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LOGIC AND CONTEMPORARY RHETORIC:

THE USE OF REASON IN EVERYDAY LIFE

STUDY GUIDE
CHAPTER 1
GOOD AND BAD REASONING
I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1. Reasoning and Arguments
Exercise 1-1
2. Exposition and Argument
Exercise 1-2
3. Cogent Reasoning
Believable Premises
No Relevant Information Passed Over
Valid Reasoning
4. Two Basic Kinds of Valid Arguments
Deductive Validity
Inductive Validity
Exercise 1-3
5. Some Wrong Ideas about Cogent Reasoning
6. Background Beliefs
7. Kinds of Background Beliefs
8. Worldviews or Philosophies
9. Insufficiently Grounded Beliefs
Exercise 1-4
Exercise 1-5
Exercise 1-6
Exercise 1-7
Exercise 1-8
10. Two Vital Kinds of Background Beliefs
The Nature of Human Nature
The Reliability of Information Sources
11. Science to the Rescue
Exercise 1-9
Summary of Chapter 1

II.

List of Key Terms


Argument
Background beliefs
Claim
Conclusion
Correct
Deductively valid
Exposition
Fallacious
Form
Induction
Inductively valid
Modus ponens
Philosophies
Premises
Reasoning
Valid
Warranted
Worldviews

III.

Chapter Summary
In this Chapter the authors note that reasoning is the essential ingredient in problem
solving, and that since this is so we need to know how to distinguish good, cogent,
reasoning from bad, fallacious, reasoning. They begin their discussion of this by outlining
the structure of an argument, noting that all arguments have premises and a conclusion,
and distinguishing arguments from exposition.
They then distinguish between cogent and fallacious reasoning, noting that we
reason cogently when our premises are believable, we consider all likely relevant
information, and our reasoning is valid. Here, they distinguish between two basic kinds of
valid arguments; those that are deductively valid, and those that are inductively valid.
They then outline some common mistakes about cogent reasoning, such that what counts
as good reasoning is culturally relative, or individually relative.

Returning to their discussion of cogent reasoning the authors note that whether
ones premises are believable, and whether one is using all relevant information, will
depend upon ones background beliefs. These beliefs can pertain to matters of fact, and
beliefs about values. They can also be divided into those that are true and those that are
false; they also differ in how firmly they should be held. The most deeply ingrained of a
persons background beliefs tend to be those that constitute her worldview or her
philosophy. We need to make sure that these beliefs are well-grounded, and so we need to
examine them, as well as our other background beliefs. Of these, two kinds are especially
important; those that concern the nature of human nature, and those that concern the
reliability of information sources. We should recognize that the most accurate information
that we have comes from the well-established sciences of physics, chemistry, and biology,
as well as to a lesser extent psychology.
IV.

Practice Questions
A. Objective Multiple Choice
1. The essential ingredient in problem-solving is
a.
b.
c.
d.

Information
Reasoning
Values
Knowledge

2. The claim made by an argument is its


a.
b.
c.
d.

Form
Conclusion
Premise
Value

3. An argument
a. Will only have two premises
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b. Will always stand alone


c. Will always have a conclusion
d. Will always be correct
4. We reason cogently only when
a. Our premises are warranted, we consider all likely information, and our
reasoning is valid
b. Our premises are warranted, we consider all likely information, and our
reasoning is deductive
c. Our premises are warranted, we consider some likely information, and our
reasoning is valid
d. Our premises are warranted, we consider all likely information, and our
reasoning is inductive
5. A bad argument is a
a.
b.
c.
d.

Fallacious one
Valid one
Inductive one
Deductive one

6. The first condition of cogent reasoning requires


a. That we use our background beliefs to assess the premises of the argument we
are evaluating
b. That we assess the logical form of the argument that we are evaluating
c. That we reject our background beliefs prior to assessing the premises of the
argument we are evaluating
d. That we use background beliefs to assess the conclusion of the argument we
are evaluating
7. The second criterion of cogent reasoning requires that we
a.
b.
c.
d.

Do not pass over any relevant information


Ignore relevant information
Assess the form of the argument
Assess the conclusion of the argument

8. The third criterion of cogent reasoning requires that


a.
b.
c.
d.

The premises of the argument in question are all true


The premises of the argument in question fit with our background beliefs
The premises of the argument in question have the correct form
The premises of the argument in question genuinely support its conclusion

9. Validity concerns
a.
b.
c.
d.

The connection between the premises and the readers background beliefs
The connection between the premises and the conclusion of the argument
The truth of the premises
The truth of the conclusion

10. The fundamental property of a deductively valid argument is


a.
b.
c.
d.

That if all of its premises are true, then its conclusion must be true also
That if its conclusion is true, then its premises must be true
That if all of its premises are true, then its conclusion is likely to be true
That if all of its premises are false, then its conclusion is likely to be false

11. The idea behind valid induction is that of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Learning from mistakes


Learning from logic
Learning from experience
Learning from books

12. Good reasoning is


a.
b.
c.
d.

Culturally relative
Gender relative
Individually relative
Not relative

13. Ignorance is
a.
b.
c.
d.

Bliss
Not bliss
Necessary to evaluate arguments
Included in our background beliefs

14. Background beliefs


a.
b.
c.
d.

Are always true


Are always false
Can be true or false
Are neither true nor false

15. Background beliefs


a. Can be about matters of fact and matters of value
b. Are always about matters of fact
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c. Are always about matters of value


d. Cannot be about both matters of facts and matters of value
16. The beliefs that are most deeply ingrained in us are an important part of our
a.
b.
c.
d.

Worldview, or philosophy
Worldview, but not philosophy
Philosophy, but not worldview
Value system

17. Two kinds of background beliefs that are extremely important concern
a.
b.
c.
d.

Personal preferences and religious views


Personal preferences and the nature of human nature
The nature of human nature and the reliability of information sources
The nature of human nature and religious views

18. We cannot assume


a.
b.
c.
d.

That a source is reliable without some reason for thinking this


That science is any better than intuition in giving accurate information
That logic works in all cases
That science is gender-neutral

19. The most reliable information we have comes from


a.
b.
c.
d.

Well-established religion
Well-established science
Personal intuition
Personal judgments

20. Common everyday sayings


a.
b.
c.
d.

Contain some wisdom


Are fallacious
Are completely correct
Should be rejected

B. True/False
1. Bad reasoning is fallacious reasoning
2. Valid deductive arguments always have true conclusions
3. Invalid deductive arguments can have true conclusions

4. Masculine logic is different from feminine logic


5. Science is a very reliable source of information
6. Our background beliefs are immune from criticism
7. Freud was right about everything
8. Psychology is not as well-established a science as physics
9. Cogent reasoning involves warranted premises
10. Inductive arguments ignore experience
11. How the world works depends on the sex of the person evaluating it
12. Philosophers all agree that there are objective moral truths
13. We have no background beliefs concerning the nature of human nature
14. All information sources are equally reliable
15. Expositions sometimes contain implicit arguments
C. Fill-in-the-Blanks

1. The purpose of Logic and Contemporary Rhetoric is not to _______.


2. The statements in an argument that give reasons for accepting the conclusion
are called _____.
3. Conclusions are sometimes signaled by words such as ____ [thus], _____
[therefore], or ______.
4. Expressions such as It has been observed that are used to indicate _____ .
5. According to the authors, it would be a mistake to think that talk was
generally _____.
6. It is important to understand the difference between rhetoric that is primarily
argumentative and that which is mainly _______ .
7. It is the ____ of an argument that makes it deductively valid
8. Background beliefs can be divided up ___________.
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9. We need to examine our background beliefs for _______ and ______ .


10. ________ plays a central place in modern life.
D. Essay Questions
1. Identify one of your most basic background beliefs. Under what circumstances do
you think you could be moved to reject this belief? Could you be argued out of
holding it? Would you be moved to reject it if certain evidence was presented to
you? If you did reject this belief, how would this effect your other beliefs about
the world?
2. Outline the main differences between inductive reasoning and deductive
reasoning. Are there any areas of life in which one form of reasoning might be
more useful than the other? Explain your view.
3. Is science based upon inductive reasoning, or deductive reasoning, or a
combination of both? Drawing from the Chapters discussion of these two types
of reasoning, do you think that science can give us absolutely certain knowledge?
Why, or why not?
4. Is reasoning relative to the sex, race, or personality of the person who uses it?
Explain your view fully.
5. How can reasoning be misused, either deliberately or unintentionally? Provide
examples of each type of misuse, making it clear why the reasoning in question is
bad.
V.

Additional Sources for Study and Research


A. InfoTrac Search Terms

Analogy, Aristotelian (Logic), Claims, Contingency, Fallacies, Logic, Critical


Thinking, Syllogism, Hypothetical Syllogism, Induction, Informal Logic,
Probability, Thesis, Valid.
B. Internet Sites
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
http://plato.stanford.edu/
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
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http://www.iep.utm.edu/
Wikipedia; Logic entry
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Logic
Factasia Logic
http://www.rbjones.com/rbjpub/logic/
VI.

Answer Key
A. Objective Multiple Choice
1. b
2. b
3. c
4. a
5. a
6. a
7. a
8. d
9. b
10. a
11. c
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. a
16. a
17. c
18. a
19. b
20. a
B. True/False
1. F
2. F
3. T
4. F
5. T
6. F
7. F
8. T
9

9. T
10. F
11. F
12. F
13. F
14. F
15. T
C. Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. alter students political views
2. premises
3. thus, therefore, consequently
4. premises
5. aimless
6. expository
7. form
8. in many different ways
9. consistency, believability
10. science

CHAPTER 2
MORE ON DEDUCTION AND INDUCTION

10

I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1. Deductive Validity
Exercise 2-1
2. Deductive Invalidity
Exercise 2-2
3. Syllogisms
Exercise 2-3
4. Indirect Proofs
5. Tautologies, Contradictions, and Contingent Statements
Exercise 2-4
6. Inductive Validity (Correctness) and Invalidity (Incorrectness)
Reasoning by Analogy
Statistical induction
Higher-level Inductions
Reasoning to Causal Connections
Concatenated inductions
Exercise 2-5
7. A Misconception About Deduction and Induction
8. Reasoning Cogently Versus Being Right in Fact
Summary of Chapter 2

II.

