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You are on page 1of 87

USING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

by

Anthony J. Wolanski, B.S.

Faculty of the Graduate School,

Marquette University,

in Partial Fulfillment of

the Requirements for

the Degree of

Master of Science

Milwaukee, Wisconsin

May, 2004

PREFACE

Several methods have been utilized to study the response of concrete structural

components. Experimental based testing has been widely used as a means to analyze

individual elements and the effects of concrete strength under loading. The use of finite

element analysis to study these components has also been used.

This thesis is a study of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams using finite

element analysis to understand their load-deflection response. A reinforced concrete

beam model is studied and compared to experimental data.

The parameters for the reinforced concrete model were then used to model a

prestressed concrete beam. Characteristic points on the load-deformation response curve

predicted using finite element analysis were compared to theoretical (hand-calculated)

results.

Conclusions were then made as to the accuracy of using finite element modeling

for analysis of concrete. The results compared well to experimental and hand calculated.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research was performed under the supervision of Dr. Christopher M. Foley. I am

extremely grateful for the guidance, knowledge, understanding, and numerous hours

spent helping me complete this thesis. Appreciation is also extended to my thesis

committee, Dr. Stephen M. Heinrich and Dr. Baolin Wan, for their time and efforts.

I would like to thank my parents, John and Sue Wolanski, my brother, John

Wolanski, and my sister, Christine Wolanski for their understanding, encouragement and

support. Without my family these accomplishments would not have been possible.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

LIST OF TABLES

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viii

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.2

2.0

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

.................................. 6

3.0

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3.1

Experimental Beam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3.2

3.2.1

Element Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

3.2.2

Real Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

3.3

3.2.4

Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

3.2.5

Meshing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.2.6

Numbering Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

3.2.7

3.2.8

Analysis Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

3.2.9

Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

3.3.1

3.3.2

3.3.3

3.3.4

3.3.5

3.3.6

Load-Deformation Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

. . . . . . . . 44

4.0

Introdution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

4.1

4.1.1

Real Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

4.2

4.1.3

Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

4.1.4

Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

4.2.1

4.2.2

Self-Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

4.2.3

Zero Deflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

4.2.4

Decompression

4.2.5

Initial Cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

4.2.6

4.2.7

4.2.8

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

5.0

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5.1

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

5.2

REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

APPENDICES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

Theoretical Calculations for Calibration Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

Theoretical Calculations for Prestressed Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

LIST OF FIGURES

PAGE

FIGURE

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

(Kachlakev, et al. 2001) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

2.6

and Warnke 1974) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.7

2.8

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

Reinforcement Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

3.12

3.13

3.14

3.15

3.16

3.17

3.18

3.19

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

Bursting Phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

4.5

4.6

4.7

A.1

A.2

Transformed Cross-Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

B.1

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

LIST OF TABLES

PAGE

TABLE

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

3.10

3.11

3.12

3.13

3.14

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

At Ultimate Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4

Analytical Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1

General

Understanding the response of these components during loading is crucial to the

development of an overall efficient and safe structure.

Different methods have been utilized to study the response of structural

components. Experimental based testing has been widely used as a means to analyze

individual elements and the effects of concrete strength under loading. While this is a

method that produces real life response, it is extremely time consuming, and the use of

materials can be quite costly. The use of finite element analysis to study these

components has also been used. Unfortunately, early attempts to accomplish this were

also very time consuming and infeasible using existing software and hardware.

In recent years, however, the use of finite element analysis has increased due to

progressing knowledge and capabilities of computer software and hardware. It has now

become the choice method to analyze concrete structural components. The use of

computer software to model these elements is much faster, and extremely cost-effective.

To fully understand the capabilities of finite element computer software, one must

look back to experimental data and simple analysis. Data obtained from a finite element

analysis package is not useful unless the necessary steps are taken to understand what is

happening within the model that is created using the software. Also, executing the

necessary checks along the way is key to make sure that what is being output by the

computer software is valid.

By understanding the use of finite element packages, more efficient and better

analyses can be made to fully understand the response of individual structural

components and their contribution to a structure as a whole. This thesis is a study of

reinforced and prestressed concrete beams using finite element analysis to understand the

response of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams due to transverse loading.

1.2

The objective of this thesis was to investigate and evaluate the use of the finite element

method for the analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete beams The following

procedure was used to meet this goal.

First, a literature review was conducted to evaluate previous experimental and

analytical procedures related to reinforced concrete components. Second, a calibration

model using a commercial finite element analysis package (ANSYS, SAS 2003) was set

up and evaluated using experimental data. A mild-steel reinforced concrete beam with

flexural and shear reinforcement was analyzed to failure and compared to experimental

results to calibrate the parameters in ANSYS (SAS 2003) for later analyses.

Based on the results obtained from the calibration model and the

analysis/modeling parameters set by this model, a prestressed concrete beam was

analyzed from initial prestress to flexural failure. Deflections, stresses, and cracking of

the concrete beam were analyzed at different key points along the way. These key points

initial cracking, yielding of steel, and failure.

Discussion of the results obtained for the calibration model and the prestressed

concrete beam model is also provided. Conclusions regarding the analysis are then

drawn and recommendations for further research are made.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW AND SYNTHESIS

2.0

Introduction

To provide a detailed review of the body of literature related to reinforced and prestressed

concrete in its entirety would be too immense to address in this thesis. However, there

are many good references that can be used as a starting point for research (ACI 1978,

MacGregor 1992, Nawy 2000). This literature review and introduction will focus on

recent contributions related to FEA and past efforts most closely related to the needs of

the present work.

The use of FEA has been the preferred method to study the behavior of concrete

(for economic reasons). Willam and Tanabe (2001) contains a collection of papers

concerning finite element analysis of reinforced concrete structures. This collection

contains areas of study such as: seismic behavior of structures, cyclic loading of

reinforced concrete columns, shear failure of reinforced concrete beams, and concretesteel bond models.

Shing and Tanabe (2001) also put together a collection of papers dealing with

inelastic behavior of reinforced concrete structures under seismic loads. The monograph

contains contributions that outline applications of the finite element method for studying

post-peak cyclic behavior and ductility of reinforced concrete columns, the analysis of

reinforced concrete components in bridge seismic design, the analysis of reinforced

concrete beam-column bridge connections, and the modeling of the shear behavior of

reinforced concrete bridge structures.

The focus of these most recent efforts is with bridges, columns, and seismic

design. The focus of this thesis is the study of non-prestressed and prestressed flexural

members. The following is a review and synthesis of efforts most relevant to this thesis

discussing FEA applications, experimental testing, and concrete material models.

2.1

Three concrete control beams were cast with flexural and shear reinforcing steel. Shear

reinforcement was placed in each beam to force a flexural failure mechanism.

All three beams were loaded with transverse point loads at third points along the

beams. Loading was applied to the beams until failure occurred as shown in Figure 2.1.

The mode of failure characterized by the beams was compression failure of the concrete

in the constant moment region (flexural failure). All failures were ductile, with

significant flexural cracking of the concrete in the constant moment region.

Load-deflection curves were plotted for each beam and compared to predicted

ultimate loads. This thesis will utilize the experimental results of these control beam tests

for calibration of the FE models.

2.2

Faherty (1972) studied a reinforced and prestressed concrete beam using the finite

element method of analysis. The two beams that were selected for modeling were simply

supported and loaded with two symmetrically placed concentrated transverse loads

(Figure 2.2).

The analysis for the reinforced concrete beam included: non-linear concrete

properties, a linear bond-slip relation, bilinear steel properties, and the influence of

progressive cracking of the concrete. The transverse loading was incrementally applied

and ranged in magnitude from zero to a load well above that which initiated cracking.

Because the loading and geometry of the beam were symmetrical, only one half of the

beam was modeled using FEA. The finite element model produced very good results that

compared well with experimental results in Janney (1954).

Faherty (1972) also analyzed a prestressed concrete beam that included: nonlinear concrete properties, a linear bond slip relation with a destruction of the bond

between the steel and concrete, and bilinear steel properties. The dead load, release of

the prestressing force, the elastic prestress loss, the time dependent prestress loss, and the

loss of tensile stress in the concrete as a result of concrete rupture were applied as single

loading increments, whereas the transverse loading was applied incrementally. Only

three finite element models of the prestressed beam were implemented (or used): two

uncracked sections, and a partially cracked section. Symmetry was once again utilized.

