Spelter

is

another

name

for zinc.

ounces

MIXTURES FOR CASTING MIRRORS.


ounces of fine pewter to

it

pour

it

215

moulds

into your

smooth and polish it as has been directed above, and you


will have a fine and bright mirror.

Peter Shot's

Take

Metallic Mixture for Mirrors.

ten parts of copper

pewter;

parts of fine

melt them, and add four

strew upon the mixture

quantity of pulverized antimony and sal-ammoniac


well together until the

it

then pour

it

smoke

stinking

out into the moulds

first

is

small
stir

evaporated

smooth

in

it

sand

been directed.
ways copper is
the chief ingredient, which must be tempered with a

and water, and then proceed


Mixtures for mirrors are

as has

made

different

whitish metal, in order to bring the objects that are seen


therein to their natural colour

and

and

this is

done by pewter

arsenic.

To

will be best to have


between these two stones
put, at each end, an iron wire, as thick as you would
cast your mirror
then tie the stones close, and fill the
crevice round about them with putty, leaving only an opening, or hole, to pour the metal in.
When that is dry, and

cast a flat looking-glass,

two polished stones

mould

for a

it

the stones are made thoroughly warm., pour the metal in


w hen it is cold, smooth and polish it as directed above.
You may fasten the one side to a flat stone with plaster of
:

and polish the other with a smooth stone

Paris,

of

all,

and

it

it

and

last

the finishing stroke with a piece of old hat

fine tin ashes.

If
let

give

you would

cast a

concave mirror, or burning-glass,

your mould be exactly


conveniently done, you

and wet

it,

tur/ied

may

and proceed thus

but

if

you cannot get

take a truly turned bowl,

Muke a crust of wax roll it with a wet rolling-pin to


what thickness you would have your metal cast and to
have it of an equal thickness, you may fix a couple of
;

rulers

THE LABORATORY-

216
rulers

on each side

then cut

this crust

your rolling-pin to play upon

for

of

wax

washing and pouring

out of one

it

furnace

done, grind

it

to

reddish

pan

and get

take the finest of the settling,


potter's

it

it

by

clay,

another

into

burnt in a

it

When

colour.

upon

in a cool place

In the meantime prepare a fine

harden.

to

and form

into a circle,

the outside of your wet bowl, and set

this

is

and rain

with sal-ammoniac, sublimate,

water, upon a marble, very fine, and to such a consistence


that
lour

and

it
:

may be

laid

on with a

pencil, like painters co-

with this paint the outside of the

when

wax mould

over,

on a coat
of haired clay, of about two fingers thick, and let this
also dry in the shade.
Then take it off the bowl, and lay
the concave side uppermost, and do as above, viz. lay with
let

dry in the shade

it

dry,

lay

a soft hair pencil the prepared and burnt clay

all

over

and when dry, lay it over with haired clay, so as to cover


the whole mould of wax
the hole at which you design
;

pour in your metal you may open after it is dry. Then


fix the mould, with the hole downwards, upon a couple of
to

iron bars, or a couple of bricks,

making a charcoal

derneath and round the sides of

it,

fire

un-

wax may melt


some of the wax,

that the

and run out at the hole you may catch


and set it by for other uses. When thus the mould is
cleared of the wax, and is still hot, turn it up, and set
it in warm sand, and put warm sand round about it to
then put an earthen ware
the top, to keep it firm
as soon
funnel into the hole, and pour in the metal
:

ycu

as

are

about to pour,

fling

dipped in wax, (which keeps


calcining)

the
it

mould

and, whilst
:

after the

it

is

for,

if

the metal a rag

melted surface

in flame,

you

do,

it

more
will

from

pour the metal into

metal in the mould

carefully, so as not to take

in another,

its

into

off in

is

cold, polish

one place than

prove a detriment to

the mirror.

The

;
;

MIXTURES FOR CASTING MIRRORS.


The

polishing

with a wheel, to which

viz.

to take oir the coarse crust

make

water,

smooth

jt

fixed a rough sand stone,

is

then with a fine stone and

and then with a wooden wheel,

covered with leader, and

from

on with emery, polish

laid

the streaks or spots, giving

all

217

beet done after the braziers manner,

is

it

the finishing stroke

it

with fine tin-ashes and blood-stone in powder, which you

apply to the wheel that


this until

it

has

is

covered with leather

Keep

a perfect gloss.

as possible, to prevent

its

tarnishing

continue

in as dry a place

it

but

if it

should tar-

you must polish it again with a piece of buck-skin,


After the same manner
clipped in fine washed tin ashes.
you may also polish the concave side of the mirror.
nish,

An uncommon Way
Take

of preparing a Mirror-mixture on
Brass.

strong distilled white-wine vinegar, one

sal-ammoniac four ounces

fine

vinegar

upon hot sand


boiled away
(this

boil

let this

is

some

very bright with

on a gentle coal

fire

until the

liquor

for the work;) then

dient

of the

it

is

it

pretty hot,
it

for

in

it

an iron pan,

dip a rag into

an hour together

what follows. Make a


with one part of quicksilver, and two parts of soap-

this

paste,

third part

the principal ingre-

take a brass plate; polish

the liquor, and rub your plate with

and

is

coal dust, and lav

when

pound;

quicksilver four ounces

lays the foundation for

your rag, and rub it upon the plate of


you have a looking-glass colour.
These plates, thus prepared, lay in the iron pan upon a
coal fire until you see they begin to turn to a reddish colour, which they will do in about a minute's time
with
tin*

in this dip

brass until

Soap-tin

is

not a

common

appellation.

It

may mean,

bably, an amalgam, of tin-foil and quicksilver, such as is


used on mirrors or, soap may be required to be added. Ed.

pro-

now

this

218

LABORATORY.

i'.THE

mercury

away, and the tin colour remains on the plate then let it cool, and take a little prepared emery upon a piece of leather, and rub the plate over
with even strokes, but not too long, for fear of rubbing the

this colour the

flies

from the

tin
lish

instead of with emery, po-

make

If the tin should

N. B.

may

You may,

brass.

also with tripoli.

it

use lead instead of

the plate too white, you

making

it,

a paste with that

and

mercury, and proceed as above.

By

this

means you may make what

To

Take
water

as

wash them

is

fusion

in

you manage

if

it

it

and then

in lye,

much powder of

the mixture into a crucible, and give


it

please.

cast Iron.

clean filings f iron

mix them with

you

figures

sulphur

a strong

right,

it

put

fire until

will cast clean

and smooth.

To

Take
break
neal

it

it

cajt Steel.

of the best and finest


into bits

put

it

in a

to a bright red colour.

steel,

about one pound

good strong

Then add

crucible,

and

sixteen or twenty-

common steel, and neal it thoroughly


add then eight or ten ounces of * arsenic glass give it a

four ounces of good

violent
*

To prepare the arsenic glass

and two pounds of good

take one pound of white arsenic,

nitre

put them into a new pot that is


little round hole in the middle ;

not glazed, with a cover that has a


lute

it

well all round, then let

it

dry, and

when

dry, put the pot in

and there will evaporate out of


the hole of the cover a red poisonous fume; which you must take
care of, and keep at some distance from it. The second hour,
move the hre nearer the pot ; and when the fumes cease, close the
hole with some clay
at the third hour put the coals close to the
a reverberatory fire for three hours,

pot,

MIXTURES FOR CASTING MIRRORS.


and

violent fire,
sition

melt and flux

will

it

with

39

this

compo-

you may cast what you please.

To

Take

Iron us

cast

and clean

tartar, nitre, arsenic,

each an equal quantity

on a charcoal

fire

you

steel

of

filings,

put them together into a crucible,

when

into an ingot, and


filings,

"white as Silver.

in fusion,

pour the mixture out

will have, out

of one pound of steel

about two or three ounces of a white bright mass

clear the top of the dross, and preserve the mass for use.

Another Method.

Take

tartar,

and a

oil,

little

fixed nitre,

potash, and mix these into a paste


filings into

a crucible

mixture upon
silver

but

Take

it,

and

brittle,

it is

set
it

it

on a charcoal

will

and apt to break.


mix it with

steel filings six

ounces

fire

the

fling

and come out

dissolve

calcined tartar, and

two ounces, and

purified

e.

i.

then put iron, or steel


like

Or,
oil

of this take

put them together

and set them in a wide furnace until


you think they are melted then open the crucible, and
make a fierce fire until you see the mixture rise theii take
it off the fire ; clear it from the dross, and cast it into an
ingot of what shape you please, and it will be of a white

into a luted crucible,

colour.
pot,

and give

it

a thorough heat: then let

it

cool of

itself,

and at

the opening of the pot you will find a white, sometimes a greenishwhite, stone, which put up in a dry
to prevent

its

warm

place free from the

"borax three ounces; grind well together, and


crucible until

have a

air,

melting: of this you are to take five ounces, and of

it is

keep

it

melt

in a large

cup, and you will

what is not used, you


from dissolving.

matter

fine transparent

iroin the air, to

let it

fluid ;-pour this into a refining

may

preserve

JIow

THE LABORATORY.

220

How

take Impressions with Ising-glass,

to

from Copper-

plates.

Take

much as you please


and put it into a glass, or cup pour on it
close it
so much brandy as will just cover the ising-glass
water
clear
pour
some
then
well, and let it soak all night
drop
of
it put
until
a
to it, and boil it on a gentle coal fire,
cloth,
through
a
then
on a knife is like a clear jelly strain it
cut

it

fine white ising-glass, as

fine,

and put

it

into a cool place

where

and be

will jelly,

it

ready for use.

When

you are about casting a

picture, cut so

much of

the jelly as you think you have occasion to cover the copper-plate with

dissolve

over a slow coal

utensil,

and mix any of the colours,

to be hereafter mentioned, amongst

copper-plate must be cleaned


fully

this is

but not too hot, spreading

in a moderate warm place

mean

while, your

with a pencil very even

it

to dry

is

covered

set

it

then

and when you perceive

thoroughly dry, then, with the help of a thin blade of a

knife,

you may

matter has been


it

done, pour your dissolved ising-glass over

every where until your copper-plate

it

it

then wipe the plate care-

with clean hands, as the copper-plate printers do

and when
it,

or such like

in a clean pipkin,

it

fire,

but

if

lift

it

made

up from the

plate

if

you

find the

more ising-glass to
more water, and boil

too thin, add

too thick, add

little

It again.

Of

the Colours Jit to be

mixed with

Ising-glass,

for Im-

pressions of Plates.
1.

For

red;

you have boiled

mix with

it

some of the

liquid in

which

scarlet rags.

2.

For

MIXTURES FOR CASTING MIRRORS.


For blue

2.

mix

221

take litmus, dissolved in fair water, and

it.

For green

3.

take distilled verdigrise

and mix

as possible,
4.

For yellow

5.

grind

it

steep saffron in fair water, and

gold colour

as fine

it.

is

made with

mix

it.

the above red and saf-

fron-yellow.

Gold,

6.

silver,

or copper, separately well ground, as

may be

for painting,

mixed with the materials,


If you first rub
the graving, the gold and silver will
severally

and poured quickly over the


black in

printers

plate.

look the better.

To

cast Plaster

First rub the

of Paris on Copper-plates,

colour, either red, brown, or black,

the graving, and wipe the plate clean


plaster as

you think you

shall

then mix as

have occasion

for,

into

much

with fresh

water, to the consistence of a thin paste, and having put a

border round the plate, of four pieces of reglet*, pour the


plaster

upon

it,

over the plate

and move
let it

it

so as that

it

may

run even

all

stand for an hour, or longer, accord-

when you find it


and turned hard, take off the reglets, and then the
plaster, and you will have a fine impression of the copper graving. You must observe not to mix more at a
time than you have occasion for, else it will grow hard being to the dimensions of the plate, and

dry,

fore

you can use

it.

Mixture which may be used for making Impressions of


any kind, and which will grow as hard as Stone.

Take
Paris, of

clean and fine sifted ashes, and fine plaster of

each an equal quantity


reglet

is

a ledge of

temper the mixture

wood used by

printers.

Ed.

with

THE LABORATORY.

222

with gum-water, or with


well together, and press

of parchment ~ knead

size

down

it

into

your mould

it

but

do not prepare more than what you use presently, else it


You may give it what cowill harden under your hands.
for black, take lamp-black
for red, verlour you please
;

milion

yellow,

for white, flake-white

Dutch pink, &c.

for green, verdigrise

severally

mix with

the

for

com-

position.

You may,
eggs,

which

instead of
is

more

gum

To impress Figures

Calcined

and

the whites of

or size, use

binding.

in Imitation

of Porcelain.

fine pulverized egg-shells,

gum-arabic and the white of eggs into

worked with
dough, and

then pressed into a mould, and dried in the sun, will

come

out sharp, and look

fine.

PART

EXPERIMENTS ON IRON AND STEEL.

PART

22S

VI.

A COLLECTION OF VERT

VALUABLE SECRETS
FOR THE USB OF

CUTLERS, PEWTERERS, BRAZIERS, BOOKBINDERS, JOINERS, TURNERS, JAPANNERS, &C

SMITHS,

CHOICE EXPERIMENTS ON IRON AND. STEEL.


To harden

SWORD-BLADES

Sword-blades.

are to be

made

tough, so as not to

Snap or break in pushing against any thing capable of


resistance

they must also be of a keen edge

purpose they must


oil

and

all

make them

butter, to

for

which

along the middle be hardened with


tough, and the edges with

such things as shall be prescribed hereafter, for hardening

edged instruments.

This work requires not a

little

care

in the practice.

How

to

imitate the

Damascan

Blades.

This may be done to such perfection that they cannot


be distinguished from the real Damascan blades. First polish

THE LABORATORY.

224-

Ush your blade


bing

in the best

manner, and

with flower of chalk

it

finish

it

hand

touch the polished blade, and

with

this

by rub-

with your fingers well together on your

water, and rub


;

it

then take chalk mixed with

make

spots

and set them to dry before the sun, or a fire ;


then take water in which tartar has been dissolved, and
wet your blade all over therewith, and those places that
a
are left clear from chalk will change to a black colour
at pleasure,

wash

little after,

all

off with clear water,

where the chalk has been

How

The

the

will

and the places

be bright.

Damascan Blades are hardened.

Turks take

and

fresh goat's blood,

after they

have

them therein
made
repeat
nine
times
running,
which
this they
makes their
blades red hot, they quench

their

blades so hard as to cut iron.

To perfume a Sword-blade,

so as to retain always

an odo-

riferous Scent.

Take
grind

eight grains of ambergrease, four grains of musk*

them together with

a little sugar-candy, in a glass ot


add to the mixture four scruples of
of benjamin, and mix it well together then

agate mortar

the best

oil

after this

hold the sword blade over a gentle, clear, charcoal

when

the blade

is

well heated, dip a

forementioned mixture,

though you do
will

this

little

fire,

and

spunge in the

and wipe your blade

all

over

only once, yet the odoriferous scent

remain, although the blade was to be polished again*

To harden

Steel

and Iron, which

mon

Take

shoe-leather, and burn

the leather

is

the better

will resist

and

cut com-

Iron.

it is

it

to a

for use

powder, the older


salt,

which

is dis-*

solved

EXPERIMENTS ON IRON AND STEEL.

225

powdered, of each an equal quansolved, and


what
you desire to harden and wet it
take
then
tity
therewith, or lay it in urine, and taking it out, strew it
over with this powder, or else stratify it therewith in an
glass-gall

earthen pan

and make

it

give

To temper

Take

it

for five hours a slow fire to cement,

afterwards red hot for an hour together.

Steel, so as to cut

the steel; then

distil

Iron

like

Lead.

from earth-worms,

in

an

mix with an equal quantity of


in this liquid quench the steel,

alembic, a water, which

the juice

of radishes;

blades of knives, daggers, swords, &c. and they will be

of an excellent temper.

Several other Temperings of Steel arid Iron.

Iron quenched

1.

in

distilled vinegar,

or in distilled

becomes of a good temper.


2. Vinegar, in which sal-ammoniac has been dissolved,
gives it a good temper.
3. So does the water in which urine,
salt, and saltpetre have been dissolved.
4. Mix together an equal quantity of saltpetre and salammoniac, and put the mixture into a phial with a longneck then set it in a damp place, or in horse dung, where
urine,

it

will turn to

an oily water

this

liquor will

works of an incomparable temper and hardness,

make

iron

if quench-

ed therein red hot.


5.

lye

made of

quick-lime and

salt

of soda, or of

pot-ash, filtered through a linen cloth, gives a very

good
quenched therein.
6. The dung of an animal which feeds only on grass,
mixed with water and calcined soap to a thin paste,
gives such a good temper, as to make it cut untempered
hardness to iron,

if

iron.

vol.

i.

c^

7.

Ox

THE LABORATORY.

'226

Or

7.

them on a
good temper

take Spanish radishes, grate

and express

their juice

this gives a

grater,

to iron

or steel quenched therein.

Take

8.

the juice of nettles, fresh urine, ox-gall,

and strong vinegar, equal quantities of each


gives an incomparable temper.

Red hot

9.

salt

mixture

this

iron or steel, wiped over with goose grease,

and then quenched

in sour beer, takes also a

A particular
Of

Secret

to

good temper.

harden Armour.

the following take an equal quantity;

common

orpiment, burned goat's horn, and sal-ammoniac

and mix them together

salt,

powder

armour with
powder upon them, and
wind a wet rag about them, and lay them in a fierce charthen quench them in urine.
coal fire, till they are red hot
If you repeat it, it will be the better.
black soap

all

then anoint the

over, strew this

To temper

Take

clean steel, quench

make

excellent Knives.

in distilled rain,

it

and the juice of Spanish radishes

water,

made

Steel or Iron, so as to

or

the

warm
knives

of such steel will cut iron.

Another Method.

Take
grater

black

put

and

oil

them on a
them stand

press

the liquor out, and

quench the

Tak i
files,

or

grate

upon them, and

or iron several times in

To bring G> avers and

old

let

or Spanish radishes;

Then

two days.
steel

salt

it,

and

other Tools

it

to

will

be very hard.

a softer

Temper.

pan with live charcoal, and put a couple of


any other smail bars of iron over it ; then lay
your

little

227
EXPERIMENTS ON IRON AND STEEL.
when you see them change

your gravers upon them, and


to a yellowish

colour,

them

softer

still

it

a sign that they are softer

is

and

you

if

let

them

they are quite soft and unfit for use

may

soften any steel that

General Rules

We

they change to a reddish, which shews

after this colour

to he

is

turn to a blue, then

after this

manner you

too hard.

observed in tempering of Iron or Steel.

know by

experience, that the tempering of iron


performed
and executed several ways for every
may be
mechanical branch requires a particular method of harden;

The

ing.

tools that are

used for wood, require a different

temper or hardness from those used in cutting of stone or


iron, and therefore are prepared, according to the several
methods treated of before an artist ought to acquaint himself with the powers of the different ingredients and li:

quors that are here prescribed, and improve upon such as

seem most promising. He is to observe the degrees of


which he is to give, and the length of time he is to

heat,

keep the metal in the liquor for quenching for if the iron
be made so excessively hot that it is not capable of receiving a greater degree of heat, it cannot well be quenched,
j

and

it

become cankered

will

fron or reddish colour,

quenched, for hardening

most other

curious

Take
thereof

it

appears of a saf-

and

called gold,

however, in

things, practice

is

is

this, as

a round iron, about an inch thick

it

round

iron

knob

under the knob,

fit

to

be

well as

the best instructor.

Method of hammering Iron without


making it Red Hot.

fix

hammer

but if

is

it

at

Fire,

one end

then begin gently

turning

it

and

to

quickly round

and by following your strokes harder and harder, the


iron will heat of itself, and begin to be red hot
be;

o^2

cause

THE LABORATORY.

228

cause the knob keeps the heat, on each of the motions,

from passing

off.

To

Anoint

1.

charcoal

with tallow

it

fire,

and

neal

it,

To

2.
it

soften Iron or Steel that

Or

3.

take a

your iron with


cool of

in a gentle

human excrement,

softens

two hours.
lime, and cow's dung; cover

in the fire for

it

clay,

little

it,

it

itself.

as above, with

but you must keep

over; neal

all

cool of

let it

is brittle.

and neal

it

in a charcoal fire

then

let it

itself.

4. Or, make iron or steel red hot, and strew upon it


good hellebore, and it will become so soft that you may
bend it which way you please this is very useful for those
:

who

cut in iron or steel.

Take

5.

lead, put

melt and pour

it

into a crucible, or iron ladle,

it

into oil

this repeat

and

seven times run-

you afterwards quench iron or steel in this oil, it


and after you have shaped or worked it
in what manner you please, you may harden it again by
quenching it in the juice of onions.
6. Take lime, brick-dust, and Venice soap
with this
anoint your steel, and neal it then let it cool of itself.
1. lake the root of blue lilies; cut them fine
infuse
them in wine, and quench the steel in it.
8. Wind about the steel some thin slices of bacon, and
over that put clay let it neal for an hour, and the steel
If

ning.

be very soft

will

be very

will

Take quick-lime and pulverized soap, of one as much


mix together, and temper it with ox's blood

9.

as the other

with
it

soft.

this

and
10.

anoint the steel

let it neal

Take

your iron or

then lay a covering of clay over

and cool of

itself.

the juice or water of


steel in

it,

and

it

will

common
be as

beans, quench

soft as lead.

A particular

EXPERIMENTS ON IRON AND STEEL.

A particular
from
Time

Powder and
and

Iron,

Oil,

to

preserve

to

it

229

take off Rust and Spots

from Rust for a

long

ve ry useful in Armories.

The Powder.

Take

two pounds of crucible powder, of such

commonly

used for refining of

fine hair sieve: then take four

silver,

and

sift it

is

pounds of emery, and one


fine, and sift

pound of silver ore pound them all very


them put at last fine beaten scales of iron
the powder is fit for use.
;

as

through a

to

them, and

The Oil

Take
iron pot

pour

it

three pounds of Lucca


;

oil,

and put

into the

oil

take

it

out,

and melt

repeat melting and pouring several times

heat of the lead has extracted both the


of the

glass

grind

fling three

it

it

again,

this,

and

and the

greasiness

take the lead out, and put the

oil,

well together

it

an

the oftener the

After you have done

better the oil will be*.

salt

into

it

then take three pounds of lead, melted, and

oil

and

into a

pounds of filings of lead into it, shake


pour it afterwards on a colour stone,

together as painters do their colours, put

into the glass, to preserve

the bottom, and the

oil

for use

it

swim

at top,

it

again

the lead will sink to

which you may use

in

the following manner.

Take some of it in a bit of cloth, on which there is


some of the before-mentioned Powder, and rub the rust
of spots, upon armour, or any other iron work,' therewith,

and
'
:

it

will take

Litharge

is

a drying quality

it

clean off:

now used
;

for

it is

if,

afterwards,

you anoint the

in a simiiar intention, to

merely a drying

oil.

make

the

oil

of

Ed.

armour

THE LABORATORY.

230

armour or iron work with

clear

oil,

it

will

keep from

rust

for a long time.

N. B. The emery which is used among the other


powder, must be first calcined.

ingre-

dients of the

Another

Fry

Oil.

when brown and

a middling eel in an iron pan, and

thoroughly fried, express

its oil,

and put

settle

and become clear in the sun.

with

this oil, will

never

although

rust,

into a phial, to

Iron work, anointed


it

lay in a

damp

place.

TO ETCH UPON SWORD OR KNIFE-BLADES,


To prepare

Take

the Etch-water.

mercury and aqua-fortis, put them together


till the mercury is consumed,
and it is fit

into a glass,
for use.

To make

Take

the

Ground.

three ounces of red lead, one ounce of white

lead, half an ounce

of chalk,

finely

all

pounded

these together with varnish, and anoint your iron

dry in the sun, or before a slow


steel,

or needle,

then etch

it

draw or write on

grind
let

it

and with a pointed


what you please and

fire,
it

with the above prepared water.

Another Water

Take

two ounces of

to

etch with.

verdigrise,

alum, and one ounce of dissolved

one ounce of burnt


boil this mix-

salt

ture

TO ETCH UPON SWORD OR KNIFE-BLADES.


lure in

one quart of vinegar,

and when you are ready

till

it

warm, and pour

to etch,

spoon, or glass cup, over your work

keep

fire to

warm, and repeat

it

this

231

half boiled away;

is

till

hold

you

it

with a

over the

it

find

it

etched

deep enough.

To etch 100 or more Knife-blades at

Grind

red lead with linseed

oil

once.

or varnish

with

this

wipe your blades all over, and let them dry well, and
harden then write, or draw, with a pointed bodkin, whatever you will then put them at some distance from each
;

other, into a glass or well glazed pot or

hot water, pour

vitriol in

glass or pot

some
out

set

pan

dissolve

some

over the blades, and lute the

over a gentle coal-fire

it

time, and then let

scrape the red lead

it

it

off,

cool

let

it

boil for

then take your blades

and you

will find the etching

to your satisfaction.

To make Blue

Take
blue

the blade

then, with

blade
oil

this

it

over a charcoal

colours, write

oil

upon the blade, and


strong vinegar

Letters on Sxeord-blades.

hold

let

make

it

will take off the blue colour

colour with fresh water, and

the letters

it

will

drawn therewith remain

till

it is

you will
when dry, take good

what

letters

them dry
warm, and pour
;

fire

it
;

come

all

over the

then wet your


offeasily,

and

blue.

To harden Fishing Hooks.

After you

have (of good wire) made your small fishyou must not put them into the fire to harden,
but lay them upon a red hot iron plate
and when they
are red, fling them into water; take them out again, and
when dry, put them again on the hot iron plate, and

ing hooks,

when

THE LABORATORY.
when they appear of an ash-colour,
into cold water; this will make them
232

they will be

Take common
of each

sible

salt,

saltpetre

or Steel.

and alum, an equal quan-

them in as little warm water as posthem through whited brown paper add

filter

leaf gold, or rather thin beaten gold, to

hot sand, to make

it

supply

rate,

and

put

it

with more

into a glass, and cover

it

and

keep

set
it

last let it all

it

this

stop your glass

on

evapo-

pulverize

with strong brandy, or

of wine, two inches high above the powder

spirit

it

in that

the water evaporate, you

if

but at

turn to a yellow salt

will

it

it,

almost boiling hot

heat for twenty-four hours, and

may

again

dissolve

then

them

tough, otherwise

brittle.

To gild upon Iron

tity

fling

then

warmth, and
the brandy, or spirit, will extract all the gold, and be
of a beautiful colour. With this water you may, with a
new pen or pencil, write or draw what you please upon a
sword-blade, knife, or any other thing made of iron or
and

steel,

it

will

close,

put

into a gentle

it

be gilded to a high colour.