List of Key Terms


Affirming the consequent
Analogy
Categorical proposition
Causes
Concatenated
Contingent
Contradiction
Denying the antecedent
Disjunctive syllogism
Higher-level induction
Hypothetical syllogism
Indirect proof
Induction by enumeration
Major term
Middle term
Minor term
Modus ponens
Modus tollens
Mood
Particular affirmative
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Particular negative
Predicate class
Proof
Reductio ad absurdum
Statistical induction
Structure
Subject class
Syllogisms
Tautology
Thesis
Universal affirmative
Universal negative
III.

Chapter Summary
In this Chapter the authors outline various different forms of argument, including modus
tollens, modus ponens, hypothetical syllogism, and disjunctive syllogism. They then
outline the concepts of validity and invalidity, and outline the fallacies of denying the
antecedent and affirming the consequent. They then discuss further traditional syllogistic
logic, noting that categorical propositions assert or deny relationships between a subject
class and a predicate class; these assertions or denials give rise to four kinds of
categorical propositions. Having discussed syllogistic logic the authors then discuss
indirect reasoning, and then the definitions of tautologies, contradictions, and contingent
statements, offering examples of each.
The authors then move from deductive logic to discuss inductive validity and
invalidity. Here, they outline various types of induction, including induction by
enumeration, reasoning by analogy, statistical induction, higher-level inductions,
reasoning to causal connections, and concatenated inductions. They then note that it is not
true that in deductive reasoning we go from the general to the particular, while in

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inductive reasoning we go from the particular to the general. They then discuss the
difference between reasoning cogently and being right in fact.
IV.

Practice Questions
A. Objective Multiple Choice
1. If A, then B. A. Therefore B is an example of the argument form
a.
b.
c.
d.

Modus ponens
Modus tollens
Hypothetical syllogism
Disjunctive syllogism

2. If A, then B. Not B. Therefore, Not A is an example of the argument form


a.
b.
c.
d.

Modus ponens
Modus tollens
Hypothetical syllogism
Disjunctive syllogism

3. If A then B. If B then C. Therefore, if A, then C is an example of the


argument form
a.
b.
c.
d.

Modus ponens
Modus tollens
Hypothetical syllogism
Disjunctive syllogism

4. A or B. Not A. Therefore, B is an example of the argument form


a.
b.
c.
d.

Modus ponens
Modus tollens
Hypothetical syllogism
Disjunctive syllogism

5. If A then B. Not A. Not B is an example of the fallacy of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Denying the antecedent


Affirming the consequent
Hypothetical syllogism
Disjunctive syllogism

6. If A then B. B. Therefore, A is an example of the fallacy of


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a.
b.
c.
d.

Denying the antecedent


Affirming the consequent
Hypothetical syllogism
Disjunctive syllogism

7. A categorical proposition is
a.
b.
c.
d.

An unconditional offer
A subject-predicate proposition
A syllogistic proposition
A conditional offer

8. The predicate of the conclusion in a syllogism is the syllogisms


a.
b.
c.
d.

Major term
Minor term
Middle term
Propositional term

9. The subject of the conclusion in a syllogism is the syllogisms


a.
b.
c.
d.

Major term
Minor term
Middle term
Propositional term

10. The term that occurs in each premise but not in the conclusion is the
syllogisms
a.
b.
c.
d.

Major term
Minor term
Middle term
Propositional term

11. Some S are P is a


a.
b.
c.
d.

Universal affirmative proposition


Universal negative proposition
Particular affirmative proposition
Particular negative proposition

12. No S are P is a
a. Universal affirmative proposition
b. Universal negative proposition
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c. Particular affirmative proposition


d. Particular negative proposition
13. All S are P is a
a.
b.
c.
d.

Universal affirmative proposition


Universal negative proposition
Particular affirmative proposition
Particular negative proposition

14. A particular negative proposition is an


a.
b.
c.
d.

A proposition
E proposition
I proposition
O proposition

15. A universal affirmative proposition is an


a.
b.
c.
d.

A proposition
E proposition
I proposition
O proposition

16. A universal negative proposition is an


a.
b.
c.
d.

A proposition
E proposition
I proposition
O proposition

17. No dogs are smart is an example of a


a.
b.
c.
d.

Universal affirmative proposition


Universal negative proposition
Particular affirmative proposition
Particular negative proposition

18. Some parrots are not linguists is an example of an


a.
b.
c.
d.

A proposition
E proposition
I proposition
O proposition

19. A contradiction is a statement


15

a.
b.
c.
d.

That is necessarily true


That can be true or false
That is neither true nor false
That is necessarily false

20. Either you will pass this class or you wont pass this class is an example of
a.
b.
c.
d.

A tautology
A contradiction
A contingent statement
A false statement

B. True/False
1. In induction by enumeration, we reason from the fact that all As observed so far
have been Bs to the conclusion that all are Bs.
2. In induction by enumeration, a greater sample size yields lower probability.
3. More than one counterexample is needed to shoot down induction by
enumeration.
4. Higher-level inductions are used to evaluate those that are more general.
5. Statistical induction is a weak form of induction.
6. Concatenated reasoning joins together inductions and deductions to find a pattern.
7. If you reason correctly you will always get a true conclusion.
8. If you have a true conclusion you will have reasoned correctly.
9. Deductively valid reasoning progresses from the general to the particular.
10. It is not the case that inductively valid reasoning goes from the particular to the
general.
11. No As are Bs is a universal negative statement.
12. Some Ps are Qs is a universal affirmative statement.
13. Denying the antecedent is a fallacy.
14. If A, then B. B. Therefore, A is an example of modus tollens.

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15. When we reason inductively we are often looking for causes.


C. Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. An argument that doesnt have a deductively valid form is said to be _____.
2. The fallacy of affirming the consequent is of the form _____ .
3. A hypothetical syllogism is not a true ____ .
4. A categorical proposition expresses a relationship between a _____ class and a
____ class.
5. No men are mortal is a ______ proposition.
6. Every syllogism has _____ terms.
7. Indirect proofs are sometimes called ________ proofs.
8. Barry Bonds didnt take steroids is a ______ statement.
9. Only _____ resemblances count in drawing correct analogies.
10. Unfortunately, we can reason correctly and get a ______ conclusion.
D. Essay Questions
1. Why were hypothethical syllogisms not considered to be syllogism by Aristotle?
In answering this question you should explain Aristotles reasoning, and not
merely state his view. Does this affect their potential validity in any way?
2. Provide an example of concatenated reasoning that draws on at least four different
types of reasoning process, and evaluate it for correctness.
3. It is often claimed that deductive reasoning moves from the general to the
particular, while inductive reasoning moves from the particular to the general. Do
you agree with this view? Explain your answer, taking care to explain why some
people might be persuaded by this account of deductive and inductive reasoning.
4. If it is possible for us to reason correctly and yet be wrong in fact, what is the use
of reasoning at all? Explain your answer, and provide examples to illustrate it.
5. Provide an example of two different deductively invalid arguments, and explain
where they go wrong.
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V.

Additional Sources for Study and Research


A. InfoTrac Search Terms

Analogy, Antecedent, Causality, Claims, Disjunctive Syllogism, Fallacies,


Hypothetical Syllogism, Induction, Inductive Reasoning, Necessity, predicate,
Premise, Probability, Medieval Logic, Reasoning, Syllogism, Tautology, True, Valid.
B. Internet sites
Wikipedia; inductive reasoning
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductive_reasoning
Wikipedia; deductive reasoning
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deductive_reasoning
Sparknotes: inductive and deductive reasoning
http://www.sparknotes.com/math/geometry3/inductiveanddeductivereasoning/section1.ht
ml
Informal fallacies
http://www.drury.edu/ess/Logic/Informal/Overview.html
VI.

Answer Key
A. Objective Multiple Choice
1. a
2. b
3. c
4. d
5. a
6. b
7. b
8. a
9. b
10. c
11. c
12. b
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13. a
14. d
15. a
16. b
17. b
18. d
19. d
20. a
B. True/False
1.T
2. F
3. F
4. F
5. F
6. T
7. F
8. F
9. F
10. T
11. T
12. F
13. T
14. F
15. T
C. Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Deductively invalid
2. If A, then B, B, therefore A
3. syllogism
4. subject/predicate
5. universal negative
6. three
7. reductio ad absurdum
8. contingent
9. relevant
10. false
CHAPTER 3
FALLACIOUS REASONING1

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I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1. Appeal to Authority
Some Authorities Are More Trustworthy than Others
Authorities in One Field Arent Necessarily Experts in Another
Learn How Best to Appeal to Authorities
Understand What Authorities Can Be Expected to Know
Become Your Own Expert on Important Controversial Topics
2. Inconsistency
3. Straw Man
4. False Dilemma and the Either-or Fallacy
5. Begging the Question
Evading the Issue
6. Questionable PremiseQuestionable Statement
7. Suppressed (Overlooked) Evidence
8. Tokenism
Summary of Chapter 3
Exercise 3-1

II.

List of Key Terms


Appeal to authority
Begging the question
Black-or-white fallacy
Campaign rhetoric
Dilemma
Either-or-fallacy
Evading the issue
False dilemma
Inconsistency
Organizational inconsistency
Overlooked evidence
Questionable premise
Slighted evidence
Suppressed evidence
Tokenism

III.