These results for the prestressed beam showed that deflections computed using

the finite element model were very similar to those observed by Branson, et al. (1970).

However, the load-deflection curve past the cracking point was not generated because

only three distinct cracking patterns were used for this analysis. It was recommended

that additional analysis of the prestressed concrete beam should be undertaken after a

procedure is developed for modeling the tensile rupture of the concrete. The model

utilized in this research required the beam to be unloaded and the finite element model

redefined as each crack is initiated or extended.

Kachlakev, et al. (2001) used ANSYS (SAS 2003) to study concrete beam

members with externally bonded Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) fabric.

Symmetry allowed one quarter of the beam to be modeled as shown in Figure 2.3.

Figure 2.3 FEM Discretization for a Quarter of the Beam (Kachlakev, et al. 2001)

At planes of symmetry, the displacement in the direction perpendicular to the plane was

set to zero. A single line support was utilized to allow rotation at the supports. Loads

were placed at third points along the full beam on top of steel plates. The mesh was

refined immediately beneath the load (Figure 2.3). No stirrup-type reinforcement was

used.

The nonlinear Newton-Raphson approach was utilized to trace the equilibrium

path during the load-deformation response. It was found that convergence of solutions

for the model was difficult to achieve due to the nonlinear behavior of reinforced

concrete material. At certain stages in the analysis, load step sizes were varied from large

(at points of linearity in the response) to small (when instances of cracking and steel

yielding occurred). The load-deflection curve for the non-CFRP reinforced beam that

was plotted shows reasonable correlation with experimental data (McCurry and

Kachlakev 2000) as shown in Figure 2.4.

Also, concrete crack/crush plots were created at different load levels to examine the

different types of cracking that occurred within the concrete as shown in Figure 2.5.

The different types of concrete failure that can occur are flexural cracks,

compression failure (crushing), and diagonal tension cracks. Flexural cracks (Figure

2.5a) form vertically up the beam. Compression failures (Figure 2.5b) are shown as

circles. Diagonal tension cracks (Figure 2.5c) form diagonally up the beam towards the

loading that is applied.

Figure 2.5 Typical Cracking Signs in Finite Element Models: a)Flexural Cracks,

b)Compressive Cracks, c)Diagonal Tensile Cracks (Kachlakev, et al. 2001)

This study indicates that the use of a finite element program to model

experimental data is viable and the results that are obtained can indeed model reinforced

concrete beam behavior reasonably well.

2.3

Willam and Warnke (1974) developed a widely used model for the triaxial failure surface

of unconfined plain concrete. The failure surface in principal stress-space is shown in

Figure 2.6. The mathematical model considers a sextant of the principal stress space

because the stress components are ordered according to 1 2 3 . These stress

components are the major principal stresses.

The failure surface is separated into hydrostatic (change in volume) and deviatoric

(change in shape) sections as shown in Figure 2.7. The hydrostatic section forms a

meridianal plane which contains the equisectrix 1 = 2 = 3 as an axis of revolution (see

Figure 2.6). The deviatoric section in Figure 2.7 lies in a plane normal to the equisectrix

(dashed line in Figure 2.7).

Figure 2.6 Failure Surface of Plain Concrete Under Triaxial Conditions (Willam and

Warnke 1974)

The deviatoric trace is described by the polar coordinates r , and where r is the

position vector locating the failure surface with angle, . The failure surface is defined

as:

1 a

1 a

+

=1

z f cu r ( ) f cu

(2.1)

where:

z = apex of the surface

f cu = uniaxial compressive strength

The opening angles of the hydrostatic cone are defined by 1 and 2 . The free

parameters of the failure surface z and r , are identified from the uniaxial compressive

strength ( f cu ), biaxial compressive strength ( f cb ), and uniaxial tension strength ( ft )

The Willam and Warnke (1974) mathematical model of the failure surface for the

concrete has the following advantages:

1. close fit of experimental data in the operating range;

2. simple identification of model parameters from standard test data;

3. smoothness (e.g. continuous surface with continuously varying tangent

planes);

4. convexity (e.g. monotonically curved surface without inflection points).

Based on the above criteria, a constitutive model for the concrete suitable for FEA

implementation was formulated.

This constitutive model for concrete based upon the Willam and Warnke (1974)

model assumes an appropriate description of the material failure. The yield condition can

and elastic from inelastic deformations using the failure envelope defined by a scalar

function of stress f ( ) = 0 through a flow rule, while using incremental stress-strain

relations. The parameters for the failure surface can be seen in Figure 2.7.

During transition from elastic to plastic or elastic to brittle behavior, two

numerical strategies were recommended: proportional penetration, which subdivides

proportional loading into an elastic and inelastic portion which governs the failure surface

using integration, and normal penetration, which allows the elastic path to reach the yield

surface at the intersection with the normal therefore solving a linear system of equations.

Both of these methods are feasible and give stress values that satisfy the constitutive

constraint condition. From the standpoint of computer application the normal penetration

approach is more efficient than the proportional penetration method, since integration is

avoided.

2.4

Tavarez (2001) discusses three techniques that exist to model steel reinforcement in finite

element models for reinforced concrete (Figure 2.8): the discrete model, the embedded

model, and the smeared model.

The reinforcement in the discrete model (Figure 2.8a) uses bar or beam elements

that are connected to concrete mesh nodes. Therefore, the concrete and the reinforcement

mesh share the same nodes and concrete occupies the same regions occupied by the

reinforcement. A drawback to this model is that the concrete mesh is restricted by the

location of the reinforcement and the volume of the mild-steel reinforcement is not

deducted from the concrete volume.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 2.8 Models for Reinforcement in Reinforced Concrete (Tavarez 2001): (a)

discrete; (b) embedded; and (c) smeared

The embedded model (Figure 2.8b) overcomes the concrete mesh restriction(s)

because the stiffness of the reinforcing steel is evaluated separately from the concrete

elements. The model is built in a way that keeps reinforcing steel displacements

compatible with the surrounding concrete elements. When reinforcement is complex,

this model is very advantageous. However, this model increases the number of nodes and

degrees of freedom in the model, therefore, increasing the run time and computational

cost.

The smeared model (Figure 2.8c) assumes that reinforcement is uniformly spread

throughout the concrete elements in a defined region of the FE mesh. This approach is

used for large-scale models where the reinforcement does not significantly contribute to

the overall response of the structure.

Fanning (2001) modeled the response of the reinforcement using the discrete

model and the smeared model for reinforced concrete beams. It was found that the best

modeling strategy was to use the discrete model when modeling reinforcement.

2.5

The literature review suggested that use of a finite element package to model reinforced

and prestressed concrete beams was indeed feasible. It was decided to use ANSYS (SAS

2003) as the FE modeling package. A reinforced concrete beam with reinforcing steel

modeled discretely will be developed with results compared to the experimental work of

Buckhouse (1997). The load-deflection response of the experimental beam will be

compared to analytical predictions to calibrate the FE model for further use. A second

analysis of a prestressed concrete beam will also be studied. The different stages of the

response of a prestressed concrete beam are computed using FEA and compared to

results generated using hand computations.

CHAPTER 3

CALIBRATION MODEL

3.0

Introduction

This chapter discusses the calibration of the finite element model using experimental

load-deformation behavior of a concrete beam provided in Buckhouse (1997). The use of

ANSYS (SAS 2003) to create the finite element model is also discussed. All the

necessary steps to create the calibrated model are explained in detail and the steps taken

to generate the analytical load-deformation response of the member are discussed.