Ground for gilding

Sttel or Iron.

Take five ounces of vitriol, two ounces of gall-stone,


two ounces of sal-ammoniac, one ounce of feather-white,
and a handful of common salt beat all this together until
put it into a glazed pipkin, add
it is fine, and mix it well
to it a quart of water, and give it a quick boiling then
take a knife, or any other iron that is clean, and stir it
:

about
colour
If
steel

if
it is

it is

of a copper colour

it is

right, but

of a red

better.

you have a mind to gild with this ground, put your


on a slow fire, and make it so hot that you cannot
bear

LEAD AND PEWTER.


bear

it

your hand

in

233

then take your ground, and dipping

wipe the steel with it take afterwards


then take the
quicksilver, and wipe your ground over
would have
as
you
places
prepared gold, and lay it on such
charcoal
fire
on
a
after you have done this, lay it
gilded
tallow
and
then wipe it over with
until it turns yellow

some

cotton into

it,

take cotton to wipe your blade, holding

over the

fire

until

it

all

rub

inclines to a black

until that colour vanishes

woollen cloth,

it

with chalk, until you bring

it

the while
it

and rub

to a fine gloss.

If

with a
again

it

you would

have the ground brown or blue, hold it over the fire until
turns either to the one or the other colour; then wipe

it
it

over with wax, and polish

it

with chalk.

OF LEAD AND PEWTER.


To make Pewter hard.

Take

one pound of
pan add to

in an iron

and

well,

add some
take

all

stir

it

fine

common
it

some

pewter, and

salad

oil,- let

let

it

continually, keeping the flame

wheat

flour,

and

stir it

melt

it

evaporate

from

well about

it

then

the burnt matter off the top, and to each pound

add three or four ounces of plate

mixed with

brass, filed small,

and

and a few ounces of pulverized bismuth,


stir it all the while, and when all
is melted and incorporated, you will not only have a pewter that is harder and whiter, but also different in its sound
from common pewter. Or,
Melt tin in an iron pan, strew colophony, or common
oil,

or regulus of antimony

resin,
stir

it

makes

with fine wheat flour mixed together, into


gently about
it

this takes

it

off the blackness,

and
and

of a fine white colour.


If

THE LABORATORY.

234

hard, add to each pound of tin one or


two ounces of pulverized regulus of antimony this makes
it white and hard, and gives it a clear sound.

you

If

Avill

have

it

Another Method

Take

make Pewter

to

as White as Silver.

clean copper one pound, and let

flux

it

add to

of the best English pewter one pound, and continue

it

the flux

to this

mony, and
into

an

and

fling

silver

make

colour
it

much

flux

find

will

it

into

melted

(after

you

then cast

you think

tin as

cast

may

the better, you

add a

it

powder,

a fine

to

of a fine

it)

be hard and give a fine sound

will

it

mortar

in a

this

thereof as

you

an hour

flux for half

Beat

ingot.

requisite

add two pounds of the regulus of anti-

let it still

to

bismuth.

little

0r,

Melt one pound of copper, add to it one pound of tin,


pound of regulus of antimony
let them flux for half an hour, and cast them into an
half a pound of zinc, one

ingot.

N. B.

There

many more

are

secrets

whitening and hardening of pewter.

perience, that the regulus of antimony will

To make Tin,

Take

which

sort

fling well dried

make

of these metals you will

and beaten

itself into a

After the tin or lead


Stir

it

together until

powder.
is

it is

salt into

for sifting

der into a pan of clean water, and


first

con-

it

let

stir it

water, and put fresh to

it

it

it

melt

well to-

separates

Or,

melted, pour

fit

it

or Lead, Ashes.

gether with an iron ladle, or spatula, until

and forms

to

good sound.

tinue white, hard, and of a

and

relating

found by ex-

It is

it

into fine dry salt,

then put

stir it

this

pow-

pour off the

repeat this until the water

conies off clear, and without the taste of any

salt.

The

remaining

LEAD AND PEWTER.

235

remaining powder put into a melting pot


beratory furnace

set

well together, and

stir it

it

in a rever-

you

will

have

fine white tin ashes.

A
Take

Gold Colour upon Lead or Tin.

saffron, as

strong gum-water
let

soak over night

it

honey

stir

it

as

you

then mix

it is fit

honey

and put

will,

it

into

a third part of vinegar, and

it

with a

it

well together, and

to the consistence of

a cloth, and

much

add to

strain

little

let it boil until


it

clarified
it

comes

afterwards through

Or,

for use.

Take linseed oil skimmed over the fire, and add powdered amber and hepatic aloes, of each an equal quantity

set

cover

your

it

it all

tin or

Water

over the

and

fire,

stir it

until

it its

over with earth, for three days.

pewter with

to be

it,

it

will

have a

fine

thick

If

then

you anoint

gold colour.

used in Tinning all Sorts of Metals, especially Iron.

Take
put

wash
it

it first

dip

fine

one ounce of

fine

into very sour vinegar

it

and

with this vinegar, and strew beaten resin over

into the

it

pounded sal-ammoniac, and


when you would tin iron,

come

out with a

shall have the Weight,

Hardness,

melted

tin,

and

it

will

bright lustre.

To make Tin which

Sound, and Colour of Silver.

Take
wash

it

fine crude

antimony beat it
becomes sleek, and

crystal

in water until

it

fine,

and

let it

dry

again.

Then
quantity

take well dried nitre and tartar, of each an equal


;

beat

them

fine,

and put them together into an

earthen pan, on which lay some live charcoal, and the


nitre

THE LAEORATOR.V.

236

and

nitre

tartar will

soon begin to fulminate

the pan with a

lid

you

will find a

yellow

fore

it

is

then cover

the matter burn out and cool, and

let

salt

this

beat to powder, be-

salt

quite cold, and put thereof, into a crucible, one

pound, and of the washed antimony two pounds. Mix


well together, and let it flux in a wind furnace for

them

three quarters of an hour

then

fling a little lighted small

them consume, and

coal into them, and let

them well

stir

together with a stick.

Presently after, take the crucible

out of the

let it

fire

cool of

down

to the bottom,

and

then break the crucible, and you

will

beat

itself;

it

little

find a silver-coloured regulus of three quarters of a

pound

weight.

Then
it,

take two pounds of old copper

and quench

made of

it,

cut

it

into a crucible, with one

much

the crucible, pour as


the matter

fill

it

on

oil

it

round with sand, and

all

hours in a circular-fire
will find

linseed

then cover and lute your crucible

new pan

neal

after

it is

open

cold,

while

it,

pound of

When

beaten arsenic, stratum super stratum.

fine

Take

the above tartar and rain water.

wet, and put

it

ten times running, in very strong lye

fine

all is

in

as will cover
;

put

set
it,

it

into

three

it

and you

the copper spungy and of several colours.

Of

two pounds, and plate-brass two pounds melt


these together add, by degrees, the copper, and give it
a quick fusion in a wind furnace
then add two pounds of
English pewter, half a pound of bismuth, and two pounds
of the above regulus let it flux well then pour it out,
and you will have a fine silver mixture. Beat this into a
mix it, with linseed oil, to a paste, and
fine powder
with a spatula add it to melted pewter stir it well together, and you will have a fine tin, which will resemble
this take

silver exjctlv.

To

LEAD AND PEWTER.

To make Tin flow

Take
them

to

237

easy.

and nitre, of each an equal quantity beat


powder, and strew them upon the tin, when in

resin

fusion.

A particular
Melt

Method

Silver*

and when in

tin,

fusion,

four

it

add four

and four ounces of regulus of

ounces of bismuth,
;

make Tin resemble

four ounces of fine plate-brass, add to

ounces of fine clean

mony

to

anti-

and pour it out into an ingot

let these flux together,

powder grind it with resin, and a little salammoniac, and with turpentine form it into balls
let
them dry in the air when you would use them, beat them
fine, strew the powder thereof upon the melted tin, stir
it well together, and continue putting the powdered balls
upon the tin, until you perceive it white and hard enough:
of this tin you may draw wire, for hilts of swords, or to

then beat

it

to

make

buttons

it

will

always retain

Solder, to Solder

Take
ounces

them

and

tin

lead, of

its silver

colour.

Tin with.

each one ounce

bismuth two

melt these, and pour them over a plate, to cast

thin

with this you

small charcoal

Another

Take

resin

and

fling into

them

* Asafoetida

may

solder over a candle, or a

fire.

is

Solder,

oil

little

let

devil's

for Pewter.

them melt in a spoon, and


dung* then pour them out,
;

sometimes called bv the name of Devil's dung.

Ed.

and

THE LABORATORY.

338

and having new

them with
hold

it

filed

the resin

the two pieces to be joined, anoint

dust

some

over

fine filed tin

when

over a coal-fire, and

it

flows, take

it

it,

and

off and

let it cool.

To make Tin Coat-buttons, in Imitation of worked


Buttons of Gold and Silk.

Take

lamp-black

grind

it

with

the ground-work with a pencil

oil

of spike, and mark

when

over with the varnish before described *

draw

dry,
:

the best

all

it

way

to

imitate worked buttons is, to do them in a fine mould,


either stamped or east
the ground is first filled up with
black, blue, red, or any other colour then the raised part
is to be wiped very clean, and when dry, to be drawn
over with the varnish, which will make it look much
finer than what can be done upon a plain button.
For a brown colour take umber.
For green take distilled verdigrise, mixed with othei
;

make it either deeper or lighter.


For grey take white lead, and lamp-black.
All your colours must be ground with oil of spike.
In this manner you may embellish pewter, with a coat
of arms, cypher, or ornaments; that is, such pewter things

colours, to

as are not to be scowcrcd*

The Art of making Tin Plates, or Latten.

There

are only certain sorts of iron

duced into leaves or sheets


that which, when heated, is
forged with a

hammer when

ceeding flexible,
rejected.

for that

which can be

purpose

re-

the best

is

and can be
the more soft and ex-

easiest extended,

cold

as well as the

more

brittle,

are to be

These leaves are drawn from bars of iron about


:v

See Page 2C0.

an

LEAD AND PEWTER.

239

which, being made a little


and fold them together into

an inch square,

they cut

flat,

parcels, each
batter ail
which
they
parcel containing about forty leaves,
hundred
pounds
seven
at once with a hammer of six or
into thin pieces,

After

weight.

these leaves
will

this,

the principal of the art

for the least dust, or rust,

is

upon

hinder the tin from uniting with them

might be taken off by

to prepare

their surface,

indeed

this

but that being both too tedi-

filing,

by steeping them
in an acid water for a certain time, and scowering them
with sand when taken out by which method a woman
ous and expensive, there

way

is

to

it

can clean more plates in an hour,

workman can

file

kept a mighty secret,

is

than an expeditious

This water, which

in several days.

nothing else but

common

is

water,

made eager

or sour with rve,

pains

they have ground the grain grossly, and


they leave it to ferment in common water for

which requires very

little

for, after

pounded

it,

a certain time, and with a

have an eager menstruum

little

patience they arc sure to

with

this

they

fill

troughs or

which they put piles of iron plates


and to
make it grow eager the better, and have more activity,
they keep these vessels in vaults or sioves, which have a
little air, and in which they keep lighted charcoal
the
into

tuns,

workmen go

into these vaults

once or twice a day

to turn

the plates, to take out such as are sufficiently cleansed,

and put others

in

their

room

and

the liquor

as

more

acid, or the heat of the vault or stove

plates

arc sooner cleansed

but

it

Germans

plates in acid

and

salt,

instantly

This

is

two
the method

use for preparing the iron plates for tinning.

In France they go another

common

more

requires at least

days, and sometimes a longer time.

the

is

intense, the

way

menstruums,

as

to

work

in

thev dip the iron

water wherein alum,

or sal-ammoniac are separately dissolved,

expose them to the

air,

in order

to rust.

After two days, during which every plate has been dipt
into

the menstruum twice or thrice, they are scowered.

These

THE LABORATORY.

210

These menstruums, though weak

among

the latter, vinegar

if you dissolve
pound or two in

little

produce

in themselves,

the effect as well as the stronger which are

much

dearer;

the most effectual, especially

is

sal-ammoniac therein,

about

puncheon by this means the iron rusts


sooner than with any other salt, but it must be used very
a

moderately, and the leaves be

any

to dissolve
face,

particles of

it

steep in clean water,

left to

may

that

which may otherwise make

stick to its sur-

rust after

it

it

has been

tinned.

In the preparation of the plates

must be observed, 1.
immedi-

it

In battering them, each parcel should receive the


ate action of the

hammer

not extend equally.

2.

in

its

Steep

turn, otherwise they will

them

or fuller's

in clay,

tempered with water, before you heat them, to


prevent their soldering with one another.
Whether, you make use of the German or French way,
in preparing your plates, it is absolutely necessary, after
earth,

the plates are sufficiently scaled, to scower

them with

sand,

and when there remain no more black spots on their surface, to throw them into fair water to prevent their rusting
again, and to let them remain, till you are ready to tin

them: the manner of doing

it

is

thus

flux the tin in a

broken pyramid with


which two opposite ones are less than the
two others this crucible you heat from below the upper
rim you must lute quite round in the furnace the crucible
must be deeper than the plates are long, which you dip in
downright, so as for the tin to swim over them. The tin
being melted in the crucible, you cover it with a layer of a
sort of suet, an inch or two thick, through which the
plate must pass before it comes into the tin (the use of
the common unprethis is to keep the tin from burning)
pared suet will render the success of the work uncertain
wherefore you prepare it by first frying and then burning
large iron crucible, of the figure of a

four sides, of

it,

which not only gives

it

a blackish colour, but puts

it

into

leAd and pewter.


intti

which

does surprisingly.

it

The
it is

24i

be tinned,

a condition to give the iron a disposition to

tin itself

must have a certain degree of heat,

not hot enough,

it

will not stick to the iron

for if
if

too

and a
dirty yellow cast.
To prevent this, you must make an
essay with small pieces of the scaled plates, and see when
be too

thin, of several colours,

proper order.

However, you dip the

hot, the coat will

the tin

is

in

into tin that

is

more

plates

or less hot, according to the thickness

you would have the coat some plates you only give one
laver, and these you plunge into lin that has a lesser degree of heat than that into which you plunge those which
you would have take two layers when you give these
plates the second layer, you put them into tin that has
not so great a degree of heat as that into which they were
put the first time.
Observe, that the tin which is to give
the second coat, must be fresh covered with suet, but
;

common

only with the

ed

tin is sufficiently

sort,

without preparation

disposed to attach the

for,

new

melt-

be

tin to

joined.

To

Take

gild upon Tin, Pewter, or Lead.

varnish of linseed

oil

red lead, white lead, and

them together into a clean pipkin, and


let them boil
then grind them upon a stone, and when
you gild pewter, take a pencil, draw the liquid thin upon
what you would gild, and lay your leaf gold upon it or
turpentine

put
;

instead of that, Augsburg metalj and press


to

make

it lie

Take

with cotton

close.

Another Method

to

gild Pewter, or Lead.

the white of an egg, and beat

wipe your
vol. i,

it

tin or pewter,

it

clear

which must be

first

with

this

warmed
before

THE LABORATORY.

242
before a gentle

on your

lay

The

such places as you design to

in

fire,

leaf gold quick, and press

juice of nettles

is

also

it

down with

and rather

for that use,

fit

gild

cotton.

better than the clear of white of egg.

Another Method

Take
gold-size

Method

to

several

ways

oil

gild,

but the best

with

let

gilt tin

polish

on

to take

wood

or any thing

be

it

is

your ground

leaves, press

or a fine rag, and

had been gilded

let

it

dry

them down
when dry,
it

will look

in fire.

To

Take

lay

this lay

with a horse's tooth or polisher, and

it

a fine gild-

gild with Pen'ter, or with Tin-foil.

on what you design to


then lay on your

as if it

it is

beautiful lustre.

This may be done

with cotton,

with cotton

it

white lead, ground with nut

else

them with common

with this wipe your pewter or lead over

and has a

gild Pewter.

leaves of staniol *, and grind


;

your leaf gold, and press


ing,

to

gild Lead.

two pounds of yellow ochre, half a pound of red

and one ounce of varnish, with which grind your


ochre, but the red lead grind with oil
temper them both
together lay your ground with this upon lead, and, when
it is almost dry, lay on your gold ; let it be thoroughly
dry before you polish it.

lead,

* Leaves of staniol are not

known by

ble that leaves of tin are meant,

Latin for

/".

tin (ignorantly called staniol;)

roborated by the following

article.

that

e. tin-foil,

and

name

but

it is

proba-

because stannum

is

the

this conjecture is cor-

Ed.

SOME

COPPER AND BRASS.

243

SOME

EXPERIMENTS RELATING TO COPPER AND

BRASS.

To make Brass.

This

done by mixing and melting copper and calacalamine is dug in mines about
it is burnt and
Mendip, &c. in the West of England
is

mine, or zinc, together

made

it is ground to a
powder, and sifted to the fineness of flour, and mixed with
ground charcoal, because the calamine is apt to be Clammy,

calcined in a kiln

red-hot

then

and not apt to incorporate then they put seven


pounds of calamine into a melting pot that holds about a
gallon, and about five pounds of copper, uppermost
this
wind
foot
with
tongs
into
a
furnace,
one
deep,
is let down
to clod,

wherein
pots

;)

it

remains eleven hours, (one furnace holds eight

after

melting

Zinc, reduced from

it

it,

its

is

cast into

ore of calamine,

lumps or plates.
may be immedi-

ately united to copper.

To melt Copper and Brass, and give

it

a quick fusion.

Take nitre, tartar and salt, and beat them together very
When you see that your metal begins to sink with

fine.

the heat, fling a

little

melted, fling again a

of this powder into

little

in fusion like water, fling

it,

and,

when

and when you observe it


a little again a third time to

into

it,

of
and be

twenty-live pounds of metal fling about a walnut size

powder, and your copper or brass

will cast easily,

of a malleable temper.

To make Brass

that is brittle,

and apt

to

crack in the

Working, malleable.

Take

tartar, nitre,

and sulphur
R 2

pulverize

them together

THE LABORATORY.

244
ther

and

after

over,

and

it all

you have made your


cool of

let it

A
Take

Solder for Brass.

one grain and a Quarter of

melted, liing

three ounces of

silver,

and melt them together


a good quantity of borax upon them.

one ounce of

brass,

brass red-hot, strew

itself.

zinc,

when

To precipitate Copper from Aqua-fortis.

Take

fine

milled lead

in the aqua-fortis
tate or sink

it all

cut

it

in

little

glass,

and

the copper be covered

will contract the

white.

If

set

in a glass furnace to melt

it

over with glass, and the glass

all

this several times,

old copper that has been

Open

air or

weather

clear

it

let it

melt

a smith's forge, or in a

make

it

look

your copper will

Or,

Take

smoke

it

Silver.

greenness of the copper, and

you repeat

be the whiter.

in

and put

will precipi-

your copper into a strong melting-pot, in the midst

of a quantity of
let

it

to the bottom.

To make Copper as White as

Put

bits,

which holds copper, and

much

used, or been long

in a strong crucible before

it

wind furnace, but take care of the

melt a quarter of an hour, or longer, and

from the

swim

scales that

at top

then pour

through a whisk, or birch-broom, into a sharp lye,

it

made

either of quick-lime and vine-branch ashes, or salt of tartar,

or such like, and the copper will corn fine and nice

then take

it

out of the lye, and

let it

melt again as before

repeat this four times running, in order to purify the cop-

when
when it

per, and

again

arsenic in,

by

the copper
is

is

well purified, melt

it

over

two ounces of crystalline


but avoid the smoke, and

in fusion, fling

little

and

little

tie

COPPER AND BRASS.


tic a

handkerchief, moistened with milk, about your mouth


after it has evaporated, or rather before it is

and nose

done, fling into

it

melted, granulate
again for use.

of

245

eight
;

it

be

to

lit

silver

make any

thing in imitation

Or,

silver.

ouivcs

is

It will

Take white
tartar

and when that

again through a whisk, and melt

two ounces of
it

arsenic half a pound,

pulverize each very fine

together in a crucible, and


for an hour or

more

nitre eight ounces,

borax four ounces,

ounces,

let

glass-gall four

then mix and put them

them

wind furnace,

flux in a

then pour them out, and you will

have a whitish yellow substance.


Then take one part of old copper, and one part of old

hammered

neal these
brass, both cut into small pieces
and quench them in lye made of a quart of urine,
an handful of salt, four ounces of white powdered tartar,
and two ounces of alum
boil them up together, and
;

well,

repeat

it

When

for ten or twelve times.

you have cleansed the copper and brass, put


into a crucible, and give them a strong fire,
let them flux
in a wind furnace, or before a smith's forge
well, and then fling of the above composition, which must
be pulverized, one spatula after another into the crucible,
thus

them together

it sometimes about with a stick


(to one ounce of
copper put an ounce and a half of powder) when all is
thrown in and incorporated, fling a few pieces of broken

stirring

crown-glass into

it,

and

let

it

melt

then draw

it o,ut

again

and fling sal-ammoniac into it, of


the bigness of a walnut, and when it is thoroughly fused,
pour it into a casting-pot, and your copper will be of a

with a pair of tongs,

tine white.
It you take of this copper twenty-four ounces, and melt
one ounce of silver amongst it, letting it rlux well with salammoniac, you will have a fine mass, which mav be

worked

into

what shape or

utensil

you please, and

it

will

hardly be distinguished from silver plate.


*

When

THE LABORATORY.

246

When

the silversmith works this composition, he must

observe always in the melting,

to

some

fling

sal-am-

moniac into it, to make it malleable and in hammering, he must often neal it, and let it cool of itself; then
hammer it gently, until it is as thin as he would have
;

it

for if

it

beat quick in the beginning,

is

will

it

be apt

to crack.

The more

metal

this

mered, the better


neal

it

then, rubbing

afterwards three

work

will

it

be like

will

it

nealed

is

When

be.

with

and

done,

is

and boiling

charcoal,

times in a strong lye

ham-

gently

work

the

of

tartar,

it

your

silver.

CHOICE SECRETS FOR BOOK-BINDERS.


To prepare a Lack Varnish for

Book-binders, for French

Bindings.

When

the book

skin, or with

covered, either with calf or sheep-

is

parchment,

it

is

ticle

struck over with a varnish,

under the arof " imitating tortoise-shell on ivory or horn :" some

and spotted with such colours

as are taught

spot the leather before they lay on the varnish

and

after

they have sprinkled their colour, which they commonly


make of umber, they Jay the varnish over, and polish it

with a steel polisher after which they give it one layer


of varnish more, which is the finishing stroke.
;

French Leather for binding of Books.

JMake
fine

at

choice of such leather as

strain

it

hand, take

on

first

frame

is

wrought smooth and

then, having your colours ready

of one sort, in a pencil

made of

hog's

bristles,

SECRETS FOR BOOK-BINDERS.


247
knock and sprinkle the cothereof upon the leather; and when you have done

bristles,

lour

and, with your finger,

with one, you


as

many

may

stick that is

rough

if

you would imitate

your colours upon the leather with a

skin, dot

a tyger's

at the

well dried, lay

it is

take another colour, and proceed with

colours as you think proper

it

end, or with a pencil

and after

over with a Spanish varnish, which

make in the following manner


Take a pint of high rectified

spirit

gum-sandarac four ounces, clear

ojl

pound the sandarac, and put


then into the

and

oil

of spike

it

of wine, of clear

of spike one ounce

into the spirit of wine,

let it

stand until

it

is

and

dissolved

settled.

To make White Tables for Memorandum Books t

to

write

upon with a Silver Bodkin or Wire.

Take

temper it with
and having strained the
a frame, wipe it over

of the finest plaster of Paris;

hartshorn-glue, or any other glue

parchment

tight

and smooth

in

with the said mixture, on both sides;


it,

to

same

make
glue,

it

even

then cover

it

and when dry, scrape and smooth

done, take ceruse, and grind

this

when

dry, scrape

a second time with the

it

it

as before

fine with linseed oil

that has been boiled


and with a soft hair pencil lay it
smooth and even on your parchment, or tables, and set it
to dry in a shady place, for five or six days
when dry,
;

wipe them over with a damp spunge, or linen rag, to


smooth them, setting them to dry thoroughly until fit for
use

what

then, with a sharp-edged knife, cut the tables to


size

you please

the pocket, with a

to

little

have them, and bind them,

fit

for

case for the silver bodkin, or wire,

to write with.

To

THE LABORATORY.

248

To prepare Parchment that resembles Jasper or Marble.

Have
article

a trough made in the manner directed under the


of " making marbled paper ;" let it be filled with the

warm

solution of

ready prepared, as
a

stick,

and put

it

gum
will

tragacanth, and having your colours

be directed,

stir

into a quick circular

the gum-water with

motion

in the in-

terim, dip your pencil, with colour, in the center thereof,

and the colour will disperse and form itself in rounds, as


it is carried by the motion of the water
then stir it round
in another place, and with a different colour proceed as
you did with the first, until your trough is covered with
variety of colours.
When all is ready, and the water
smooth and without motion, then lay on your parchment
(which before has been laid between damp paper or cloths)
and proceed therewith as you do with marbled paper
hang it up to dry, then smooth and glaze it in the manner
you do coloured parchment.
;

A Green

Transparent Parchment.

Wash the parchment in cold lye, until it comes clear


from it then squeeze out the liquor as much as possible:
if you would have it of a fine green colour, take distilled
verdigrise, ground with vinegar, and add a little sap-gveen
to it temper it neither too thick nor too thin
then soak
your parchment in this colour, thoroughly, a whole night
rinse it afterwards in water
strain it immediately on a
frame, and set it to dry then take clear varnish, and lay it
on both sides set it in the sun to dry after this cut the
parchment out of the frame into leaves, as large as you
please, and lay them in a book, under a press, to keep
them fine and straight the effect of this parchment is to
;

make

a small letter appear as big again; and

it is

a great

preserver

SECRETS FOR BOOK-BINDERS.

249

preserver of the eyes, especially to those that read

by candle

The

much

light.

varnish must be prepared of linseed

oil,

and boiled

with frankincense, mastich and sandarac.


If
rent,

you would have the parchment of a clear, transpaand white colour, only wash, strain, and varnish it as

above*.

you would colour it yellow, steep your parchment,


washed, in a yellow liquid, made of
it has been
for which purpose tie saffron in a thin linen
saffron
rag, hang it in a weak lye, and let it warm over a slow
If

after

fire
fit

and

when you

see the lye tinctured yellow,

it

is

for use.

For a Transparent Red.