Chapter Summary
After noting that, to be precise, rather than calling an argument itself fallacious we
should say that people are guilty of fallacious reasoning, the authors turn to outline
various ways in which such reasoning could occur.

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The first error in reasoning is to accept someones word, especially that of a


purported authority, when we should be suspicious of it. This fallacy is the appeal to
authority. The authors note that some authorities are more trustworthy than others,
and so when considering expert reasoning or claims we need to make a judgment
about their believability. We should also recognize that authorities in one field are not
necessarily experts in another, as well as become adept at understanding what they are
saying. We should also understand what authorities can be expected to know, for in
some fields knowledge is not as readily available as it is in others. Moreover, when
authorities disagree on important topics we should use them not for conclusions, but
as sources of evidence, reasons, and arguments.
The second error of reasoning addressed in this Chapter is that of inconsistency.
We commit this error when we accept the conclusions of an argument that contains
self-contradictory statements, or statements that contradict each other. We could also
be inconsistent if we argue one way at one time, and another way at some other time.
The authors note that large organizations often have representatives who speak on one
side of an issue while others speak on others sides; this is organizational
inconsistency; they, and individuals, can also say one thing while doing another.
The third error of reasoning discussed here in the straw man fallacy, which is
committed when one misrepresents an opponents position as being weaker than it
actually is. The authors then outline the fallacies of the false dilemma and the eitheror fallacy. The first occurs when something is presented as a dilemma, but there are
more than the two alternatives presented. Alternatively, we can defeat a dilemma by
challenging one or both of its premises. A similar fallacy is the either-or fallacy,

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which occurs when we reason to a conclusion in the belief that it has only one
alternative, which is bad.
The authors then discuss the fallacy of begging the question, which occurs when
we assume the truth of what we are trying to prove. They note that one way to beg the
question at issue is simply to avoid it entirely, which makes one guilty of evading the
issue. The last three types of fallacies they discuss are that of the questionable
premise, suppressed evidence, and tokenism.
IV.

Practice Questions
A. Objective Multiple Choice
1. Accepting the word of an authority when we shouldnt is the fallacy of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Appeal to authority
Equivocation
Organizational authority
Affirming the consequent

2. Authorities are
a. Equally reliable
b. Experts on all issues
c. Not created equal
d. Not well-trained
3. When a celebrity endorses a product, this proves
a.
b.
c.
d.

They like it
They use it a lot
It is of high quality
Nothing about the product

4. When authorities disagree we should


a.
b.
c.
d.

Believe there is no fact of the matter to be had


Become our own experts, and come to our own conclusions
Pick a side and stick to it
Seeks second opinions

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5. The fallacy of inconsistency is often committed by


a.
b.
c.
d.

Logicians
Doctors
Students
Politicians

6. When we argue one way at one time and another way at another time we
could be
a.
b.
c.
d.

Inconsistent
Authoritative
Straw men
Begging the question

7. Emersons criticism of foolish consistency is best understood as a criticism of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Logical consistency
Political consistency
Consistency in the face of countervailing evidence
Consistency in the face of danger

8. When a company ignores its own policies for expediency it is guilty of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Begging the question


Being a straw man
Organization bias
Organizational inconsistency

9. The straw man fallacy is in the fallacy category of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Suppressed evidence
False evidence
Begging the question
Questionable character

10. In logic, a dilemma is


a. An argument that presents two alternatives, both claimed to be bad for
someone or some position
b. An argument that presents two alternatives, both claimed to be good for
someone or some position
c. An argument in which at least two alternatives are presented
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d. An argument in which less than two alternatives are presented


11. The either-or-fallacy is sometimes correctly called
a.
b.
c.
d.

A false dilemma fallacy


The one-for-all fallacy
The black-or-white fallacy
The all-or-nothing fallacy

12. The sense of beg in begging the question means


a.
b.
c.
d.

To plead
To avoid
To assume
To assert

13. When a politician states in answer to a question Thats a complex issue


he or she is probably
a.
b.
c.
d.

Lying
Evading the issue
Uninformed
Begging the question

14. There is merit in expanding the notion of a questionable premise to that of a


a.
b.
c.
d.

Questionable conclusion
Questionable statement
Questionable question
Questionable answer

15. A more encompassing label for the fallacy of suppressed evidence is


a.
b.
c.
d.

Overlooked evidence
Hidden evidence
Oppressed evidence
False evidence

16. Tokenism is the fallacy in which


a.
b.
c.
d.

A token gesture is mistaken for the real thing


Note even a token gesture is made
A real gesture is mistaken for a token one
A politicians promises are believed

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17. If a person is satisfied with campaign rhetoric when there is little likelihood of
the promises made being kept she is a victim of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Theft
Tokenism
Argument from authority
Straw man fallacy

18. The three master categories of types of fallacies are


a.
b.
c.
d.

Straw man, begging the question, questionable premise


Straw man, suppressed evidence, invalid inference
Questionable premise, suppressed evidence, and invalid inference
Questionable premise, suppressed evidence, argument from authority

19. When one talks out of both sides of ones mouth one might be engaged in
a.
b.
c.
d.

Begging the question


The black-or-white fallacy
Inconsistency
Organization bias

20. At least one of a set of inconsistent statements


a.
b.
c.
d.

Must be true
Must be false
Must be believable
Must be implausible

B. True/False
1. Politicians always intentionally mislead people.
2. There are three master categories into which each fallacy can be made to fit.
3. We all have to appeal to an expert at some times, unless we are fools.
4. Some authorities are more trustworthy than others.
5. Buying Nike products because Tiger Woods advertises them is an example of
straw man reasoning.
6. Age does not preclude gullibility.
7. It is worth the effort to resist being intimidated by professional jargon.

25

8. Labels such as conservative or liberal are worthless because they are too
vague.
9. When a politician promises an increase in government services, a reduction in
taxation, and a reduction in the national debt they are being evasive.
10. When a cigarette smoker advocates a ban on heroin because it is harmful but
against a ban on cigarettes they are being inconsistent.
11. When we provide reasons to excuse our behavior to ourselves, we are being
inconsistent.
12. A hypocrite pretends to believe what he does not in fact believe, or to be what
he is in fact not.
13. A straw man fallacy is an example of a fallacy of suppressed evidence.
14. Either P or Q. Not P. Therefore, Q is an example of the either-or-fallacy.
15. You are either with us or against us in the fight against terror is an example
of the straw man fallacy.
C. Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. False dilemmas usually are a species of the genus _________ .
2. Stating that flying fish fly because they are flying fish is an example of
______ .
3. When there is no evidence for or against a conclusion, reason requires that we
_________ .
4. The plan offered by both Hilary Clinton and John McCain to suspect a tax on
gasoline for the summer travel season is an example of _____ .
5. We need to note when there is inconsistency between what a person says and
what he does, although this is not, strictly speaking, a _____ .
6. We can show a dilemma to be false, either by _____ or by _____ .
7. We can beg the question by ____ the issue.
8. We reason _____ when we fail to satisfy the three requirements of cogent
reasoning.
9. Statements can imply ______.
26

10. Being careful when evaluating sources of information does not mean we have
to be ____ .
D. Essay questions
1. Why could it be said that all deductively valid arguments beg the question? Is
this a problem for them? Explain your answer fully, illustrating it with
examples of arguments.
2. How could self-interest affect reasoning (a) positively, and (b) negatively?
Explain your answers fully, giving examples of both its positive and negative
effects.
3. Sometimes when we are inconsistent we might try to deceive ourselves so that
we do not realize this. But this is puzzling, since for this to occur we must
already know the facts that we are trying deceptively to conceal from
ourselves. How do you think self-deception is possible?
4. Why do you think that politicians get away with making inconsistent claims or
arguments? Outline the various ways in which we might explain this. Which
do you think is the most plausible, and why?
5. Outline the ways in which organizational inconsistency might occur. How
might we try to combat such attempts to fool gullible people by fallacious
reasoning?
V.

Additional Sources for Study and Research


A. InfoTrac Search Terms

Campaign rhetoric, Commercial Appeal, Either-Or Fallacy, Expert, Fallacy, false


Dilemma, Hypocrisy, Invalid, Straw Man, Suppressed Evidence, Tokenism.
B. Internet Sites
Literacy Education Online
http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/logic.html
Encyclopedia Britannica: logical fallacy entry
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/346325/logical-fallacy

27

The Nizkor Project: fallacies; begging the question examples


http://www.nizkor.org/features/fallacies/begging-the-question.html
A List of Fallacious Arguments
http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/skeptic/arguments.html
VI.

Answer Key
A. Objective Multiple Choice
1. a
2. c
3. d
4. b
5. d
6. a
7. c
8. d
9. a
10. a
11. c
12. b
13. b
14. b
15. a
16. a
17. b
18. c
19. c
20. b
B. True/False
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

F
T
T
T
F
T
T
F
28

9. F
10. T
11. T
12. T
13. T
14. T
15. F
C. Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Questionable premise
2. Begging the question
3. Withhold judgment
4. Tokenism
5. Fallacy
6. Going between its horns/grasping its horns
7. Evading
8. Fallaciously
9. Arguments
10. Cynical

CHAPTER 4
FALLACIOUS REASONING2
I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1. Ad Hominem Argument
Attacks on Character or Credentials Sometimes Are Relevant
Guilt by Association
2. Two Wrongs Must Make a Right
29

Fighting Fire with Fire


Two Wrongs and Hypocrisy
Common Practice and Traditional Wisdom
3. Irrelevant Reason (Non Sequitur)
4. Equivocation
But Ambiguity Often Serves Useful Purposes
5. Appeal to Ignorance
6. Composition and Division
7. Slippery Slope
Summary of Chapter 4
II.