3.1

Experimental Beam

Buckhouse (1997) studied a method to reinforce a concrete beam for flexure using

external structural steel channels. The study included experimental testing of control

beams that can be used for calibration of finite element models. The width and height of

the beams tested were 10 in. and 18 in., respectively. As shown in Figure 3.1, the length

Figure 3.1 Loading and Supports for the Beam (Buckhouse 1997)

of the beam was 15 ft.-6 in. with supports located 3 in. from each end of the beam

allowing a simply supported span of 15 ft. The mild steel flexural reinforcements used

were 3-#5 bars and shear reinforcements included #3 U-stirrups. Cover for the rebar was

set to 2 in. in all directions. The layout of the reinforcement is detailed in Figure 3.2.

Figure 3.2 Typical Detail for Control Beam Reinforcement (Buckhouse 1997)

The steel yield stress, 28-day compressive stress of concrete, and area of steel

reinforcement are included in Table 3.1.

Area of Steel (in.2)

0.93

(psi)

60,000

28-Day Compressive

Strength of Concrete, fc'

(psi)

4,770

Two 50-kip capacity load cells were placed at third points, or 5 ft. from each

support on steel bearing plates (Figure 3.1). Data acquisition equipment was used to

record applied loading, beam deflection at the midspan, and strain in the internal flexural

reinforcement. The beam was loaded to flexural failure (Figure 3.3).

Vertical cracks first formed in the constant moment region, extended upward, and then

out towards the constant shear region with eventual crushing of the concrete in the

constant moment region as shown in Figure 3.3. Test data for the beam is summarized in

Table 3.2.

The theoretical ultimate load for the beam was calculated to be 14,600 lbs

(Buckhouse 1997). Table 3.2 shows the experimental ultimate load determined was

16,310 lbs. The ultimate loading corresponded to the nominal flexural capacity of the

cross-section being reached. A plot of load versus deflection for control beam C1

(Buckhouse 1997) is shown in Figure 3.4.

Avg. Load at 1st

Crack (lbs.)

4,500

(lbs.)

16,310

Avg. Centerline

Deflection at Failure

(in.)

3.65

Mode of Failure

compression failure of

concrete

18000

C

16000

14000

C1 theoretical

ultimate load

(14,600 lbs.)

12000

B

10000

Nonlinear Region

8000

Point B - Steel Yielding

Point C - Failure

A

6000

4000

Linear Region

2000

0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

Figure 3.4 Load vs. Deflection Curve for Beam C1 (Buckhouse 1997)

4.5

The plot shows the linear behavior before first cracking (point A). A second slope

corresponding to the cracked section is followed until point B where the flexural

reinforcement yields. The cracked moment of inertia with yielding internal

reinforcement then defines the stiffness until flexural failure at point C.

3.2

The FEA calibration study included modeling a concrete beam with the dimensions and

properties corresponding to beam C1 tested by Buckhouse (1997). Due to the symmetry

in cross-section of the concrete beam and loading, symmetry was utilized in the FEA,

only one quarter of the beam was modeled.

To create the finite element model in ANSYS (SAS 2003) there are multiple tasks

that have to be completed for the model to run properly. Models can be created using

command prompt line input or the Graphical User Interface (GUI). For this model, the

GUI was utilized to create the model. This section describes the different tasks and

entries into used to create the FE calibration model.

3.2.1

Element Types

The element types for this model are shown in Table 3.3. The Solid65 element was used

to model the concrete. This element has eight nodes with three degrees of freedom at

each node translations in the nodal x, y, and z directions. This element is capable of

plastic deformation, cracking in three orthogonal directions, and crushing. A schematic

of the element is shown in Figure 3.5.

Material Type ANSYS Element

Concrete

Solid65

Steel Plates and

Solid45

Supports

Steel

Reinforcement

Link8

A Solid45 element was used for steel plates at the supports for the beam. This

element has eight nodes with three degrees of freedom at each node translations in the

nodal x, y, and z directions. The geometry and node locations for this element is shown

in Figure 3.6. The descriptions for each element type are laid out in the ANSYS element

library (SAS 2003).

spar element and it has two nodes with three degrees of freedom translations in the

nodal x, y, and z directions. This element is also capable of plastic deformation. This

element is shown in Figure 3.7.

3.2.2

Real Constants

The real constants for this model are shown in Table 3.4. Note that individual elements

contain different real constants. No real constant set exists for the Solid45 element.

Real Constant Set Element Type

Solid 65

Link8

Link8

Link8

Link8

Constants

Real

Real

Real

Constants for Constants for Constants for

Rebar 1

Rebar 2

Rebar 3

Material Number

0

0

0

Volume Ratio

0

0

0

Orientation Angle

0

0

0

Orientation Angle

0

0

0

Cross-sectional

0.31

Area (in.2)

Initial Strain

(in./in.)

Cross-sectional

Area (in.2)

0.155

Initial Strain

(in./in.)

Cross-sectional

Area (in.2)

0.11

Initial Strain

(in./in.)

Cross-sectional

Area (in.2)

0.055

Initial Strain

(in./in.)

Real Constant Set 1 is used for the Solid65 element. It requires real constants for

rebar assuming a smeared model. Values can be entered for Material Number, Volume

Ratio, and Orientation Angles. The material number refers to the type of material for the

reinforcement. The volume ratio refers to the ratio of steel to concrete in the element.

The orientation angles refer to the orientation of the reinforcement in the smeared model

(Figure 2.8c). ANSYS (SAS 2003) allows the user to enter three rebar materials in the

concrete. Each material corresponds to x, y, and z directions in the element (Figure 3.5).

The reinforcement has uniaxial stiffness and the directional orientation is defined by the

user. In the present study the beam is modeled using discrete reinforcement. Therefore,

a value of zero was entered for all real constants which turned the smeared reinforcement

capability of the Solid65 element off.

Real Constant Sets 2, 3, 4, and 5 are defined for the Link8 element. Values for

cross-sectional area and initial strain were entered. Cross-sectional areas in sets 2 and 3

refer to the reinforcement of 3-#5 bars. Due to symmetry, set 3 is half of set 2 because

one-half the center bar in the beam is cut off. Cross-sectional areas in sets 4 and 5 refer

to the #3 stirrups. Once again set 5 is half of set 4 because half of the stirrup at the midspan of the beam is cut off resulting from symmetry. A value of zero was entered for the

initial strain because there is no initial stress in the reinforcement.

3.2.3

Material Properties

Parameters needed to define the material models can be found in Table 3.5. As seen in

Table 3.5, there are multiple parts of the material model for each element.

Material Model Element

Number

Type

Material Properties

EX

PRXY

Solid65

Linear Isotropic

3,949,076 psi

0.3

Multilinear Isotropic

Strain

0.00036

0.0006

0.0013

0.0019

0.00243

Point 1

Point 2

Point 3

Point 4

Point 5

Concrete

ShrCf-Op

ShrCf-Cl

UnTensSt

UnCompSt

BiCompSt

HydroPrs

BiCompSt

UnTensSt

TenCrFac

Solid45

0.3

1

520

-1

0

0

0

0

0

EX

PRXY

Linear Isotropic

29,000,000 psi

0.3

EX

PRXY

Linear Isotropic

29,000,000 psi

0.3

Link8

Bilinear Isotropic

Yield Stss

60,000 psi

Tang Mod

2,900 psi

Stress

1421.7

2233

3991

4656

4800

Material Model Number 1 refers to the Solid65 element. The Solid65 element

requires linear isotropic and multilinear isotropic material properties to properly model

concrete. The multilinear isotropic material uses the von Mises failure criterion along

with the Willam and Warnke (1974) model to define the failure of the concrete. EX is

the modulus of elasticity of the concrete ( Ec ), and PRXY is the Poissons ratio ( ). The

modulus was based on the equation,

Ec = 57000 f c'

(3.1)

with a value of f c' equal to 4,800 psi. Poissons ratio was assumed to be 0.3. The

compressive uniaxial stress-strain relationship for the concrete model was obtained using

the following equations to compute the multilinear isotropic stress-strain curve for the

concrete (MacGregor 1992)

f =

Ec

1+

0

0 =

Ec =

2 f c'

Ec

(3.2)

(3.3)

(3.4)

where:

= strain at stress f

The multilinear isotropic stress-strain implemented requires the first point of the curve to

be defined by the user. It must satisfy Hookes Law;

E=

(3.5)

The multilinear curve is used to help with convergence of the nonlinear solution

algorithm.

