You are on page 1of 19

PADMABHOOSHAN VASANTRAODADA PATIL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,

BUDHAGAON, SANGLI.

A
SEMINAR REPORT
ON

RECYCLING OF WASTE PAPER


SUBMITTED BY
B.E. (CHEMICAL)

YEAR OF SUBMISSION 2015-2016

RECYCLING OF WASTE
PAPER
Seminar Report

SUBMITTED BY:
CHANDANSHIVE PRIYANKA S.
BE CHEMICAL
ROLL NO: 02

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Seminar report undertaken is submitted by Miss Priyanka S.
Chandanshive. Has successfully completed his seminar report for B.E. Part-I (B.E.
Chemical Engineering) Degree as per the rules and regulations of Shivaji University,
Kolhapur for the year 2015-16.
This report represents bonafide work of the student.

Prof. A. D. Patil
(GUIDE)

Prof. U. S. Patil
(H.O.D.)

Prof. (Dr.) S. V. Joshi


(PRINCIPAL)

ABSTRACT:
Paper recycling makes us feel proud of taking an important step towards
reducing pollution and saving trees. Here we discusses recycling of paper, its definition,
environmental issues, its benefits, steps involved in recycling of waste paper like
sorting, collection and transportation, storage, cleaning, deinking, refining, bleaching,
colour stripping and paper making. Also specified here is one of the case study that
belongs to reuse of waste paper ie Preparation Of Plastering Mortar, properties and
conclusion of this case study. Finally, here we discusses various applications, advantages
and disadvantages in recycling of waste paper.

CONTENTS:
1) Introduction
2) Steps involved in recycling of paper:
2.1) Sorting
2.2) Collection and Transportation
2.3) Storage
2.4) Pulping and Screening
2.5) Cleaning
2.6) Deinking
2.7) Refining, Bleaching and color stripping
2.8) Papermaking
3) Applications of recycling paper
4) Case Study
4.1) Preparation of Plastering Mortar
4.2) Testing of Physical & mechanical properties
4.3) Conclusion of Case Study
5) Advantages of recycling of waste paper
6) Disadvantages of recycling of waste paper
7) References

INTRODUCTION:
Definition:

Paper recycling is process of manufacturing of new, usable paper products from old
waste paper.
Paper has become an integral part of our lives. From notebooks, posters, to magazines and
cardboard boxes, we simply cannot do without paper. Contrary to the fact that paper cannot
be replaced in our lives, you might be surprised to know that more than 40% of waste that
we throw regularly is paper. Environmentalists say that recycling of daily newspaper
everyday can alone save around 41,000 trees. A variety of utility products can be created
from recycled paper such as paper towels, egg cartons, toilet paper, tissue, phonebooks,
paper bags, newspaper, stamps, calendars, business cards, calendars and notebooks. One of
the biggest advantages of paper recycling process is that it uses very less amount of bleaches
and chemicals.
When paper breaks down in landfill it creates methane, a major greenhouse gas with the
global warming capacity 21 times more powerful than carbon dioxide. Manufacturing paper
and cardboard products from recycled material not only conserves trees, it also uses up to
50% less energy and 90% less water than making them from raw materials. It is important
not only to recycle your paper, but also to purchase recycled paper products. These days,
good quality office and printing paper, as well as many other paper products are available
with recycled paper content of up to 100%.
For every 100 reams of recycled office paper that is printed doubled sided, the savings are
estimated at two trees, more than one tonne of greenhouse gases and almost a cubic metre of
landfill space, compared with using 100 reams of non-recycled paper or printing singlesided.

STEPS INVOLVED IN RECYCLING OF PAPER:


SORTING:

Successful recycling requires clean recovered paper, so you must keep your paper free from
contaminants, such as food, plastic, metal, and other trash, which make paper difcult to
recycle. Contaminated paper which cannot be recycled must be composted, burned for
energy, or landlled. Recycling centers usually ask that you sort your paper by grade, or type
of paper. Your local recycling center can tell you how to sort paper for recycling in your
community. To locate your nearest dealer, look in the yellow pages of your phone book
under waste paper or recycling.

COLLECTION AND TRANSPORTATION:


You may take your sorted paper to a local recycling center or recycling bin. Often, a paper
stock dealer or recycling center will collect recovered paper from your home or of ce. Your
local dealer can tell you the options available in your community.
At the recycling center, the collected paper is wrapped in tight bales and transported to a
paper mill, where it will be recycled into new paper.

STORAGE:
Paper mill workers unload the recovered paper and put it into warehouses, where it is stored
until needed. The various paper grades, such as newspapers and corrugated boxes, are kept
separate, because the paper mill uses different grades of recovered paper to make different
types of recycled paper products.
When the paper mill is ready to use the paper, forklifts move the paper from the warehouse
to large conveyors.