List of Key Terms


Ad hominem
Ambiguity
Appeal to ignorance
Argumentum ad ignorantiam
Common practice
Composition
Consumers fallacy
Division
Equivocation
Fighting fire with fire
Guilt by association
Irrelevant reason
Non sequitur
Salesmans fallacy
Slippery slope
Traditional Wisdom
Two wrongs make a right

III.

Chapter Summary
This Chapter provides a discussion of further types of fallacious reasoning. The
authors begin with discussing ad hominem arguments, noting that attacks on persons
characters or credentials are sometimes relevant. They then consider the variant of
this fallacy known as guilt by association, noting that it could be rational to judge
someone in this way, up to a point. They then discuss the fallacy of two wrongs
make a right, noting that this fallacy is made plausible by its similarity to a more
30

legitimate way of reasoning, known as fighting fire with fire, and by the fact that it
could be used by someone to imply that their opponents are being hypocritical. They
then discuss the fallacies of common practice and traditional wisdom.
The third type of fallacy that the authors consider in this Chapter is that of
irrelevant reason, or non sequitur, while the fourth is the fallacy of equivocation. The
authors note that ambiguity can often serve useful purposes. The next four fallacies
that they consider are the appeal to ignorance fallacy, the fallacies of composition and
division, and the slippery slope fallacy.
IV.

Practice Questions
A. Objective Multiple Choice
1. The type of fallacy that is to the person is the
a.
b.
c.
d.

Slippery slope fallacy


Ad hominem fallacy
Non sequitur fallacy
Composition fallacy

2. Rush Limbaughs referring to Barack Obama as Obama Osama is an


example of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Slippery slope fallacy


Ad hominem fallacy
Non sequitur fallacy
Composition fallacy

3. It is rational to judge peoples actions by the company they keep


a.
b.
c.
d.

Never
Always
Sometimes
Only when it is to their detriment

4. The colloquial name of the tu quoque fallacy is


a. Two wrongs make a right
31

b. Two wrongs never make a right


c. Straw man fallacy
d. To the person fallacy
5. The type of fallacy that might be used to justify revenge is the
a.
b.
c.
d.

Tu quoque fallacy
Ad hominem fallacy
Straw man fallacy
Composition fallacy

6. Killing in self-defense illustrates


a.
b.
c.
d.

Fighting fire with fire


Two wrongs make a right
Two wrongs dont make a right
Straw man fallacy

7. According to retributivists
a.
b.
c.
d.

We are never justified in punishing the guilty


We can punish the guilty even if we fail to fight the original harm
People can be punished to deter others
We should only fight the original harm

8. The two wrongs fallacy might be used by people


a.
b.
c.
d.

Who wish to harm their opponents unjustly


Who intend to imply that their opponents are hypocrites
Who are hypocrites themselves for using it
Who are intending to deceive themselves

9. The fallacy of common practice is committed when


a.
b.
c.
d.

A wrong is justified on the grounds that it is expedient


A wrong is justified on the grounds that it will not be discovered
A wrong is justified by appeal to religion
A wrong is justified by appeal to the fact that lots of others do it

10. The fallacy of justifying an action on the grounds that it is an accepted way of
doing things is the fallacy of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Common practice
Composition
Division
Traditional wisdom
32

11. Traditional wisdom would not justify


a. Forcing untouchables to do the dirty work in India
b. Slavery in the Sudan
c. Deeper-furrow plowing in North America
d. Gender bias in the United States
12. The fallacy of non sequitur is also known as the fallacy of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Composition
Division
Irrelevant Reason
Straw man

13. Non sequitur literally means


a.
b.
c.
d.

It does not follow


This is false
Wrong reason
Not relevant

14. In common use, equivocation has connotations of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Irrelevance
Irrationality
Argumentativeness
Deception

15. When a term is used in an argument to mean one thing in one place and
another thing in another place, it is used
a.
b.
c.
d.

Equivocally
Sinfully
Bilaterally
Unilaterally

16. The fallacy argumentum ad ignorantiam is also known as


a.
b.
c.
d.

The fallacy of appeal to ignorance


The fallacy of composition
The fallacy of division
The fallacy of equivocation

17. Taking the absence of evidence of P to show that not-P is true is an example of

33

a.
b.
c.
d.

The fallacy of appeal to ignorance


The fallacy of composition
The fallacy of division
The fallacy of equivocation

18. The salesmans fallacy is also known as


a.
b.
c.
d.

The consumers fallacy


The straw man fallacy
The fallacy of equivocation
The fallacy of composition

19. If I assume that my monthly payments for a car are low, the total cost will be
low, also, I am guilty of
a.
b.
c.
d.

The fallacy of division


The fallacy of equivocation
The fallacy of composition
The fallacy of appeal to ignorance

20. The fallacy that is the mirror image of the fallacy of the salesmans fallacy is
a.
b.
c.
d.

The fallacy of division


The fallacy of equivocation
The fallacy of composition
The fallacy of appeal to ignorance

B. True/False
1. Attacks on a persons character are never relevant.
2. It is never rational to judge people by the company they keep.
3. That a man is frequently seen around prostitutes proves that he is immoral.
4. In the 1996 Presidential election over 15,000 ballots were invalidated because
the voters voted for two candidates for the same office, and so it does not
matter that in 2000 1,900 ballots were invalidated for the same reason.
5. Justifying retaliation in sports is an example of the two wrongs make a right
fallacy.
6. Killing in self-defense illustrates the claim that two wrongs do not make a
right.

34

7. Traditional alone can justify keeping old practices.


8. Traditional beliefs never need to be reassessed.
9. Tradition is a guide, not a jailer is a good view to have.
10. Rich and poor are absolute terms.
11. If a lawyer who has no case simply abuses the plaintiffs attorney he is guilty
of a straw man attack .
12. We should never fight fire with fire.
13. It is uncontroversially immoral to kill in self-defense.
14. According to Bentham, abuse of power can only be defended by fallacy.
15. It is acceptable for Barry Bonds to have taken steroids because this is common
practice.
C. Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Ambiguity can _____ serve a useful purpose.
2. Character judgments provide grounds for ______ a persons testimony.
3. Suspicion is different from ______ .
4. The fallacy known as youre another is also known colloquially as _____ .
5. _________ is a more legitimate way of reasoning that is similar to the fallacy
of two wrongs make a right.
6. The fallacy of _____ is related to the fallacy of traditional wisdom.
7. Changes bring with them _____ .
8. In a strict sense, any fallacy in the broad category of invalid inference can
be considered to be a _____ .
9. The argument that there is no intelligent life on other planets because we have
not been able to prove that there is, is an example of _________ .
10. When we assume that some of the parts of an item have a property because
the whole of the item does, we commit the _____ .
35

D. Essay Questions
1. In what ways can ambiguity be useful? Explain your answer, and illustrate it
with examples. Is logical reasoning the only way to convey ideas? Discuss in
the light of your answer to the first part of this question.
2. In what sense is the relevance of reasons dependent upon the circumstances in
which they are offered? Explain and illustrate your answer.
3. Why is it important to recognize that politicians often use fallacious
reasoning? In answering this question, draw upon some examples of fallacious
reasoning used by politicians that are not given in this textbook.
4. Is tradition useful in any way? Explain your answer, drawing upon the
quotation from W. Somerset Maugham given in the text, as well as in light of
the discussion of the fallacy of traditional wisdom.
5. Outline the fallacy of two wrongs make a right, and compare and contrast it
with similar forms of reasoning that might be more legitimate than it.
V.

Additional Sources for Study


A. InfoTrac Search Terms
Agnostic, Atheist, Theist, Jeremy Bentham, Anarchical Fallacies, Fallacies,
Knowledge, Poverty, Straw Man.
B.Internet Sites
Wikipedia: fallacy of composition
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacy_of_composition
Wikipedia: fallacy of division
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fallacy_of_division
Fallacy files: two wrongs make a right
http://www.fallacyfiles.org/twowrong.html
36

Equivocation
http://www.drury.edu/ess/Logic/Informal/Equivocation.html
VI.

Answer Key
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. b
2. b
3. c
4. a
5. a
6. a
7. b
8. b
9. d
10. d
11. c
12. c
13. a
14. d
15. a
16. a
17. a
18. a
19. c
20. a
B.True/False
1. F
2. F
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. F
7. F
8. F
9. T
10. F
11. F
12. F
37

13. F
14. T
15. F
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Sometimes
2. Assessing
3. Certitude
4. Two wrongs make a right
5. Fighting fire with fire
6. Common practice
7. Risks
8. Non sequitur
9. Appeal to ignorance
10. Fallacy of division

CHAPTER 5
FALLACIOUS REASONING3
I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Hasty Conclusion
Small Sample
Unrepresentative Sample
Questionable Cause
Questionable Analogy
Questionable Statistics
Questionable Uses of Good Statistics
Polls: An Important Special Case
False Charge of Fallacy
Quibbling
38

Summary of Chapter 5
II.

List of Key Terms


Analogy
Appeal to force
Argumentative analogy
Argumentum ad baculum
Biased statistics
Explanatory analogy
Extended argument
False charge of fallacy
Faulty comparison
Hasty conclusion
Margin of error
Polls
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc
Questionable analogy
Questionable cause
Questionable statistics
Questionable uses of good statistics
Small sample
Unrepresentative sample

III.