Take

much as you will put it into a


and not too strong, and it will
tincture the lye of a fine red
then pour into it about half
an egg-shell full of clear wine
draw the parchment
through the colour, and when it is as deep as you would
hot

Brasil-wood, as

which

lye,

is

clear

have

it,

strain

it.

as before.

For a Blue.

Take

indigo; grind

it

with vinegar, on a stone, and

mix sal-ammoniac among

it,

to the quantity

of a pea

with this wet your parchment, and proceed as has been


directed for the green.

* This clear and white transparent parchment, might


glazing hot-houses,
glass.

and

cottages,

being

less

liable

to

suit for

break than

Ed.

For

THE LABORATORY.

250

For a

Temper

Violet or

Purple Colour.

tv/o-thirds of the

the blue, and use

above red, and one-third of

as before directed.

it

For a Black

Take

alum, beat

water, to a fourth

some powdered

Colour.

into powder,

it

part

then add

nut-galls,

and

boil

boil

it

in rain-

vitriol,

them together

your parchment twice or thrice over, and,

this stain

dry, lay the Spanish varnish over

With

and

Roman

with

with

when

it.

you may make


Rome, is made thus;

transparent parchments

these

One

curious bindings.

sort used at

lay the boards, or paste-boards, over with leaf-gold, or


leaf-silver, tin-foil,

parchment over

it,

or metal leaves, he. then binding the


will give

it

it

an

uncommon

lustre

and beauty.

To gild the Edges of Books.

Pound

bole-armenic

and sugar-candy together, and

mix with a proper quantity of the white of an egg well


this done, take the book you intend to gild,
beaten
which must be well bound, glued, cut, and well polished
;

screw

fast in

it

the press, and as even as possible

with a hair pencil, give

it

then,

a wipe with the white of an egg

then give it another wipe with


and,
when dry, rub and polish it
composition,
above
the
gold,
wet the edges with a
lay
the
on
well when you
well beaten, and let

it

dry

little fair

cut of

water, and immediately lay on the gold leaves,

the

due

size,

clean cotton wool;

pressing

when

them down

dry, burnish

it

softly

with

with a dog's

tooth.

To

SECRETS FOR MAKING INK.

251

To make Bed Brazil Ink.

You
wood
fair,

must

observe, that

first

you ought

ink,

for

to

do

when you boil Brazilit when the weather is

or your ink will not be so good.

Take

quick-lime, and pour rain-water on

stand over night.

from the

through a cloth

top,

and

it,

let it

In the morning pour the clear water


to a quart of this

take one pound of Brasil^wood shavings

let

water

them

boil

two ounces of cherry-gum, one


ounce of gum-arabic, and one ounce of beaten alum then
take it, when all is dissolved, from the fire pour it off
the shavings, and put it up for use you may also add to
half away,

and put

to

it

it

little

clear chaik.

To prepare

Take

new

Brasil Ink without Fire.

glazed pipkin, in which put two handfuls

of Brasil wood-shavings

and

let it

stand over night

pour half a pint of vinegar in,


then put to it a piece of alum,
;

big as a walnut, with a

as

little

scraped fine, about one handful

and

little,

into the pipkin,

and

gum
put

stir it

take also chalk,

gently, by

it

little

well together with a

stick, and it will begin to boil, as if it was upon the fire


you must set your pipkin in a clean earthen dish, before
you put your chalk in ; for as soon as the chalk is in, it

will boil over

when

into the pipkin,

you

will

have a

and

this ebullition is
let

it

put

it

again

fine Brasil ink.

To prepare Brasil Ink in

Take

over,

stand a day and a night, and

Brasil-wood

Sticks.

shavings, or chips

put them in a

pan, and proceed in every respect as directed in the fore-

going

THE LABORATORY.

252
going
it

after the Brasil is thus

and

into shells,

come

to

it,

set

to stand

made

in the

it

hour

a full

then take other

pour the top of the Brasil out of the

and

fling the

settling

away

first shells

sun, and, after they have stood an hour,

fore

this

do,

till

it

quite purified

is

consistence of wax, and put

piece of parchment
water, in a

little

and write or paint with


for colouring

By mixing

maps

will

it

to the

or in a

with wine, or

it

fair

you have occasion for,


a fine colour, and very fit

or prints.

the Brasil ink with a

have a crimson or purple

you

them,

as

it is

shells,

proceed as be-

then boil

in a nut-shell,

dilute

much

it

up

it

you may

cup, as

into

these shells also in the

set

for writing, pour


where no dust can

fit

sun,

little

ground indigo, you

and with a

white lead,

little

have a rose colour.

To prepare or extract Lake-coloursfrom Floxccrs,

Take

flowers of a red colour;

when rubbed

against

a large head,

fill

spirits
distil

of wine

fire

will

fall

distilled in

another

be extracted out of the flowers and

This coloured

into the receiver.


still,

will pass

be used again for the

like

if

but the tincture,

bottom of the
:

spirit,

without any colour, and

purposes

take out and dry at a gentle heat

in this

still,

which

manner you may

lake for painters.

To

Take

with these flowers

the spirit will rise into the head,

or colour, will remain at the

lay a

:)

herbs, and

make good

they stain white paper,

upon a common cucurbit that is filled with


put a receiver to it, and lute it well then

over a gentle

and the tincture

may

(if

they are good

it,

gild Paper.

yellow ochre, and grind

ground with

it

it

upon the paper,

with rain-water, and


ail

over

when

dry,

take the white of eggs, beaten clear with white sugar-

candy,

SECRETS FOR MAILING INK.


it all over
then lay on leaf

andy, and strike

when dry, polish it with a tooth.


Some take saffron, and boil it in
little

gum

with

it

it

over the paper, and

on the gold, and, when dry, they polish

lay

To make Indian

Burn

and,

and dissolve a

water,

then they strike

253
gold,

it.

Ink.

it on the fire
manner, burn some horsechesnuts, till no vapour or smoke arises from them.
Dissolve gum tragacanth to a proper consistence, and mix

lamp-black in a crucible, and keep

till it

has done smoking

with

it

ther,

in like

the lamp-black and chesnuts; stir them well toand put the paste into moulds, or form it as you

think proper, and the pieces let dry in the shade.

Another Method.

Put
oil

five

or six lighted wicks into an earthen dish

hang an iron or

venient distance, so
there

take

is
it

tin

concave cover over

as to receive

it,

the smoke,

when

a sufficient quantity of soot settled to the cover,


off gently with a

and mix

feather,

manner above directed.


Note, That the best and
soot,

all

of

at a con-

clearest oil

and consequently the best

up in the

it

makes the

finest

ink.

To ptrpare Blue Ink.


s

Take elder-berries, and press out the juice into a glass,


and put powdered alum to it add to it about its fourth
then dip a rag into it,
part of vinegar, and a little urine
and try whether the colour is to your liking if it is too
pale, add a little more of the juice; and if too dark,
add more vinegar to it.
;

To

THE LABORATORY.

254-

To make good Writing Ink.


It must be observed, that

according to the quantity

of ink you design to make, the weight and measure of


the ingredients must be either augmented

or lessened

thus for instance, if you wouJd have ten quarts of ink,

you ought

to take four quarts of water

of white-

six quarts

wine vinegar three quarts of white wine


the rest, by weight, accordingly.

and proportion

For a small Quantity of Writing-ink.

Take one pint of water, one pint and a half of wine,


one pint and a half of white-wine vinegar, and mix all
together; then take six ounces of galls, powder'd and
sifted

through a fine hair sieve

put

them

into a pot, or

by themselves, and pour on them one half of your


mixed liquor take also four ounces of powdered vitriol,
and put it into a bottle by itself, and pour half the re^
bottle,

maining liquid upon it to the rest of the liquor put four


ounces of gum arabic, beaten fine cover these three pans,
:

pots, or

bottles,

and

let

them stand

three days, stirring

every one of them three or four times a day

on the

fourth day, put the pan with the galls upon the

fire,

when you

keep the

see that

is

it

almost ready to

boil,

and,

down, and, whilst it is warm, pour it into another


through a cloth do not squeeze or wring the cloth,
but let it run through of itself; then add the liquor which
is in the two other vessels to it, stir it well together
let
it stand three days, stirring it every now and then
the
fourth day, after it is settled, pour it through a cloth into
a jar, or bottle, and you will have good writing-ink.
galls

vessel,

Ink

SECRETS FOR MAKING INK.

255

Ink for Parchment


Is

prepared in the same manner as the foregoing, only,


pint of wine

a pint of water, take but half a

to

half a pint of vinegar,

which together

will

make one

and
quart

Or,

of ink.

Take

three or four ounces of

gum

or four ounces of

arabic

with rain water, and

vessel,

powdered galls, and three


put them together into a

when

gum

the

is

dissolved,

then strain through a cloth, and add nearly half an ounce


of powdered

Take one

Or,

vitriol.

and put in it one ounce of powyou see it of a reddish colour:


then add to it six drams of green vitriol, powdered, and
let it boil again
when you take it off the fire, add six
drams of gum-arabic, and of alum the bigness of a pea,
dered

gall

pint of beer,

let

boil

it

till

both powdered

stir it till it is

cold.

Another Receipt for Writing-ink.

Take,

five

ounces of

ounces of gum, a

little

galls, six

ounces of

vitriol,

powder of walnuts, two

four

gallons

them

into an earthen pot, and add a little salkeep the mixture from moulding. Or,
Take for one quart of ink, one pint, and half a quar-

of beer

put

ammoniac,
tern,

to

of water, half a quartern of wine, half a quartern

of good vinegar, four ounces of


of

galls,

together in

quor upon
and,

when

a glazed vessel,
it;

stir

settled,

it

pour

often,
it

and four ounces

vitriol,

(both powdered by themselves)

then mix them

and pour the aforesaid

li-

more,
and you will have

during six days or

into a bottle,

very good ink.

Tfi

;};

THE LABORATORY.

256

To make Ink Powder.

Take

peach or apricot stones, sweet or

bitter

almonds

burn them to a black coal in an iron

ladle, or fire shovel

take likewise resin, and put

a ladle, and

flame and burn,

or a linen canopy put over


burning, wipe the

it

smoke on

in

it

catching the

smoke
after

in

make

the resin

it

skillet,

little

has done

a white paper, and put

it

up

you may use lamp-black


take of the said smoke, or lamp-black, one part of the
coals burnt of the stones, one part
of vitriol, one part
powder of galls, which first you fry a little in a ladle with a
little oil, two parts; gum-arabic four parts: let all be well
mixed and pounded together, and then keep this powder in
a leather bag for use the older it is the better it will be
when you have occasion to use it, temper a little of it
with wine vinegar, or water, made hot, (if you can have
it convenientlv), if not, you may make shift with cold.
This powder put into pale ink will immediately make it
black, and of a fine gloss.
for use

but, to save the trouble,

To prepare Red

Take

two ounces of

fine

Ink.

Brasil chips

the whites of

twelve eggs, and the quantity of a hazel-nut of alum


beat the whites of the clear eggs
the sun, or before the

them through a

strain

then keep

temper

it

Take
it

that

fair

dust,

all

and

let

the juice dry weil

and when you would use

water.

together in

them sometimes about

stir

only

it,

Or,

the best Brasil-wood, in chips, put

it

into a

cup

pour good wine vinegar over it, and


stand three or four hours to soak then take beer

or pot that
let

from

it

with

fire

cloth,

put them

is

glazed

is

clear

and

bright,

and mix

it

with clear pump-water,

about

SECRETS FOR BOOK-BINDERS.


about an inch above the chips

and take care

it boil,

boiled

some

walnut, to
the

and

fire,

and

as

it

on a gentle

does not boil over

it

much gum

let it boil

fire

after

it

let

has

powdered alum, the quantity of a


set it again upon
arabic

time, add

it,

set

257

after

has boiled a

it

take

little,

it

and strain the liquor from the chips put it into a


glass, and close it up, and you will have a fine red-ink.
If, instead of alum, you put a little sal-ammoniac to it,
off,

it

will

make

the ink look bright.

Yellow Ink.

Take the yellow cowslip


mon in the fields; squeeze

which grow comand mix it

flowers,

out the juice,

with alum
Saffron-water with a

little

alum, makes likewise a good

yellow.

To make

Gold or Silver

Letters, or other Characters, of a

Colour.

Take
per
it is

it

glass,

flint

or crystal

grind

it

to

powder

with the white of an egg, and write with

dry, take a gold ring, or a silver thimble, or

it

tem-

when

any piece

of either of those metals, and rub your writing therewith


gently over

and when you see the gold or

enough, glaze

To make

Take

dry,

yol.

i.

letters or

it

with writing-ink,

then

warm

Write

ornaments on vellum or paper

them

repeat going over

them, a body
leaves on,

mix

with a red or yellow colour, for gold.

therewith your

when

Letters of Gold or Silver embossed.

the juice of garlic, and

or, rather,

silver strong

over with a tooth.

it

let it

dry

again, so as to give

when you

lay the

gold

the letters with your breath, and close


s

the

THE LABORATORY.

253

gold with cotton upon them;

the

will

it

have a good

effect.

rare Secret

to

prepare Gold the ancient IVay,

paint or

to

write with.'

Take
the

leaves of gold, and put

so as to heat

fire,

times the quantitv,


to

warm

it

them

in a clean pipkin

in weight,

of the gold) near the

this done, take both pipkins from the

on

in another pipkin put quicksilver (four


fire
fire

pour the quicksilver upon the gold leaves, and immediately stir

together with a

it

little

stick

put

it

into a dish

which
you may work with strong vinegar, or the juice of lemons,
on a flat stone, to incorporate it the more then you knead
and wash it well with fair water, and strain it through a
lamb's skin, to bring out the quicksilver then take what
remains in the skin, and put to it half as much powdered
full

of

water, and you will have an amalgam,

fair

brimstone
in

fire,

stone

then

mingle

an iron

it

with the said paste, and set

ladle, or crucible,

burned, and

is

let

it

all

cool, putting

it

the rest

leaving
is

into a dish,

it till

it

on the

the brim-

of a yellow colour

and washing

it

with

you have a fair colour of gold then put it


and when you have occasion to use it,
dilute it with a little rose-water mixed with a little gum
you may paint or write with it as you please and
arabic
when dry, you may burnish it with a dog's tooth, and it
fair water,

up in a

till

glass phial,

will

be of a fine

To

Take

little

powder

write Golden Letters with a Pen.

sixteen leaves of the finest gold

colour-stone
for a

lustre.

sprinkle a

while

little

then grind

vinegar over
it

it,

put

and

fill it,

and mix

it

upon a

let it lie

with your muller to a fine

put this into a muscle-shell, with as

water as will

it

much

clear

together with your finger;

then

SECRETS FOR BOOK-BINDERS.


then

supply

with clear water again, stirring

it

finger, as before

259

and, after that, pour off the water, and

let it settle,'

repeat this

it

well with your

come ofF

you see the water

till

from the gold as clear as when put on

you have thus


cleared your gold, temper as much as you have occasion
for with a little clean gum water, till you see it will easily
flow from your pen
after your writing is dry, glaze it
;

after

gently with a tooth.

Fine Red Ink of Vermilion.

Take
put

it

much

as

lute

it

to
as

little

gum

Or,

water.

half an ounce of vermilion, or prepared cinnabar,

and put

into a gallipot

it

and dissolve

vermilion

beat up

it,

it fine with clean water, and


keep from dust when you would use it, take
you think you shall have occasion for, and di-

with a

Take
arabic,

vermilion, and grind

up

you
till

may

all

take a

little

water,

in

it

add a

little

becomes

Take
;

after

lum

vitriol, finely
it

has stood a

of the white of an egg to

Letters of Secrecy.

powdered, and pour clean water


little,

thus prepared

any other

the letter through a water, which

take a pint of water, and put

ounce of powdered
through a cloth

on,

write therewith either on vel-

or paper, and the writing cannot be seen

way than by drawing

gum

clear

clear.

An artificial Water for writing


it

powdered

and temper with your

galls

temper

it

into

it

together, and strain

put the liquor into a dish that

is

is

one
it

wide

enough, and draw your writing through


read

it

as

tents less

it, and you will


you do other writings to make the secret conliable to suspicion, you may write, on the con:

trary side of the paper, or parchment, with black writing


ink, matters of less consequence.

Another

;:

THE LABORATORY

260

Another

Secret, to write a Letter, xehite upon white,

which

cannot be read but in fair Hater.

Take

powder

alum, beat to a fine

be too thin

so as not to

ter,

mix

then take a

it

with wa-

new

pen, and

with this mixture write what you please upon paper, and
let

dry

it

into a

and

then

flat

let

him,

who

to read

is

bason, or dish, that

of an

in a quarter

hour the

will

appear

plainly seen

and

Or,

read.

it; he who
must hold it over the fire, and the writing
turn of a reddish or brownish colour.

Take

the juice of onions, and write with

would read

it,

The Manner of marbling Paper

Take
pan

lay the letter

letters

may be

white upon white, so that they

will

it,

with clean water,

is filled

clear

gum

tragacanth, and put

pour fresh water to

over the

gum

cover

it,

it,

and

let

it

is

it

till

it

or Books.
into an earthen
two hands high

soak twenty-four

then stir it well together, and add more water to


keep it often stirring during the day, and it wi-11 swell
when you find it well dissolved, pour it through a cullendar
into another pan, and add to it more water after it has
stood a little, and been stirred about, strain it through a

hours
it

clean cloth into another clean pan

keep it well covered,


any other thing from coming to it
this water, when you go to make use of it in marbling
your paper or books, must be neither too thick nor too
you may try it with your comb, by drawing the
thin
;

to hinder the dust or

same from one end of the trough


the water before

must add,

it,

it is

to the other

a sign that

in proportion, a little

it is

if it

swells

too thick, and you

more water.

Your

SECRETS FOR BOOK-BINDERS.


trough must be of the largeness,

Your

261

and the shape of

your paper, or rather something wider, cut in flag-stone,


about four inches deep.
.

After you have

filled

your trough with the aforemenevery thing for the work, (before

tioned water, and fitted


you lay on your colours) take a clean sheet of paper, and
draw the surface off, by dipping it flat, which will be a
thin sort of film
then have your three colours, namely,
indigo raixt with white lead, yellow ochre, and rose pink,
ready prepared at hand and, for each colour, have two
gallipots, in order to temper them as you would have
;

them, in different shades.


All your colours

The
more

blue

is

must be ground very


made deeper or

easily

fine

with brandy.

by adding

lighter,

or less white lead.

The

yellow used for

this

purpose,

is

either yellow orpi-

ment, or Dutch pink.

For

and white lead, each by

blue, grind indigo

in order to

mix the colour

itself,

either lighter or darker.

For green, take the aforesaid blue and white add some
it, and temper it darker or lighter, as you would
have it.
For red, take either lake, or rose pink, or, rather,
;

yellow to

ball-iake.

Every one

of these

colours

very fine with brandy,

or

ready to go to work,

add a

them
try

to

and,

ox

little

be

first

if

ground

when you
or

fish-gall

are
to

you may
by sprinkling a few drops upon your gum
you find the colour fly and spread too much

but this must be done with discretion

them,

water

are

spirits,

is a sign of too much gall


to remedy which,
add more of the same colour, which has no gall, and
when you see the colour retract itself again gently, it

about,

it

is right.

When thus you have your colours, and


good order, take a pencil, or the end of a

all

things in

feather,

and

sprinkle

THE LABORATORY.

262

sprinkle on your red colour

&c. Begin your red from No.

then the blue, yellow, green,

and go along your trough


3, all along to No. 4 :
the yellow and green put here and there in the vacant

No.

to

places

from No.

also the blue

then with a bodkin, or small skewer, draw a sort


figure through the colours, beginning from

of a serpentine

No.

when this is done, then take a comb,


1, to No. 2
and draw the same straight along from No. 1, to No. 2:
If you would have some turnings, or snail-work on your
:

paper, then, with a bodkin, give the colours what turns

you

please.

Now

you are ready to lay on your paper, which must


be moistened the day before, in the same manner as printers do their paper for printing
take a sheet at a time,
:

and lay

it

gently upon the surface of your colours in the

trough, and press

it

slightly

with your finger

in

such places

where you find the paper lies hollow this done, take hold
of one end of the paper, and draw it up at the other end
of the trough hang it up to dry on a cord when dry,
;

glaze it*, and

You may

done.

embellish

your
paper with streaks of gold, by applying muscle-shell gold
or silver, tempered with gum-water, among the rest of
it is

also

the colours.

To

silver

Paper, after the Chinese Manner, without


Silver.

Take

two

"scruples of

clear glue,

made of

strips

of

one scruple of white alum half a pint of


then, your sheets
clean water; simmer it over a slow fire
leather boiled

of paper being
large pencil into

The

is performed with a polished flint,


bottom of a pole, fixed vertically through a
transverse beam, and rubbed briskly over the paper.

glazing of this paper

fastened at
hole in a

on a smooth table, you dip a pretty


the glue, and daub it over as even as you

laid

the

can

SECRETS FOR BOOK-BINDERS.


can

of talk through a fine sieve,

263

powder
made of lawn, over it, and

repeat this two or three times

then

the

sift

hang it up to dry, when dry rub off the superfluous talk,


which serves again for the same purpose. The talk you are
to prepare in the following manner
Take fine white transparent talk, which comes from
Muscovy, and boil it in clear water for four hours then
take it off the fire, and let it stand so for two days take
it out, wash it well, and put it into a linen rag, and beat
it to pieces with a mallet
to ten pounds of talk add three
pounds of white alum, and grind it together in a little
land-mill
then sift it through a lawn sieve, and, being
thus reduced to powder, put it into water, and just boil it
Then let it sink to the bottom pour off the water
up.
from it place .the powder in the sun to dry and it will
become a hard substance. Beat this in a mortar to an impalpable powder, and keep it for the use above-mentioned,
free from dust.
:

To prepare Ink,

so that

what

is

be read but in a

Take

written therewith cannot

Dark

half a pint of goat's milk

Place.
a sweet apple, peeled

and cut; and a handful of touchwood, which in the nighttime seems to shine put these into a mortar, and beat them
together, pouring now and then a little of the goat's milk to
it
after this is well beaten, pour the rest of the milk to
then wring it through a cloth
it, and stir it well together
with this liquor, write what you please, and, if you would
read it, go into a dark cellar or chamber, and the writing
;

will

appear of a

fiery or gold colour.

To make

Take
it,

to

a pan

make

it

full

Red Paper.

fine

of water

into a lye,

and

put some quick-lime into

let it

stand over night

then
put

THE LABORATORY.

64

put Brasil chips into a clean pot, about half

with the lye, and boil

it

when

to half;

it

it

and

full,

fill

just hot,

is

add to it a little alum when you use it, mix it with a


gum, or size, and with a pretty large hair-pencil lay
.your colour on the paper, with an even hand.
:

little

To prepare

Ink, for drawing of Lines

evenly, which

Burn
colour
it

tartar to

may

to

write upon

be rubbed out again.

ashes, or until

it is

calcined, to a white

take thereof the bigness of a hazel-nut, and lay

into a cupful of water to dissolve

mix

much

then

filter it

to this

ground touch-stone as will cowith this ink rule the


lour it black enough to write with
when you have done writing,
lines you would write upon
only rub it over with the crumb of a stale roll, or with a
solution

as

fine

crumb of bread, and the


This

may be

To write

that the Letters

so

Ground of

Take
egg so

the

may

appear Wliite, and the

Parchment Black.

clean water, and temper

as to

be

fit

it

with the yolk of an

upon your
dry, and
so that it may take every where
or
large soft pencil, to make it of a good

for writing

with

strike

it

it

black;

through ink,
over with a

when

it is

write

this,

vellum, or parchment, what you please

draw

from the paper.

iincs will vanish

useful at schools.

let it

thoroughly dry, scrape

it

gently off with

a knife, and the writing will appear as white as the parch-

ment was before you wrote upon

it.

To make Oil Paper.

Take
water

the shreds of parchment

until

it

is

clammy, and

boil

them

like a strong glue

in

clear,

strain

it

through

SECRETS FOR CABINET-MAKERS, &C.


-

265

through a cloth, and with a large pencil strike it over the


paper when dry, varnish it over with a varnish of tur;

pentine, or Spanish varnish.

CHOICE

SECRETS FOR CABINET MAKERS, AND TURNERS.


To prepare a Black Colour for staining Wood.
ounces of iron filings into a new earthen pan
one ounce of sal-ammoniac, dissolved in a quart
of vinegar, and let it stand twelve days (the longer it
stands the better it will be ;) then take rasped logwood,
and thiee ounces of gall-nuts, pounded fine infuse this in

Put two

add to

it

a quart of lye made of lime

let this also

same

stand the

time as the above.

When

you have occasion to use it, warm both those


slow fire, and with the lye first strike the
wood over you design to dye, and then with vinegar repeat this until you see the wood black enough to your
liquors over a

liking

which,

after

and rub

it

wax

the

wood

with a woollen rag, and

it

over with bees-wax,

and

will look bright

fine.

To imitate Ebony Wood.

Take

clean and smooth box, and boil

Take smooth-planed
aqua-fortis,

wipe

it

and

in oil until

let it

pear-tree wood, strike

is

it

over with

it

dry in a shady place in the

over with good black writing-ink, and let

in the shade

black

it

Or,

turns black.

repeat and wipe the ink over

to your liking.

Then

polish

it

air
it

it

then

also

dry

until the

with wax, and a

woollen rag.

Another,

THE LABORATORY.

266

Another, but more

Method.

costly,

Dissolve one ounce of

fine silver in one pound of


add a quarter of a pine of clear water to it
strike your wood over
repeat it until you

aqua-fortis

with

this

perceive

to

it

be as black as velvet, then polish

it

with

wax.

Another Method.

Take

what

sort of

wood you

berry, pear-tree, or the like

alum-water, in a

warm

place

please, box, cedar,

steep
or,

mul-

for three days

it

if it

in

be in the summer,

which mix some vitriol


and sulphur the longer you boil it the blacker the wood
will be
however, you must not let it boil too long, lest it
should be scorched.
Or,
Strike your wood over with spirits of vitriol, anil hold it
over a coal fire repeat this until it is black enough
then
in the sun

then boil

it

in oil, in

polish

it.

Iron

Or,
steeped in beer and urine, will

filings,

make

good

Or,

black.