PULPING AND SCREENING:

The paper moves by conveyor to a big vat called a pulper, which contains water and
chemicals. The pulper chops the recovered paper into small pieces. Heating the mixture
breaks the paper down more quickly into tiny strands of cellulose (organic plant material)
called bers. Eventually, the old paper turns into a mushy mixture called pulp.
In the PULPER, a cocktail of Water + Caustic Soda + Hydrogen Peroxide + Sodium Silicate
+ Talc + Pelletized Soap and Fatty Acids is used in conjunction with mechanical stirring (e.g.
rotation of tank or rotor) to break down the DRY Cellulose fibres in the feedstock to WET
Cellulose fibres separated from the coloured inks.
The chemicals are added for the following reasons:Caustic Soda- break down fibre
Soap and Fatty Acid- Initial Ink Collection
Talc-Initial Dispersing agent
Sodium Silicate-wetting agent
Hydrogen peroxide -bleaching
Large unwanted debris (coarse rejects) is also removed during this process e.g. plastic bags,
CDs etc.
Continuous production pulpers are becoming more popular, they are constructed as large
horizontal rotating vessels rather than the vertical orientation of batch production units.
The pulp is forced through screens containing holes and slots of various shapes and sizes.
The screens remove small contaminants such as bits of plastic and globs of glue. This
process is called screening.

CLEANING:

Fig no 1: Cyclone seperator


Mills also clean pulp by spinning it around in large cone-shaped cylinders called cyclone
separator. The Cyclone Cleaner combines the principle of a centrifugal screen with a
hydrocyclone. The feed into the screen is tangential, heavy rejects like staples fall under
gravity to the bottom outlet, fibre is centrifuged through the perforated basket and
lightweight rejects exit from the top of the cleaner. Lighter contaminants collect in the center
of the cone and are removed. This process is called cleaning.

DEINKING:
Deinking is the industrial process of removing printing ink from paper fibers of
recycled paper to make deinked pulp.
Process used :
1)
2)
3)
4)

Froth floatation
Wash deinking
Combined washing and floatation
Dissolved air floatation

Froth floatation:

During otation deinking, pulp is fed into a large vat called a otation cell, where air and
soap- like chemicals call surfactants are injected into the pulp. The surfactants cause ink and
stickies to loosen from the pulp and stick to the air bubbles as they oat to the top of the
mixture. The inky air bubbles create foam or froth which is removed from the top, leaving
the clean pulp behind.
Froth flotation was adapted from the flotation process used in the mining industry in the
1960s. It is the most common deinking process in Europe used to recover recycled paper.
Often most of the collector is added to the inlet of the flotation. The process temperatures are
normally in the range 45 - 55 C. Air is blown into the pulp suspension. The collector has
affinity both to the ink particles and air bubbles, causing them to attach. The air bubbles lift
the ink to the surface and form a thick froth that can be removed.
Normally the setup is a two stage system with 3, 4 or 5 flotation cells in series . Flotation
deinking is very effective in removing ink particles larger than about 10 m.
As you have learned, ink and stickies are trapped in the froth produced during otation
deinking. This material is collected, and much of its water is removed and reused in the mill.
The remaining material, which is still 30%-50% water, also contains very small bers which
have washed out of the pulp during the deinking process

Wash deinking:
Wash Deinking consists of a washing stage where dispersants are added to wash out the
printing inks. When the pulp slurry is dewatered (thickened), the medium to fine particles are
washed out. This process is most useful for removing particles smaller than about 30 m,
like water-based inks, fillers, coating particles, fines and micro stickies. This process is more
common when making deinked pulp for tissue. The processing equipment are belt filters,
pressure belt filters, disk filters and static filters. This stage is much more efficient than
normal washing / dewatering stages.

Combined washing and flotation:

High quality deinking of office wastes and other printing papers often commonly uses a
combination of washing and flotation.

Other deinking processes:


Dissolved air flotation (DAF) is used by some mills in the deinking stage and will remove
some ink and filler (ash); however, it is mainly used to clarify the process water.

REFINING, BLEACHING AND COLOR STRIPPING:


During rening, the pulp is beaten to make the recycled bers swell, making them ideal for
papermaking. If the pulp contains any large bundles of bers, rening separates them into
individual bers. If the recovered paper is colored, color stripping chemicals remove the
dyes from the paper.
Then, if white recycled paper is being made, the pulp may need to be bleached with
hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide, or oxygen to make it whiter and brighter. If brown
recycled paper is being made, such as that used for industrial paper towels, the pulp does not
need to be bleached.