Chapter Summary
In this Chapter the authors continue their discussion of fallacious reasoning with
discussions of several fallacies that generally fall into the category of invalid
inferences.
The first fallacy that they discuss is that of hasty conclusion, which occurs when
we draw a conclusion from relevant but insufficient evidence. A variety of this fallacy
is the fallacy of the small sample. In addition to needing a sufficiently large sample to
justify drawing a conclusion from it, the authors note that it must also be
representative of the population from which it is drawn; not to do so is to commit the
fallacy of the unrepresentative sample.
The authors note that we commit the fallacy of questionable cause when we hold
something to be the cause of something else on the basis of insufficient or
39

unrepresentative evidence, or when doing so contradicts well-established, high-level


theories. Similarly, we commit the fallacy of questionable analogy, of faulty
comparison, when our analogical reasoning is based on a too-small sample, or it
conflicts with conclusions from higher-level reasoning, or there is a lack of relevant
similarities between the items implied to be alike. We commit the fallacy of
questionable statistics when we use them without regard to their limitations. For
example, we should be aware of statistics margin of error, or the need to use a baseyear in determining long-term trends. We should also be cautious when using
statistics concerning the gross national product, corrupt activities, and those that are
based on soft information. We also need to know what sort of statistics can be known
by human beings. Moreover, even if the statistics are good, the authors discuss how
they could be put to questionable purposes.
The authors note that a well-conceived and well-executed poll can be a useful
way to discover information, but that we must be aware that some polls are
problematic, because, for example, the question used might be phrased in a way to
bias the response, orand the biggest problem with pollsthe poll-taker has failed
to find a truly representative sample.
The authors note that while it is easy to charge others with fallacious reasoning,
but that sometimes people can be guilty of making a false charge of fallacy. However,
when deciding whether or not someone has committed a fallacy we should avoid
quibbling.
IV.

Practice Questions
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. When we draw a conclusion from relevant but insufficient evidence we commit
40

a.
b.
c.
d.

The fallacy of hasty conclusion


The fallacy of questionable statistics
The fallacy of questionable cause
The fallacy of tokenism

2. The fallacy of the small sample is a variety of


a.
b.
c.
d.

The fallacy of hasty conclusion


The straw man fallacy
The fallacy of composition
The fallacy of division

3. A good statistical sample should be


a.
b.
c.
d.

Small
Representative
Unrepresentative
Biased

4. The fallacy of biased statistics is sometimes called


a.
b.
c.
d.

The fallacy of division


The fallacy of the unrepresentative sample
The fallacy of the small sample
The fallacy of composition

5. Good reasoning always requires


a.
b.
c.
d.

Good education
Good intentions
Good background information
Good expression

6. When we label something as the cause of something else on the basis of


insufficient or unrepresentative evidence, or when doing so contradicts wellestablished theories, we commit
a.
b.
c.
d.

The fallacy of the unrepresentative sample


The fallacy of division
The fallacy of the questionable analogy
The fallacy of the questionable cause

7. According to statisticians, sample size does not overcome


a. General fallacious reasoning
41

b. Self-interest
c. Sample bias
d. Bad statistics
8. The view that vaccinations are the cause of autism is an example of
a.
b.
c.
d.

The fallacy of questionable cause


The fallacy of the unrepresentative sample
The fallacy of questionable statistics
The fallacy of composition

9. When we incorrectly classify items we might commit


a.
b.
c.
d.

The fallacy of questionable cause


The fallacy of the unrepresentative sample
The fallacy of questionable statistics
The fallacy of composition

10. When we reason that the 2008 Olympic Games will be fun to watch as they were
in the past, we reason by
a.
b.
c.
d.

Analogy
Statistics
Intuition
Emotion

11. An analogy that is used as evidence for a conclusion is a


a.
b.
c.
d.

Statistical analogy
Biased analogy
Argumentative analogy
Explanatory analogy

12. According to the authors, statistics seem


a.
b.
c.
d.

Authoritative
Confusing
Flawed
Biased

13. A major problem with statistics on the economy is their


a.
b.
c.
d.

Bias
Prevalence
Margin of error
Authority
42

14. Precise official figures should be taken for


a.
b.
c.
d.

Attempts to mislead
The truth of the matter
Approximations
Appropriations

15. According to the authors, that many people are unable to understand the
significance of a statistic is one reason why
a.
b.
c.
d.

We should use them to fool people


Governments like them
Good statistics can cause trouble
We should avoid democracy

16. There is no such thing as a


a.
b.
c.
d.

Good poll
Unbiased poll
Poll fallacy
Poll prediction

17. Those who falsely accuse others of fallacious reasoning are guilty of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Intellectual dishonesty
Character assassination
False charge of fallacy
Fallacious reasoning

18. The appeal to force is sometimes called the


a.
b.
c.
d.

Jus ad bellum
Argumentum ad absurdum
Jus in bello
Argumentum ad baculum

19. The appeal to force occurs


a.
b.
c.
d.

When governments levy taxes


When companies threaten to raise prices
When a conclusion is accepted after a threat is made
When a premise is suppressed after a threat is made

20. When we refuse to take something we granted we might be guilty of

43

a. Quibbling
b. Hasty conclusion
c. Questionable statistics
d. Analogous reasoning
B.True/False
1. The fallacy of the small sample is an example of the fallacy of hasty
conclusion.
2. A good sample should be representative of the population from which it is
drawn.
3. The name the fallacy of biased statistics is only given to the fallacy of the
unrepresentative sample.
4. We should always trust statistics.
5. Higher-level theories are exempt from refutation.
6. We should believe in ESP.
7. American presidents can control the American economy.
8. Government policies have no effect on their countrys economy.
9. Analogical reasoning can be fallacious in several ways.
10. Questionable analogies surface in courts of law.
11. Statistics on corrupt activities are easy to come by.
12. Statistics based on soft information are never questionable.
13. Statistics on the gross national product represent all of the economic activity
in a country.
14. Good statistics are always reliable.
15. Statistics are misused in economics and medicine.
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. The fallacy of the hasty conclusion falls into the broad category of ______ .
44

2. A bad sample is _____ of the _____ from which it is drawn.


3. The fallacy of questionable cause often overlaps that of _____ or _____ .
4. The fallacy of questionable cause is a broader version of the traditional fallacy
_____ .
5. Wars tend to stimulate the economy in the ____ .
6. In the United States, nonwhite is an ____ category.
7. When caffeine lovers reason from the fact that coffee has kept them awake at
night in the past to the view that it will do so in the future, they _____ .
8. Analogical reasoning is similar to _____ .
9. Framing the issue at hand is important in ____ .
10. Polls give rise to fallacies such as ____ and ____ .
D.Essay Questions
1. In what ways call polls lead to misleading information? Give examples to
illustrate your claims that are not taken from the textbook. How could polls be
made more effective?
2. Are polls only useful for providing us with information? Explain your answer,
making sure that as you do so you address the concerns that the authors
express with respect to the use of polls. Why do you think that polls are
misused in this way? Is such misuse always accidental? How does your
answer to this sub-question affect your answer to the first?
3. Disraeli once said that There are lies, damn lies, and statistics. What do you
think he meant by this? Illustrate your answer with a discussion of some of the
fallacies outlined in this chapter.
4. How could an understanding of the fallacies discussed in this textbook so far
help you in real life?
5. Should we be suspicious of all statistics? Why, or why not?
V.

Additional Sources for Study and Research

45

A.InfoTrac Search terms


Causality, Cause, Fallacy, Polls, Statistics.
B.Internet sites
The Statistics Homepage
http://www.statsoft.com/textbook/stathome.html
Statistics Help for Journalists
http://www.robertniles.com/stats/
The Fallacy Files: Weak Analogy
http://www.fallacyfiles.org/wanalogy.html
Stephens Guide
http://www.onegoodmove.org/fallacy/falsean.htm
Fallacies
http://www.unc.edu/depts/wcweb/handouts/fallacies.html
VI.

Answer Key
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. a
2. a
3. b
4. b
5. c
6. d
7. c
8. a
9. a
10. a
46

11. c
12. a
13. c
14. c
15. c
16. c
17. c
18. d
19. c
20. a
B.True/False
1. T
2. T
3. F
4. F
5. F
6. F
7. F
8. F
9. T
10. T
11. F
12. F
13. F
14. F
15. T
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Invalid inference
2. Unrepresentative, population
3. Hasty conclusion, small sample
4. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc
5. Short run
6. Ethnic
7. Reason by analogy
8. Induction by enumeration
9. Polls
10. Hasty conclusion, questionable statistics

47

CHAPTER 6
PSYCHOLOGICAL IMPEDIMENTS TO COGENT REASONING: SHOOTING
OURSELVES IN THE FOOT
I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1.
Loyalty, Provincialism, and the Herd Instinct
2.
Prejudice, Stereotypes, Scapegoats, and Partisan Mind-Sets
3.
Superstitious Beliefs
4.
Wishful Thinking and Self-Deception
5.
Rationalization and Procrastination
6.
Other Defense Mechanisms
7.
The Benefits of Self-Deception, Wishful Thinking, and Denial
8.
The Pull of Pseudoscience and the Paranormal
9.
Lack of a Good Sense of Proportion
Summary of Chapter 6

II.

List of Key Terms

Culture lag
Delusion
Denial
Extrasensory perception
Generalized anxiety
48

Hard sciences
Herd instinct
Jihad
Loyalty
Paranormal
Partisan mind-set
Placebo effect
Prejudice
Premonitions
Procrastination
Provincialism
Prudence
Pseudoscience
Rationalization
Scapegoats
Self-deception
Sense of proportion
Stereotypes
Superstitions
Suppression
Wishful-thinking
III.