Put one pound of rasped Brasil into a clean pan

boil

it

in three pints of strong white-wine vinegar until the half

then pour it clear off; take also one pound


boiled away
of bruised gall-nuts, and put them into another pan with
water, and let them stand for eight days in the sun to soak
is

then put to

eight ounces of vitriol, and

it

together,

stir it

and let it stand for two or three days pour it off clear,
and add to this liquor the fourth part of the prepared
with this strike your wood over twenty or thirty
Brasil
;

times running

it

Then take
in common

spring-water

letting

it

every time dry in the shade.

fine silver, as

aqua-fortis

with

much

add

this strike

to

as
it

you please

dissolve

twice the quantity of

over the dyed wood, once


or

SECRETS FOR CABINET-MAKERS, &C.


or twice

set

coal black

An
Put
some

in the air to dry,

after

which, polish

it

will

261

be of a line

as before directed.

it,

fresh horse-dung, the moistest

of any Colour.

you can

upon

get,

one another, over an earthen


receive the liquor that drops from the dung
supsticks laid across

with fresh dung every time

it

and

Bye Wood

excellent Secret to

little

pan, to

ply

it

Then

it

is

drained until you

have a

sufficient quantity.

many

pots as you intend of colours, and put into each

divide the liquor into as

pot the bigness of a horse-bean of alum, and as

gum-arabic

and put
your

in the pieces

liking, take

in the liquor, the

you

may

which

much

then steep what colour you will in the liquor,

of wood, which, after

out and dry

deeper will be the colour

shade your

wood from

will penetrate so as

it is

the longeryou

stained to
it

remain

this

means

let

by

a deep to a light colour,

never to fade or vanish.

To Dye Wood of a Red Colour.

Take
wood

one handful of quick-lime, and two handfuls of

ashes

them soak

put

them together

for half

an hour,

and

into rain-water,

until

let

they are well settled,

and you have a good lye. Then take a new pan, in which
put one pound of Brasil-wood pour on it the said lye,
and, after it has soaked for half an hour, let it boil
when
;

it is

cold,

pour

it off"

take another earthen

one
pan

two ounces of alum

boil

and

into another clean pan,

ounce of gum-arabic into

it

with rain-water, and put into

it

iiing

your wood in it, and after it is well soaked, take it out,


and let it cool a little, warming, in the mean while, the
red colour, and striking

your colour

until

polish

it

is

it

over your

wood

repeat this

deep enough to your liking

then

with a dog's tooth.

Another

;;

THE LABORATORY.

26S

Another Red for dying Word.

Take
a

rasped Brasil-wood, and boil

fine red colour

The wood you


fron yellow
colour,
tooth.

then strain

it

after

it is

until

you see

it

of

through a linen cloth.

design to dye, colour

and

it

dry, strike

first

over with saf-

over with the red

it

it is deep enougli
then polish it with a
you put a little alum to the Brasii colour, it will

until

If

turn to a brown.

To Etch Figures upon JVood.

Take

melted tallow, and, having your table or board

of wood ready, form with

upon

will,

vitriol,

it

it,

may

manner, you

this

what

else

you

and alum, cover the board, over the tallow

nitre

stand, or repeat

let it

flowers, or

it

then, with a coloured water, boiled with

until the colour pleases you.

In

marble, or cloud, your wood, as

pleases yon.

To Marble upon JVood.

Take

the whites of eggs, and beat them up until you

can write or draw therewith

then with a pencil, or fea-

draw what veins vou please upon the wood after it


is dried and hardened for two hours, take quick-lime, and
mix it well together with wine and with a brush, or penther,

cil,

paint the

rub

it

wood

all

after

it

is

thoroughly dry,

with a scrubbing-brush, so that both the lime and

the whites of the eggs


it

over

you may

lay over a

mav come

off together

then rub

smooth and fine after which,


thin varnish, and you wilJ have a fine

with a linen rag, until

it is

marble wood. Or,


Grind white-lead, or chalk, together with water, upon
a marble very fine then mix it up with the whites of well;

beaten eggs, wherewith paint,

or marble,

as yr ou

think

proper

269
SECRETS FOR CABINET-MAKERS, ScC.
when dry, strike it over with a lye made of lime
and urine, and this will give the wood a brown-red colour:
upon this colour you may, when dry, marble again with
the whites of eggs and again, when dry, give it another

proper

brush with the lye

after

you have, with a scrubbingyou


over with the lye and your

brush, rubbed off the marbling with whites of eggs,

may

strike

work,
'

once more

when dry and

and of a

all

polished, will look very agreeable,

fine marbling.

Gold, Silver, or Copper-colour, on JVood.

Take

crystal, and beat it in a mortar to powder


then
on a marble, with clean water, and put it into a
with
clean new pot warm it, and add to it a little glue

grind

it

this strike,

wood

or paint over, your

when

piece of gold, silver, or copper, and rub

it

dry, take a

over therewith,

have the colour of any one of those metals


upon the wood, which you may afterwards polish.
and you

will

To colour JVood of a Walnut-tree Colour.

Take
walnuts

the bark of walnut-trees, or the green shells of

them

dry

have occasion

wood

and mix

in the sun,

for with nut oil

over with

To

boil

it

as

much

as

you

up, and rub the

it.

stain

Wood of

a fine Green.

Take
of
or

green nut-shells, and put them into a lye made


Roman vitriol and alum, in which let them boil an hour
two. To this lye add some verdigrise, finely ground

with vinegar
it

for

then take your wood, after you have soaked

two days

therein.

in strong white-wine vinegar,

and boil

it

Or,

Take

THE LABORATORY.

270

Take
vinegar

the finest verdigrise, and grind

add to

it

and the verdigrise


green

with

iitile

it

will

have a

the colour

is

filter

through a cloth

it

and put

it,

Polish your wood-work, after

in the

when

dry, strike

colour

coloured

it

oil

and

pour

you have

finished

be

it

with

marbling

directed in marbling of

it

off,

will

wood;

Take

it

of

oil

tartar,

or in-

extract a fine red colour: this

and put fresh


colour.

oil

to

the Brasil, to

Let these extractions dry

wood

to

muscle-shell gold or silver,

it

then draw it off again in


have a red for your use.

infuse

first

is

over, several times, with the following

more of the

extract

will

Brasil

Or,

rasped Brasi!, and pour on

therein,

it

gently

it

Take
fuse

manner before

let

then add

and fresh

diluted with size, or with the white of an egg


it

it:

intend to dye, and boil

The wood

liking.

thoroughly soaked in alum water.

your plane, and then lay on

clear

in

wood you

your

to

if

sap-green

little

quick-lime, and pour rain-water upon

rain-water to

fine

Colour, for Wood.

chips, together with the


till

stand over night,

of a grass green, put a

stand over night, and

more

with sharp wine

it

it

over your wood, several times

A lied
Take

let

and you

will settle,

this strike

you would have


amongst it.

tartar

Violet Colour

spirits

of wine, and you.

for Wood.

four ounces of Brasil, and one ounce of indigo

them together

in a quart

of water, and boil your

therein.

To

SECRETS FOR CABINET-MAKERS, &C.

271

To adorii Wood with Ornaments of Silver or Tin.

First

of

tin,

it

the

heated

by dissolving

it

stir

as to

Then make

an amalgam

over a gentle heat, and putting into

same quantity of
;

upon your
undermine the edges

carve, or hollow, your ornaments out

wood, in the best manner, so


on both sides of your strokes.

quicksilver,

which you

with a stick well together, and pour

when

have
into a

it

upon a marble, with


then fill up
and,
the carved figures, smoothing it with your hand
when dry, polish it. To make it more of a silver colour,
rub it over with an amalgam of silver-leaf and quicksilver,

pan of cold water

dry, grind

water, very fine, tempering

it

it

with clear size

and polish

it

with a dog's tooth.

Instead of

tin,

you

may

use bismuth ground fine with

water.

or trace all Manner of Ornaments on a gilded


smooth Pannel, the Gold being laid over with Black, or

To Emboss,

any other Colour.

First

gild

your pannel, or other wood work, as you are

directed under the article of gilding, and


dry, paint

it

all

when thoroughly

over smooth and even with lamp-black,

ground with linseed and nut oil add to it an equal quantity of umber, in order to dry it the better; after you
have set it for two or three days, or more according to the
;

time of the year, to dry, then,

draw

before

it

is

quite hard,

pounce what you design to emboss, and with a


blunt-pointed bodkin, horn, or wood, trace into the black
lay, down to the gold, opening the traces, and making
the gold appear in the best manner you can.
In birds,
plants, cattle, and such like, you must observe to take
the heightenings clear out, and leave the shade, by hatching into the black, agreeable to your design
the fine and
or

soft

THE LABORATORY.
hair, &c. you may

272

of the

soft shades

with a fine

finish

and when
you have done, let it dry thoroughly for three or four
days more then lay over it a clear varnish, which you
may, after it is dried, repeat a second time, and your
work will look beautiful.

pencil, with the black colour,

upon the gold

To

After you
which

is

do this upon a Blue Ground.

then take alum

have gilded your work,

not too coarse, mix

stone, adding to

it

it

with mortar on a marble-

the white of an egg

water mix your smalt, and strike

little

over the gilding

then,

when

it is

with this and a


it

fine

almost dry,

and even

sift

through

some of the finest smalt over it you may, if


you will, mix it with spangles of several colours
and
when thoroughly dry, wipe off what sticks not to it, and
proceed in tracing up your figures you design for gold.
The fine finishing strokes upon the gold, because they
a fine sieve

cannot well be done with smalt,

you

will,

varnish

it

may

mixed with white

sian blue or indigo


;

but

it

will

be done with Pruslead.

You may,

if

look better without.

VARIETIES OF

GLUES AND CEMENTS, FOR JOINING WOOD, STONE,


GLASS
f

An

excellent

AND METALS.

Glue for Wood, Stone, Glass, and Metals.

Take
til

ga
ot

the

good glue four ounces, soak it over night in distake a clove of


inegar, then boil it up therewith
beat or bray it in a mortar, and add to it one ounce
;

gall,

warm

Wring
glue

this juice

through a linen cloth into

then take mastich and sarcocolla, of each

one

GLUES AND CEMENTS,

27S

one drachm, sandarac and turpentine of each two drachms


grind the sandarac and mastich fine, and put them together with the safcocolla and turpentine into a phial pour
one ounce of the strongest brandy upon it, and let it stand
:

three hours in a moderate heat, well stopped up, giving

now and

then a shake

then

or beat

stir

it

add

this

also to the

together with a

warm

wooden

glue

spatula,

it
;

till

some of the moisture is evaporated* and the glue is grown


cold.
When you have occasion to use it, then take as
much or as little as your work requires, soak it in strong
vinegar, till it is dissolved.
If you use this glue for stones,
mix it with tripoli, or with some powdered chalk and if
for glass, mix, besides a little tripoli, fine ground Venice
glass
and if you would use it for metals, as iron, brass,
copper, put to it some of the finest filings you may also
add a little isinglass. And if you would have this glue
hold out or stand the water, mix it up with a strong var;

nish, as

much

as the present occasion requires.

A good Stone
Take

two

Glue, &r Cement for Grotto-work.

parts of white resin, melt

four parts of bees-wax


flour,

when melted

made of the stone you


much as will

three parts, or so

of the stone

to this

it

clear,

add

to

it

design to cement, two or


give the

cement the colour

add one part of

First incorporate all together

wards knead

it

together, add stone

flour of sulphur.

over a gentle

with your hands in

fire,

warm water.

and

after-

With

this

cement the stones, after they are well dried, and have
been warmed before the fire, in order to receive the
cement the better.

A
Common

Wood Glue,
melted glue,

"which stands Water.

mixed up with

linseed oil or

Varnish, applied to the places to be glued together, after

vol.

i,

thev

THE LABORATORY.

274

when thoroughly

they have been wanned,


and stand water.

dry, will last

Another fine Glue.

Take

isinglass

in strong

brandy

and mix with

and
;

common

them overnight

glue, soak

then dissolve them over a coal

little

tine

powdered chalk

fire,

make

this will

a very strong glue.

Another extraordinary Glue.

Take

sal-ammoniac, sandarac and gum-lac

them
them a

put to

little

turpentine

vessel, dissolve

it

and when

dust,

over a slow

it is

A
Take
of lime

when

common

the solution over isinglass and

soak and

over a gentle heat, and

in strong brandy,

dissolve

fire

all is

dissolved,

glue,

add

to

of a right temper, use

and

it

pour

in a close
glass-

little

it.

good JFatcr-cement.

one part of minium or red lead, and two parts


mix them well together with the whites of eggs.

Stone-glue,

whefewith you

may

glue either Stone or

Glass.

Take

white flint-stone in powder, dry and finely sifted;


it in an iron or earthen

then take white resin, and melt

powder

ladle,

and

warm

the glass, or what you design to glue together

stir

the

the places or joinings,

This
nets,

lias

and

been made use of

and other

in

it,

it

till it is

will

in the

like a thick paster


;

gild

add a great beauty.

embellishment of cabi-

things.

An

GLUES AND CEMENTS.

An

exceeding fine Cement

mend

to

275

broken China, or

Glasses.

Garlick stamped

and the juice

in a stone mortar,

applied to the pieces to be joined together,

and strongest cement for that purpose


little

is

and

the finest
leave

will

or no mark, if done with care.

Cement for broken Glasses.

Beat the white of an egg very clear, and mix with it


powdered quick-lime with this join your broken glasses,
china, and earthen ware.
Or,
Take isinglass, powdered chalk, and a little lime mix
them together, and dissolve in fair water over a slow fire
with which cement your broken glass, or china ware, and
;

set

it

to dry in the shade.

Take

Or,

mastich and turpentine

isinglass,

and cement your broken ware

and rather break


cemented. Or,

Take
glass,
is

in another place,

quick-lime, and

been boiled

mix

it

good

it

lute,

dissolve

them,

than where joined and

with this cement your


answer your desire. This paste
to lute a cover to an earthen pan,
;

will

You may add

or glass, retorts, he.

dry, they will hold,

with old cheese which has

in water to a paste

or china, and

likewise a

when

little

fine brick-dust

to it

A Lute

or Cement, for Cracks in Glasses used for Che-

mical Preparations, which will stand the Fire.

Take
Florence
tity

wheat-flour,
flask,

finely

powdered Venice

glass,

or

pulverized chalk, of each an equal quan-

fine brick-dust

one half of the quantity, and a

t 2

little

scraped

THE LABORATORY.

216
scraped

lint

mix

on a linen cloth

up with the white of an egg, smear

it

like a

and with

plaister,

cracks of your glass retort, or other glass utensil


it

dry before you put

it

it

enclose the

it

but

let

Or,

to the fire.

Take old varnish, and glue your pieces together tic


them close, and set them to dry in the sun, or a warm
when dry, scrape off the varnish that is pressed out
place
;

the sides, and

at

it

very well.

will hold

To join broken Amber.

Anoint

the pieces with linseed

close together over the

An

excellent

oil,

join and hold

them

fire.

Glue or Cement

Marble, Kc. in order

to

miv with

Stone, Glass,

piake Utensils, Images, and

to

other things therewith.

Take

of fine glue four ounces

of powdered sealing-wax
brick-dust one ounce
kin, with

si*

put the

of mastich two ounces

ounces

of finely ground

fish g!ue into a glazed

water, upon a slow

fire

pip-

and after you have

mixed your ingredient?, put it into the pipkin, and boil it


and what hangs together, use if you mix it up with
finely powdered glass, of anv colour, you may form it to
what shape you will and when cold and dry, it will be

up

as

hard as stone.

Another Cement, which

Take

pitch, as

much

as

you

with brick-dust and litharge

moisten the brick-dust

first

dries quickly.

will

and,

melt
to

it,

make

and mix
it

it

harder,

with sharp vinegar and a larger

quantity of the litharge, and

it

will

be as hard as stone.

Good

AND HORN.

IVORY, BONE,

Good Glue-sticks

Take

or Spittle-glue, Jit for Bookbinders.

two ounces of

on

mixed with

ingredients,

half, then take

flat sticks

boil weil

it

it

little

take that water,

over the two other

rose water

and
you please.

off the

or in any shape

it

fire,

let it boil

away

cast it. into

little

Water-cement, which grows the harder for being in


Water.

Take

mastich, frankincense, resin, and finely cut cot-

of each an equal quantity

melt,

powdered quick-lime, mix them up

A
Melt

stir

some

and, with

into a mass.

Cement as hard as Iron.

pitch, then take

grind-stones
iit

then take half

or parings, of white parchment, pour

through a cloth, and pour

it

above

ton,

gum tragacanth

a pint of water, and let

it

strain

slips,

half an ounce of sugar-

isinglass,

candy, and half a drachm of

an ounce" of

277

powdered sand, worn off from


boil up, and it is

them well together

for use.

SEVERAL CURIOUS

SECRETS RELATING TO IVORY, BONE,


To whiten Ivory
Boil alum
white

that

is

in fair water, so

into this put

AND HORN

become Red or Yellow.

much

as will

make

look

it

your ivory for an hour, to soak

rub
it

THE LABORATORY.

278
it

with a hair cloth, and wipe

or linen rag, moistened


dually, else

it

will

be apt

it lie,

dries gra-

till it

to split.

Another Method

Boil the

over with a clean napkin,

it

in this let

to

whiten Green Ivory.

ivory in water and quick-lime,

you see

till

it

has a good white.

To

imitate

Marble upon Ivory.

Melt bees-wax and tallow together, or else yellow and


white bees-wax, and lay it over your ivory then with an
ivory bodkin, open the strokes that are to imitate marble ;
;

pour the solution of some metal or other on them, and


it

stand a

little

while

then pour

it off,

and when

it is

let

dry,

cover those strokes again with wax, and open some other
veins with your bodkin for another metallic solution

number of

this repeat to the

and

colours you design to give

it.

N. B. The
a green

brown

By

solution of gold gives

silver,

colour.

on ivory,
ral

of

this

a lead-black

These

will intirely

it

a purple

of copper,

of iron, a yellow and

solutions well managed,- and applied


answer the design of the artist.

method you may

imitate tortoise-shell, and seve-

other things, on ivory.

To

Take
ammoniac

two
;

stain Ivory of a fine Green,


parts

grind

of verdigrise and one part of

them

sal-

well together, pour strong white-

wine vinegar on them, and put your ivory in let it lie


covered, till the colour has penetrated, and is deep enough
If you would have it marbled or spotted,
to your likeing.
sprinkle or marble it with wax.
;

And

IVORY, BONE,

AND HORN.

279

you may colour your ivory with any other


you prepare them in the manner directed, viz.
with sal-ammoniac and vinegar.

And

thus

colours, if

To dye

Make

Ivory, or Bone, of a fine Coral Red.

which take two quarts


pan upon one pound of Brasil wood to this
add one pound of alum, and two pounds of copper filings,
and boil it for half an hour then take it off", and let it
stand in this put the ivory, or bone and the longer it
pour

it

a lye of wood-ashes, of

in a

continues in this liquor, the redder

To

Take
put

In

will be.

stain Ivory, or Bone, of a

Black Colour.

of litharge and quick-lime, an equal quantity

them

this

it

into rain-water over the fire,

till it

with a stick

and afterwards, when you see the bone re-

ceive the colour, take the pan from the

bone

begins to boil.

put the bone or ivory, stirring them well about

the while,

all

till

the liquor

To dye Bones of

Take

is

fire,

stirring

the

cold.

a Green Colour.

a panful of clean water, and put into

it

a pretty

for twenty-four

large piece of quick-lime,

leaving

hours

the bones you intend to dye

for

pour

boil in

it

common

some time

off*

clear

water, wherein alum has been dissolved

then scrape them well, and put them into

the lime-water, mixt with verdigrise

then take them out to dry

may make

use

so

it

of urine,

boil

them

well,

and

you
answer the same

instead of lime-water,

which

will

purpose.

To

THE LABORATORY.

280

To dye

Put

Bones, or Ivory, the Colour of an Emerald.

copper-filings into

has done working,


leaving

and

boil the

bones

lime-water, or urine

then take

in

which has
boil one
ashes of vine-stalks, two
ounces of tartar, and eight
ed, pour

Keep

it

out,

alum water; then take quickit, Brasil wood, lackwood,


it

will

To make Horn

it

or any other Colour.

or madder, or whatever colour you please

Take

and when

put into

bones, or ivory, therein, and

month

be of a pleasant emerald-colour.

To dye Bones, Red, Blue,


First

aqua-fortis

therein for twenty-four hours

it

will

it

some

put in your wrought bone or ivory,

then boil the

answer your purpose.

soft.

urine,

been put by and covered

in this

pound of wood-ashes, or the


pounds of quick-lime, eight

it

this lye covered,

days, and

ounces of

through a flannel, and

it

will

be

salt

filter it

after

it is

for a

boil-

thus three times.

and soak the horn therein

for eight

soft.

Another.

Take

of this make a
wood-ashes and quick-lime
filter it clear, and boil the shavings or chips of
horn therein, and they will be like a paste you may colour it of any colour, and cast or form it into any thing
;

strong lye,

you

please.

To

;;

IVORY, BONE,

To prepare Horn Leaves

Take

AND HORN.

281

in Imitation of Tortoise-shell.

of quick-lime one pound, and litharge of silver

mix with some urine into a paste, and make


in what form or shape you please, on both
when dry, rub off the powder, and
sides of the horn
Then take vermirepeat this as many times as you will.
lion, which is prepared with size, lay it all over one side
of the horn, as also on the wood, to which you design to

eight ounces
spots with

it,

fasten

it.

For raised work, form the horn in a mould of what shape

and with the aforesaid paste and


then lay on a clear glue
(neither too thick, nor too thin) both upon the horn and
the wood on which it is to be fixed, and close it together
do this work in a warm place, and let it stand all night

soever

put

it

by

to dry,

the vermilion give

then

the colour

it

cut, or file off, the

about

it

rub

and linseed

it

roughness, or what

over with a coal, and polish

is
it

superfluous

with

tripoli

oil.

The work made in


natural
and may be

this

pilasters, pannels, or

any other embellishment

manner looks very

beautiful

and

used, by cabinet-makers, for pillars,


in cabinet-

work.

Another Met/tod

Take

to

counterfeit Tortoise-shell on

Horn.

of good aqua-fortis two ounces, and of fine

ver one drachm

let

sil-

the silver dissolve, and, after you

have spotted or marbled your horn with wax, strike the


it
let it dry of itself, and the horn will be,

solution over

which are free from

in those places

black colour.

Lay

the

wax.,

of a brown or

Or,

wax

all

over the horn

skewer, or iron, draw what you

draw open on the horn

will,

then, with a pointed

laying the figure

you

then pour on the above solution

let

THE LABORATORY.

282
a

stand

let it

little,

and, after you have poured

either scrape or melt the

and polish

wax

wipe

solution of

of the

To

it

may

you

silver,

made of

tharge of silver in a strong lye

or, instead

Horn

solder

boil

li-

quick-lime, so

it becomes of a black tincture


you may dissolve lead in aqua-fortis.

till

silver,

off,

it.

Instead

long,

it

with a clean rag,

of

together, after it has been lined with pro-

per Foils or Colours.

Take

two pieces of horn, made on purpose


either for handles of knives,

together,

thing else

lay foils of

to

razors,

meet

or any

what colour you please on the

in-

one of the horns, or, instead of foils, painted or


gilded paper, or parchment then fix the other piece upon
lay a wet linen fillet, twice doubled, over the edges,
it
and with a hot iron rub it over, and it will close and join
side of

together as firm as

if

made one

To dye Horn of

Take

two parts of

ammoniac

white-wine vinegar, and


green

verdigrise,

it

will

then put your horn into

you see
it.

a Green Colour.

it

one-third part of sal-

them well together

grind

piece.

pour on strong

be tinctured of a pleasant
it,

and

let it lie

therein

till

tinged to what height of colour you would have

Or,

Take

the green shells of walnuts

strong lye, with a

two hours

little vitriol

lay the

put

and alum, and

them

into a

let it boil for

horn for two days in strong vinegar

then put half an ounce of verdigrise, ground with vinegar,


into the lye

boil the

horn

in

it,

and

it

will

be of a fine

green.

To

JAPANNING ON WOOD.

To dye Horn of a Red

Take
stand

Colour.

upon

quick-lime, pour rain-water

pour

it

283

off clear, and put to

it

water, and two ounces of ground Brasil-wood


therein, then boil

horn
if you have soaked

it,

and you

let it

steep the

have a

will

for a while in

it

and

it,

one quart of clean


fine red,

alum-water, pre-

viously.

To

Take

Horn of

stain

quick-lime, slacken

over the horn

Brown

Colour.

with urine, and wipe

it

horn therein, and

it

will

turn

a green colour; wipe

to

it

over again with the same lime, and

it

with lye

let it

it

then take red curriers water, wash the

lay therein a

when

wash

dry,

whole day, and

it

be

will

of a fine chesnut colour.

To dye Horn of a Blue

Take
hot,

a brass bowl, and

wipe

it

water upon

Colour.

when you have made

over with sal-ammoniac

it,

stir

it

together, and

water, in which steep the horn

you

it

red

then pour lime


will

have a blue

the longer you let

it lie,

the deeper will be the colour.

OF VARNISHING, OR JAPANNING ON WOOD,

A
Take

&c.

White Vanish.

ten ounces of rectified spirit of wine, fine pul-

verized gum-sandarac two ounces, and clear Venice tur-

pentine

THE LABORATORY.

#34

pentine two ounces, put them together into a glass, and

cover them close with waxed paper and a bladder

then

on a coal fire, and when it


begins to be warm, put some hay at the bottom of the
pot, on which set your glass
then let it boil for two or
three hours, and the sandarac and turpentine will dissolve
and unite with the spirits then pour your varnish boiling
hot through a clean hair cloth, and put it up in a clean
This is an excellent varnish, fit to be used
phial for use.
take a pot with water, put

it

for

\r arnishing

light colours, as white, yellow, green,

and such things as are silvered or

A nother

Varnish fit

to

mix with Red or Dark

to japan

&c.

gilded.
t>-

Colours, and,

Work.

the

Take of rectified spirits, (that is, such as when poured


on gunpowder will fire it or, when a linen rag being dipped
into it, and lighted, will consume it,) one pound
of clean
gum-lac, a quarter of a pound grind it fine, and put it
into a phial, and pour the spirits over it
let it stand
for two days, shaking it once every hour
the third day
hang it over a gentle coal-fire, till it is well dissolved then
;

strain

it

through a hair-bag, and put

Another

Take
tartar

of the best proof

one pound

let

filtrate it

up for

use.

lac Varnish.

one quart, and calcined

spirit

the spirit stand upon the tartar, close

covered, for one day, in a gentle

and

it

through a paper

warmth

then pour

gum

white amber

six

ounces, (the

amber must be picked out of the clear

grind

all

pour on

ounces, sandarac six ounces,

fine together, put


it

it

filled

lac

two

pieces)

into a phial or matrass, then

three pounds of the filtrated spirit

must be but about half

off,

of this take one pound,

then shake

it

your phial

about for an

hour

JAPANNING ON WOOD.