PAPERMAKING:
Now the clean pulp is ready to be made into paper. The recycled ber can be used alone, or
blended with new wood ber (called virgin ber) to give it extra strength or smooth- ness.
The pulp is mixed with water and chemicals to make it 99.5% water. This watery pulp
mixture enters the headbox, a giant metal box at the beginning of the paper machine, and
then is
sprayed in a continuous wide jet onto a huge at wire screen which is moving very quickly
through the paper machine.

On the screen, water starts to drain from the pulp, and the recycled bers quickly begin to
bond together to form a watery sheet. The sheet moves rapidly through a series of feltcovered press rollers which squeeze out more water.
The sheet, which now resembles paper, passes through a series of heated metal rollers which
dry the paper. If coated paper is being made, a coating mixture can be applied near the end of
the process, or in a separate process after the papermaking is completed. coating gives paper
a smooth, glossy surface for printing.
Finally, the nished paper is wound into a giant roll and removed from the paper machine.
One roll can be as wide as 30 feet and weigh as much as 20 tons! The roll of paper is cut into
smaller rolls, or sometimes into sheets, before being shipped to a converting plant where it
will be printed or made into products such as envelopes, paper bags, or boxes.

APPLICATIONS:
1) To make cardboard, newspaper, phonebooks,
Calendars, buiseness cards, paper tags, tissue,
stamps, wrapping gift paper.
2) Plastering mortars. Plasterboard,
cellulose fiber insulation

CASE STUDY (PREPARATION OF PLASTERING MORTAR):


The study was performed in four mortar recipes whose composition is as shown in table:
Recipe

Cement

Sand(0-

Water

Copy

Newsprint

Used

(kg)

4)

(l)

paper

paper (kg)

paper(%

(Kg)

(kg)

200

300

320

810

50

II

400

400

440

810

40

III

400

400

440

810

40

IV

500

400

440

810

38

Table no. 1

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MORTAR & PLASTER:


Mortars are used in masonry for joining stones, bricks, blocks etc. and plasters are used for
rendering on the outside and inside of walls. The differences between mortar and plaster lie
in the capacity of plasters to take better finish, which depend to a very large extent on the
type of sand used in the mix. For plasters we use finer sand. However the term mortar is also
used loosely to refer to both plasters and mortar.

MATERIAL AND METHOD:


In this context, the study on the use of waste paper in order to obtain ecological plastering
mortar is presented. The material used for this experiment is Portland cement 32.5, sand with
0-4 mm granularity, water, newsprint paper or copy paper. The applied method for
preparation of mortars with paper waste is:

Preparation of paper waste ( the waste papers cut into shreds n soaked in water and after two
days material is drained), weighing of materials, homogenization of component materials,
casting of test tubes ( 4*4*16 cm prisms and cubes with a 7 cm sides.)
Physical, mechanical and fire behaviours are performed after 28 days in test tube cast and
stored according to standards during this period.
The following physical and mechanical characteristics are determined in the test tubes. The
apparent density of set mortar, addesion to the support layer, bending and compressive
strength, water absorption by capillary and fire behavior.

The results are obtained following the performance of physical-mechanical distribution as


shown in table 2 :

Table No. 2

CONCLUSION OF CASE STUDY:


1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
6)
7)

The optimum proportion of paper in the mortar recipe is around 40%


Plastering mortar is light material,
Apparent density:842-1147 kg/m3
Compressive strength: class CS1 or CS2
Water absorption: class W0 or W1
Fire resistance is good
Very good thermal insulation

ADVANTAGES OF RECYCLING OF PAPER :

1) Protects environment
2) Reduces Energy Consumption
3) Reduces pollution
4) Reduces Global Warming
5) Judicious and Sustainable use of Resources
6) 1Conserves Natural Resources
7) Reduces Amount of Waste to Landfills
8) Create Green Jobs

DISADVANTAGES RECYCLING OF PAPER:

1) Not always Cost Effective


2) Recycled Products May not Last for Long
3) Unsafe and Unhygienic Recycling Sites
4) Not widespread on Large Scale
5) High Initial Cost

REFERENCES:

1) Technology of paper recycling, by R Mckinney, published by Blackie Academic and


Professional, an impart of chapman and hall
2) 2013 The authors, published by Elsevier Ltd.
selection and peer-review under responsibility of the petru major university of tirgu
mures.
3) SOY chemicals for paper processing, by Connie Howe, Robina Hogan, Steve Wildes,
published by Omni Tech International ltd
4) ERPC europian declaration on paper recycling, citation work, 2011-2015,pp-7
5) Ervasti I(2006): Limits to the recycling of waste paper, cellulose and paper no1. p.17