6000

5000

f c'

3

Stress (psi)

4000

Ec

3000

2000

0.30 f c'

1000

0

0

0.0005

0.001

0.0015

0.002

0.0025

0.003

0.0035

Strain (in./in.)

Figure 3.8 shows the stress-strain relationship used for this study and is based on

work done by Kachlakev, et al. (2001). Point 1, defined as 0.30 f c' , is calculated in the

linear range (Equation 3.4). Points 2, 3, and 4 are calculated from Equation 3.2 with 0

obtained from Equation 3.3. Strains were selected and the stress was calculated for each

in.

Implementation of the Willam and Warnke (1974) material model in ANSYS

requires that different constants be defined. These 9 constants are: (SAS 2003)

1. Shear transfer coefficients for an open crack;

2. Shear transfer coefficients for a closed crack;

3. Uniaxial tensile cracking stress;

4. Uniaxial crushing stress (positive);

5. Biaxial crushing stress (positive);

6. Ambient hydrostatic stress state for use with constants 7 and 8;

7. Biaxial crushing stress (positive) under the ambient hydrostatic stress state

(constant 6);

8. Uniaxial crushing stress (positive) under the ambient hydrostatic stress state

(constant 6);

9. Stiffness multiplier for cracked tensile condition.

Typical shear transfer coefficients range from 0.0 to 1.0, with 0.0 representing a

smooth crack (complete loss of shear transfer) and 1.0 representing a rough crack (no loss

of shear transfer). The shear transfer coefficients for open and closed cracks were

determined using the work of Kachlakev, et al. (2001) as a basis. Convergence problems

occurred when the shear transfer coefficient for the open crack dropped below 0.2. No

deviation of the response occurs with the change of the coefficient. Therefore, the

coefficient for the open crack was set to 0.3 (Table 3.4). The uniaxial cracking stress was

based upon the modulus of rupture. This value is determined using,

f r = 7.5 f c'

(3.6)

The uniaxial crushing stress in this model was based on the uniaxial unconfined

compressive strength ( f c' ) and is denoted as ft . It was entered as -1 to turn off the

crushing capability of the concrete element as suggested by past researchers (Kachlakev,

et al. 2001). Convergence problems have been repeated when the crushing capability

was turned on.

The biaxial crushing stress refers to the ultimate biaxial compressive strength

( f cb' ). The ambient hydrostatic stress state is denoted as h . This stress state is defined

as:

1

3

h = ( xp + yp + zp )

(3.7)

where xp , yp , and zp are the principal stresses in the principal directions. The biaxial

crushing stress under the ambient hydrostatic stress state refers to the ultimate

compressive strength for a state of biaxial compression superimposed on the hydrostatic

stress state ( f1 ). The uniaxial crushing stress under the ambient hydrostatic stress state

refers to the ultimate compressive strength for a state of uniaxial compression

superimposed on the hydrostatic stress state ( f 2 ). The failure surface can be defined

with a minimum of two constants, ft and f c' . The remainder of the variables in the

concrete model are left to default based on these equations: (SAS 2003)

(3.8)

f1 = 1.45 f c'

(3.9)

f 2 = 1.725 f c'

(3.10)

These stress states are only valid for stress states satisfying the condition

h 3 f c'

(3.11)

Material Model Number 2 refers to the Solid45 element. The Solid45 element is

being used for the steel plates at loading points and supports on the beam. Therefore, this

element is modeled as a linear isotropic element with a modulus of elasticity for the steel

( Es ), and poissons ratio (0.3).

Material Model Number 3 refers to the Link8 element. The Link8 element is

being used for all the steel reinforcement in the beam and it is assumed to be bilinear

isotropic. Bilinear isotropic material is also based on the von Mises failure criteria. The

bilinear model requires the yield stress ( f y ), as well as the hardening modulus of the steel

to be defined. The yield stress was defined as 60,000 psi, and the hardening modulus was

2900 psi.

Note that the density for the concrete was not added in the material model. For

the control beam in Buckhouse (1997), the LVDTs used to measure deflection at midspan were put on the beam after it was set in the test fixture. Deflections were taken

relative to a zero deflection point after the self-weight was introduced. Therefore, the

self-weight was not introduced in this calibration model.

3.2.4

Modeling

The beam, plates, and supports were modeled as volumes. Since a quarter of the beam is

being modeled, the model is 93 in. long, with a cross-section of 5 in. x 18 in. The

dimensions for the concrete volume are shown in Table 3.6. The zero values for the Zcoordinates coincide with the center of the cross-section for the concrete beam.

Table 3.6 Dimensions for Concrete, Steel Plate, and Steel Support Volumes

ANSYS

X1,X2 X-coordinates

Y1,Y2 Y-coordinates

Z1,Z2 Z-coordinates

Concrete (in.)

0

93

0

18

0

5

60

66

18

19

0

5

1.5

4.5

0

-1

0

5

The 93 in. dimension for the X-coordinates is the mid-span of the beam. Due to

symmetry, only one loading plate and one support plate are needed. The support is a 3 in.

x 5 in. x 1 in. steel plate, while the plate at the load point is 6 in. x 5 in. x 1 in. The

dimensions for the plate and support are shown in Table 3.6. The combined volumes of

the plate, support, and beam are shown in Figure 3.9. The FE mesh for the beam model

is shown in Figure 3.10.

Concrete Beam

Steel Support

Concrete Element

Width 1.25 in.

Concrete Element

Length 1.5 in.

Steel Plate Element

Width 1.25 in.

Steel Support

Element

Length 1.5 in.

Steel Support Element

Width 1.25 in.

Steel Plate Element

Length 1.5 in.

Concrete Element

Height 1.2 in.

Figure 3.10 Mesh of the Concrete, Steel Plate, and Steel Support

Link8 elements were used to create the flexural and shear reinforcement.

Reinforcement exists at a plane of symmetry and in the beam. The area of steel at the

plane of symmetry is one half the normal area for a #5 bar because one half of the bar is

cut off. Shear stirrups are modeled throughout the beam. Only half of the stirrup is

modeled because of the symmetry of the beam. Figure 3.11 illustrates that the rebar

shares the same nodes at the points that it intersects the shear stirrups. The element type

number, material number, and real constant set number for the calibration model were set

for each mesh as shown in Table 3.7.

#3 Shear Stirrups

#5 Bar Reinforcement at

Plane of Symmetry

Stirrup at Plane of

Symmetry

from the end of the Cross-Section

Shared nodes of

Stirrups and Rebar

Model Parts

Concrete Beam

Steel Plate

Steel Support

Rebar at Center of Cross-Section

Rebar 2.5 in. of Cross-Section

Stirrup at Center of Beam

Other Stirrups

3.2.5

Element Material

Type Number

1

2

2

3

3

3

3

1

3

3

2

2

2

2

Real Constant

Set

1

N/A

N/A

3

2

5

4

Meshing

To obtain good results from the Solid65 element, the use of a rectangular mesh is

recommended. Therefore, the mesh was set up such that square or rectangular elements

were created (Figure 3.10). The volume sweep command was used to mesh the steel

plate and support. This properly sets the width and length of elements in the plates to be

consistent with the elements and nodes in the concrete portions of the model.

The overall mesh of the concrete, plate, and support volumes is shown in Figure

3.10. The necessary element divisions are noted. The meshing of the reinforcement is a

special case compared to the volumes. No mesh of the reinforcement is needed because

individual elements were created in the modeling through the nodes created by the mesh

of the concrete volume. However, the necessary mesh attributes as described above need

to be set before each section of the reinforcement is created.

3.2.6

Numbering Controls

The command merge items merges separate entities that have the same location. These

items will then be merged into single entities. Caution must be taken when merging

entities in a model that has already been meshed because the order in which merging

occurs is significant. Merging keypoints before nodes can result in some of the nodes

becoming orphaned; that is, the nodes lose their association with the solid model. The

orphaned nodes can cause certain operations (such as boundary condition transfers,

surface load transfers, and so on) to fail. Care must be taken to always merge in the order

that the entities appear. All precautions were taken to ensure that everything was merged

in the proper order. Also, the lowest number was retained during merging.