2$>5

hour together, and keep it in. the matrass for two days,
shaking it once every hour when settled, pour it through
;

a hair-cloth, and

What

for use.

it is fit

sediment remains

the phial,

in

may

be used in

making another such quantity of varnish, adding

to

but

it

half the quantity of fresh ingredients.

Another

Take

lac

Famish.

highly rectified spirits of wine one pint,

four ounces, sandarac two ounces, white

white frankincense one ounce

mortar very

powder these

set

in the heat

it

and

after

of the sun,

ashes over a charcoal

when you

or, in

fire

it

warm

boil

it

sofcly for

pour

it

it

on

two hours, and

brown

and

colour,

hot through a hair-cloth,

in a clean phial for use.

A
Take gum

spirits

very close

winder-time, in a

see the spirits of a yellowish

-of a thick consistence,

and preserve

it

has stood three or four days, set

it

lac

in a stone

and put them, together with the

fine,

of wine, into a phial or matrass, stopping


place,

gum

amber one ounce,

White or clear

elemi,

gum

lac Va-rnish.

anime, white frankincense, and

grind them fine "put


them in distilled vinegar
then
pour off the vinegar, and wash the sediment with clean
warm water, and it will be of a white colour; dry it, and
grind it fine again
add to it one drachm of gum traga-

white amber, of each one drachm

them

into a glass,

and

boil

two drachms of white sugar-candy, both finely


ground put them by little and little into a matrass, wherein you have before put two pounds of rectified spirits of
wine and after you have put all the. ingredients into it,
shake it for an hour together then put it into a balneum
viarice, and when it begins to boil, let it continue so for
two hours then let it cool and after it is cold, let it stand

canth,

-,

for

THE LABORATORY.

286
for three days

and

close,

Take

decant

it is

then

it

off into a clean phial,

the above specified ingredients

negar, as directed

and

you have put

after

ounces

them

boil

tragacanth and sugar-candy, take of clear

to

oil

it

the

it,

furnished with a leaden ring, into a bath heat


that heat the turpentine

is

gredients, finely ground, to

it

with a wooden spatula, and

let

for three or four hours

dissolved,
stir

them

them stand

then take

it

and you

A fine

have a

will

six

when

add the other

in-

well

together

in the

balneum

and when cold,

out,

has stood two or three days, pour

it

gum

put them together into a strong matrass, and set

phial,

vi-

of spike, or

by

and

in

and of Cyprian turpentine

turpentine, one pound,

it

Or,

for use.

fit

stop

it

into a clean

fine varnish.

Varnish for Blue, and other Colours, which will

make them

bright, like Looking-glass.

be of a blue colour, paint it first


oil, and a little
give
you
it
another
layer, and
when dry,
may
turpentine
to
your
liking
and
when
this is
heighten or deepen it
If your table

to

is

over with indigo and white, ground with


;

thoroughly dry, varnish

Take

clear

it

with the following varnish

Cyprian turpentine half an ounce, sandarac

one ounce, mastich two ounces


mastich very line

then take

grind the sandarac and

of spike two ounces,

oil

oil

of turpentine one ounce, put them into a glass cucurbit,

and

gum
and

dissolve

it

over a gentle heat

set the glass, or

let

it

w ell
r

add

to

it

boil over a slow fire for an hour,

dissolved and united


phial,

the pulverized

matrass, into a pan with water

then

let

it

cool

and

all

preserve

will
it

be

in a

stopped, for use.

When

you use it first wipe your painted table, and


from dust then take some fine, and light, smalt
in a cup, or upon a plate, according to what quantity your
piece requires temper it with the above varnish, and,
clean

it

with

JAPANNING ON WOOD.
with a large hair pencil, glaze
over

which
again
table

glaze

dry in a clean place that

let

it

will

be in about three hours time

the oftener you repeat

and

if

you

will

is

then glaze

it,

of an exceeding fine

it

over

it

the brighter will be your


lustre,

over twelve or fifteen times.

it

A Chinese
of

have

287

you can all


free from dust,

as quick as

it

Varnish for all Sorts of Colours.

Put into a matrass a pint of spirits of wine, one ounce


gum anime, two ounces of mastich, two ounces of

sandarac or juniper gum, powdered finely together in a

mortar

then put them together into the matrass, close

up, and

hang

it

in hot weather, in the sun for twenty-four

it,

hours, or so long over a slow

the spirits are tinctured

fire, till

then

the

gum

is

dissolved,

and

through a clean cloth,

filter it

and keep it in a phial closed up. You may mix with it


what colour you please for red, use vermilion for black,
use lamp-black, or ivory black for blue, use indigo, and
white
Prussian blue, or smalt, and white lead, &c.
;

How

to

varnish Chairs, Tables, and other Furniture,

imitate Tortoise-shell

so as not to be defaced

to

by Oil or

spirituous Liquors.

First

lay a lac varnish over the work, as

instructed above

then lay

it

you have been

over again with red-lead and

yellow-pink, well ground and mixed up with the said lac-

You may do

varnish.
it

it

twice or three times over, letting

dry thoroughly every time before you repeat

which, rub

it

it

after

with Dutch rushes, such as the joiners and

cabinet-makers use.

Then

take dragon's blood, which

very fine

in a mortar,

and temper

you would be very nice, strain


and put it up in a phial for use.

it

is
it

a red

with

gum

beat

this varnish

it

if

through a fine hair-cloth,

The

longer

it

stands, the
finer

THE LABORATORY.

288

you may shade over


manner you can if
you over-cloud it again, you must have a darker shade and
to deepen your shades, you may add to your varnish a
little ivory-black, umber, or indigo
and work the colours

With

finer the colour will be.

your

this,

or other work, in the best

table,

When

together according to the best of your judgment.

you have done your work, and it is thoroughly dry, take


some pumice-stone, and make it red hot, and beat it to a
fine powder with this, and Dutch rushes soaked in water,
;

smooth, and, afterwards, with a clean woollen rag.


Holding it over a gentle heat, give it five or six more coats
rub

it

of varnish
it

should

but be careful

blister,

and

spoil

it

be not heated too much,

your work

tin-ashes,

the rough

side of Spanish leather,

e.

after

it is

putty, and sweet

dry, take

i.

lest

thoroughly
and, with

oil,

and give it
the finishing stroke with some tin-ashes and the palm of
your hand, wiping it till it has gained a fine lustre.

From

this direction the artist will

polish

make

it

further improve-

ments.

A very fine Indian Varnish.


Take
you

four or five quarts of such good spirits that,

light

a spoonful, will

Having

nothing behind.
it

fine,

and put

the spirit

it

consume

this

ready

when

and leave

in flames,

take gum-lac, beat

to the spirit into a phial or matrass

gum

be four fingers high above the

let

close the

by tying a treble bladder over it then put it on a


sand-bath,
hot
and let it stand till the spirit and gum are
well united and boiled but be careful to see whether you
perceive any bubbles rise to the top of the glass, for as
soon as you perceive them, you must take a needle, and

glass,

prick the bladder, in order to give


will

it

vent

else

your

glass

be in danger of bursting.

After which,

filter it

ther glass, and keep

it

through a

filtering

paper into ano-

close stopped for use.

JAPANNING ON WOOD.

289

you would use this varnish with colours, let them be


and temper as much of
first ground with rectified spirits
them as you have present occasion for with the varnish layit on your work, and when you think you have laid your
varnish thick enough, polish it, when dry, with Dutch
rushes
then give it a second polish with tripoli and sweet
If

oil

afterwards give

and

nish,

To japan

will

it

another layer, or two, of clear var-

and answer the purpose.

fine,

Gold, Glass, or any other Metallic Spangles.

icith

First

be

it

on your work with lac-varnish; then grind


Cologne-earth and gamboge with the same this varnish
must be bright and dear with these colours lay your work
lay

once or twice over

and

If your

for.

let

dry,

it

and then varnish it over,


else you design it

on the gold-dust, or whatever

sift

work

or table

is

large, lay the varnish

on one

place after another; for the varnish will dry in one part ber
fore

you have done sifting over another. After you have


your work all over, and it is thoroughly dry, then

sifted

give

twelve or fifteen layers more of clear varnish, after

it

\vhich,

smooth and polish

A
To

do

as directed.

veryfine Varnish,/ ?

you

three or four ounces, both very

upon

this

pour of the best

much till it stands


when dissolved, strain

of wine, so

ingredients

place

it,

Violin.

in the first,

eight ounces, sandarac


finely pulverized

(l

manner, you must have three


put of the finest gum-lac

this in the best

glasses before

rit

it,

closed up in a

still

rectified spi-

four inches above the


it

through a cloth, and

place, to settle

in a

few days,

the top will be clear, which you are to decant off in another glass, and preserve
yox..

i.

it

from
ft

dust.

In

THE LABORATOKY.

290

In the second glass, put of dragon's blood five ounces,


and of red wood three ounces; make a solution and extract of them, with the same spirit of wine.
In the third

dissolve of colophony,

glass,

e.

i.

common

two ounces and when the


whole is extracted, then pour the ingredients of the three
then
^lasses into one, stop them up, and let them settle
ounces,

three

resin,

aloes

pour off what

and

clear at top,

is

you

filter

the rest through a

find the varnish too thin, exhale

brown

paper.

over a gentle heat, and you will have, a fine red vaiv

little

which

nish,

If

it

pewter, and be of an excellent com-

will gild

position for varnishing of violins, See.

A choice Varnish which cannot


Take
it

four inches high

set

it

you

as

and pour highly

it,

after

please, beat

it

put

fine,

of wine over

rectified spirit

then close the glass with a bladder;

warm

twenty-four hours in a

for

dissolve

much

of copal, as

into a glass,

be hurt by wet.

oven, for the

gum

which, put the glass in balneo maria

to
till

the spirits and the copal are incorporated.

A good
Beat up

Varnish for Paintings.

the white of an egg, with a dissolved piece of

white sugar-candy, (about the


half a tea-spoonful of brandy,
let it settle for a little

it

may

becomes

a froth

then

while, and, with the clear liquid, var-

nish over your picture


since

bigness of a filbert) and

till it

it is

better than any other varnish,

be easily washed off again,

when

the picture

wants cleaning, and be done afresh.

A fine
Take
tity

marbling on Wood, or japanning.

of the best transparent yellow amber what quan-

you please

beat

it

to

powder

put

it

into a clean

crucible

JAPANNING ON WOOD.
crucible that

charcoal

fire

then pour

is
;

it

the beaten

together,
pencil

it

till

let

The

warm

afterwards clean

in a sand heat

it

them simmer, and

put into

dissolve gently

fit to be used with a


and you will have the
and although it be of a brownish

they are of a consistence

them through

finest varnish possible

colour, yet

Take

again to powder.

amber

strain

291

melt over a gentle


;

turpentine, and, in a glass,


it

let it

and stir it well, to keep it from burning


upon a smooth clean marble table, let it

and beat

cool,

within

glazed

when

laid on,

colours wherewith

it

a cloth,

has a fine clear gloss.

you are

to marble, are the fol-

lowing; lamp-black, brown-red, ochre, vermilion, which


are to be ground with linseed

with

oil

and white

ground

lead,

of almonds.

oil

For a white lay your first ground with linseed oil, and
there are any holes in the wood, fill them up with chalk
;

if

tempered with

For a black ground, lay

size.

lamp-black and size

when

the ground

is

it firsjt

dry,

with

mix the

vermilion with the above described varnish, and with a

on with an even and quick hand repeat


times till it is bright and fine, and lay the
then mix your
varnish, by itself, over it twice, or thrice
hair pencil lay

it

this three or four

other colours with the varnish, in an oyster-shell, or in

lit-

and with them marble upon the ground you have


prepared, in imitation of any thing you please.

tle

cups

fine Gold Varnish, wherewith

you may gild any

sil-

vered or turned Articles, with such Lustre as if done


with Gold.

Take

of the finest gum-lac, in grains, eight ounces;

gum

sandarac two ounces


dragon's blood, one
ounce and a half colophony, or black resin, one ounce
and a half; beat all together into powder, and put it
into a pipkin with a quart of highly rectified spirit
of
u 2

of clear

THE LABORATORY.

'292

of wine, which is strong enough to fire gun-powder


put it into a sand bath, and let it remain until it is
dissolved as

much

as possible

through a cloth, into a

then

let

it

cool

strain

it

separate the dross

glass, so as to

that might have

been in the ingredients. This varnish


on every thing that has been silvered or
tinned, three or four times, and it will resemble the
brightest gold.
If you would have the gold-colour still
higher, you only add about two grains of turmeric,
two grains of the best hepatic aloes, and one grain of
the finest dragon's blood, boiling them up, and strain-

you may

lay

ing through a cloth into another glass.

When
full

you would use

it,

set the

of water over a gentle charcoal

the varnish fluid

it

is

ghss into any vessel

fire, in

also requisite to

before you begin to varnish

order to

warm

make

the work,

it.

OF CORAL WORK.
To make Red Coral Branches, for

Embillishment of

the

Grottos.

Take clear resin, and dissolve it in a brass pan to


one ounce thereof add two drachms of the finest vermilion
when you have stirred' them well together, and
have chose your twigs and branches, peeled and dried,
take a pencil and paint these twigs all over, whilst
the composition is warm, and shape them in imitation
of natural coral, out of a black-thorn when done, hold
;

it

over a gentle coal

hand about, and


even, as

if

it

fire

will

turn the branch

make

it

ail

over

with your

smooth and

polished.

In

CORAL WORK.
In the
pare white

and with lamp-black, black

gentleman may,

glass cinders,

of large

293

same manner you may, with white

flant,

coral.

expence, build a grotto of


be easily had, pebbles or pieces

at little

which may

and embellish

with such counterfeit coral,

it

pieces of looking-glass,

oyster, muscle,

moss, pieces of chalk,

ore,

&c.

As

and

snail

to

the

bind them together, you have directions

how

it

under the

article

lead, pre-

shells,

cement

to

to prepare

of cements.

PART

THE LABORATORY.

204

PART

VII.

THE ART OF

PREPARING COLOURS FOR PAINTERS

';

WITH SEVERAL METHODS OF GILDING,

&C.

OF BLUE COLOURS.
To make, or prepare, Ultramarine.

TAKE
twice over

lire,

and quench

then grind

pable powder.

new wax,

and calcine

lapis lazuli,

charcoal

When

it

"on a fine

on a
Repeat this
hard stone to an impalit

in a crucible

in vinegar.

thus ground, take white resin, pitch,

mastich and turpentine, of each

frankincense and linseed


dissolve together over a

oil,

six

of each two ounces

ounces
let

them

stir them well with


them together then
continually stirring them

gentle fire

wooden spatula, in order to


pour them into clean water,
take them out, and preserve
a

it

unite

the mass, from

dust,

for

use.

When

you prepare your ultramarine, take twenty ounces

of the above mass, to each pound of the pulverized lapis


lazuli.

COLOUR-MAKING.
The mass you are to dissolve before

lazuli.

by degrees

in a pipkin,

and

whilst

in,

little,

it

is

and

powder

fling the

dissolving

after

and well incorporated, then pour

water, and form

vent

it

into

into

into a

it

it

by

your powder

tents or drops

little

295
a gentle heat,
little
is all

pan with cold


;

but to pre-

you must anoint them with


or drops you are to put again into

sticking to your fingers,

its

linseed oil

these tents

water, for fifteen days, shifting the water every

fresh cold

other day.

Then

take and put

them

into

a clean, earthen, well

glazed cup or bason, and pour warm water on them when


that is cold, pour it off, and put fresh warm water to it;
;

this

you are

to repeat until the tents or drops begin to dis-

which

solve,

When

then turn the water into a blue colour.

will

the water

is

of a fine blue tincture, and cold,

then decant that into another clean earthen cup or bason,

and pour more

when
on,

that also

warm
is

repeating this

water upon the remaining tents

coloured, decant
until

the

off and pour fresh

it

water

receives

no

more

tincture.

Let the tincture waters stand for twenty-four hours to

which you will observe a grcasiness on the


which, together with the water, you are to pour
off gently, and put fresh clean water upon the sediment,
after

settle,

surface

mixing

well together, and straining

it through a fine
bowl; the sieve will attract some
of the slimy or greasy matter that might otherwise remain
so, after you have washed your sieve, and retherein

it

hair sieve into a clean

peated the same thing with the next sediment, straining


it

through with clear water, three times successively, then

let

it

settle

Thus you

will

pour off the water and

let

it

dry of

itself.

have a fine ultramarine.

Another

THE LABORATORY.

296

Another Methods

Calcine

made of wax,

paste

and

lastly,

parate the
to

pitates

Mix up

ihe

then grind

it

powder with

and

pitch, mastic h, turpentine,

oil

wash the paste well in clear water, to secolouring part from the rest, which precithe bottom in the form of a subtile, beau-

blue powder.

tiful,

To know whether
made
it

Troublesome.

the lapis lazuli in a crucible

on a porphyry.

very fine

less

put a

red hot,

if

of

iittle

the

be pure,

it
it

if

you buy any ready


and on heating

in a small crucible,

powder keeps

genuine: on the contrary,

any black spots appear,

its

it is

undoubtedly

either spurious,

is

it

colour,

any change be perceived, or

if

or adul-

terated.

To prepare a curious blue Colour, little inferior


marine, from Blue Smalt.

Grind

Ultra-

to

fine, and proceed in every


have
taught
ala^e, in preparing ulbeen
respect as you

your smalt very

tramarine.

To prepare

Hammer
a

a curious

silver

thin

sharpest

distilled

vinegar, in

some sal-ammoniac,
so

it,

close,

as

and put

vine gar

nc.ii

over with qukksilvef

littie

over

Blue Colour from

may

into,

it

into a

raise

warm

on the

cover

it

is

very

fumes of the

very beautiful blue, ad-

off into a shell, and

the vinegar again, well closed

until all the silver

it

of the

place, that the

silver a
it

little

which you have dissolved


hang the silver slips

not to touch the vinegar

the silver slips over


this,

thoroughly, and rub

then put a

a glass

hering to the slips; wipe

peat

it
;

Silver.

hang
;

re-

corroded.

Another

COLOUR-MAKING,

237

Another Method.

Take
and

silver what quantity you please*


good aqua-fortis then evaporate half,
in a damp and cool place, and it will shoot
then decant the fluid clear from it, put

of the purest

and dissolve

in

it

set the glass

into fine crystals

them

the crystals into glass plates, and let

stand in a

place until they eifloresce, or run into a flour

them with
the open

as

air,

greenish hue

much

cicar

until

you see the mass become of a blue or

to

the silver that

the line blue

fine

it,

them together

set

and sublime them.

in

is

raised

After

this,

grind

the bottom of the matrass with

left at

is

ammonia, and sublime

fresh
ail

ammoniac

then put them together into a cucurbite with

head

a large

warm

then grind

and beautiful colour,

it

as before

this repeat until

then dry and preserve


fit

to

be used

in the

It is

it.

most curious

paintings.

Method.

Take
dissolve
sible

of the finest silver as


in cicar aqua-fortis,

it

when

remain

it

at the

is

much

dissolved, evaporate,

bottom

as

pour over

it

ment

at the

then pour

bottom

oft

for a

wiil

and the

and

as pos-

little

silver will

some sal-ammoniac

mixed with sharp white-wine vinegar;


turn clear

you

in quantity as

let

it

settle

and

the vinegar, and keep the sedi-

month, well closed up, to pre-

vent the least evaporation, and you will find a very curious
blue colour.

To prepare

Take

a Blue Colour from Verdigrise.

sal-ammoniac and verdigrise, of each

mix them well together with


this into a phial,

and stop

it

six

ounces

aqua-kali, into a paste,

close

let it

put

stand for several

days, and you will have a fine blue colour.

Another

THE LABORATORY

293

Another Method.

Take

sal-ammoniac one part, yerdigrise two parts, beat


to a powder, and mix them with a little white

them both
lead

then incorporate them together with aqua-kali

them

into a glass,

and close

in a loaf, and hake

it

it

Take

quicksilver

moniac four

them with

parts

and you

off

soon as the loaf

as

be ready.

Or,

water, put

it

will

put

two parts, sulphur three parts, sal-ammix and beat all well together temper

furnace, over a coal


arise, take

put the glass afterwards

oven

in a baker's

gh, your colour

isbak

well

them

and when you see a blue smoke

fire,

and

in a well glazed pipkin into a

let

it

cool; then break the utensil,

will find a fine sky-blue, not unlike ultramarine.

To prepare Blue Tornisel, or Turnsol, a beautiful Colour.

Take

sloes, before

which put

paste,

they are

full ripe,

in a clean earthen

earthen pan, put into

it

beat them into a

pan

take another

a quart of water, three ounces of

quick-lime, and a quarter of an ounce of verdigrise, and onefifth


it is

of sal-ammoniac

let

these things soak in the water until

tinctured of a green colour.

In twenty-four hours the

lime and verdigrise will be sunk to the bottom, then decant


off the water through a cloth, into another earthen vessel
add to it the paste of sloes, and let it gently boil over a
slow fire when cold, it will be of a fine sky blue then
pour that liquid into a clean pan through a cloth set it
on ashes and when it begins to be of a thickish substance,
then put it up in a bladder, and hang it up to dry. You
;

mav

also dip clean soft linen nigs into

shade
times

and when dry, repeat


these preserve in paper

it

it;

dry them in the

again for three or four

and when you have occasion

COLOUR-MAKING.
casion to use

soak one of these rags in a

it,

fair

little

water, and you will have a beautiful blue colour.

A Blue of
Take

egg-shells, calcine

Egg-shells.

them

them

in a crucible, beat

powder; put that into a copper vessel, and pour


vinegar over it which set into horse-dung for a month,
and you will have a delightful blue.
to a fine

To make Venetian

Take

Sky-blue.

of quick-lime one pound, mix and work

sharp white-wine vinegar into a dough


half an hour, and
in order to

make

it

when

hard, pour

soft

when done, add

of good pulverized indigo


it

let

to

which time see whether

again, as long as before, in the dung,


its

it is

it,

set

under horse-dung,

after

to

to

two ounces

mix them well together

set

come

it

with

it

stand for

more vinegar

into a glass vessel for twenty days

it

it

of a fine colour

and

it

if not,

will

then

perfection.

Prussian Blue.

Take

any animal matters, such

as blood,

of horn, clippings of skins, &c. &c.

by heating them

into a black coal,

together with an
coal in water

equal weight of

then strain

of strong concentration.

it,

the raspings^

and convert them


in a covered vessel,

alkali.

Lixiviate

and evaporate

This lixivium

is

this

to a degree

then to be gra-

dually admixed to a solution of two ounces of martial vitriol,

will

by
a

and four ounces of alum, when a bluish deposite

be formed, which

treating

much

it

is

rendered more intensely blue,

with marine acid.

Manufacturers proceed on

larger scale.

OF

THE LABORATORY.

300

OF SEVERAL RED COLOURS.


Lake, or Laquc.

beautiful

gam-lacca or
to

red colour was originally prepared iron!

which has given the name of lake

laqiic,

such colouring substances as are capable of attach-

all

ing themselves to the earth of alum, and of being precipitated in the

form of a red powder.

Several such co-

louring substances have been employed, viz. madder, log-

wood, Brasil-wood, kermes, and cochineal but the last


is the principal one employed, concerning which we shall
;

now

treat.

Take two ounces of


a quart of water;

water, filtered also through paper.

in half a pint

Make

of two ounces of alum

in a considerable quantity

(three pints at least.)

Add

of water

this latter solution to

quantities of fair

precipi ate

water, and afterwards

paper, and preserve the


Boil three

from the

powder

for use.

salts,

of

a solution

the for*

mer, gradually, so long as any ebullition appears to

wash the red-coloured

in

through paper, and

adding two ounces of peavl-ash dissolved

warm

them gently

cochineal, and boil

filtering the solution

arise;

in -several

filter it

through

Or,

pounds of the raspings of Brasil-wood with

three pounds of

common

salt in

three gallons of water

filter

the hot liquor through flannel, and

warm

solution of five

add to

this

pounds of alum in four gallons of


or have ready dissolved, three
pounds of the best pearl-ash in a gallon and a half of water, and filter it also
and put the liquor to the other, gradually, till the whole colour is precipitated.
If it be purple instead of red, add a fresh quantity of alum till a scarand then proceed with the sediment
let hue is produced
By the addition of half a pound
as in the former article.

water.

Nov/,

dissolve,

of

COLOUR-MAKING.

301

of seed-lac to the solution of pearl-ash before

it is

filtered,

a lake will be produced that wili stand well both in water

and

but

oil,

not so transparent in

is

oil

as without the

seed-lac.

The

may be

lake from Brasil-wood

also

ing half an ounce of Spanish anotto to each

wood

made by addpound

ot

the

but the anotto must be dissolved in the solution of

pearl-ash.

beautiful

work

lake

readily with

comes from China, but it does not


it is however total'y soor water

oils,

luble in spirits of wine, and

may

be used in nice pieces of

art.

To

Take

Lake from

Scarlet Wool.

clean water, about six or seven gallons, dissolve

much

therein as
iiltrate it

extract

pot-ash as will

through a

felt,

make

it

a good sharp lye,

or flannel bag, to

make

very-

it

let it boil well in a


in this put the scarlet wool
again,
and
the
lye
has extracted all
kettle, till it is white
the colour then pour it again through a clean felt or rag,
and squeeze out the wool then take two pounds of alum,
let it dissolve in water, and pour it in the coloured lye
stir
it well together, and it will curdle and turn of a thick conpour it again into a clean bag, and the lake will
sistence
remain in the bag, but the Ive will run clear from it and
in case it should still run coloured from it, you must let it
boil with a little of the dissolved alum, which will wholly

clear

curdle

it,

When

and keep the lake back.


the lake

water over
still

it,

remain in

chalk

is

in this

manner

in order to clear
it

take a

flat

in the bag, pour clear


from the alum that may

cake of plaster of Paris, or

then strain the lake through a paper cone that has

a small opening at the point, in


it

it

and when dry, put them up

little

drops, or tents,

upon

for use.

You

THE LABORATORY.

302

You must

observe, that in case the liquor should

you must

short in boiling the wool,

fall

warm

recruit with

water.
If you can get the parings of scarlet cloth,

much

yourself

you will save


by only boiling them in the lye,
has been directed. This last method is

trouble,

and proceeding

as

practised by the French, in preparing their beautiful colour


called

Carmine.

