You are on page 1of 16








Roll no











1.Research method. (1)
2.Population (2)
3. Sampling.. (4)
4. Instrument.. (7)
5. Data collection procedure.. (11)

Research Methodology
making business decisions. The methodology may include publication
research, interviews, surveys and other research techniques, and could
include both
The process used to collect information and data for the
purpose of present and historical information.
According Webster(1985), to research is to search or investigate
exhaustively. It is a careful or diligent search, studious inquiry or
examination especially investigation or experimentation aimed at the
discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of accepted theories or laws
in the light of new facts or practical application of such new or revised
theories or laws, it can also be the collection of information about a
particular subject.

Methodology steps:
1. Population
2. Sampling
3. Instrument
4. Data collection procedure

A research population is generally a large collection of individuals or
objects that is the main focus of a scientific query. It is for the benefit of the
population that researches are done. However, due to the large sizes of
populations, researchers often cannot test every individual in the population
because it is too expensive and time-consuming. This is the reason why
researchers rely on sampling techniques. The group of people to whom we
want our research results to apply.

A research population is also known as a well-defined collection of

individuals or objects known to have similar characteristics. All individuals
or objects within a certain population usually have a common, binding
characteristic or trait.

Usually, the description of the population and the common binding

characteristic of its members are the same. "Government officials" is a welldefined group of individuals which can be considered as a population and
all the members of this population are indeed officials of the government.

Two Types of Population in Research

Target Population
Target population refers to the ENTIRE group of individuals or objects
to which researchers are interested in generalizing the conclusions. The
target population usually has varying characteristics and it is also known as
the theoretical population.

Accessible Population
There are some populations that are so difficult to get access to that
only a sample can be used. Like people in prison, like crashed aero planes
in the deep seas, presidents etc.The inaccessibility may be economic or
time related. Like a particular study population may be so costly to reach
like the population of planets that only a sample can be used. In other
cases, a population of some events may be taking too long to occur that
only sample information can be relied on. For example natural disasters
like a flood that occurs every 100 years or take the example of the flood
that occurred in Noah`s days. It has never occurred again.
The destructive nature of the observation sometimes the very act of
observing the desired characteristics of a unit of the population destroys it
for the intended use. Good examples of this occur in quality control. For
example to test the quality of a fuse, to determine whether it is defective, it
must be destroyed. To obtain a census of the quality of a lorry load of

fuses, you have to destroy all of them. This is contrary to the purpose
served by quality-control testing. In this case, only a sample should be
used to assess the quality of the fuses Accuracy and sampling A sample
may be more accurate than a census. A sloppily conducted census can
provide less reliable information than a carefully obtained sample.
The accessible population is the population in research to which the
researchers can apply their conclusions. This population is a subset of the
target population and is also known as the study population. It is from the
accessible population that researchers draw their samples.

Difference between





Target Population
The target population is the group a researcher hopes to understand.
For example, suppose a company is launching a new product for senior
citizens. Analyzing the target population -- all senior citizens -- could
uncover insights that allow the company to implement a variety of
advertising campaigns suited to different income levels and attitudes within
that target population.

Experimentally Accessible Population

The experimentally accessible population is the group that a researcher
actually can measure. Budgetary constraints, for example, often limit the
number of consumers a researcher can study, making the experimentally
accessible population much smaller than the target population. Physical
limitations also often force a researcher to study groups that are smaller
than the target population. For example, interviewing every consumer
distributed across a large region often isn't feasible , meaning a

researcher must select a smaller group for study.


Sampling is the act, process, or technique of selecting a suitable

sample, or a representative part of a population for the purpose of
determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population.Once the
researcher has chosen a hypothesis to test in a study, the next step is to
select a pool of participants to be in that study. However, any research
project must be able to extend the implications of the findings beyond the
participants who actually participated in the study. For obvious reasons, it
is nearly impossible for a researcher to study every person in the
population of interest. In the example that we have been using thus far, the
population of interest is the developing world." The researcher must
therefore make a decision to limit the research to a subset of that
population, and this has important implications for the applicability of study
results. The researcher must put some careful forethought into exactly how
and why a certain group of individuals will be studied.

Sampling Methods
Probability Sampling
Probability Sampling refers to sampling when the chance of any given
individual being selected is known and these individuals are sampled
independently of each other. This is also known as random sampling. A
researcher can simply use a random number generator to choose
participants (known as simple random sampling), or every nth individual
(known as systematic sampling) can be included. Researchers also
may break their target population into strata, and then apply these
techniques within each strata to ensure that they are getting enough
participants from each strata to be able to draw conclusions. For
example, if there are several ethnic communities in one geographical
area that a researcher wishes to study, that researcher might aim to
have 30 participants from each group, selected randomly from within the
groups, in order to have a good representation of all the relevant groups.
Non-Probability Sampling
Non-Probability Sampling, or convenience sampling, refers to when
researchers take whatever individuals happen to be easiest to access as

participants in a study. This is only done when the processes the

researchers are testing are assumed to be so basic and universal that
they can be generalized beyond such a narrow sample.For example,
snowball sampling is an approach for locating information-rich key
informants.Using this approach, a few potential respondents are
contacted and asked whether they know of anybody with the
characteristics that you are looking for in your research. Snowball
sampling is not a stand-alone tool; the tool is a way of selecting
participants and then using other tools, such as interviews or surveys.
There are several different sampling techniques available.