3.2.7

Displacement boundary conditions are needed to constrain the model to get a unique

solution. To ensure that the model acts the same way as the experimental beam,

boundary conditions need to be applied at points of symmetry, and where the supports

and loadings exist.

The symmetry boundary conditions were set first. The model being used is

symmetric about two planes. The boundary conditions for both planes of symmetry are

shown in Figure 3.12.

Nodes defining a vertical plane through the beam cross-section centroid defines a plane

of symmetry. To model the symmetry, nodes on this plane must be constrained in the

perpendicular direction. These nodes, therefore, have a degree of freedom constraint UX

= 0. Second, all nodes selected at Z = 0 define another plane of symmetry. These nodes

were given the constraint UZ = 0.

The support was modeled in such a way that a roller was created. A single line of

nodes on the plate were given constraint in the UY, and UZ directions, applied as

constant values of 0. By doing this, the beam will be allowed to rotate at the support. The

support condition is shown in Figure 3.13.

to allow rotation

The force, P, applied at the steel plate is applied across the entire centerline of the

plate. The force applied at each node on the plate is one tenth of the actual force applied.

Figure 3.14 illustrates the plate and applied loading.

Loading Applied

on the Plate

3.2.8

Analysis Type

The finite element model for this analysis is a simple beam under transverse loading. For

the purposes of this model, the Static analysis type is utilized.

The Restart command is utilized to restart an analysis after the initial run or load

step has been completed. The use of the restart option will be detailed in the analysis

portion of the discussion.

The Soln Controls command dictates the use of a linear or non-linear solution for

the finite element model. Typical commands utilized in a nonlinear static analysis are

shown in Table 3.8.

Analysis Options

Small Displacement

Calculate Prestress Effects

No

Time at End of Loadstep

5120

Automatic Time Stepping

On

Number of Substeps

1

Max no. of Substeps

2

Min no. of Substeps

1

Write Items to Results File

All Solution Items

Frequency

Write Every Substep

In the particular case considered in this thesis the analysis is small displacement and

static. The time at the end of the load step refers to the ending load per load step. Table

3.8 shows the first load step taken (e.g. up to first cracking). The sub steps are set to

indicate load increments used for this analysis. The commands used to control the solver

and output are shown in Table 3.9.

Equation Solvers

Sparse Direct

Number of Restart Files

1

Frequency

Write Every Substep

All these values are set to ANSYS (SAS 2003) defaults. The commands used for the

nonlinear algorithm and convergence criteria are shown in Table 3.10. All values for the

nonlinear algorithm are set to defaults.

Line Search

Off

DOF solution predictor

Prog Chosen

Maximum number of iteration

100

Cutback Control

Cutback according to predicted number of iter.

Equiv. Plastic Strain

0.15

Explicit Creep ratio

0.1

Implicit Creep ratio

0

Incremental displacement

10000000

Points per cycle

13

Set Convergence Criteria

Label

F

U

Ref. Value

Calculated

calculated

Tolerance

0.005

0.05

Norm

L2

L2

Min. Ref.

not applicable

not applicable

The values for the convergence criteria are set to defaults except for the tolerances. The

tolerances for force and displacement are set as 5 times the default values. Table 3.11

shows the commands used for the advanced nonlinear settings. The program behavior

upon nonconvergence for this analysis was set such that the program will terminate but

not exit. The rest of the commands were set to defaults.

Program behavior upon nonconvergence Terminate but do not exit

Nodal DOF sol'n

0

Cumulative iter

0

Elapsed time

0

CPU time

0

3.2.9

The FE analysis of the model was set up to examine three different behaviors: initial

cracking of the beam, yielding of the steel reinforcement, and the strength limit state of

the beam. The Newton-Raphson method of analysis was used to compute the nonlinear

response.

The application of the loads up to failure was done incrementally as required by

the Newton-Raphson procedure. After each load increment was applied, the restart

option was used to go to the next step after convergence. A listing of the load steps, sub

steps, and loads applied per restart file are shown in Table 3.12.

Beginning

Time

0

5210

5220

5300

5400

10000

13000

14000

14500

14700

14800

14900

15000

15100

15200

15300

15600

15900

16200

16300

Load

Time at End

Load Step Sub Step Increment

of Loadstep

(lbs.)

5210

5220

5300

5400

10000

13000

14000

14500

14700

14800

14900

15000

15100

15200

15300

15600

15900

16200

16300

16382

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

1

10

16

20

92

30

10

50

20

20

100

10

10

50

20

150

150

150

50

41

5210

10

5

5

50

100

100

10

10

5

1

10

10

2

5

2

2

2

2

2

The time at the end of each load step corresponds to the loading applied. For the first

load step the time at the end of the load step is 5210 referring to a load of, P, of 5210 lbs

applied at the steel plate.

The two convergence criteria used for the analysis were Force and Displacement.

These criteria were left at the default values up to 5210 lbs. However, when the beam

began cracking, convergence for the non-linear analysis was impossible with the default

values. The displacements converged, but the forces did not. Therefore, the convergence

criteria for force was dropped and the reference value for the Displacement criteria was

changed to 5. This value is then multiplied by the tolerance value of 0.05 to produce a

criterion of 0.25 during the nonlinear solution for convergence. A small criterion must be

used to capture correct response. This criteria was used for the remainder of the analysis.

As shown in Table 3.12, the steps taken to the initial cracking of the beam can be

decresed to one load increment to model/capture initial cracking. Once initial cracking of

the beam has been passed (5220 lbs), the load increments increased slightly until

subsequent cracking of the beam (14,000 lbs) as seen in Table 3.12. Once the yielding of

the reinforcing steel is reached, the load increments must be decreased again. Yielding of

the steel occurs at load step 13,400; therefore, the load increment sizes begin decreasing

further because displacements are increasing more rapidly. Eventually, the load

increment size is decreased to 2 lb. to capture the failure of the beam. Failure of the

beam occurs when convergence fails, with this very small load increment. The load

deformation trace produced by the analysis confirmed the failure load.

3.3

Results

The goal of the comparison of the FE model and the beam from Buckhouse (1997) is to

ensure that the elements, material properties, real constants and convergence criteria are

adequate to model the response of the member. Figure 3.4 shows the different

components that were analyzed for comparison: the linear region, initial cracking, the

nonlinear region, the yielding of steel, and failure.

3.3.1

The analysis of the linear region can be based on the design for flexure given in

MacGregor (1992) for a reinforced concrete beam. Comparisons were made in this

region to ensure deflections and stresses were consistent with the FE model and the beam

before cracking occurred. Once cracking occurs, deflections and stresses become more

difficult to predict. The stresses in the concrete and steel immediately preceding initial

cracking were analyzed. The load at step 5210 was analyzed and it coincides with a load

of 5210 lbs. applied on the steel plate.

Calculations to obtain the concrete stress, steel stress and deflection of the beam

at a load of 5210 lbs. can be seen in Appendix A. A comparison of values obtained from

the FE model and Appendix A can be seen in Table 3.13. The maximums exist in the

constant-moment region of the beam during load application. This is where we expect

the maximums to occur. The results in Table 3.13 indicate that the FE analysis of the

beam prior to cracking is acceptable.

Model

HandCalculations

ANSYS

3.3.2

Extreme Tension

Steel Stress Deflection Cracking

Fiber Stress (psi)

(psi)

(in.)

(lbs.)

530

3024

0.0529

5118

536

2840

0.0534

5216

The cracking pattern(s) in the beam can be obtained using the Crack/Crushing plot option

in ANSYS (SAS 2003). Vector Mode plots must be turned on to view the cracking in the

model.

The initial cracking of the beam in the FE model corresponds to a load of 5216 lbs

that creates stress just beyond the modulus of rupture of the concrete (520 psi) as shown

in Table 3.13. This compares well with the load of 5118 lbs calculated in Appendix A.

The stress increases up to 537 psi at the centerline when the first crack occurs. The first

crack can be seen in Figure 3.15. This first crack occurs in the constant moment region,

and is a flexural crack. Buckhouse (1997) reported first cracking at a load, P, of 4500 lbs

using visual detection.