To make

Take
phur

two

fine Vermilion.

when

cold, grind

glass,

which before-hand has been

it

of lute an inch thick


glass to stand in

a cover of
glass,

and one-third of

parts of quicksilver,

sul-

put them into a pipkin, and melt them together

and

tin,

lute

well upon a stone, and put

set this

with a
it

all

make

then

on a

into a

over with a coating

a coffin of clay, for the

over a slow

trivet,

fire

put

hole in the middle, upon the

little

round

laid

it

put an iron wire through the

augment your lire by degrees, and


watch your glass carefully (for you will see a coloured
smoke proceed from the matter in the glass) keep on
augmenting your fire, till vou see the smoke become of a
red crimson colour, then it is enough take it off the fire
let it cool, and vou will have a fine vermilion.
Before you use it to paint or write with, take as much
vermilion as you will, and grind it well with good whitewine, on a stone, and, after that, with the whites of
eggs add a little hepatic aloes to it, and make it up into
little cakes
when drv, put them by for use. When you
hole, to

stir it

about

use them, grind or dilute

them with

clear

pump

water,

and a little white of eggs; and if it will not flow readily


from the pen, mix a little myrrh with it.

How

COLOUR-MAKING.

How

The

purify Vermilion.

to

vermilion being

which

impurities

made of mercury and

sulphur, the

has contracted from those minerals

it

must be separated, and


ner

30^

this is

in the following

done

man-

Grind the pieces of vermilion with water, upon a stone,


and put them on glazed plates to dry then pour urine
upon them, and mix them thoroughly with it, so that it
;

may swim
milion
it

is

let it

cessively,

over

it

settled,

stand
till

all

thus stand, and,

let it

night

then pour the

is

well cleansed

mix

it

up therewith, and

it

together with a spatula of wood, and let


settled,

the ver-

repeat this four or five days suc-

the vermilion

white of eggs over

when

when

pour off that urine, and put fresh upon

pour

it

it

and put fresh on

off,

stir it

well

stand again
;

repeat this

three or four times, covering your vessel every time close,


to

keep the dust from

falling into

diminish the beauty of the colour


this vermilion, dilute

Grind vermilion
wine, and set
If
free
little

it

it

with gum-water.

Or,

in the urine of a child, or in spirits

of

to dry in the sun.

you would have the vermilion of a high colour, and


from a black hue, put into the spirits, or urine, a
saffron, and grind your vermilion with it.

To make

Melt
of

which else would


when you would use
it,

warm

one pound of
quicksilver to

a fine Purple Colour.


tin
it

which put two ounces


them together, till it is an

after

stir

amalgam then take sulphur and sal-ammoniac, of each


one pound grind fine, and mix it up with the amalgam,
in a stone mortar or wooden bowl
put it into a glass
which is well coated with clay, and set it, first, over a
;

gentle

fire,

augmenting

it

by degrees, so

as to

keep

it

in

one

THE LABORATORY.

304

one uniform motion


when you perceive it
the

fire

let it cool,

stir

to

the matter with a stick, and,

be of a yellow colour, take

and you

will

have a

it

off

fine gold colour,

besides a beautiful purple.

COLOURS EXTRACTED FROM FLOWERS,


JIoic to extract Yellow, Blue, Violet,

Prepare

&c.

and other Colours.

a middling sharp lye from lime, or pot-ash

in this boil the flowers, or leaves, of single colours, ovei

a slow

fire,

till

the tincture of the flowers

is

quite extract-

which you may know when the leaves turn pale, and
the lye is of a fine colour.
This lye put afterwards into,
a glazed pipkin or pan, and boil it a little, putting in some
alum then pour the lees off into a pan with clean water,
and you will see the colour precipitate to the bottom let
it settle well
then pour that water off, and add fresh
repeat this till the powder is entirely cleansed from the lye
and alum and the freer it is therefrom, the finer will be
your colour. The sediment is a line lake, which spread
upon linen cloth, on clean tiles in the shade, to dry.
You may dry your colours upon a plate of plaster of
Paris, or, for want of that, on a piece of chalk
either of
them will do to dry the colours quicker than the method
ed,

above.

To

the receipt for extracting the tinctures from flowers,

leaves, herbs,

already

themselves,

leaves

add,

inserted,

preserve the

colour.

and plants, by

first

that

distillation,
it

droppings that

as they

Care must

will
fail

yield the finest

which has been

be
in

adviseable

to

the receiver, by

and most beautiful

also be taken, not to bruise the tender

of the flowers,

else

the

coarse juice will

distil

alone:

COLOUR-MAKING.
and make it

along with the tincture,

305
of an unpleasant

Such leaves that are firm and strong require not

hue.

that care.

Kuhkel's Method of

extracting the Colours

Flowers,

Take

highly rectified

a herb, or flower

and,

spirits
if

from

S(c.

of wine, and pour

over

it

the leaves of the plants are large

and coarse, cut them small, but leave the leaves of flowers
whole as soon as the spirits are tinctured, and both co:

lours of an equal tint *, put

each apart by

differ,

set

spirits

of wine from

it

the cucurbit, and put

them together
after

itself;

to a very
it

little,

but if they

which,

the

distil

so as to take

it

off

into a china tea saucer, a glass

cup, or a small matrass, and so let

slow

fire

till

quite dry

it

this

it evaporate over a
comes to some thickness, or, if you will,
must be done very slowly, on account of

the tenderness of the colour.

Some

flowers will

change their colours and produce

quite different ones, and this the blue flowers are


ject to
ful

to

most

sub*-

prevent which, one must be very slow and care-

in distilling

them.

There

is

never so

much

trouble

with any other coloured flowers as the blue ones, and yet

seldom obtained a blue colour from flowers, to


The whole matter depends chiefly upon
care practice will be the best instructor.
By this method one may plainly see what flowers or
plants are fit for use
for, by only infusing some in a little
spirits of wine, it will soon shew what colours they will
there

is

the satisfaction.
:

produce.
* This direction

is

far

from clear

it

seems that the herbs and

flowers are separately put in spirits; but the mixing of


incorrect.

vol.

I.

them

is

Ed.

OF

THE LABORATORY.

306

OF YELLOW COLOURS.
True Naples' Yellow.

Take twelve ounces of white lead, one ounce of alum,


one ounce of sal-ammoniac, and three ounces of diaphoput them into an unglazed pipkin, and
retic antimony
expose them in a moderate heat for the space of eight
,

hours.

Thus

the artists

will a beautiful

yellow be obtained, such as

of Italy term Giallolino.

Masticot, or Massicot.

Take

any quantity of white lead

and expose
low, which

it

to a degree of heat

may

put

it

into a crucible,

that will turn

it

yel-

be exactly ascertained by inspection only.

Orange Colour.

Boil four ounces of the best Spanish anotto, and one


pound of pearl-ash, for the space of half an hour, in one
Strain the tincture, and mix it gradually
gallon of water.
with a solution of a pound and a half of alum to six
quarts of water, desisting when no ebullition ensues.
Treat the sediment as
it

in square bits, or

is

usual in preparing lake, and dry

round lozenges.

OF GREEN COLOURS.
Ho-j) to

Take

make good

of sharp vinegar as

copper flakes one pound,

salt

Verdigrise.

much

as

you

will,

of clean

three quarters of a pound,


red

COLOUR-MAKING.

307

red tartar eight ounces, sal-ammoniac two ounces, leaven


beat, what is to be beaten, to a line powand mix the whole with the vinegar well together
put it into a new well-glazed pan cover it with a lid, and

twelve ounces

der,

Jute

it

with clay

then bury

days in horse dung.

Take

it

or twenty
pour off the

for eighteen

out again

it

vinegar gently, and you will have good verdigrise.

Another.

Take

a well-glazed pan or pot, and put into

sharp vinegar
quantity

then take thin copper

it

good

a pretty large

filings,

put them into a crucible, and set the same into

the pan with vinegar, so that the vinegar

may

not touch

then lute the cover of the pan well with


the copper
put the pan into horse dung,
clay, to keep out the air
;

warm

or into a

place, for twenty-five davs

out again, and open

hang

to the

a knife, and

copper

warm

consumed

and you

filings

let it fall into

up the pan again


or a

it,

place,

will

find

then take

it

the verdigrise

scrape the verdigrise off with

the vinegar

you did before


and thus repeat

as

after

put

it

till

it

which, close

into the dung,

the copper

is all

the verdigrise will settle at the bottom of the

pan, which, after you have gently poured off the vinegar

from

it,

you may put up

for use.

Another easier Method

Take
will

of the
repeat

have

set

it

in the

fine verdigrise

kettle, or
it

make

Verdigrise.

a copper kettle, or bowl, and put into

sharp vinegar

you

to

bowl, you

as often as

it

good

heat of the sun to dry, and


;

after

you have taken

may pour on more

it

vinegar,

out

and

you think proper.

x 2

THE LAE0RAT0RT.

303

To make

fine Verdigrise for Dyers.

First, take four pounds of tartar, two pounds of salt,


one pound of copper-ashes, one pound and a half of
good vinegar then take a crucible, or an unglazed pan
;

take a handful of tartar, and fling

into the crucible, also

it

one handful of salt, and a handful of copper-ashes fling


all, one after another, till the crucible, or pan, is full
then pour on the vinegar, and stir it well together, till the
;

in

thoroughly

ingredients are

black colour

rnoist,

and are turned of a

cover the pan, and lute

coming

to prevent the air

to

it

put

it

close with clay,

it

for a fortnight, of

three weeks, in hot horse dung, and you will have a good
verdigrise.

If

bladder, in the

Take

you would have


air.

vinegar

as to

make

vessel

it

close

salt

it

it

up

in a

of a consistence

it

hang

dry,

which has been steeped some copper,


mix the salt with so much vinegar

iri

and one pound of

it

Or,

up, and set

then put

in a

it

damp

it

into a copper

place

and

after

has stood some days, you will have a good verdigrise

Or,

Take an
it

old copper kettle or copper boiler, and scower

clean with sand

an equal quantity
mixture

all

then take vinegar and honey, of each

mix them

over the inside

and strike the


and sprinkle

together,

then take

salt,

upon the honey, so as to stick to it have a board,


a good many holes, and cover the kettle therewith then turn your kettle with the board upon hot horse
dung cover it all over with dung, and let it stand fat
ciffht davs together, and you will have fine verdigrise.
it

made with
;

Fine Verdigrise for Painters*

Take

copper-slips or filings, and put

copper-box, with a cover to

it

them

into a strong

pour some vinegar, mixed


up

::

COLOUR-MAKII\ G.
T

up with a

warm

little

honey, into

it

place, for fourteen days,

set

it

30S>

in the sun, or in a

and the vinegar

will

be-

come blue pour it into a glass, and close it well up then


put more vinegar and honey upon the copper-filings, and
:

proceed as before,

till

they do not tincture the vinegar

what you have collected in glasses, put in the sun, or a


warm place, till it becomes of a proper thickness; then
grind it on a stone, and temper it with a little gum-water
if you would have it of a grass green, mix it with a little
sap-green.

flow

About

to

myke Sap-green.

weeks before Michaelmas,


you please mash them a little, and
put them into a clean glazed pan sprinkle them well over
with powdered alum, and let them stand in a hot place for
twenty-four hours then pour upon them a clear lye, and
put it upon a fire, and give it a slow boiling, till a good
quantity is boiled away then take it off the fire let it
cool," and pour it through a cloth
what comes through,
put up in a bladder, and hang it in the air to dry afterwards keep it always hanging in a dry place, or in the
chimney corner and when you have occasion to use it,
take as much as you want and dilute it with clear water
if it should turn too much upon the yellow, mix it with a
take as

a fortnight or three

many

sloes as

little

indigo.

Another finer Sap-green,

Take

of blue

lilies

that part of the flower

a fine blue colour (for the rest

them
ful,

more

well in a stone mortar

is

which

is

of

of no use) and stamp

then put upon them a spoon-

or according to the quantity of the leaves,


spoonfuls, of water, wherein before has

two or

been

dis-

solved

THE LABORATORY.
alum and gum arabic, and work

310
solved a

little

together in the mortar

put

into muscle-shells,

it

then strain

and

set

them

it

well

through a cloth

it

in the

sun to dry.

Or,
After you have proceeded as before, fling some pow-

dered quick-lime over

it,

before you strain

it

through the

and pat it in muscle-shells. Or,


Beat the blue leaves of lilies in a stone mortar strain
them through a fine cloth into muscle-shells, and fling
cloth,

some powdered alum over to one more than the


make the colours of different shades.
;

other,

in order to

To prepare a

Temper
grind

you

it

fine,

will

fine

Green Colour.

indigo and yellow orpiment with gum-water:

and mix with

it

a little of

have a pleasant green.

indigo or sap-green, and heighten

A
To

good

ox or

You mav
it

arsenic,

water

two

five

and
with

and, cheap Green.

one pound of blue


and

it

with Dutch pink.

vitriol dissolved

quantity of water, add immediately one


alkali,

fish-gall,

shade

in a sufficient

pound of

purified

ounces and a half of pulverized white

dissolved previously in eight pounds of boiling

the precipitate, arising from the mixture of the

solutions,

readily with

is

oils,

to

and

be washed,
is

artd

dried.

much cheaper

It

mixes

than any other

green colour.

OF

;:

'

COLOUR-MAKING.

311

OF WHITE COLOURS,
To make

Take some
it

two inches wide, and

six or eight

make through each of them a hole, to draw


through, to hang them in an oaken vessel, about

inches long
a string

which put two quarts of good vinegar,

feet high, into

and cover

in another vessel,

and

fire,

Lead*.

sheet lead, or, rather, milled lead, and cut

into plates of about

two

fine White

let it

it

be boiling hot

warm

for ten days in a

set

it

over a gentle coal

then take

place

it

off,

and put

it

then take off the cover,

take out the plates, and they will be covered with a white

colour on both sides, a finger thick, wiiich your are to


scrape off with a knife, and put into a clean bason

hang the

plates

up again

wooden

in the

vessel,

then

and pro-

ceed as before, scraping the colour once every ten days


grind the colour in a stone mortar, with clean water, to a
paste, and put

it

up

in clean

Another Method

pans to dry.

to

make White Lead.

Take long and flat pieces of lead hang them in a


Merton stone-ware pan, and, before you hang the lead in
the vessel, pour into it good vinegar, heated
cover it
;

close,

and

lute

place, for a

it

to

month

keep out the

or five

weeks

air,
;

and put

it

in a

warm

then take off the cover,

and scrape off the white lead this you may repeat every
and you will have good white
:

fortnight or three weeks,


lead.

''

The

strongly

preparing of white

recommend

it

lead'xs so

pernicious to health, that

we

buy it ready prepared


that can be purchased readily.

to the reader to

and, indeed, most other articles

Ed.

Another

THE LABOP.ATORY.

iI2

Another Method of preparing White Lend.

Let

pieces of milled lead be rolled spirally, so that the

space of an inch shall be

and place these pieces


containing

size,

left

between each circumvolution,

vertically in earthen pots of a

some good

Support the

vinegar.

lead within the pots, so as not to

let

rolls

them touch the

fit

of

vine-

fumes within the circumvolube placed in a bed of dung,


to raise a gradual heat, by which the surface of the metal
may become corroded with a beautiful white pigment
gar, but freely receive

The

tions.

pots are

its

now

to

When this ceruse is duly ground and washbecomes the ordinary white lead of the shops. It
by some, called fiake white, from its falling off the

called ceruse.

ed,
is,

it

corroded lead in flakes or

scales.

Nottingham White.

This

very durable white

said to be prepared at

is

Not-

tingham in a similar ivay to the method described above,


with

this

that

only difference

owing
but

to the

it is

sour

Whether

used instead of vinegar.

hops originally boiled

ale,

in

it is

highly probable, because vinegar

pared from malt, as well as

ale,

called alegar,

is

this virtue in alegar is

not determined,
is

usually pre-

but without the addition

of any hops.

By

absolute experiment,

white keeps

its

it

has been verified that this

colour for a greater length of time than

any other kind of white

lead.

To prepare another White

Take
and

mix with it calcined egg-shells


two ingredients with goat's milk, very fine,

quick-lime, and

grind these
it is fit

Cclour.

to paint with.

A good

COLOUR-MAKING.

A good
Take
der

crown

White Colour.

and beat

glass,

21S

it

to

an impalpable pow-

take also finely pulverized sulphur

ther into a large crucible with a cover to

upon a charcoal

and put

it

red hot

all

and

fire,

over

when

cool

let it

it

fire,

mix them togeit

lute

make

so as to

thus heated, take

is

close,

it

the crucible
it

off the

then take off the cover, and grind

the matter upon a stone with clear water, and temper


either with

or gum-water

oil

it

it

a good white

will give

colour.

fine White Colour for painting in Miniature.

Take

good bismuth, and beat

four ounces of

then dilute

it

the solution into a glass, and put a

and the bismuth


white powder

it

ounces of the best aqua-fortis

in eight

little salt

will precipitate to the

fine

pour

water to

it,

bottom, in a snow-

pour off the water, and sweeten the pow-

der well with clean water from the sharpness of the aquafortis

then dry

you use

it,

and keep

it,

dilute

it

carefully

with gum- water.

it

from dust

This

is

tery of bismuth, used by the ladies for a cosmetic

termed, by

although

artists,

it is

Spanish white.

fine

to

refine

full

lead well, and

from
gar,

it,

and

is

apt to turn black,

White Lead.

white lead, and grind

white-wine vinegar, and


earthen dish

when

at first a beautiful colour.

How
Take

It is

the magis-

let it

it

it

upon a stone with


then take an

will turn black

of water, and wash your ground

and grind

and wash

it

it

settle

then drain the water gently

once more upon a stone with vine-

again

repeat this three or four times,

and

THE LABORATORY.

314

and you

have a curious fine white,


work, both in oil and water colours.
will

How
Soak
vinegar

to

fit

for the nicest

prepare Egg-shells, for a White Colour.

the egg-shells three or four days in good sharp


;

then wash them in clear water

heat of the sun

them on

beat

them

into a fine

dry

them

a stone.

White for Water-colours, ft for Paper-stainers,

Pour

in the

powder, and grind

a small quantity

litharge in a glass vessel,

of strong nitrous

and the acid

5fc.

upon

acid

will unite itself to

w ith strong effervescence and heat.


Some
water being now poured on, and the glass vessel being
the metal

shaken, a turbid solution of the litharge


small quantity of acid of

down
ing

a beautiful white

left at liberty to act

begins

anew

to dissolve

be

vitriol

may you

more of

proceed,

made.
it

If a

throws

it

with efTervescence.

known by

ance of the bubbles, more acid of


drops, and

is

added,

powder and the acid of nitre beupon the remainder of the litharge,

again saturated, which will be

by

now

vitriol is to

the white powder

till all

the litharge

is

When

it is,

the discontinu-

is

be added,

formed.

Thus

converted, by the

and if the process has


two acids
been neatly managed, an ounce of nitrous acid may be

alternate use of the

made

to convert

powder of great

several pounds of litharge into a

tc/iitt

value.

OF

COLOUR-MAKING.

315

OF SEVERAL BLACK COLOURS.


To burn Lamp-black,

in order

make

to

and of a

it finer,

better Colour.

Take
hot

a fire shovel, and hold

then

done smoking,

How

make

to

in the fire

it

your lamp-black upon

fling

it,

it

till

is

and when

red
it is

enough.

it is

a finer Lamp-black than

is

ordinarily sold in

Colour Shops.

Have

lamp with

tifully with oil

of

tin or

iron

a large

fix

the

smoke which

with a feather, and preserve


it,

temper

with

it

oil

To make

Take

wick of cotton, stored plen-

over the lamp a sort of canopy,

it

from

made

sweep off
When you use

settles to

dust.

it,

or gum-water.

a Black of Trotter-bones.

you please, and bum


them in a close crucible, and quench them in damp linen
rags grind them with fair water, before you use them
with it this black is fit to be mixed with lake and umber,

many

as

trotter-bones as

for shades in carnation or flesh-colour.

To make

Take
may
a

lute

have

linseed oil

at the
;

close, leaving only a little hole in the

it

cover

you
comb-makers mix them up with
put them into a pan, or crucible, and

the shavings or raspings of ivory, which

easily

little

Lvory-black.

on a coal fire, and


ceive no more smoke, then take
;

set

it

middle of the

let

it

stand

it

off,

and

till

set

you per-

it

in sand,

putting

THE LABORATORY.

516

putting another pan or crucible over

have the

will

finest black colour that

Another Method

Fill
lute

to

it

when

cold, you,

can be prepared.

burn Ivory either Black or White.

a crucible with the wastes of ivory or hartshorn

and put it in a fire, and when the phlegm,


and salts have fled, it will be of a very fine

well,

it

spirit,

o;!,

black colour

but if you keep

it

longer in the

fire,

it

will

turn white.

A
Fill
it

well

a coal

a crucible with cherry-stones, and cover and lute


let

Cherry'stone Black:

them dry

first

afterwards beat

by degrees, then burn them to

them

ready to be used, either for

powder, and moisten them


form them into little balls,

to

with gum-tragacanth water;

oil

or water colours.

To make Indian Ink.

Take

dryed black horse beans, and burn them to a powmix them up with gum-arabic water, and bring them
a mass press it in a mould made for that purpose, and

der
to

Or
Take one ounce of lamp-black, two ounces of indigo,
half an ounce of fish black
grind them with half water
let it dry.

and half milk, and a


thereof.
ness,

The

gum-arabic, and form tables,


lamp-black must be cleared from all great-

by burning

To make a

Take

it

fine

little

in a clean pun,

on a coal

tire.

Ink-powder,

write or

draw

to

half an ounce of lamp-black

stones, vitriol,

with.

plumb or cherry-

and gall-nuts of each half an ounce

burn

them

COLOUR-MAKING.

317

add half an ounce of gumarabic


beat all in a mortar to a fine powder, and si
through a fine sieve then put it up in a box, and,
hea

them together

in a crucible

si

you want

to use

it,

dilute

it

with

fair

water.

SEVERAL METHODS OF GILDING.

A particular way of Gilding

in the open Air, where LeafGold cannot be managed, on account of the Wind.

Take

thin pewter

over with gold

size,

gild

obliged to gild any thing that


shelter to

keep

off"

stronger, in order

and strike them


and when you are
high, and you have no

leaves, or tinfoil,

and

them
is

the wind, lay these on size something


to

make

the

gilt

leaves stick

on the

better.

How to prepare

the Size

for gilding in burnished Gold.

Take

two pounds of cuttings or shreds of white glove


them soak for some time in fair water, and then
them in a pot with ten quarts of water, to two or three

leather
boil

quarts

let

then strain through a cloth into a clean earthen

You may

try whether the size be strong enough, by


between your fingers, to see whether it is
of a gluish consistence, and whether it will stick. Add

pan.

taking a

to

this

of

it.

How

to

little

size a

due quantity of whiten,

make

to

a paint

gild in burnish upon Wood, Picture-frames, a* any


other Sort of Work.

The wood

must be

first

well smoothed, and then se-

veral times struck over with size

and whiten

when

dry, rub
it

THE LABORATORY.

313
it

well over with

then with a

which

after

times
rag,

lay

when

till it

Dutch

rushes, to

make it even and smooth

soft hair pencil lay

it

over with size water

on the gold coloured ground, twice or three

it is

thoroughly dry, rub

looks polished

cut upon a leather cushion

over with a linen

it

then have your leaf gold ready

and when, with a large pencil,


dipped in the strongest brandy you can get, you have gone
over your work, be nimble in laying on the gold when it
;

is

quite dry, polish

How

it

with a tooth.

prepare the Nurimberg Metallic Powder, which

to

gives a beautiful Lustre,

when strewed upon Writing,

or Letters.

Take
them

any

the filings of copper, brass, iron, steel, or

metal

other

sift

them through a

put

wash them
and, when you have

into a clean bason or such like vessel

well with a clean and sharp lye,

and

fine sieve,
;

off, wash them with clean water, till you


have cleansed them from all its effects.
After your filings are thus cleansed and dry> take a

poured that

smooth

or copper

plate, either of iron

and put one

coals,
stirring

sort of

continually

it

soon as the metal


into a variety

is

lay

about with an

of colours,

upon

iron spatula

touched with the heat,

greatest heat will take

it

live

the filings upon the plate,

and that which

the darkest colour

it

as

changes

suffers

the

each metal

different.

When you have done one sort, proceed in the same


manner with another; by which means you will have
variety of colours.

Then

take a flatting-mill, such as the silver-wire drawers

use, or those

plate

the

fit

filings

it

employed

in flatting

of gold,

silver or

copper-

with a sort of funnel at top, through which

may

be conveyed to the

flatting rolls,

(which

ought to be very exact, and parallel to each other,

made
of

Colour-making.

319

and polished like a looking-glass.)


When you are thus prepared, work- it with carefulness
between the rollers, and you will have a most beautiful
powder, which sparkles with all sorts of colours.
of the

finest

The

steel,

of brass produce a bright gold colour

filings

copper,

line

shades of blue

red

lire-colour

iron

and

the

various

steel,

pewter, marcasite, and bismuth, produce

a white colour.

How
Take
put

to

bronze

Images of Plaster of Paris.

and steep

isinglass,

well closed, in a

it,

add to

it

saffron,

little

warm

and mix

der in a muscle or oyster shell

with a soft hair pencil

Take
ounces

spot a

it

and

it

will dissolve

you do

little

your image,

this,

it,

wash

it

red-lead.

White Horse with Black Spots.

of litharge three ounces, and of quicklime six


beat

them

tine,

and mix them together

mixture into a pan, and pour a sharp lye over


boil

up with metallic pow-

strike this over

but, before

over with size-water, mixed with a

To

very strong brandy;

in

it

place,

and you

will

have a

fat

substance

swim

put the
it;

then

at top,

with which anoint the horse in such places as you design to have black, and it will turn of that colour immediately.
It

has the same effect in changing hair that

black colour, with only this

difference, that

is

red into a

you are

to

take an equal quantity of lime and litharge, and, instead

of boiling

swims
tion

it

with Ive, boil

at top,

what

is fit

hairs

for use,

it

only with fresh water: what

and

will

you anoint with

it

answer your expecta-

in the evening, will

be

black the next morning.

Hqu.

THE LABORATORY*.

320

How to
Take,

in

dapple a Horse.

the spring-time, the large buds of young

mix them among the


him three or four times

oak-trees;

horse's provender, and

give

to eat,

it

and

lie will

be

dappled, and continue so for a whole year: the buds of

young-elm

trees will

have the same

effect.

PART

CHOICE CURIOSITIES.

PART

321

VIII.

SEVERAL

CHOICE CURIOSITIES.

particular

Method

to

furnish a Fish-pond with Va-

riety of Fish.