1. Simple random sampling

In this case each individual is chosen entirely by chance and each
member of the population has an equal chance, or probability, of being
selected. One way of obtaining a random sample is to give each
individual in a population a number, and then use a table of random
numbers to decide which individuals to include.1

2. Systematic sampling
Individuals are selected at regular intervals from a list of the whole
population. The intervals are chosen to ensure an adequate sample
size. For example, every 10th member of the population is included.
This is often convenient and easy to use, although it may also lead to
bias for reasons outlined below.

3. Stratified sampling
In this method, the population is first divided into sub-groups (or strata)
who all share a similar characteristic. It is used when we might
reasonably expect the measurement of interest to vary between the
different sub-groups. Gender or smoking habits would be examples of
strata. The study sample is then obtained by taking samples from each

In a stratified sample, the probability of an individual being included

varies according to known characteristics, such as gender, and the aim
is to ensure that all sub-groups of the population that might be of
relevance to the study are adequately represented.The fact that the
sample was stratified should be taken into account at the analysis stage.

4. Clustered sampling
In a clustered sample, sub-groups of the population are used as the
sampling unit, rather than individuals. The population is divided into subgroups, known as clusters, and a selection of these are randomly
selected to be included in the study. All members of the cluster are then
included in the study. Clustering should be taken into account in the
The General Household survey, which is undertaken annually in
England, is a good example of a cluster sample. All members of the
selected households/ clusters are included in the survey.

5. Quota sampling
This method of sampling is often used by market researchers.
Interviewers are given a quota of subjects of a specified type to attempt
to recruit. For example, an interviewer might be told to go out and select
20 adult men and 20 adult women, 10 teenage girls and 10 teenage
boys so that they could interview them about their television viewing.
There are several flaws with this method, but most importantly it is not
truly random.

6. Convenience sampling
Convenience sampling is perhaps the easiest method of sampling,
because participants are selected in the most convenient way, and are
often allowed to choose or volunteer to take part. Good results can be
obtained, but the data set may be seriously biased, because those who
volunteer to take part may be different from those who choose not to.

7. Snowball sampling
This method is commonly used in social sciences when investigating
hard to reach groups. Existing subjects are asked to nominate further
subjects known to them, so the sample increases in size like a rolling
snowball. For example, when carrying out a survey of risk behaviors
amongst intravenous drug users, participants may be asked to nominate
other users to be interviewed.

Research instruments
These are the fact finding strategies.There are the tools for data
collection.They includeQuestionnaire, Interview, Observation and Reading.
Essentially the researcher must ensure that the instrument chosen is valid
and reliable. The validity and reliability of any research project depends to a
large extent on the appropriateness of the instruments. Whatever
procedure one uses to collect data, it must be critically examined to check
the extent to what it is likely to give you the expected results.
Here are some possible instruments/procedures:
Tests of various skills or behaviors (language proficiency in general,
particular language skills, psychological traits, etc.) in various formats
(multiple-choice, open response, etc.)
Interviews (unstructured or structured)
Questionnaires (mailed or in-person)
Observations of students or teachers
Diaries kept by language learners or teachers
Reviews of school records or documents
Verbal self-reports by learners (introspective or retrospective)


This is a data collection instrument mostlyused in normative surveys.

This is a systematically prepared form a document which a set of
question deliberately designed to elicit responses from respondents
or research informants for the purpose of collection data or
It is a form of inquiry document, which contains a systematically
compiled and well organized series of questions intended to elicit the
information which will provide insight into the nature of the problem
under study.
It is the form that contains a set of questions on a topic or a group of
topics designed to be answered by the respondent.
The respondent are the population samples of the study. The
answers provided by the respondents constitute the data for the

Types of questionnaires
Questionnaires may be designed as
Structured or closed form
unstructured, open ended form
Structured questioners
There are those in which some control or guideness is given for the
answer. this may be described as closed because the questions are
basically shorts, requiring the respondent to provide a yes or no response
or checking an item out of a list of given responses. Questions that require
yes or no answer are also termed as dichotomous questions. It may also
be multiple choice options from which the respondent select the answer
closer to their on option. The respondent choices are limited to the set of
option provided.
Unstructured questionnaires
This type which is also termed as open ended or unrestricted type of
questionnaire calls for a free response in the respondent's own words. The
respondent frames and supplies the answer to the question raised in the

questionnaire. It also constitute questions which give the respondent an

opportunity to express his or her opinions for a set of options. Spaces are
often provided for respondents to make their inputs.