In the non-linear region of the response, subsequent cracking occurs as more load is

applied to the beam. Cracking increases in the constant moment region, and the beam

begins cracking out towards the supports at a load of 8,000 lbs.

1st Crack in

Concrete Beam

Significant flexural cracking occurs in the beam at 12,000 lbs. Also, diagonal tension

cracks are beginning to form in the model. This cracking can be seen in Figure 3.16.

3.3.4

Yielding of steel reinforcement occurs when a force of 13,400 lbs. is applied. At this

point in the response, the displacements of the beam begin to increase at a higher rate as

more load is applied (Figure 3.4). The cracked moment of inertia, yielding steel, and

nonlinear concrete material, now defines the flexural rigidity of the member. The ability

of the beam to distribute load throughout the cross-section has diminished greatly.

Therefore, greater deflections occur at the beam centerline.

Flexural Cracks

Figure 3.17 shows successive cracking of the concrete beam after yielding of the

steel occurs. At 15,000 lbs., the beam has increasing flexural cracks, and diagonal

tension cracks. Also, more cracks have now formed in the constant moment region. At

16,000 lbs., cracking has reached the top of the beam, and failure is soon to follow.

Multiple cracks

occurring

Increasing Diagonal

Tension Cracks

3.3.5

At load 16,382 lbs., the beam no longer can support additional load as indicated by an

insurmountable convergence failure. Severe cracking throughout the entire constant

moment region occurs (see Figure 3.18). The deflections at the analytical failure load of

the control beam were compared with the finite element model as shown in Table 3.14.

the constant moment region

Diagonal Tension

Cracking

Table 3.14 Deflections of Control Beam (Buckhouse 1997) vs. Finite Element Model

At Ultimate Load

Centerline

Load (lb.) Deflection

(in.)

C1

16310

3.65

ANSYS

16310

3.586

Beam

The deflection of the finite element model was within 2% of the control beam at the same

load at which the control beam failed.

3.3.6

Load-Deformation Response

The full nonlinear load-deformation response can be seen in Figure 3.19. This response

was calibrated by setting the tolerances so that the load-deformation curve fits to the

curve from Buckhouse (1997). The response calculated using FEA is plotted upon the

experimental response from Buckhouse (1997). The entire load-deformation response of

the model produced compares well with the response from Buckhouse (1997). This gave

confidence in the use of ANSYS (SAS 2003) and the model developed. The approach

was then utilized to analyze a prestressed concrete beam.

18000

FEA

16000

14000

C1 theoretical

ultimate load

(14,600 lbs.)

12000

10000

Buckhouse (1997)

8000

6000

4000

2000

0

0

0.5

1.5

2.5

3.5

4.5

Figure 3.19 Load vs. Deflection Curve Comparison of ANSYS and Buckhouse (1997)

CHAPTER 4

PRESTRESSED CONCRETE BEAM MODEL

4.0

Introduction

This chapter discusses the finite element modeling of a prestressed concrete beam. The

prestressed beam has the same dimensions as the experimental beam modeled by

Buckhouse (1997). In this case, the reinforcement in the beam is different. The shear

stirrups are included as discussed in the calibration model. However, no mild-steel

flexural reinforcement was used. The beam was prestressed using in. diameter 270 ksi

7-wire strands as opposed to the #5 60 ksi mild-steel reinforcement. All the necessary

steps taken to create the model and the analysis used for the prestressed beam are

explained in detail.

4.1

The finite element model that was used for analysis of the prestressed concrete beam is

very similar to the calibration model. Many of the steps taken to model the prestressed

concrete beam were the same as the calibration model and can be found in chapter 3.

The rest of this chapter will discuss the steps taken that were different from those

in the calibration model. These steps include definition of real constants, material

properties, and the parameters for the nonlinear analysis.

4.1.1

Real Constants

The real constants for the concrete element were left untouched because the modeling of

the concrete has not changed. Also, the constants for the Link8 element designated to the

stirrups used in the model were left unchanged. However, the real constants for the

Link8 element for the flexural reinforcement has changed. Since the beam is now using

prestressing steel, the cross-sectional area of the steel has changed, and an initial strain

due to prestressing is now added to the element. The change in area and strain is shown

in Table 4.1.

Real Constant Set Element Type

Link8

Constants

Cross-sectional

Area (in.2)

0.153

Initial Strain

(in./in.)

0.001903

Cross-sectional

Area (in.2)

0.0765

Initial Strain

(in./in.)

0.001903

Link8

The cross-sectional area for real constant set 2 is the area of an equivalent in. diameter

7-wire strand. The cross-sectional area for real constant set 3 is half of real constant set

2, because it is at a point of symmetry on the model.

The initial strains for each real constant set were determined from the effective

prestress ( f pe ) and the modulus of elasticity ( E ps ). An example of this can be seen in

Appendix B. This prestress level is too low and not suitable for practical use. It was

utilized to prevent any convergence problems occurring from bursting and significant

cracking near the support as the prestrain is applied.

4.1.2

Material Properties

The material properties for the shear reinforcement steel, steel plates at loading points,

and steel support plates are the same. Density was added to the concrete material

property so the self-weight of the concrete beam could be taken into account.

The material properties for the prestressing steel have been changed from bilinear

isotropic to multilinear isotropic following the von Mises failure criteria. The

prestressing steel was modeled using a multilinear stress-strain curve developed using the

following equations,

ps 0.008 :

ps >0.008:

f ps = 268

0.075

<0.98f pu (ksi )

ps 0.0065

(4.1)

(4.2)

The values entered into ANSYS (SAS 2003) for the stress-strain curve are given in Table

4.2 and Figure 4.1 shows the stress-strain behavior of the prestressing steel.

4.1.3

Solution

Most of the parameters used to control the solution are the same as those used for the

calibration model. The only changes made were as follows. First, no point loads are

applied in the first load step, due to the fact that the initial prestrain is applied. Second,

the time at the end of the prestrain application load step is 1. Third, the self-weight was

added in a load step. The addition of the self-weight is done by applying gravitational

acceleration of 386.4 in/s2 in the global y-direction. A mass density was entered in as a

function of the gravitational acceleration (Density/g).

Strain

0

0.008

0.0083

0.0085

0.0087

0.0089

0.0091

0.0093

0.0095

0.0097

0.0099

Stress

0

224

226.3333

230.5

233.9091

236.75

239.1538

241.2143

243

244.5625

245.9412

Strain

0.0101

0.0103

0.0105

0.0107

0.0109

0.0111

0.0113

0.0115

0.0117

0.0119

0.0121

Stress

247.1667

248.2632

249.25

250.1429

250.9545

251.6957

252.375

253

253.5769

254.1111

254.6071

Strain

0.0123

0.0125

0.0127

0.0129

0.0131

0.0133

0.0135

0.0137

0.0139

0.0141

0.0143

Stress

255.069

255.5

255.9032

256.2813

256.6364

256.9706

257.2857

257.5833

257.8649

258.1316

258.3846

Strain

0.0145

0.0147

0.0149

0.0151

0.0171

0.0189

0.0215

0.0259

0.0301

Stress

258.625

258.8537

259.0714

259.2791

260.9245

261.9516

263

264.134

264.822

300

250

Stress (ksi)

200

150

100

50

0

0

0.005

0.01

0.015

0.02

0.025

Strain (in./in.)

0.03

0.035

4.1.4

Analysis for the prestressed concrete beam was very similar to the calibration model.

However, different load step and restart points were used. The first load step taken was

to produce the camber in the concrete beam due to the prestress. The second load step

was the addition of the self-weight. From that point on, the concrete was modeled to the

point of cracking, yielding of the prestress steel ( 0.85 f pu ), and eventual failure. A listing

of the load steps, sub steps, and loads applied per restart file are shown in Table 4.3.

Table 4.3 Load Increments for the Analysis of the Prestressed Beam Model

Beginning

Time

Time at

Load

End of Load Step Sub Step Increment

Loadstep

(lbs.)