TAKE, about

the latter end of April, or the beginning

of May, the root of a willow that stands near the

water

side,

clean

away

and
;

is

then

or fish-pond that

full

of

fibres

tie it to a spike,
is

wash the earth about it


which drive into a river

well stored with variety of fish

will presently strike about

they

and against the root, and void

spawn or roe, which will hang to the fibres after a


few days, take the spike, with the willow-root, out of that
river or fish-pond, and convey it to that which you design
to store, driving it about a hand's breadth deep under the
surface of the water; and in about a fortnight's time you
will perceive a great number of young fish.
Be careful
that you leave the root not too long in the first pond or
their

river

lest

disengage

-vol.

I.

the heat of the


it

from the

sun animate the spawn, and,

root.

Te

THE LABORATORY.

322

To

illuminate an Apartment with various beautiful Colours.

Put

three or four prisms, or glasses, together in a

angular form in a frame, so as to

make

it

portable

tri-

the

let

prisms be so fixed to your corners, that on one side they

make

and on the other a trigonal

flat,

sided figure

face, or three-

place this frame, thus finished, under a win-

dow, towards the sun, so that the flat side be towards


and if there be any more windows in the apartment,

them be

shut up.

As soon

as the

let

beams of the sunshine

your apartment

through these trigonal glasses,

it

will

ap-

pear like a paradise in the greatest beauty, and of various


If

colours".

you

you receive the beams on a concave

will see the colours

different

glass,

from what

you look through these

and

if

vou

will

see every thing in different co-

they were before


into the street,

change quite

glasses

lours.

Arbor Diana-, or

Take

one ounce of

three ounces

the Philosophical Tree.

and

silver,

of acid of nitre

dissolve,

it

in

two of

put the solution into

a:,

matrass, or glass phial, into which you have put eighteen


or tweftty ounces of distilled water, and

two ounces of
and
place it in some convenient place where no body can meddle with it, for forty days together, in which time you
quicksilver.

will see a

Let your phial be

filled

kind of tree spread forth

its

up

to the neck,

branches, resembling

vegetable ramifications.

Another Method.

Dissolve an ounce of

fine silver

in three

aqua-fortis, in a phial or small matrass

ounces of

evaporate about
half

CHOICE CURIOSITIES.
half that moisture in
it

three ounces of

and
it

stir It

may

about

rest

for a

warm

good

323

sand, by a gentle fire

distilled

vinegar; heat

it

add

to

little,

then put your matrass in a place where

month, and you

will see a tree

growing

to the very surface of the liquor, resembling a fir-tree.

Another Method, much

Make
of

filings

shorter.

an amalgam, without heat, of four drachms of


silver,

or,

what

is still

of two drachms of mercury

better,

of

silver leaf,

and

amalgam

dissolve this

in

four ounces, or a sufficient quantity, of acid of nitre, pure

and moderately strong; dilute this solution with a pound,


and a half of distilled water shake the mixture, and pre;

serve
tion

it

in a bottle

to

is

with a glass stopple

be used, put an ounce of

it

when

prepara-

this

in a phial, together

with about the size of a pea of an amalgam of gold or

which ought

silver,

main

at rest

to

be as

soft as butter

soon afterwards, small filaments

let this

will

re-

be seen

from the small amalgam, which quickly increase,


and branch out on both sides, in the form of shrubs.
issuing

Another Method,

Dissolve

six

drachms of

four drachms of quicksilver

the

less fallible.

silver

in

solutions be saturated with

and then

let

earthen vessel, upon

six

at rest, as before,

let

both

mixan
drachms of amalgam made up

of seven parts of quicksilver,


it

and

acid,

their respective metals,

them be mixed together: add

ture five ounces of distilled water,

Set

in nitrous

the same acid;

to this

and pour

it

into

with one part of silver

and the

effects will

leaf.

be beautiful.

To

THE LABORATORY.

324

To preserve

This

done in highly rectified spirit of wine camwherein many sorts of animals, birds, fishes,
Porta rereptiles, &c. may be kept many years.
is

phorated
insects,

that he

lates,

Tilings from Corruption.

had seen a

Rome

fish at

thus preserved for

above twenty years, which was as fresh as

if alive

like-

saw one that had been preserved


above forty years. The glasses, wherein they were kept,
were hermetically sealed, to keep the air from coming to
them.

wise

Florence he

at

The Preparation of the Spirit or Oil of Salt, a preserver


of Things from Corruption, and a great restorer and
preserver of Health*.

Take

sea-salt,

as

crucible,

covered,

ovex a good coal

much

has done crackling, take


till

is is

dissolved, filter

thoroughly clear and


dung,

for

for fresh,
distil it

a salt

it

as

it

you

off,

please, put

put

it

in a

damp

often through a paper,

Then

fine.

let

it

into a

it

and when

fire,

it

place

till

it

is

digest in horse-

about two months, changing the dung often


in

order to keep

it

continually

Then

warm.

over some sand, and you will have in your receiver


oil,

with a watery phlegm,

water bath, and the

oil will

distil

this gently in

remain behind, but the watery

substance be carried off; whatever

is

put into this

oil,

will

keep from corruption without changing, for ages. This is


the salt spirit which by Paracelsus is called Vividitas Salis,
and has incomparable virtues, as w ell to restore men to
health and vigour, as also to preserve them from most.
r

* This will be found to be no more than a pure and highly concentrated brine, with no greater virtues. The same may be made,

by mixing pure

crystals of kitchen salt with distilled water.

Ed.

distempers

;;

CHOICE CURIOSITIES.
distempers
is

good

dice
for

325

wormwood

four or six drops taken in

and the yellow jaun-

for the dropsy, convulsions,

three or four drops taken in hartshorn water

sorts

all

of agues

for

worms,

is

stoppage of urine.

It

of sprains and contractions of the nerves

sorts

is

remedy

a fine

is

good

taken in brandy

it is

three drops taken in water of Cardans Bencdictus,


for the

water,

good

for

all

heals

it

and swellings, when mixed with other ointments,


and the affected parts anointed therewith. When mixed
with oil of turpentine or wax, or camomile, it will assuage
bruises

the gout.

But

if this

preservative

may

corruption, you

is

too costly to keep things frora

prepare a sea-water at a small ex-

pence, which will keep things tor

you may do

in the following

many

manner

years

Dissolve sea-salt in distilled rain-water, and

which

will bear

it is

clear

and

and

this

make

a lye

an egg.

when the
when

Or,

place, and

salt is
it is

it

distilling

it,

it

into a

damp

through a paper

This you may use

fine.

from corruption, by

decrepitated, put

dissolved, filter

till

to preserve things

and pouring

it

over the

thing to be preserved.

A
Take

verdigrisc three

washed and
them then
;

slow

fire,

spirit,
It

Regeneration of Coral.

clear sand
distil

them

pounds sulphur vivum one pound


pulverize and mix
four pounds
;

in

but augmenting

it

a retort on sand,

by degrees

it

which has a sweetish-sour flavour.


you pour this spirit upon powdered

first

will

with a

produce a

coral, or harts-

horn shavings, which by a gentle warmth is quite dried


up, and put it into a phial with some distilled rain-water,
and set it in a warm place well closed up, the coral or
hartshorn will shoot and grow so naturally that

it

will

be a

delightful sight.

To

THE LABORATORY.

32S

To make Phosphorus.

Take bones which have been burnt white, reduced to


powder, and passed through a fine sieve then mix them
:

in a vessel of stone ware, with

strongest acid of vitriol, and as

an equal quantity of the

much water

the whole into the consistency of clear soup

some

tuie be at rest for

pour

it

now upon

it

through with water

is

a sign that

on the linen

hours, and

filtre

will

it

make

as will
let

the mix-p

become

thick

of double linen cloth, and wash


pass clear and tasteless,

till it

no acid of phosphorus

which

in the residue

is left

Evaporate the superfluous water, and

cloth.

a white matter will sink to the bottom, which must be

taken out and washed in fresh water,


less

becomes tasteno more white matthe sediment, and throwing it

proceed with the evaporation

ter sinks,

washing carefully

till it

till

away, and returning the clear liquor to the other clear

quor

lastly,

evaporate

the clear liquor to

all

sistency of honey, or a soft extract.


ter with

one third of

its

Mix

li-

the con-

this thick

mat-

weight of powdered charcoal; put

the mixture into a stone ware retort, to which a receiver


full

of water has been properly luted, and distil. Fire is


till the retort is first reddened, and then

gradually applied

rendered white

the phosphorus then runs in drops,

and

the operation lasts about nine or ten hours, or more, ac-

cording to the quantity of matter

of heat which the furnace


bone-ashes

is

distilled,

ad the degree

able to bear.

will usually yield a trifle

Six

pounds of

more than three ounces

of pure phosphorus.

Another Method

Take
a

of urine as

tub or kettle,

month

and

to

much
let it

together to putrify

prepare Phosphorus.
as

you please

stand

for three

put

it

into

weeks or a

then boil away the humidity,


till

till

the

CHOICE CURIOSITIES.
remainder becomes a black and tough

take one pound,

this

of tartar

oil

S2l

Of

matter.

or the stinking

foetid,

oil

want of that, green wax mix it


set it on
well with the matter, and put it into a retort
of hartshorn, or

for

a strong

and

receiver,

and,

you

of a reverberatory furnace

fire

lute the junctures

will find in the receiver,

then some

salt,

in the receiver
first

is

fit

to

of

first

iirst,

sublimated of a yellowish colour

into a matrass

will

find,

first,

liquor that
;

at the

is

let

the

then take

bottom,

all

the

mix them well together, and put


distil them on a sand-bath, and you

sediment grains of phosphorus,

warm, form

whilst

sediment, then volatile

sediment stand over night and grow cold

them

a gentle,,

and after that the phosphorus, which

oil,

and wash, with the


phosphorus and oil

a large

it

all

the fiercest, heat you can

fcr four hours,

lastly,

give

into

sticks,

little

which,
and preserve in a

phial, closely stopped with a glass stopple.

Another Process for making Phosphorus,

Take

a considerable quantity of

gest

it

this

liquor,

human

urine,

pretty while, before

corporate this with thrice


it

di-

syrup

substance be brought to the consistence of a

put

and

you use it then distil


with a moderate heat, till what remains in

for a

its

nose of the retort

may

in-

to which join a large remeasure with water, so that the

in a strong stone retort

ceiver, filled in a great

weight of fine white sand, and


;

almost touch the water

then lute

the two vessels carefully together, and give the whole a

graduated
\

olatile

fire for five

this

or six hours, to bring over

done, encrease the

fire,

and

all

that

is

at last for five

more make it strong and intense as possible


you can, by which means there will first crime over a
large quantity of white fumes, which in a little time will
be succeeded by another sort seeming to vield a faint
bluish light in the receiver; lastly, the fire being vehement,

or six hours

there

THE LABORATORY.

328

come over another

there will

than the former, and

which

fall

bottom of the

to the

the real phosphorus.

is

more ponderous

substance

Preserve

it

receiver,

as the former.

Another luminous Matter.

Take what by most apothecaries


much

as

temper

as

it

you

with

will

gum

beat

is

called land emerald*,

with water on a stone

fine

it

or honey-water, and. write or paint

therewith upon a polished copper or iron plate, whatever

you
set

will,

and

let it

dry

then lay

before the same, and in a

it

it

upon a charcoal

little

while

it

dles

when you bring it into


out, the company who

will

be surprized at the sudden and strange appearance.

that

To prepare

Boom, or

or

fire,

so

will shine,

a dark room, or put the canare ignorant of

Closet, in such a

what

Manner

done,

is

that

any

entering with a lighted Candle, will think him-

one,

self surrounded by Fire.

Take
a bowl

a pretty large quantity of brandy, and put


set

it

on a slow coal

fire,

in

it

enough
some camphor,

to receive heat

into the brandy fling


which will soon dissolve when all is
dissolved, close the windows and doors, and let the brandy
boil and evaporate; by this the whole will be filled with

gently up

to boil

it

cut in

little

bits,

subtle spirits, which, as soon

as

be lighted, and seem as

if

on

wil
fu

i^

candle
fire.

is

If

brought

in,

some pcr-

dissolved in the brandy, the flame will give out

a fine scent.
* Land Emerald

is

expunged from the Pharmacopoeia.

Ed.

To

CHOICE CURIOSITIES.

To prepare

a luminous Stone.

Take good acid of nitre,


into

from

nitre

the
tort

it

and

air,

and

fling

put

again

it

distil

air,

let it dissolve

all

and

let

it

it

till

it is

dry

when

set

again

it

and
what remains put under a

Then hold

it

it

into a cup.

in the light of day, or

of the moon, or the light of a candle, and


light,

the acid

again into the re-

it

then put

bubble

to

distil

in the retort, place in

then put

dissolve

the moisture from

a muffel to harden.

and

into a retort,

what remains

and draw off the moisture

in the

quick-lime and chalk

can dissolve no more, and ceases

it

the solution

filter

of

till

it,

32^

will

it

emit

put into a dark place.

The Preparation of Pj/rophorus.

Let three parts of alum, and one part of fine sugar


be rubbed and mixed together. This mixture must be
dried in an iron shovel, over a moderate fire, till it be
almost reduced to a blackish powder, during which operation it must be stirred with an iron spatuia.
Any large
masses must be bruised into powder, and then it must be
put into a glass matrass, (see A. fig. 9, plate 4.) tic mouth
seven
of which is rather strait than wide, and its lenj
This
matrass
is
be
placed
in
inches.
to
a
cru
.or eight
or rather earthen vessel, large enough to hold the body of
ll

the matrass, with a space about equal to a finger's

around

it.

The

space

is

to be filed with sand,

matrass shall not touch the earthen vessel


is

thii

so that

;e

the apparatus

then to be placed in a furnace, and the whole to be

made
any

red-hot

oily or

which,

when

the

fire

fuliginous

must be gradually anp


matter

the matrass

vapours exhale

this

is

may
made

degree of heat

be

ied,

expelled.

that

After

red-hot, sulphureous
is

to be continued

till

a truly

THE LABORATORY.

330

a truly sulphureous flame, which appears at the end of the


operation, has continued nearly a quarter of

the

an hour

then to be extinguished, and the matrass percool, without taking it out of the earthen vessel,

fire is

mitted to

or crucible

and when

stopped with a cork.

ceases to be red-hot,

it

Before the matrass

may be

it

perfectly cold

is

must be taken out of the earthen pan or crucible, and


it contains is to be poured into a very dry glass
and
well
phial,
stopped with a glass stopple. The phial

it

the powder

should be seldom opened

if this

pyrophorus be intended

be preserved for a length of time. Should the powder


kindle whilst it is pouring into the phial, which sometimes
to

happens, merely close the mouth expeditiously with the


stoppel, and the flame will be extinguished.

The Preparation of a Species of Pyrophcrus.

Take

an earthen plate or dish, which

about half an inch thick

make

of nitre and pulverized chalk, well


this take the

plate,

and

set

on the

it

and

it is

a candle

it

up with acid of

done
;

after

Hon-

it

to

it

it

dry,

nitre

take

in a

it

do

this

it

out, let

of

into the

under a muffel, (where

cold, hold

it is

then, shewing

prised at the light

This

fire

when

not glared,

together

stirred

quantity of a shilling, and put

bubble very much)

and mix

is

of paste of acid

a sort

it

it

will

cool,

six or eight times,


little

while against

dark place, you

will

be sur-

gives.

prepare Thunder Pczvdcr.

done with three ingredients, namely, three parts


parts of salt of tartar, and one part of sulphur these are pounded and mixt together if you take
about sixty grains, in a spoon, and warm it over a candle, or
other fire, it will give a report like a cannon if you make
is

two

nitre,

use

CHOICE CURIOSITIES.
use of a copper spoon, or cup, you

when fired

find a hole at

bottom

like lightning,

without any report.

To prepare

Take
tities

at top,

331
after the report,
will

it

burn away

a Stone, which being wetted, produces Fire.

quick-lime, nitre, tutty, and calamine, equal quan-

sulphur and camphor, of each two parts

and

fine,

will,

sift

them through

der into a

new

crucible

cover

and bind and

linen cloth, and tie


it

lute

beat

a fine sieve; then put the


it

close

put

it

them
pow-

into a

with another crucible, mouth to mouth,

them

dry.

Then

when

cold again, take

well; then set

them

in the sun to

put the crucible into a potter's furnace, and,

and you

powder
you may form
and, when you have occasion to
into less proportions
light a candle, or fire, wet part of it with a little water,
or your own spittle, and it will instantly flame when you
have lighted your fire, you may blow it out again, as you
do a candle.
it

out,

altered into the substance of a brick

will find the

this

To represent the four Elements in a Glass PtiiaL

Have

a glass

made

in the

part with clean smalt, or

the earth

shape of an egg

common

for water, take oil of tartar

wine three times

rectified

and

oil

fill

a fourth

antimony, to represent
;

for the air, spirit of

of Benjamin, in colour

and brightness, may represent fire the cover of the glass


may be ornamented with a flame, or what you please.
;

Florence flask will answer the same purpose, with

a foot adapted to

it.

An

THE LABORATORY.

332

An
Take

elementary World

in a Phial.

black glass, or enamel, and beat

gravel she

this,

the bottom

to a middling

it

for representing the earth, will settle at

for the water,

you may use calcined

tartar,

or sand ashes, which you must fast moisten, and what dissolves pour the clearest off into the phial, and tincture

with a
air,

ultramarine, to give

Little

use

of wine,

spirits

which gives a sky colour


seed

oil,

or

tinctured with a
;

little

it

for the

turnsole,

to represent the lire, take lin-

of turpentine.

oil

the sea colour

it

All these materials differ

if vou shake them togeyou m.\x indeed observe a little while a chaos of
confusion and disorder, but as soon as you set the phial
down, each ingredient takes its respective place in the same

both

in

weight and quality,

for,

ther,

order as before.

To ornament

Place

Room

with a continually moving Picture.

luge picture against a wainscot, in a summerroom where the wind may be con-

house, or any other

veyed

to the

back of the picture

bore

the wainscot, to correspond with

that a:e at the back of the picture

on them through the

little

holes,

little

holes through

some paste-board wheels


:

the wind which blows

vviil

put them in motion.

Having, on the right side of the picture, subjects painted


and fixed to the paste-board wheels on spindles, they will
have an equal motion with them: there may be several
>reseated in the picture, and their motions made
agreeable; as for example, a

woman

at

man

grinding of knives, a

her spinning-wheel, a wind or water mill, and

several other fancies.

To

CHOICE CURIOSITIES.

To make

Take

$33

Mic'rbsCopes to great Perfection.

lamp with

of wine, and, instead of cot-

spirits

ton, use very small silver wire, doubled up like a skein of

thread

then take of beaten

and cleansed, a
needle

after

glass,

round, but no longer,

side to the flame,


;

is

lamp,

apertures very round

it

is

quite

with soft leather, and


thin brass, with

that towards the eye

it

every where equally round

between two pieces of

it

till

silver

then hold

not melted, then turn the

till it is

then wipe and rub

afterwards put

washed

fear of burning it; if the side

for

of the glass next the needle

and smooth

well

very small and wetted with spittle

filled

the bit of glass in the flame of the

rough

it is

on the point of a

quantity

little

as large as the diameter of the glass

must be almost

piace

it

in a frame,

with the object.

How

Take

extract the Quintessence of Roses.

to

which are gathered before sun-rising,


upon them bruise and stamp the leaves

fresh roses,

whilst the

dew

is

in a stone mortar

pan or bowl

then put them into an earthen glazed

cover them close, and

them stand till


when the scent is

let

they putrify, which you will perceive


sour

(it

penetrates,

with the leaves a

and

wiii cause

little salt

of

tartar, for this

each the better to separate.

After the rose-leaves are thus putrified, take the

seventh part of them


distil

them in

put

cucurbit of the

first

in the following

distilled

or

and

water upon the

and, after you have emptied the

thus repeating

which contains the

manner

fifth

into a glass cucurbit,

leaves, put in the

them, as before

rectified water,

them

Pour the

a sand-bath.

other part of the leaves

distil

You

turns so in about twelve or fourteen days.)

may mix up

put

all

second part, and

it,

spirit,

you

will

draw a

to be separated

the water you have distilled

THE LABORATORY.

334

a matrass with a long neck

tilled into

and

lute a receiver to

off the spirit

along with

it

its

add a head

to

it,

and, as there will go some, of the phlegm

it

it,

must be

distilled

thus you will have a pure


fuse

then, with a slow ash-fire, draw

spirit

again with a slower

of roses, which will

strong scent, as soon as the matrass

is

fire

dif-

opened,

over the whole room.

Save

this spirit, well closed up, in a phial, as a preci-

ous and valuable thing; for

its

virtue

is

Pour

admirable.

the greater part of the distilled rose-water over the already


in order to extract the oil from the wawhich must be done by distilling it over a hotter ashtire than you did the spirit
the oil will separate itself from
the phlegm, and swim on the surface of the water, of a
golden colour and although the quantity be but small, the
virtue is great and valuable.
Separate this oil from the phlegm, and put it up by
itself, and the distilled rose-water in a glass by itself; after
which, take the distilled rose-leaves, from which all the
spirit and oil is extracted, and burn them in a crucible to
give the
ashes in burning, add a little sulphur to them
ashes a fierce fire, and they will be as white as snow.
These ashes put into a glass or earthen vessel pour
over them the above phlegm or rose-water boil it well,
till the water has extracted all the salt from the ashes
then filter it through paper into a matrass distil it, and
carry off the phlegm, and a clear salt will settle at the
bottom of the matrass the ashes you may calcine anew
then boil them up again in
in a strong reverberatory fire
repeat this
the phlegm, and draw out the salt, as before
remains only an
till all the salt is extracted, and there
distilled rose-leaves,

ter

earthy substance.
In this

manner

ciples, spirit,

oil,

are extracted from roses the three prin-

and

salt

and the three impure

parts,

phlegm, water, and earthy residuum.


If the salt should not

be clean enough, you must

dis-

solve

CHOICE CURIOSITIES.
solve

333

again in the phlegm, and repeat your process by

it

as before,

distillation,

and you

may make

it

as fine as

you

will*/

Another Method

to

extract the Quintessence of any

Vegetables.

Take

dew upon them


matrass

will

own

its

which

in

sun-rising, with the

therewith a glass

fill

and place the matrass in a


digest over a very slow fire for a fortwhich time augment your fire when you find
it,

let it

night, after

trass out

them before
chop them fine, and
gather

lute the head over

sand-bath

some

month

a plant, herb, or flower in the

they flourish best

go over into the receiver, then take your ma-

of the bath, and you will see the herb infused


juice,

which pour

off into a clean glass

remains of the herb take out of the matrass


ashes, and extract the salt with water,

in

what

burn

it

and evaporate

to
to

dryness.

How

to

extract Oil

from Herbs,

Floivers or Seeds.

Fill a large cucurbit with herbs, flowers, seeds, or


what you please infuse it in good spirit of salt set it in
sand, and give it fire enough to boil, and the oil, as well
you
as the phlegm, will distil over into the receiver
may separate this as has been directed the spirit you
are to pour off; rectify it, and you may use it again for
;

the like process.

This process

is

needlessly laborious, and

may

be shortened by

the methods mentioned in the several parts cf the work:, see the
Ed.
purification of foi-as/i, Sfr. in the article " Glass."

curious

THE LABORATORY.

!36

A curious Secret

Herbs,

to distil

Water will

that the

so

retain both their Colour and Taste.

Take
infuse

you design

the leaves of the herb

them

and day

for a night

a bolt-head, pour into

fire

it

about

fling

put on the head, and lute

bath with a slow

distil,

it

you

pour

more

When

it

upon

in

it

a sand-

drops will have the

will see the

colour of the herb or flower.

distil

off the

through the

fresh leaves

and

close,

it

and

then take

some of the water from

it

herbs, and swing or rince

pipe on the herbs again

to

in rain-water

you have

distilled it

over into the receiver, then burn the leaves or ashes,

all

and extract the


put half of

it

salt

from

it

manner above

in the

into the distilled water

directed

let it dissolve in

the

sun, and the colour will be clear and fine.

To make Vinegar of Wine.


Fling

pieces of barley-bread into a cask of wine, and

in two or three days it will be sour.


Take rye-flour, and mix it into

white-wine vinegar
to
it

powder

mix

the third time

stantly begin to

Soak

it

then bake

it

rn

again into a dough


put these cakes in

grow

it

in the

sun

dough with strong

an oven, and beat


;

when

davs

of

knife,

this

take as

much

as will lie

it

to vinegar.

it

good vinegar,
it

again for ten

to a fine

pow-

on the point of a

and mix with a quart of wine, and

while, turn

in

dry, soak

days in vinegar, and, being dried, beat


der

it

it, and repeat


and
wine,
it will in-

bake

Or,

sour.

the best tartar nine or ten

and then dry

Or,
a

it

will,

in a little

Or,

Take one pound of raisins, and clear them from the


and put them into a glazed pan or pot, in a quart of
good vinegar; let them soak over-night on hot ashes boil
them
stalks,

CHOICE CURIOSITIES.
them
let it

337

morning a little then take it off the fire, and


stand and cool of itself strain it, and keep it for

in the

Or,

use.

Take

iron, or steel,

vinegar, and
Salt,

it

will

and quench

become very

it

five or six

sharp.

times in

Or,

pepper and leaven put together into wine, and


soon turn it into vinegar.

stirred about, will

PART

IX.

SEVERAL

SECRETS RELATING TO MARBLE.

Artificial

"ARBLE

Marble.

and very closely, by


is often imitated,
powdering white marble, and by mixing it up with
portions of plaster of Paris and water, after the materials
have been finely sifted. Of this composition, called stucco,
are -made statues, busts, basso relievo's and other ornaments of architecture.
vol. i.
There
z

THE LABORATORY.

33S

There

is

another kind of marble

becomes very hard, and

of the flaky se-

receives so good

which

a polish as to

This kind of sclenite resembles Mus-

deceive the eye.

covy

made

or a transparent substance resembling piaster,

lenite,

talc.

Stained Marble.

