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Ubuntu Reference

Privileges Network
sudo command – run command as root ifconfig – show network information
sudo -s – open a root shell iwconfig – show wireless information
sudo -s -u user – open a shell as user sudo iwlist scan – scan for wireless networks
sudo -k – forget sudo passwords sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart – reset
gksudo command – visual sudo dialog (GNOME) network for manual configurations
kdesudo command – visual sudo dialog (KDE) (file) /etc/network/interfaces – manual
sudo visudo – edit /etc/sudoers configuration
gksudo nautilus – root file manager (GNOME) ifup interface – bring interface online
kdesudo konqueror – root file manager (KDE) ifdown interface – disable interface
passwd – change your password
Special Packages
Display ubuntu-desktop – standard Ubuntu environment
sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart – restart X and kubuntu-desktop – KDE desktop
return to login (GNOME) xubuntu-desktop – XFCE desktop
sudo /etc/init.d/kdm restart – restart X and ubuntu-minimal – core Ubuntu utilities
return to login (KDE) ubuntu-standard – standard Ubuntu utilities
(file) /etc/X11/xorg.conf – display ubuntu-restricted-extras – non-free, but useful
configuration kubuntu-restricted-extras – KDE of the above
sudo dexconf – reset xorg.conf configuration xubuntu-restricted-extras – XFCE of the above
Ctrl+Alt+Bksp – restart X display if frozen build-essential – packages used to compile
Ctrl+Alt+FN – switch to tty N programs
Ctrl+Alt+F7 – switch back to X display linux-image-generic – latest generic kernel
System Services¹ linux-headers-generic – latest build headers
start service – start job service (Upstart)
stop service – stop job service (Upstart) Firewall¹
status service – check if service is running ufw enable – turn on the firewall
(Upstart) ufw disable – turn off the firewall
/etc/init.d/service start – start service ufw default allow – allow all connections by
(SysV) default
/etc/init.d/service stop – stop service (SysV) ufw default deny – drop all connections by
/etc/init.d/service status – check service default
(SysV) ufw status – current status and rules
/etc/init.d/service restart – restart service ufw allow port – allow traffic on port
(SysV) ufw deny port – block port
runlevel – get current runlevel ufw deny from ip – block ip adress

Package Management¹ Application Names

apt-get update – refresh available updates nautilus – file manager (GNOME)
apt-get upgrade – upgrade all packages dolphin – file manager (KDE)
apt-get dist-upgrade – upgrade with package konqueror – web browser (KDE)
replacements; upgrade Ubuntu version kate – text editor (KDE)
apt-get install pkg – install pkg gedit – text editor (GNOME)
apt-get purge pkg – uninstall pkg
apt-get autoremove – remove obsolete packages System
apt-get -f install – try to fix broken packages Recovery - Type the phrase “REISUB” while
dpkg --configure -a – try to fix broken holding down Alt and SysRq (PrintScrn) with
packages about 1 second between each letter. Your system
dpkg -i pkg.deb – install file pkg.deb will reboot.
(file) /etc/apt/sources.list – APT repository lsb_release -a – get Ubuntu version
list uname -r – get kernel version
uname -a – get all kernel information

1. Prefix commands with sudo to run.

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