Chapter Summary
In this Chapter the authors note that good reasoning is a matter of character as well as
brain power, and that there are psychological impediments to cogent reasoning.
The first such impediments that the authors discuss are those of loyalty to ones own ingroup and the herd-instinct that tends to keep our beliefs within the limits of what society
as a whole will accept. This is related to provincialism, the tendency to identify with the
ideas, interests, and kinds of behavior favored by those in groups with which we identify.
They also note that there is a tendency of practices and beliefs to persist long after the
conditions that made them useful have gonea condition that is termed culture lag.
Loyalty and provincialism often lead to prejudice, and to thinking in terms of
unverified stereotypes that support prejudicial beliefs. Prejudice is also reinforced by the
need for scapegoatsothers we can blame for the ills of the world. Moreover, the authors
49

note, thinking in terms of stereotypes and scapegoats often results from a partisan mindset.
People also have superstitious beliefs which are generally based on biased evidence
or small or unrepresentative samples. These beliefsalong with those that result from the
tendencies outlined aboveoften lead to beliefs that do not accord with reality. Beliefs
acquired in these nonrational ways often result from wishful thinking, or from selfdeception, or delusion.
The authors note that one of the most common types of self-deception is
rationalization, which often leads to procrastination. They also note that although we are
often aware of when we engage in these behaviors, we are not so well aware of other
psychological strategies that we use to avoid negative emotions. We are, for example,
often not aware when we engage in suppression or denial.
The authors recognize that their account of these psychological procedures faces
objections, one of which is that such a harmful device as, for example, self-deception
could not have evolved. In response to this they outline the advantages that could accrue
to a person who engages in self-deception, wishful thinking, and denial.
The authors then turn to discuss pseudoscience and the paranormal, addressing the
question of why theories based on such have such widespread credence despite their
failure to produce positive results. They also address the issue of why so many people
lack a good sense of proportion, and hence lack prudence.

IV.

Practice Questions
A.Objective Multiple Choice

50

1. The instinct that tends to keep our beliefs within the bounds of what society as a
whole will accept is the
a.
b.
c.
d.

Maternal instinct
Herd instinct
Social instinct
Survival instinct

2. The tendency of practices to persist after they have lost their usefulness is term
a.
b.
c.
d.

Culture lag
Jet lag
Denial
Suppression

3. Jews tend to sympathize with Jews because of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Denial
Delusion
Stereotyping
Provincialism

4. The two most diverse cultures in history are


a.
b.
c.
d.

The Soviet Union and Britain


The Soviet Union and the United States
India and Britain
India and the United States

5. Loyalty and provincialism often lead to


a.
b.
c.
d.

Stagnation
Delusion
Prejudice
Violence

6. If we think ill of others without sufficient warrant we


a.
b.
c.
d.

Are loyal to our in-group


Prejudiced
Opining badly of them
Reasoning cogently

7. Those we blame for the ills of the world are


a. Stereotypes
51

b. Politicians
c. Scapegoats
d. Criminals
8. Shirley Jacksons story The Lottery illustrates
a.
b.
c.
d.

Prejudice
Stereotypes
Scapegoating
Fallacious reasoning

9. The tendency to see our side as right and the other side as wrong is
a.
b.
c.
d.

Racist
A deluded mind-set
Accurate
A partisan mind-set

10. Prejudice has the advantage of indicating


a.
b.
c.
d.

Cogent reasoning
Fallacious reasoning
Loyalty
Good sense

11. Superstitions are often based on


a.
b.
c.
d.

Some evidence
Prejudice
Revelation
Economics

12. Biased evidence and unrepresentative samples can give rise to


a.
b.
c.
d.

Superstitious belief
Atheist belief
Cogent reasoning
Economic thinking

13. When we believe what we would like to be true, no matter what the evidence, we
engage in
a.
b.
c.
d.

Procrastination
Suppression
Deluded thinking
Wishful thinking
52

14. When self-deception becomes great it becomes


a.
b.
c.
d.

Amusing
Delusion
Denial
Procrastination

15. When we engage in self-deception we must have at least


a.
b.
c.
d.

Two levels of thought


Three levels of thought
Two higher-order theories of events
One higher-order theory of events

16. When the stakes are high, we have a natural tendency to


a.
b.
c.
d.

Gamble
Hide
Deceive ourselves
Face reality

17. The authors hold that perhaps the most common form of self-deception is
a.
b.
c.
d.

Denial
Procrastination
Rationalization
Prejudice

18. Rationalization often leads to


a.
b.
c.
d.

Prejudice
Stereotypes
Procrastination
Anxiety

19. Denial involves


a.
b.
c.
d.

Medication
Suppression
Prejudice
Self-knowledge

20. We can avoid the anxiety associated with a stress-invoking situation by engaging in
a. Suppression
53

b. Prejudice
c. Cogent reasoning
d. Fallacious reasoning
B.True/False
1. Beliefs sometimes linger in a culture after they have outlived their usefulness.
2. The herd instinct never leads people to do bad things.
3. Because prejudices are associated with group loyalty they can be good things.
4. Superstitions are well-founded on good evidence.
5. Superstitions are often based on some evidence.
6. We all feel loyalty to our in-group.
7. Scapegoats are responsible for the ills of the world.
8. Coincidences never happen.
9. Tomorrow will be another day is often used to justify procrastination.
10. The Spanish procrastinate more than other people.
11. AIDS is harmless.
12. Self-deception has no benefits.
13. Long-term anxiety is good for the human body.
14. Pseudoscientific theories sometimes produce good results.
15. There is good evidence in favor of extra-sensory perception.
C.Fill-in-the Blanks
1. A coincidence that occurs between someones thoughts and actual events is called a
______ .
2. It is difficult to explain why people lack ______ .
3. Thinking that Friday 13th is unlucky is a ______ .
54

4. Procrastination can be supported by ______ .


5. _____ profiles tend to fit everybody.
6. _____ is an important component of a good sense of proportion
7. Good reasoning is a matter of both brain power and _____ .
8. That woman tend to sympathize with woman is an example of _____ .
9. Heart of Darkness portrays mass _____ .
10. Anxiety can be avoided by ____ .
D.Essay Questions
1. Do you agree with the authors that self-deception can be useful? Explain and defend
your answer.
2. If the psychological impediments to cogent reasoning outlined in this chapter work so
well, should we try to recognize them and counterbalance themor not? Explain
your answer.
3. What are the differences, if any, between religion and superstition?
4. If our defense mechanisms are sometimes unconscious, will it help us in any way to
understand how they operate? Explain and defend your view.
5. Could it even be justified to encourage the scapegoating of a group? Explain your
answer. What would you say if such scapegoating made the world a better place, by,
for example, focusing peoples negative feelings on a small population, rather than
allowing them free rein?
V.

Additional Sources for Study


A.InfoTrac Search Terms
Anti-Semitism, Astrology, Astronomy, Barnum, Bentham, Committee for the
Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal, Hume, ESP, Paranormal,
Partisianism, Premonitions, Pseudoscience, Scapegoat, Science.
B.Internet Sites
55

David Hume, Of Superstition and Enthusiasm


http://www.english.upenn.edu/~mgamer/Etexts/hume.superstition.html
Understanding Prejudice
http://www.understandingprejudice.org/
Shirley Jackson, The Lottery
http://www.classicshorts.com/stories/lotry.html
Joseph Conrad, Heart of Darkness
http://etext.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/ConDark.html
New Scientist on herd instinct and health
http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126881.600-how-your-friends-friends-canaffect-your-mood.html?
VI.

Answer Key
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. b
2. a
3. d
4. b
5. c
6. b
7. c
8. c
9. d
10. b
11. a
12. a
13. d
14. b
15. a
16. c
17. c
56

18. c
19. b
20. a
B.True/False
1. T
2. F
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. T
7. F
8. F
9. T
10. F
11. F
12. F
13. F
14. F
15. F
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Premonition
2. Good sense of proportion
3. Superstition
4. Rationalization
5. Barnum
6. Prudence
7. Character
8. Provincialism
9. Self-deception
10. Suppression

57

CHAPTER 7
LANGUAGE
I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1. Cognitive and Emotive Meanings
2. Emotive Meanings and Persuasive Use of Language
3. Other Common Rhetorical Devices
Tone
Slanting
Weasel Words
Fine-Print Disclaimers
Obfuscation
4. Language Manipulators
Those Who Control the Definitions
Those Who Frame Public Policy
5. Language Revision
The Reform of Sexist Language
PC (Politically Correct) Terminology
Summary of Chapter 7

II.

List of Key Terms


Academese
Bafflegab
Bureaucratese
Cognitive meaning
Doublespeak
Emotive meaning
Euphemisms
58

Fine-print disclaimers
Frames
Gobbledegook
Innuendo
Jargon
Legalese
Militaryese
Newspeak
Obfuscation
Padding
Politically correct
Reinterpretation ploy
Sexist language
Slanting
Suggestion
Tone
Weasel words
III.

Chapter Summary
In this Chapter the authors outline some of the ways that language can be used in the
service of fallacious arguments.
They begin by noting that words can have both cognitive meaning and emotive
meaning, with the latter meaning that they can have either positive or negative
connotations. That words can have emotive meanings has been used by many people to
further their own ends, for example through the use of doublespeak, or euphemistic
language.
Other common rhetorical devices including choosing the tone with which to
communicate in, slanting a true sentence so as to imply or suggest something else that is
usually false or known not to be true, the use of weasel words, the use of fine-print
disclaimers and obfuscation.
The authors also note that whereas sometimes language manipulation is benign, it can
be used to undermine the rights of others. They note that sometimes calling something by
59

a well-chosen name is crucial if one wants to bend the law in ones favor, or to adopt
certain policies.
Noting that languages are living and changing, they all undergo revision on a regular
basis. For example, the change in attitudes towards women and minority groups in
reflected in revisions of sexist language, and the use of politically correct locutions.
IV Practice Questions
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. Words always have
a.
b.
c.
d.

Cognitive meaning
Letters
Emotive meaning
Vowels

2. If a word has no positive or negative overtone it lacks


a.
b.
c.
d.