There

is

an

also

artificial

marble formed by staining

white marble with corrosive tinctures, which, penetrating


to the depth of a line, or more, imitate the various co-

dexterity,

and judgment, for

well polished, and

its

chosen for

this

if

the marble be not

pores previously opened, the effect

Very hard white marble

be produced.

will not

some

This, however, requires

lours of dearer marbles.

manual

to

is

be

purpose, to which a due polish must be

Heat is then
open the pores of the marble in this lies
the chief difficulty of the art. If the marble be made redgiven, so as to leave neither spot nor vein.

to be applied to

hot, the texture of

it is

injured

and, again, if the proper

degree of heat be not given, the colours

deep enough, nor be permanently fixed.


rule is, to heat the marble to that degree

will

not strike

good general

as to

make drops

of water boil on the surface, without making the marble

men-

Different colouring drugs require different

red-hot.

struums for their application, such as a lixivium of horse's


or dog's urine, with four parts of lime and one of pot-ash

common
some,

lye

spirits

others,

oily

of wood-ashes
of wine
liquors,

is

is

very good for others

necessary; and,

and

common

lastly, for-

white-wine

for

many-

are

re-

quired.

The

colours which succeed best with certain

are these
spirit

lour

menstruums

stone-bJue dissolved in six times the quantity of

of wine, or of the lixivium of urine, and that co-

which

is

called litmus, dissolved in

common

lye of

wood

STAINING OF MARBLE.

An

339

and painter's sapgreen, both succeed well when dissolved in urine and
quick-lime and tolerably well when dissolved in spirit of
wood-ashes.

extract

of saffron,

Vermilion, and a very fine powder of cochineal,

wine.

also succeed well in the

succeeds in

spirit

same spirit.
menstruum

in the

the only
tine

be used for

to

for neither spirit of wine,

Dragon's blood

above liquors.

of wine, as does a tincture of logwood


Alkanet-root gives a fine colour but
it

is spirit

of turpen-

nor any lixivium will do

another kind of dragon's blood, called


dragon's blood in tears, which gives a very elegant red
What have been just
colour when mixed with urine.
with

There

it.

is

mentioned are mixtures, but substances of some kinds


have been used by themselves, and sink permanently into
the marble whilst it is hot viz. the purest kind of dragreen
gamboge, for a yellow
gon's blood, for a red
wax, for a green common sulphur, pitch and turpentine,

for a brown.

manner

A fine

digrise, finely

is

given in the following

powdered, and intimately mixed together.

A
A

gold-colour

take crude sal-ammoniac, white vitriol and ver-

more expeditious Process.

good method of

rapid manner,

is

operating in a small way, and in a

to put

spoon, and dissolve in

some

it,

spirit

of wine into a silver

over a charcoal

ing drugs as belong to that

menstruum

fire,

such colour-

then, dipping a

camel's-hair pencil into the tincture, trace out

upon the

marble such veins and turns as accord with nature


after this operation, place the marble in a hot baker's
cold

wiU come out penetrated with the colours.


may be traced upon the marble with ordinary
and the interstices may be dabbed over with the

oven, and

White
white,

it

veins

tincture of that- colour


ral

ground -work; by

which you would have


this

for the

plan, the white paint

z 2

gene-

may be
removed,

THE LABORATORY.

340
removed,

baking

after the

and

will be clear,

performed

is

distinct at their edges,

may

and the veins

without the co-

Every degree of

lours being intermixed with each other.

red

be given to marble, for a ground-work, by dra-

gon's blood alone

of

thus, a slight tincture

without heat, gives only a pale flesh-colour


applied

tincture,

flesh-colour

as

before,

heat being

the above tinctures,


equal proportions

the tincture, whilst

gives a

now

will

to

applied

a stronger

stronger shade

heighten the red of both,

of

in

little

pitch to

tendency

the spoon, will give

it

to a black colour, according to the quantity that

How

it,

applied to either, or both,

and the addition of a


in

is

mixed.

prepare two Colours, of Gold and Silver, to stain


that is White, and Paint upon it : which wilt

Marble

penetrate into (he Stone, so as

Take

spirit

then take some gold-leaf and


with quicksilver
will

remain

powder
it is

and

bear polishing.

of aqua-fortis two ounces,


of highly rectified

ounce,

to

at

let

sal-ammoniac one

of wine four drachms

make

it

an amalgam

into

the mercury evaporate, and the gold

the bottom of your crucible like a

brown

and evaporate it till


then pour on the sal-ammoniac

dissolve this in aqua-regia,

of a yellow colour
spirit

spirit again,

of wine, and

when

dissolved,

evaporate the

and there remains a bright gold colour.

Calcine the silver in a phial, and then

let

the aqua-fortis

evaporate until you have a sky colour, which take off and
preserve in a clean phial, keeping the rest in a

sand to evaporate, and you


also preserve

the remains

will

warm

have a deep blue, which

will,

by more evaporating,

turn into black.

By mixing these colours you may produce several others,


wherewith you may paint or stain what figures you please;
and the more you repeat laying on this colour, the deeper
they

STAINING OF MARELL.

341

and the stronger they


After you have finishwill represent themselves thereon.
ed your staining, you may polish it like plain white marthey

will penetrate into the

ble,

and then you

stone,

will

have the colours appear in their

To

imitate Marble.

lull

lustre.

Take
f

plaster of Paris, quick-lime, salt, ox-blood, stones

beat to

pow-

consistence of a paste,

with

different colours, also pieces of glass,

der, and

mixed up

to the

all

vinegar, beer, or sour milk, and then lay

or what vou will

pillars,

dry

then rub

giving

and

it

it

stand until

it is

with a pumice, and polish

the finishing stroke by rubbing

Or,

oil.

With

let it

it

into tables,

it

it

thoroughly

with

tripoli,

over with leather

finely

pulverized plaster of Paris,

and

size

of

parchment, make a paste mix with it as many colours as


you please
spread it with a trowel over a board, and
;

when

dry proceed as before.

Ti"o paint on Wood in Imitation of Marble.

First

lay a ground (repeating

with white

then marble

it

seven or eight times)

it

with what colours you please,

you have tempered them with the white of eggs, and


mixed a little saffron water therewith. If you are not
used to marbling with a pencil, you may pour one sort of
colour, here and there a little, upon the white prepared
after

table, then,

will

disperse

holding and turning


all

over the ground,

it

shelving,

the colour

in a variety of veins

then, with another colour, proceed in the same

manner

and so, with as many as you think proper: after it is dry,


you may, with a pencil, give it a finishing, by mending
such places as are faulty then you may lay on a varnish,
and polish it in the best manner you can,
;

THE LABORATORY.

342

To

Take
it

counterfeit. Agate.

pentine

is

let it

may form
shade

much

of clarified turpentine as

an earthen pan, with a

in

and

and

imitate,

as thick as a

dough

little

oil,

then pour

stand in the sun for eight days


it

what shape you

into

till it is

you

as

sweet

please,

boil

the tur^

on a mould,

it
\

will

till

after this

and

you

set it in the

quite hard and dry.

Others take the whites of eighteen eggs, beat well together then they add to it three ounces of clear gum;

arabic,

one ounce of almond-tree gum, beat to a

fine

powder, and mixed with the whites of eggs when it is


well dissolved, they pour it into an earthen plate or dish,
;

and set it in the sun, till it is a mass of substance that may


form or make impressions of any thing.
Others take the white of eggs, and beat them clear,
and take off the scum with a clean spunge then they colour it with a tincture of saffron, and pour it into a hog's
bladder, and boil it hard on a slow fire, hanging the blad;

der in the

when

air afterwards,

may form what

you

will

set

it

hardens, so that you

it

and

in the shade

it

will

have the hardness of a stone.

To

Take
roll it

up

quick-lime
in balls

mix along with


or Prussian blue

When
balls,

it,
:

iynitate Jasper.

mix

it

(this will

with the white of eggs, and


serve for the white

lake or vermilion

for blue,

:)

for red,

add indigo

for green, use verdigrise.

you have made many

different sorts of coloured

of the consistence of a dough, then

a rolling-pin, as you would do pie-crust

flat
;

lay

them with
them one

upon another, and with a thin knife-blade, cut it in long


pieces, and mix them confusedly in a mortar together
then?

STAINING OF MARBLE.
then, with a trowel, spread

when

very smooth and even:

upon

it,

set

in a

it

and, spreading

it

3i3

over a tabic,

it

dry, pour boiling hot oil

over,

all

&c

pilasters,

soak

will

it

in

then

shady place to dry.

You may,

if

you

colours with drying

occasion to

oil it

Ilow

to

will,

mix your quick-lime and your


and then there will be no

oil at first,

afterwards.

clean Alabaster, or White Marble.

Beat pumice stones to an impalpable powder, and mix


yp with verjuice; let it stand for two hours; then dip
wash
into it a spunge, and rub the marble, or alabaster
;

it

with a linen cloth and fresh water, and dry

it

with clean

linen rags.

To

Alabaster-Images of

stain

all Sorts

of Colours.

Take quick-lime, alum, sal-ammoniac, of each one


pound, pour upon it, after you have pounded and mixt it,
of stale urine of a boy one pound, and spirit of wine one
pound

put

urine will

it

into

distil
it

the

When

rest.

This

it

without

comes low, put

ceive that

close.

an alembic

from

and the
lire

spirit

but,

under

a slow7 fire

out of turnsol a purple

crimson

out of litmus a fine blue

per-

to distil

it up in a phial and stop it


from all the drugs their natural

a fine yellow

a green

it,

done, put

spirit extracts

colour, as out of Brasil-wood a fine red

fine

of wine and

when you

out of Orleans

out of cochineal a
;

out of verdigrise

out of turmeric an orange colour, he.

To

imitate Marble, in Sulphur.

To do this, you must provide yourself with a flat and


smooth piece of marble, on which make a border or wall,
to

THE LABORATORY.

344-

table, which you may


do either with wax or clay. When this is done, provide,
and have in readiness, several sorts of colours, each separately reduced to a fine powder
as for example
white

to

encompass either a square or oval

lead, vermilion, lake, orpiment, masticot, smalt, Prussian

After you are provided with

blue, and such like colours.

them, melt, on a slow


sulphur

all

several glazed pipkins,

some

one particular sort of colour, and


then, having before oiled the marble

put, in each,

well together

stir it

fire, in

over within the border, drop with one colour, quickly,

spots

upon

of larger and

it,

less sizes

then take another

and so on, till the stone is


and do as before
covered with spots of all the colours you design to use
then you must conclude what colour the mass or ground of
your table is to be if you would have it of a grey colour,
colour,

then take fine

phur

sifted ashes,

and mix

it

up with melted

or of red, with English red ochre

white lead

if black,

Your sulphur

for the

with lamp black,

if

sul-

white, with

or ivory black.

ground must be pretty hot, so that

may unite and incorporate towhen you have poured your ground even all over,

the drops upon the stone


gether

you will, put a thin wainscot board upon it this


must be done whilst the sulphur is hot, making also the
board hot, which must be thoroughly dry, in order to
cause the sulphur to stick the better to it and when it is
cold, polish it with oil and a cloth, and it will look very

then,

if

beautiful.

To

Take

imitate Prophyry, on a Glass.

red ochre and lake

gum-tragacanth
the glass

all

it

grind

is

them

in a solution

of

then sprinkle, with a brush or feather,

over with that colour

red, or if that

mix

too red, add

when

dry take brown-

some umber,

up with the gum-tragacanth

or soot to

it

to the consistence of a

paste,

STAINING OF MARBLE.

345

it on the glass, over the sprinkled colours,


you please then let it dry. If you proceed
after the same manner on a polished marble, or any other
stone that is fiat and smooth, and lay a thick coat of the
brown-red on the spots of lake, letting it dry in the shade,
and then polish it, you will have a beautiful imitation of
prophyry, without the glass. Observe to anoint the stone
first with a little oil, before you sprinkle your lake, so as
to make it come off easy when the work is done.

paste,

and lay

as thick as

IIoni to

Take
sift

pebbles;

them through

make Fret-work
pound them

fine

a fine hair sieve

Ceilings.

an iron mortar;

in

then take of powdered

lime one part, of the pebble powder two parts, and

them together with water

mix

then take the mixture, and lay

carve on it what you


ornamented moulds cut in smooth
wood, or cast in lead fill the mould with the mixture,
press it to the ceiling, and it will stick and come clean out
of the mould
let it dry
when dry, and you perceive that
it is not every where of a good white, then, with a clean
pencil-brush and clear water, strike it over, and it whitens
of itself.
It will in time grow as hard as stone.

it all

over the ceiling very smooth

please,

or lay to

it

MOSAIC-WORK
IIoio to

perform

it skilfully.

Under the name of mosaic-work are included such


performances as relate to inlaid work
as tablatures of
;

wood, metals, &c. What I am now treating upon


that which represents not only all manner of figures, in

stone,
is

then-

THE LABORATORY.

3*6

their proper colours, attitudes

and shapes, as

large as those

that are lasting ornaments in churches, and other public

and

edifices, but also in small,

to grace the cabinets of

fit

the great and curious, and imitate a picture painted in


miniature.

The

who

antients,

exactness, have

left

practised this art with

are found not only in Italy, Spain,

Those remaining

England.

temple of Bacchus,

much

skill

and

a variety of their performances, which

now

at

-Sec.

Rome

that of St.

but also here in

are the finest, in the

Agnes

and there are

also curious pieces to be seen at Venice, Pisa, Florence,

and other

places.

The modern artists have improved very much in this


formance, and whatever traveller has been at

St.

per-

Peter's

and the palace of Borghese at Rome, St. Mark's at Veand the church of St. Felicia at Florence, will confess they have seen wonders.
Such figures are composed, joined and cemented togenice,

ther of various coloured

stones

but since nature has

scarcely, at least not sufficiently, supplied the proper shades


requisite for a masterly performance, that defect has

made up by
which

is

The

counterfeiting those colours, by

done

in the following

glass materials

art,

been

in glass

manner

are put in the crucibles or melting

such a colour is added as vou


would make vour shades with, in the manner you have
been before directed, in the art of making artificial gems
beginning with the lightest. Having mixed it well, and
pots,

and being

in fusion,

taken out the quantity you think proper with an iron ladle,
put

it

on a smooth marble,

per thickness

then cut

it

flatting it

with another to a pro-

quickly into small pieces, laying

them, when cold, in a box for use add more colour, and
proceed as before, repeating it till you come to the deepest
shade.
If you would gild them, wet them on one side
with gum-water, and lay leaf gold upon them and in an
:

iron

STAINING OF MARBLE.

347

iron shovel, covered with pieces of other glass, heat

red hot in the

mouth of

a furnace

them

then lake them out,

and when cold, the gold will be so fixed and firm that
nothing can hurt it.
When you begin to work, lay a thick ground against the
ceiling or wall, with plaster, and having your design ready
4rawn and painted on blue or brown paper, clap part of

upon the wet

plaster, and with a pair of small plyers,


up the small stones, and press them in their proper
places
forming the figures and shades in their respective
colours, as you are directed by your painted model.
In
this manner is done the history of " Our Saviour's
walking with Peter on the sea" in St. Peter's churcfy at
it

Jtake

Rome.

PART

THE LABORATORY.

548

PART

X.

PLAIN INSTRUCTION'S FOR

PAINTING IN WATER-COLOURS;
INTRODUCTION TO THE ART OF DRAWING IN
PERSPECTIVE.

Of

the Colours generally used in the

Art

{Sap Green

{White Lead
Flake White

Verdigrise

Terra Vert

Muscle-shell silver

Yellow Ochre
flndigo
Smalt

Masticot

Dutch Pink

Blue

<J

Yellow <

Ultramarine

Gamboge

Litmus

Naples Yellow

^ Prussian Blue

Shell

C Brown Ochre

fYermilion

Red-Lead
Red Ochre
Lake
LCarmine

Red

Gold

Brown

<!

Wood-Soot,

or

Bister

<J

Cologne Earth

Lumber
fLamp Black
B1
Blackly
Sea-Loalf*
Black
j

(.Indian Ink.

Out

WATER-COLOUR PAINTING.
may form all the
your work may require.

349

Out of these colours you

Some

lead

Cologne earth

Some
ticot,

washed and ground as, for inbrown ochre Dutch pink umber

colours are to be

stance, white

smalt, ultramarine,

which

are, red-lead,

mas-

and vermilion.

Others are only steeped in

And

ivory black.

are only to be washed,

sap-green, and

which

rest

fair

water;

as,

gamboge,

litmus.

others again are only ground, viz. flake-white, in-

digo, lake,

Grind

all

and verdigrise.
your colours with

fair

water, on a hard stone*

or on a piece of looking-glass, fixed with white pitch and.


resin

upon a

fiat

board, having also a muller of glass.

Of the colours, (after you have ground them very fine)


you may take as much as will serve your present occasion,
and temper them in a

gallipot, or shell, with gum-water,


which you have also dissolved some sugar-candy. You
must observe, that colours which are very dry, require
a stronger gum-water; in others, it must be used very

in

sparingly.
If

your colours wont

greasy,

mix

a very

little

stick,

or the paper or print be

ear-wax, or a

little

drop of fish or

amongst your colour you may dry your fish or


ox-gall, and dilute it when you have occasion for it, with a
If your paper or paint sinks, then with
little brandy.
clean size and a spunge wipe it over, after you have fastened the edges round upon a board, and let it dry.
You should be provided with phials containing the
following liquids, which are very necessary and useful in
ox-gall

painting or colouring with water-colours

A phial with

viz.

which alum has been dissolved.


This you use in wiping over your table, parchment, or
paper, before you begin to lay on your colours it will
cause them to lie smooth, and w ith a greater lustre.
1.

water

in

2.

A phial

THE LABORATORY.

350

A phial

2.

Dissolve or slacken some

with lime-water.-

quick-lime in

water

fair

the settled lime, and put

then take the water from off


it

up for use

this is

of great

use in tempering of sap-green and litmus, which colours,

being apt to turn yellow, are preserved by

3.

this

means.

made of gum-arabic

phial with gum-water;

dis-

you add a little white sugar-candy


to it, it will keep the colours from cracking and rlying off
the parchment or paper.
4. A phial with ox-gali7~or the galls of eels, boiled up
in a little water, and scum'd; this is of great use in painting of water-colours, where the parchment or paper happens to be greasy, by touching the point of your pencil
to wet it, and to temper it with your colour.
solved in fair water

5.

if

phial with white-wine vinegar: this

is

of use in

grinding oi distilled verdigrise, preserving that colour from

changing upon the yellow.


6.

A phial

of

spirits

of hartshorn, a

mixt among the carmine adds

You must
work they

little

get pencils of several sizes, agreeable to the

are for

as, for

laying

on a ground, sky

or clouds,

The

hair-pen-

get a larger size than for drapery, trees, &c.


cils
lips,

drop of which

to its beauty.

you have wetted them between your


and turned them upon your hand, keep close toge-

which,

after

ther, are the best.

To paint

Take
with

this

or colour a clear Sky.

clear blue verditer,

mixed with

and, having laid on the blue for


a

little

little

white

begin at the top of your landscape or picture,

some

space, break

it

with

lake or purple, working, with a clean pencil, one

colour imperceptibly into another


masticot, in order to

make

the horizon, working,

ail

it

apply more white and

fainter

and

fainter towards

the while, the colours imper-

ceptibly one into another, from the horizon to the blue

sky;

WATER-COLOUR PAINTING.

351

which you may lay some stronger strokes of


purple over the light, so as to make them appear like
sky

after

clouds at a distance.

For a

use red lead and a

fiery red sky,

little

white, in-

stead of the purple streaks or clouds, working them, ac-

cording to

imperceptibly one into another.

art,

Clouds you are


times a

little

can have

To

You

Ground on

must

on with white, and black, some-

but the best and surest direction you

from nature

is

lay a

to lay

purple

herself.

the Walls of Chambers, Halls,

use, for a

common wall, which

is

S(c.

of a reddish

hue, brown, red, and white, and temper your colour ac-

cording as

with a

it is

little

old or

new shade
;

it

with brown-red, mixed

bister or soot.

Other walls lay on with black and white, and shade with
sometimes mix a little purple with it,
and then shade it with black and lake.
For wainscoting that is embellished with carved mould-

the same colours

ings and figures, you must use one colour for both plain
and carved work, shading and heightening it with judgment and care.

To

paint a fore-ground in imitation of sand or clay, lay

on the darker parts with brown ochre to the distance, add


a little white, and so on in proportion, shading it with
;

brown ochre, and the strong shades with

Of

scot.

Carnation or Flesh-colour.

In a carnation or flesh-colour, use, for young women


and children, flake white, burnt ochre, and a little vermilion

sparingly

some add a
:

shade the

having
lips,

laid

little

on

lake,

but

that

must be but

the colour for the carnation,

cheeks, chin, knees, and toes, with fine


lake

352

THE LABORATORY.

lake and

and a

vermilion, and

little

lake,

the naked parts, with sea-coat

lake, or with Indian ink, or lake

plexion,

mix

brown ochre and


brownish com-

or brown-red, or with

little

for a

brown ochre among the carnation

colour.

Some

lay the

artists

dead colouring of the carnation

young women with white, then shade it with paperblack, and bring in the carnation colour where it is re-

for

quired.

The

Paper-llack>
Is made in the following manner
take the paper in
which leaves of gold have lain burn them quick, one
after another, and let them drop into a bason of clean
water then take them out, and grind them on a stone to
a fine paste form it into little tents, and let it dry when
you use it, temper it with gum- water as you see fit.
For old people, use vermilion, brown-ochre and white
shade it with bister and lake.
A dead corpse of a young person paint with flake-white,
brown-ochre and a little indigo, or sea-coal and shade it
:

with

bister,

or sea-coal.

For an old dead corpse, leave out the indigo, but shade
it

as before.

For dead bones, take white-lead mixed with a little bister


with which shade it, and heighten it with

or chimney soot

white lead.

For the hair of young


with light ochre, shade

women

and children, lay them


ochre, and heighten

them with deep

them with masticot and white.


Grey hairs lay on with black and white shade them
with black, and heighten them with white and thus pro;

ceed in painting any other coloured

hair.

Drops of blood lay on with red lead


where light falls, with carmine and lake.

shade

it

behind,

Trees

.WATER-COLOUR PAINTING.

353

Trees are laid on, some with white, black, and bister,
shaded with brown ochre, and heightened with the same
colour, with

more white

in

it.

Those

that stand at a

and

distance are laid on with indigo-blue, brown-ochre

Those
and shadow them but

and shaded with indigo and brown-ochre.

while,

that are further distant, lay on faint,


slightly

winch order you must observe


and other buildings.

in colouring

of

ships, houses,

In thatched houses, paint the thatch or straw,

with Dutch pink, and shade

it

whennew,

with brown-ochre

and to

Old straw lay


on with brown-ochre, sometimes mixed with black and
heighten the straw, use masticot and white.

white

heighten the straw with brown-ochre, and white.

In colouring
nature, for

no

or ruins,

can be well given

young
those houses which

little light

castles,

cities,

rules

to a

practitioner,

you must observe


however,

to give a

must be observed that

it

nearest the fore-ground are co-

lie

loured with vermilion, white, and a

shading with that and some bister

little

brown-ochre;

the heightenings are

done with vermilion and white.


Houses further distant are laid on with lake, and a little
blue and white, shaded with blue and lake, and heightened
with adding more white.

Such buildings
purple and a

as are

and

slighter

further, lay
softly

on with a
with

Flames and smoke are

laid

on with a pale yellow

the smoke with paper-black, or soot

faint

blue,

and the further they are


must be your colour.

heightened with white


fainter

still

blue, shaded

little

off,

and
the

shade

the flames shade

with red-lead or vermilion, and heighten them with Naples yellow.

In colouring of rocks,
distance, observe the

hills,

same

rule.

&c. that are

Such

at a great

as lie nearer the

fore-ground you are to imitate according to nature.

Trees
upon the fore-ground, you paint with several sorts
of greens, the better to distinguish one from the other
vol. i.
a a
such
that are

'

THE LABOR.ATORY.

354

such as arc on distant


colour as the

How
Horses

hills,

must be done with the same

hills.

to

paint or colour Cattle.

colour you are to lay on with


shaded with brown, red, and black, and
heightened with brown, red, white and yellow the manes

of ehesnut

brown-red,

and

tails

of horses you

may make

white, as also the lower

part of their feet.

You
white

are to lay one of an ash-colour on with black and

shade

with a bluish black, and heighten

it

with

it

white.

Lay on a black horse with all black shade it with a


deep black, and heighten it with black and white.
Lay a white horse on with white-lead, just tinted or
broke with a little red shade it with black and white, and
;

heighten

it

with pure white.

Spotted horses must be done according as nature directs

and by these

you

govern yourself in painting or colouring any other sort of cattle.


directions

Lay sheep on with


in the

shadows a

Lay on hogs
and shade

it

A bear is
red,

little

white, broke with a

laid

little

bister

use

black.

or pigs with

with

will

brown ochre and yellow ochre,

bister.

on with brown ochre, black and brown


bister and black, and heightened with

shaded with

brown ochre and white.

A leopard
bister

is

laid

on with yellow ochre, and shaded with


w ith bister and black the

the spots are laid on

mouth with black and white.


An ass is commonly of a grizly

colour, and laid

on with

black and white, broke with a little ochre.


An elephant is laid on with black and white and a

little

bister.

monkey

WATER-COLOUR PAINTING.

A monkey
the hair
bister

paws must be shaded

red, with a

A hart

bister

and black

heightened with mastieot, white, and a

is

the

on with Dutch pink,

laid

is

355

little

off with black and

little

brown-

white.

on with brown ochre and English red, and


and, where it is requisite, with bister
and brown-red a streak of white must be below the neck,
and the belly and breast of a white colour.
A hare is laid on with brown-ochre, which loses itself by
degrees into white under the belly the back is shaded
with bister, and the hair is heightened with ochre and
laid

is

shaded on the back

white.

rabbit

belly

on with white,

laid

is

white

is

these

creatures

which may be imitated

black,

and

bister

the

of various colours,

are

after nature.

Of

Birds.

A falcon is laid on with brown ochre, black and white,


shaded with a pale black the feathers must be displayed
;

and shaded with black

the breast

white, the legs yel-

is

low, and shaded with brown-ochre and bister.


A turkey-cock or hen, is laid on with black and white, and
shaded with black, working the colours lighter and lighter

towards the belly, which must be


laid

white

all

the legs are

on with indigo and white, and shaded with

when they
must be

are

irritated,

the substance

on with vermilion and

laid

with stronger lake

otherwise,

lake,

when

blue

about their

deepening

bill
it

they are calm, that

upon the purple.


on with white, with a little bister, and
heightened, where the feathers seem to rise, with pure
part

is

little

swan

white

is

laid

the feet are blackish, and the

rising at the

bill red,

with a black

upper end.

Pigeons, drakes, hens, &c. are of so


lours, that there

would be no end
a a 2

many

various co-

to give proper lessons

for

THE LABORATORY.
it is with many

356
for every

an

one

ought

artist

copy

to

after nature.

Of
Apples
verdigrise