0

1

2

7840

7900

8500

10000

20000

25000

27000

28000

1

2

7840

7900

8500

10000

20000

25000

27000

28000

28823

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

1

1

1

30

12

15

100

100

200

100

412

Prestress

386.4

7840

2

50

100

100

50

10

10

2

When the analysis reaches the point of initial cracking, the force convergence

criteria is dropped, and the reference value of the displacement criteria is 5. From this

point, the load increments are decreased to 100 lbs. to capture the initial cracking of the

beam. When yielding of the steel occurs, the load increments are decreased to 10 lb.

Finally, load increments are decreased to 2 lb. until unresolvable convergence failure of

the non-linear algorithm occurs.

4.2

Results

The analysis yielded results for seven distinct points on the load-deflection application of

the prestressed concrete beam and the full nonlinear load-deformation response. As seen

in Figure 4.2, these distinct points are: effective prestress, addition of self-weight, zero

deflection, decompression, initial cracking, steel yielding ( 0.85 f pu ), and failure.

4.2.1

Calculation of the effective prestress for the beam can be found in Appendix B. The

deflections computed using hand calculations and FE analysis due to the prestress force is

shown in Table 4.4.

Table 4.4 Analytical Results

ANSYS

Hand

Calculations

Centerline Deflection at

Effective Prestress (in.)

-0.0323

-0.0341

Effective Prestress (psi)

156.05

163.04

Deflection at Application

-0.0211

of Self-Weight (in.)

-0.0229

36.97

45.86

(lbs.)

2055

2126

Decompression Load

(lbs.)

2817

2858

(lbs.)

7850

7538

264,822

(psi)

Failure Load (lbs.)

28,823

254,520

27,587

35000

30000

Failure

25000

Load, P (lbs.)

20000

Secondary

Linear Region

Steel Yielding

15000

Initial Cracking

10000

5000

Linear Region

0

0.00

-0.50

0.50

1.00

1.50

2.00

2.50

3.00

3.50

4.00

-5000

Centerline Deflection (in.)

8000

7000

Initial Cracking

L o a d , P (lb s .)

6000

5000

4000

Self-Weight

Prestressing

2000

1000

-0.04

Decompression

3000

-0.02

0

0.00

Zero Deflection

0.02

0.04

0.06

0.08

Figure 4.2 Load vs. Deflection Curve for Prestressed Concrete Model

0.10

The deflection in ANSYS (SAS 2003) corresponds well to the calculated value. The

stresses in the extreme fibers were looked at in the beam also. Since camber is occurring

in the beam (Figure 4.3), the controlling stress exists in the extreme top fiber.

Deflection (in.)

Camber due to

prestressing force

The hand-calculated top fiber stress and the top fiber stress found using FEA are also

shown in Table 4.4. The values correlate very well.

A phenomenon that occurred when the prestress was added was bursting in the

concrete where the prestress force is being applied. This phenomenon can be seen in

Figure 4.4. The contour plot shows that at the time of prestressing, there is a maximum

stress in the concrete where bursting occurs. The bursting phenomenon is explained in

detail in Nawy (2000).

Bursting Effect at

Center of Beam

Tendon Level

Also, localized cracking occurs in the concrete, as shown in Figure 4.5. However, this

does not impact the solution because no other cracking occurs in that area after the initial

application of prestress. When a traditional level of prestress was applied

( f pe = 159,840 psi ), bursting zone cracking was extensive a converged solution was not

possible to obtain. This is the reason for the reduction in f pe by the factor of 3.

from bursting

4.2.2

Self-Weight

Adding the self-weight gives a deflection value which corresponds well to the calculated

deflection in Appendix B (Table 4.4). The FEA calculated top fiber stress at this stage

also correlates well with hand-calculations.

4.2.3

Zero Deflection

centerline was zero. Table 4.4 indicates very good correlation between the hand

calculated values and the FEA.

4.2.4

Decompression

One definition of decompression denotes the point of loading where the stress at the

bottom fiber of the concrete beam moves from compression due to the prestress to

tension from superimposed loading. Table 4.4 indicates very good correlation at this

level of loading as well.

4.2.5

Initial Cracking

Initial cracking is defined to be the loading at which the extreme tension fiber reaches the

modulus of rupture. Initial cracking of the beam in the FE model occurs at load 7850 lbs.

The hand-calculated load where cracking occurs is 7538 lbs. (Table 4.4 and Appendix B).

This is just past the modulus of rupture of the beam of 520 psi. The stress increases up to

539 psi at the centerline when the first crack occurs. This first crack occurs in the

constant moment region, and is a flexural crack.

In the secondary linear region of the response, significantly more cracking occurs as more

load is applied the beam as seen in Figure 4.6. Cracking increases in the constant

moment region, and the beam begins cracking out towards the supports with at a load of

12,000 lbs. Additional flexural cracking occurs in the beam at 20,000 lbs. Also, diagonal

tension cracks are beginning to form in the model.

Flexural Cracks

Bursting Cracks

Yielding of the prestress steel is defined as 0.85 f pu for this model. Figure 4.2 illustrates

the load level at the point of yielding of the prestress steel. At this point in the response,

the displacements of the beam begin to increase at a higher rate as more load is applied.

The ability of the beam to distribute load throughout the cross-section has diminished

greatly. Therefore, greater deflections occur at the beam centerline. Increasing flexural

cracks and diagonal tension cracks form as the beam approaches failure (Figure 4.6).

4.2.8

indicating that cracking throughout the entire constant moment region has occurred.

Figure 4.7 illustrates the excessive cracking in the beam.

Cracking at Failure

Hand calculations (Appendix B) predicted that the flexural capacity of the beam would

correspond to 27,587 lbs. (Table 4.4). The FEA prediction (28,823 lbs. in Table 4.4)

corresponds very well with the hand calculations. The stress in the prestressing steel at

failure predicted using FEA was 264,822 psi (Table 4.4). Using strain compatibility the

stress in the prestressing steel at failure was 254,520 psi (Appendix B), which

corresponds well to the FEA prediction.

The application of the moderate prestressing,

f pe

increased the limit load for the beam from 16,310 lbs. (Chapter 3) to 28,823 lbs. (near

doubling). The benefits of prestressing are apparent.

CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.0

Introduction

The use of the finite element method to analyze reinforced and prestressed concrete

beams was evaluated. A reinforced concrete beam model was calibrated to experimental

data, and predictions of initial cracking, yielding of the steel and flexural failure of the

beam were compared to the experimental results. A prestressed concrete beam model

was also created. Initial prestress, addition of self-weight, zero deflection point,

decompression, initial cracking, yielding of steel, and flexural failure were then studied

and compared to theoretical values obtained via accepted methods of hand calculation.

5.1

Conclusions

The following conclusions can be stated based on the evaluation of the analyses of the

calibration model and the prestressed concrete beam.

(1)

Deflections and stresses at the centerline along with initial and progressive

cracking of the finite element model compare well to experimental data obtained

from a reinforced concrete beam.

(2)

The failure mechanism of a reinforced concrete beam is modeled quite well using

FEA, and the failure load predicted is very close to the failure load measured

during experimental testing.

(3)

For the prestressed concrete beam, camber due to the initial prestress force and

after application of the self-weight of the beam compares well to hand-computed

values. Also, a bursting effect was seen in the FE model.

(4)

Deflections and stresses at the zero deflection point and decompression are

modeled well using a finite element package.

(5)

The load applied to cause initial cracking of the prestressed concrete beam

compares well with hand calculations.

(6)

Flexural failure of the prestressed concrete beam is modeled well using a finite

element package, and the load applied at failure is very close to hand calculated

results.

5.2

The literature review and analysis procedure utilized in this thesis has provided useful

insight for future application of a finite element package as a method of analysis. To

ensure that the finite element model is producing results that can be used for study, any

model should be calibrated with good experimental data. This will then provide the

proper modeling parameters needed for later use.

While modeling the prestressed beam, relaxation losses due to prestress, creep,

shrinkage, and elastic shortening were lumped together in a single load step. Individual

modeling of these losses could be included in future research. Many prestressed

structural components have non-symmetric geometries and loadings. Therefore, nonsymmetric geometries and loadings should be analyzed using finite element analysis with

prestress for further study. Higher strength concrete, the bursting effect, and the transfer

length of the prestressing steel are all candidates for future research.