Cognitive meaning
Letters
Emotive meaning
Vowels

3. People can use emotive language to


a. Only further benevolent ends
b. Only further self-serving ends
c. Further either benevolent or self-serving ends, but not both
d. Further benevolent and self-serving ends
4. Lite beer is
a.
b.
c.
d.

Healthy beer
American beer
Non-alcoholic beer
Watered-down beer

5. A person who is obstinate could also be called


a. Weak-willed
60

b. Firm
c. Malleable
d. Gullible
6. In 2006 the Israelis used the term realignment to mean
a.
b.
c.
d.

Attack
Retreat
Reduction
Negotiation

7. Deliberately evasive or ambiguous language is sometimes called


a.
b.
c.
d.

Doublespeak
Hitkansut
Jargon
Technical

8. The term war has been euphemized into


a.
b.
c.
d.

Peace
Conflict
Saturation
Relocation

9. Euphemistic language
a.
b.
c.
d.

Is widely used by farmers


Removes negative emotive content
Removes all cognitive content
Is not a version of doublespeak

10. In 2008, President Bush used these terms as euphemisms for recession
a.
b.
c.
d.

Economic challenges and uncertainties


Economic challenges and forces
Economic forces and uncertainties
Bailouts and economic uncertainties

11. Padding
a.
b.
c.
d.

Adds significant-sounding sentences that say little or nothing


Adds irrelevant facts to a sentence
Is a form of lying
Adds significant-sounding sentences to change somethings meaning

61

12. Tone can be employed for


a.
b.
c.
d.

Nefarious purposes only


Virtuous purposes only
Either nefarious purposes or virtuous purposes
Neither nefarious purposes or virtuous purposes

13. Slanting is a form of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Tone
Misrepresentation
Generational bias
Prejudice

14. Slanting is sometimes called


a.
b.
c.
d.

Innuendo
Bias
Tone
Lying

15. Weasel words


a. Suck out the content of a word or phrase while appearing to make little or no
change in it
b. Are used to refer to animals in ways that slant peoples responses to them
c. Have no meaning at all
d. Always appear in legal documents, where precision is important
16. Fine-print is often
a.
b.
c.
d.

Dishonest
Misleading
Unread
Illegal

17. When a politician reinterprets what he has said in the past, he or she is using
a.
b.
c.
d.

The revisionist ploy


The reinterpretation ploy
Linguistic advice
Weasel words

18. Obfuscation renders something


a. Vulcanized
62

b. Galvanized
c. Indistinct
d. Undignified
19. Obfuscation can involve
a.
b.
c.
d.

Evasion
Vulcanization
Lying
Cogency

20. Languages can never be


a.
b.
c.
d.

Artificially created
Artifically sustained
Artifically controlled
Artifically revised

B.True/False
1. All languages are artificial products.
2. Many words have cognitive and emotive meaning.
3. The same word can carry both positive and negative connotations.
4. Weasel words are named after the eating habits of weasels.
5. Preemptive action is a euphemism for our side attacking first.
6. Waterboarding is a harmless water sport.
7. According to Orwell, language can corrupt thought.
8. The principal reason for legal terminology is to ensure certainty.
9. When someone is vocationally relocated they are fired.
10. The Republican climate change is the Democrat global warming.
11. Selective reduction is a euphemism for abortion.
12. Some words have neutral meanings.

63

13. Technical jargon used by people in the same field is an essential form of
communication.
14. Padding is a common feature of jargon.
15. Good writers ignore considerations of tone.
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. When a writer expresses attitudes or feelings in her work she is using ____ .
2. Appealing to the baser instincts is ______ .
3. Most U.S. textbooks _____ U.S. history.
4. Suggestion is a form of _____ .
5. Employers can avoid paying people the minimum wage by classifying them as ____.
6. Susan Anthony holds that the use of the word _____ is symptomatic of the erosion of
cultural standards.
7. Thomas Szasz holds that there is no such thing as _____ .
8. Mental structures that shape the way we see the world are _____ .
9. English undergoes _____ on a regular basis.
10. Sexist locutions tend to introduce _______ into our minds.
D.Essay Questions
1. Should the government encourage or require people to use certain types of language
to get them to think in certain ways? For example, should it require that people use
non-sexist language to get them to think in non-sexist ways? Do you think that this
would be ethical, or not? Do you think that it would be effective? Argue for your
views.
2. Read the quotation from Confucius Analects on p.151 of the textbook. Do you agree

with his reasoning? Explain your view.


3. Do you agree with Susan Anthony that the use of the word folks is a bad thing? Do
you think that dumbing down is occurring when it is used, or do you think that its
64

use indicates an acceptance of certain values that need not be described accurately as
dumbing down? In each case, argue for your view.
4. Do you believe that fine-print disclaimers are problematic? After all, isnt it the
responsibility of a person signing a contract to know what they are agreeing to? Argue
for your view.
5. Write a newspaper editorial for a position that you (a) agree with, and (b) disagree
with, using the types of misleading language discussed in this Chapter to make your
point.
V.

Additional Sources for Study


A.InfoTrac Search Terms
Euphemism, Feminism, First Amendment, Gender, Language, Latin, Legalese,
Lobbyist, George Orwell, Political Correctness, Postmodernism, War.
B.Internet Sites
The Great Eskimo Vocabulary Hoax
http://users.utu.fi/freder/Pullum-Eskimo-VocabHoax.pdf
George Orwell site
http://www.k-1.com/Orwell/
WikipediaPolitical correctness
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_correctness
Avoiding sexist language
http://ualr.edu/owl/avoidsexistlanguage.htm
Wikipedia: legal writing
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legalese#Legalese

65

VI.

Answer Key
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. b
2. c
3. d
4. d
5. b
6. b
7. a
8. b
9. b
10. a
11. a
12. c
13. b
14. a
15. a
16. c
17. b
18. c
19. a
20. c
B.True/False
1. F
2. T
3. T
4. T
5. T
6. F
7. T
8. T
9. T
10. T
11. T
12. T
13. T
14. T
15. F
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks

66

1. Tone
2. Pandering
3. Sanitize
4. Slanting
5. Subcontractors
6. Folks
7. Mental illness
8. Frames
9. Revision
10. Sexist thoughts
CHAPTER 8
EVALUATING EXTENDED ARGUMENTS
I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1. The Basic Tasks of Essay Evaluation
Find the Thesis and Keep It in Mind
Find the Reasons that Support the Thesis
Identify the Evidence
Identify Responses to Likely Objections or Counterarguments
Skip Whatever Doesnt Argue for (or Against) the Thesis
Add Relevant Information or Reasons
Consider Tone and Emotive Language
Come to an Evaluation
Exercise 8-1
Exercise 8-2
Exercise 8-3
2. The Margin Note and Summary method
3. Extended Evaluation of an Argument
Analysis
Exercise 8-4
4. Dealing with Value Claims
Exercise 8-5
Exercise 8-6
Exercise 8-7
Exercise 8-8
5. Evaluating Ironic Works
Exercise 8-9
Summary of Chapter 8

II.

List of Key Terms


Analysis
Assumptions
67

Charity
Comparison of Alternatives
Essays
Evidence
Irony
Margin note and summary method
Objections
Objective
Principle of just deserts
Pro and con argument
Refutation to counterarguments
Subjective
Thesis
Value claims
III.

Chapter Summary
The main aim of this Chapter is the evaluation of essays that argue to a conclusion.
The authors outline a method of essay evaluation that starts with the reader finding
the thesis and keeping it in mind. She should then find the reasons that support the
thesis, and identify the evidence that is offered to support these reasons. The reader
should then identify responses offered in the essay to likely objections to it, skipping
whatever doesnt argue for or against the thesis. The reader should also try to add
relevant information or reasons to the argument, to make it the best one that they can
for the conclusion supported. She should also consider the authors use of tone or
emotive language, and then come to an evaluation of the essay in question. The reader
might employ the margin note and summary method to aid her in evaluating an
argument.
The authors note that evaluating value claims is different from evaluating factual
claims.

IV.

Practice Questions

68

A.Objective Multiple Choice


1. Extended passages are also called
a.
b.
c.
d.

Advertisements
Briefs
Newspapers
Essays

2. A thesis is
a.
b.
c.
d.

The overall conclusion of the passage


Something offered in support of a conclusion
A type of premise
Someone who believes in a god

3. An essay that argues for a course of action by showing that likely alternatives are
less desirable is
a.
b.
c.
d.

Begging the question


Arguing by comparison of alternatives
Misleading
A straw man approach

4. An essay that weights the merits and demerits of a possible course of action is a
a. Pro and con argument
b. Con trick argument
c. Professional argument
d. Fallacious argument
5. The first thing the authors suggest one do in evaluating an essay is
a.
b.
c.
d.

Assess the authors credentials


Find the thesis
Keep the thesis in mind
Assess the authors reasoning

6. The reasons that support an essays thesis are the


a.
b.
c.
d.

Conclusions
Premises
Extensions
Evidence

7. In any essay, there can be

69

a.
b.
c.
d.

Only one conclusion


Only one reason for the conclusion
Many reasons for the conclusion
Only one objection considered

8. Flavoring material
a. Makes essay reading more fun, but shouldnt influence the assessment of an
argument
b. Makes essay reading more fun, and is relevant to the argument
c. Makes essay reading tedious, and is relevant to the argument
d. Is a form of fallacious reasoning
9. When considering tone and emotive language a reader should
a.
b.
c.
d.

Regard them as being fallacious


Read the argument as though they were not there
Accept them as flavoring only
Guard against their undue influence

10. The last thing a reader needs to do when evaluating an argument is to


a.
b.
c.
d.

Reject it
Accept it
Come to an evaluation of it
Refrain from evaluating it

11. We should skip


a.
b.
c.
d.