Interviews become necessary when researchers feel the need to
meet face to face with individuals to interact and generate idea in a
discourse that borders on mutual interest. It is an interaction in which
oral questions are posed by the interviewer to elicit oral response
from the interviews. Specifically with research interviews, the
researcher has to identify a potential source of information, and
structure the interaction in a manner that will bring out relevant
information from his respondent the creation of a cordial atmosphere
is therefore vital to the sources of such an interaction. Apart from face
to face interviews, they can also be conducted over the phone or the
computer terminal via video conferencing technology.

There are four kinds of interviews

The structured interviews

The unstructured interviews
The non- directive interviews
The focus interviews

Structured interviews
The structured interviews are formal because, sets of questions
known as interviews questionnaires are posed to each
interviewee visited and the responses are recorded on a
standardize schedule. It is therefore characterized as being a
close interview situation. In structured interview, the interviewer
follows a set pattern usually adhering as much as possible to the
order of questions on the interview questionnaire whilst posing the
question in a formal manner. Interviewers must always ensure

that the atmosphere of an interview is congenial to establish

interviewer- interviewee rapport.
Unstructured interviews
It is the less formal type in which although sets of questions may be used
the interviewer freely modifies the sequence of questions, changes the
wording and sometimes explains them or add to them during the
interaction. Hence the researcher has to be careful in order not to deviate
from his focus the atmosphere is often casual. This is conducted in what is
characterized as an open situation there is more flexibility and freedom in
the interaction.
Non directive interview
It gives excessive freedom for the respondent to express his or her ideas
subjectively and spontaneously as she chooses or is able to. There are no
set questions in this style. This is the most appropriate type of interview to
use when investigating issues where the respondent has to be allowed to
talk uninterrupted on a very bored topic which will unconsciously reveal
personal motives feelings attitudes etc.
Focus interview
Focus interview as the names suggest, focuses on the respondent
subjective responses and experienced on the subject matter to elicit more
information. This method is used of researchers render the nondirective
interview more interviewer control with the use of verbal cues that serve as
stimulus to inspire respondents to volunteer more information on the
subject, as the story unfolds the researcher can hum in approval of what
the respondent submits or chip in a stimulating question to encourage the
flow of the conversation.


DATA recorded from verbal interaction with respondents have to be

transcribed i.e. convert to speech sound into words as accurately as



The study of photographs, videotapes, tape recordings, art objects,

computer software and fills falls within this type of data collection
procedure. The procedure should be unobtrusive to enable informants to
share their reality directly with researchers. It is creative and captures
attentions visually. The presence of a photographer of the video technician
may be intrusive and influences responses.


Data collection
The process by which the researcher collects the information needed
to answer the research problem.
Proceeding from general to specific research questions, makes the
research activities in any project more focused - in terms of data needed to
answer the research questions. Hence questions associated with data
collection are some of the most important in any research enquiry.
It is fairly common for a Research Plan to be divided into two stages: Preempirical and empirical stages. The first stage is where you start with the
research question, go through what others have done, modify your own
research question(s) and set some kind of hypothesis or theory. The
second stage is that part of your research where you decide on your
research design i.e. qualitative or quantitative or a combination of both and
assemble your conceptual framework. These stages will be informed by
such decisions like:
What kind of data is required to test the hypothesis/theory?
From whom to collect the data? and
What procedures need to be followed to collect that data?
All these decisions are related to the planning of the data collection before
it is actually collected. In this regard, you need to answer some questions
as you devise your data collection procedures:
1) How is the data collected?

This can take place at two stages - as part of planning and during project
a. if the data is collected as part of a planning activity, or introduced in a
project document, it is necessary to indicate the following:
o Where is the information documented?
o When the information is considered "final"?
b. if the data is collected during the course of project development you
will need to indicate the following:
o Who is responsible for providing the data?
o How to ensure that all relevant data has been collected?
2. When is the data collected?
Make sure the procedures indicate at exactly what point each piece of data
is to be collected.
3. Who is responsible for collecting and recording the data?
Describe who is responsible for collecting the data, who is responsible for
entering it in the database, and who is responsible for transforming the raw
data into the form you will work on.
4. Where is the collected data stored?
Describe how the data will be stored - questionnaires, records of
interviews, copies of official documents, emails, as well as the name and
location of these materials.

5. How do we ensure that the data is correct?

Describe any consistency checks that can be performed to verify that the
data is reasonable (reliable). You will also need to describe the procedure
for dealing with suspect or blatantly erroneous data.

There are different ways through which you can collect data depending, for
example, upon whether it is primary or secondary data or whether it is
quantitative or qualitative data.
The most common procedures used for data collection are:

a) Primary Data Collection



o Self-administered questionnaire
o Interview administered questionnaires
Open ended interviews
Focus Group Discussions

b) Secondary Data Collection

Secondary data collection is basically collecting data from documents,
records and reports of others.
It is also important to compare all these procedures, find out their
comparative advantages and disadvantages before you finally settle for a
particular data collection procedure.