REFERENCES

Concrete and Concrete Structures, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, Michigan.

Branson, D.E.; Meyers, B.L.; and Kripanarayanan, K.M. (1970), Loss of Prestress,

Camber and Deflection of Noncomposite and Composite Structures Using Different

Weight Concrete, Iowa State Highway Comission, Report No. 70-6, Aug.

Buckhouse, E.R. (1997), External Flexural Reinforcement of Existing Reinforced

Concrete Beams Using Bolted Steel Channels, Masters Thesis, Marquette University,

Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Faherty, K.F. (1972), An Analysis of a Reinforced and a Prestressed Concrete Beam by

Finite Element Method, Doctorates Thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa City.

Fanning, P. (2001), Nonlinear Models of Reinforced and Post-tensioned Concrete

Beams, Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering, University College Dublin,

Earlsfort Terrace, Dublin 2, Ireland, Sept.12.

Kachlakev, D.I.; Miller, T.; Yim, S.; Chansawat, K.; Potisuk, T. (2001), Finite Element

Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Strengthened With FRP Laminates,

California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA and Oregon State

University, Corvallis, OR for Oregon Department of Transportation, May.

Janney, J.R. (1954), Nature of Bond in Pre-tensioned Prestressed Concrete, Journal of

the ACI, Proceedings, Vol.50, No.5, May.

MacGregor, J.G. (1992), Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design, Prentice-Hall, Inc.,

Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

McCurry, D., Jr. and Kachlakev, D.I (2000), Strengthening of Full Sized Reinforced

Concrete Beam Using FRP Laminates and Monitoring with Fiber Optic Strain Guages in

Innovative Systems for Seismic Repair and Rehabilitation of Structures, Design and

Applications, Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Philadelphia, PA, March.

Nawy, E.G., (2000), Prestressed Concrete: A Fundamental Approach, Prentice-Hall,

Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ

SAS (2003) ANSYS 7.1 Finite Element Analysis System, SAS IP, Inc.

Shing, P.B. and Tanabe, T.A., Ed. (2001), Modeling of Inelastic Behavior of RC

Structures Under Seismic Loads, American Society of Civil Engineers.

Beams Using Explicit Finite Element Methods, Masters Thesis, University of

Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin.

Willam, K., and Tanabe, T.A., Ed. (2001), Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced

Concrete Structures, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI.

Willam, K.J. and Warnke, E.P. (1974), Constitutive Model for Triaxial Behaviour of

Concrete, Seminar on Concrete Structures Subjected to Triaxial Stresses, International

Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering Conference, Bergamo, Italy, p.174.

APPENDICES

PAGE

Appendix B: Theoretical Calculations for Prestressed Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Appendix A

Analysis of reinforced concrete beam for flexure at applied load of 5210 lbs.

5210 lbs.

60

5210 lbs.

60

60

Maximum Moment

M max = (5210lbs.)(60in.) = 312, 600lb. in.

Material Properties

IG =

1 3 1

bh = (10in.)(18in.)3 = 4860in 4

12

12

Ec = 57, 000 f c' = 57, 000 4800 = 3,949, 076 psi

f r = 7.5 f c' = 7.5 4800 = 520 psi

The stresses at the extreme tension fiber are calculated using a transformed moment of

inertia of the concrete and steel reinforcement

10

15.5

Ybar

18

3.72 in2

( As )t = 8 As = 8(3)(0.31) = 7.44in 2

3.72in 2 distributed on each side of the concrete cross-section

Calculate the distance from the top fiber to the neutral axis of the transformed moment of

inertia

y=

=

= 9.258in.

(18in.)(10in.) + (2)(3.72in.2 )

A1 + A2

I tr = I G + Ad 2

+ Ad 2

Concrete

Steel

The stress at the extreme tension fiber is then calculated

f ct =

=

= 530 psi

I tr

5162in.4

fs =

Myb

(312, 600lb. in.)(6.242in.)

(8) = 3024 psi

=

5162in.4

I tr

Deflections

The deflection at the centerline of the concrete beam at load 5210 lbs.

max =

Pa

(3l 2 4a 2 )

24 EI tr

(5210lb.)(60in.)

(3(180in.) 2 4(60in.) 2 ) = 0.0529 in.

4

24(3,949, 076)(5162in. )

Loads

f ct =

Myb

I tr

520 psi =

P(60in.)(8.742in.)

5162in.4

P = 5117 lbs.

Appendix B

cgc

ec

60

60

cgs

60

3

Effective Prestress

f pi = 0.74 f pu = 0.74(270, 000 psi ) = 199,800 psi

f pe = 0.80 f pi = 0.80(199,800 psi ) = 159,840 psi

159,840 psi / 3 = 53,280 psi

Deflections

c =

Pel 2

(24, 456lb.)(6.6in.)(180in.) 2

=

= -0.03406 in.

8Ec I c

8(3,949, 076 psi )(4860in.4 )

5wl 4

5(15.624 pli)(180in.) 4

=

= 0.1113 in.

384 EI 384(3,949, 076 psi )(4860)

Stresses

ft =

Pe

ec

24, 456lb.

(6.6in.)(9in.)

(1 2t ) =

(1

) = 163.04 psi (T)

2

180in.

27in.2

Ac

r

Stress in extreme top fiber of the beam after self-weight

ft =

Pe

ec

24, 456lb.

(6.6in.)(9in.) 63277.2lb. in.

M

(1 2t ) tT =

(1

)

2

180in.

27in.2

540in.3

Ac

r

S

Stress in extreme bottom fiber after prestress and self-weight

fb =

Pe

ec

24, 456lb.

(6.6in.)(9in.) 63, 277.2lb. in.

M

(1 + 2b ) + T =

(1 +

)+

= 317.6 psi (C )

2

180in.

27in.2

540in.3

Ac

r

Sb

Loads

0.02293in. =

P(60in.)

(3(180in.) 2 4(60in.) 2 )

4

24(3,949, 076 psi )(4860in. )

P = 2126 lbs.

Calculated Load of Application at Decompression

fb =

Pe

ec

M

My

(1 + 2b ) + T +

Ac

r

Sb

I

0 = 317.6 psi +

P(60in.)(9in.)

4

P = 2858 lbs.

Determine the force of first cracking based on the cracked moment

M cr = M D + M L = f r Sb + Pe (e +

r2

)

cb

27in.2

)

9in.

P = 7538 lbs.

1 = pe =

f pe

E ps

= 0.0019029 in.

in.

28, 000, 000 psi

2 = decomp =

Pe

24, 456lbs.

(6.6in.) 2

e2

+

(1 + 2 ) =

(1

) = 0.0000899 in.

in.

(180in.2 )(3,949, 076 psi )

27in.2

Ac Ec

r

a=

Aps f ps

0.85 f c'b

= 2.30625in.

0.85(4800 psi )(10in.)

c=

2.30625

= 2.8828in.

0.8

d = 15.6in.

3 = c (

d c

15.6in. 2.8828in.

) = 0.003 in. (

) = 0.0132342 in.

in

.

in.

c

2.8828in.

ps = 1 + 2 + 3 = 0.0019029 in. in. + 0.0000899 in. in. + 0.0132342 in. in. = 0.015227 in. in.

f ps = 268

0.075

0.075

= 268

= 259, 406 psi

ps 0.0065

0.015227 in. 0.0065

in.

Plugging 259,406 psi and iterating, the value of prestress obtained is:

f ps = 254,520 psi

Using the prestress force, the nominal moment obtained is:

a

2.8633in.

M n = Aps f ps (d p ) = 3(0.153in.2 )(254,520 psi )(15.6in.

) = 1, 655, 213lb. in.

2

2

Failure

M n = Pa

P=

=

= 27,587 lb.

60in.

a

Marquette University

This is to certify that we have examined

this copy of the masters thesis by

Anthony J. Wolanski

and have found that it is complete and

satisfactory in all respects.

Director

Christopher M. Foley, Ph.D., P.E.

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