Whatever doesnt argue for a thesis


Whatever doesnt argue against a thesis
Whatever doesnt argue for, and whatever doesnt argue against, a thesis
Whatever is based on modus ponens

12. A writers starting points are known as


a.
b.
c.
d.

Assumptions
Premises
Thesis
Introductions

13. If a subsidiary argument in a long essay is fallacious we should


a. Reject the essay as a whole
b. Realize that the author is deceiving us
c. Reject the conclusion
70

d. Reject only the tainted aspects of the essay

14. Poems
a.
b.
c.
d.

Never argue for conclusions


Should be read for pleasure only
Are forms of fallacious reasoning
Often argue for a conclusion

15. The margin note and summary method requires the summary to be
a.
b.
c.
d.

Marginal
Long
Accurate
Extended

16. According to the authors, perfectly reasoned, totally convincing arguments


a.
b.
c.
d.

Are written only by philosophers


Are never offered by politicians
Do not exist
Frequently occur in advertisements

17. According to the authors many philosophers claim that value judgments concern
matters that are
a. Objective
b. Subjective
c. Valuable
d. Trivial
18. Judgments about alleged facts are
a.
b.
c.
d.

Objective
Subjective
Valuable
Trivial

19. The idea that one should reap as one sows is based on
a.
b.
c.
d.

The principle of just deserts


The principle of retribution
The principle of proportionality
The principle of allocation

20. Irony occurs when one

71

a.
b.
c.
d.

Writes one thing but means something different


Is firm in ones conclusion
Uses fallacious arguments
Writes poor prose

B.True/False
1. Moral claims are necessarily subjective.
2. Factual claims are necessarily objective.
3. Philosophers agree on what is objective and what is subjective.
4. Extended arguments are often fallacious.
5. Tone is irrelevant in assessing extended arguments.
6. Essays often provide a refutation to counterarguments.
7. This chapter applies only to written arguments.
8. The main conclusion of an essay is the primary premise.
9. Swift believed that we should eat Irish children.
10. The reader should never try to make the argument she is evaluating as strong
as possible.
11. One should always assess the weakest form of the argument one is
considering.
12. The readers background beliefs are important in assessing an argument.
13. Poems never have conclusions.
14. We should rely on our gut instincts to assess an argument.
15. Clarence Darrow favored the death penalty.
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Simple _______ can be used to persuade.
2. Explaining something can be used to _____ .
72

3. Argumentative essays present _____ for ______ .


4. According to the authors an essays thesis is not always ____.
5. After locating an essays thesis we should try to ______ .
6. Reasons often need ______ .
7. We should bring ______ to bear when evaluating arguments.
8. If it is the case that if the premises are true the conclusion is necessarily true
then the argument is ______ .
9. Being fair to the other side if often termed the principle of _____ .
10. Sometimes a reason or a thesis might be _____ rather than explicit.

D.Essay Questions
1. Write an evaluation of Swifts essay A Modest Proposal (a link to this is
contained in section V.B.) Do you agree with Swifts conclusion, or not? What
relevance could his arguments have for modern debates over welfare reform?
2. Find a poem that argues for a conclusion and evaluate it. Do you think that
arguing for a conclusion through a poem is more or less effective that arguing
for it in prose?
3. Do you believe that using pure narration to persuade people of a position is a
legitimate form of persuasion, or not? Explain your argument, and illustrate it
with samples of such narration.
4. Find an argumentative essay from a reputable newspaper such as the New
York Times and use the margin note and summary method to evaluate it.
Explain your evaluation, drawing on the techniques used for evaluating essays
discussed in this Chapter.
5. Find an argument that the authors of this textbook have themselves used
within it to persuade you to accept their views, and subject it to the techniques
discussed in this Chapter. Do you think that you should be persuaded by what
they have to say, or not? Can you see any irony in deciding that you should
not be persuaded by them after evaluating their arguments in this way?
V.

Additional Sources for Study and Research


73

A.InfoTrac Search Terms


Andrew Marvell, Capital Punishment, Clarence Darrow, Date Rape, Democracy,
Essays, Ethics, Expertise, Jonathan Swift, Principle of Charity
B.Internet Sites
Jonathan Swift, A Modest Proposal
http://art-bin.com/art/omodest.html
Tips on Writing a Philosophy Paper
http://www.public.asu.edu/~dportmor/tips.pdf
Argument analysis
http://philosophy.hku.hk/think/arg/
Being More Critical
http://beingmorecritical.org/book-in-progress/i-criticisms/i-5-arguments-and-criticism
GRE Analytical Writing
http://www.west.net/~stewart/gre/aa_sampl.htm
VI.

Answer Key
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

d
a
b
a
b
b
c
a
74

9. d
10. c
11. c
12. a
13. d
14. d
15. c
16. c
17. b
18. a
19. a
20. a
B.True/False
1. F
2. T
3. F
4. F
5. F
6. T
7. F
8. F
9. F
10. F
11. F
12. T
13. F
14. F
15. F
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Narration
2. Persuade others
3. Reasons/conclusions
4. Obvious
5. Locate the reasons offered for it
6. Supporting evidence
7. Relevant background information
8. Valid
9. Charity
10. Implied

75

CHAPTER 9
WRITING COGENT (AND PERSUASIVE) ESSAYS
I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1. The Writing Process
2. Preparing to Write
3. Writing the Essay
The Introduction
The Body of an Essay
The Conclusion
4. Supporting Reasons Effectively
Provide Concrete Evidence
Provide Transitions
Think Your Position through Carefully
Consider Your Audience
Rewrite! Rewrite! Rewrite!
Exercise 9-1
Exercise 9-2
Exercise 9-3
Exercise 9-4
Exercise 9-5
Exercise 9-6
Exercise 9-8
Exercise 9-9
Exercise 9-10
Exercise 9-11
Exercise 9-12
Summary of Chapter 9

II.

List of Key Terms


Audience
Bertrand Russell
Body
Bon Mots
Clarence Darrow
Conclusion
Concrete evidence
Introduction
Metaphor
76

Position
Rewrite
Transitions
Validity
Writing process
III.

Chapter Summary
This Chapter builds on Chapter 8 by providing an outline of how successfully to write
a cogent and effective essay. After outlining the writing process the authors begin by
describing an effective way to prepare to write a short argumentative essay of a
specific topic. With this in hand they move to offer advice concerning how to write
the essay. They note that argumentative essays are typically divided into three parts:
an introduction (which usually includes the thesis), the body of the essay, and a
conclusion. They note that one of the most difficult parts of writing an essay is
perhaps the provision of convincing evidence, and provide guidelines to do this
effectively. The Chapter contains several exercises designed to aid the student in
developing good writing techniques.

IV.

Practice Questions
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. According to the authors, writing is
a.
b.
c.
d.

Boring
Erotic
Character forming
Character destroying

2. It is not a reason to write an essay that the essay will


a. Satisfy requirements
b. Convince others
c. Confuse others
77

d. Sharpen sloppy thoughts


3. Writing is natures way of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Strengthening our wrists


Testing our wits
Helping us attract mates
Showing us how sloppy our thinking is

4. Experienced writers tend to


a.
b.
c.
d.

Write fallacious arguments


Write for magazines
Keep their basic goals firmly in mind
Become professors

5. The first task in writing an essay is


a.
b.
c.
d.

To evaluate the arguments of others


To determine the precise thesis of the essay
To determine what the premises will be
To select a title

6. While preparing to write it is useful


a.
b.
c.
d.

To evaluate the arguments of others


To make a list of fallacies to avoid
To construct an outline of the essay
To consider ones tone

7. A poorly prepared essay


a.
b.
c.
d.

Is often very original


Is often obvious to writing instructors
Will be likely to be misunderstood
Is often clearly written

8. Bertrand Russell
a.
b.
c.
d.

Revised his writing frequently


Only minimally revised his writing
Never wrote a memorable essay
Often used fallacious reasoning

9. According to the authors, we should not try to emulate

78

a.
b.
c.
d.

Bertrand Russell
George Bernard Shaw
F. L. Lucas
Clarence Darrow

10. Writing is
a.
b.
c.
d.

A convoluted process
A straightforward process
A simple process
A boring process

11. When writing, on should


a.
b.
c.
d.

Never ignore counterarguments or reasons


Always ignore counterarguments or reasons
Ignore counterarguments if one has no response to them
Ignore reasons that countervail ones conclusion unless one can respond

12. The two goals of writing an essay are usually


a.
b.
c.
d.

To write an essay that is cogent and persuasive


To write an essay that is fallacious and so persuasive
To write an essay that is either cogent or persuasive
To write an essay that is fallacious and amusing

13. The support that one must give to ones thesis will depend on
a. how resistant the intended audience is likely to be, or how much space one has
to make ones case
b. how resistant the audience is likely to be, only
c. how much space one has to make ones case, only
d. how fallaciously-persuasive one can be
14. The conclusion of an argumentative essay often
a.
b.
c.
d.

Restates the thesis


Rejects the original thesis
Advances counterexamples to the thesis
Is irrelevant

15. When possible, one should provide evidence that is


a. Vague
b. Misleading
c. Plausible
79

d. Specific
16. Personal experiences, the experiences of others, and authoritative sources are all
types of
a.
b.
c.
d.

Anecdotal evidence
Fallacious reasoning
Concrete evidence
Undocumented evidence

17. The words but, however, consider, and although are all
a.
b.
c.
d.

Antonyms
Transition terms
Premise indicators
Conclusion indicators

18. Metaphor is useful as


a.
b.
c.
d.

It is attractive to writers
Can be amusing
Can show what a writers background beliefs are
Can express ideas swiftly and effectively

19. Learning to write well takes


a.
b.
c.
d.

Intuition
Inspiration
Theorizing
Practice

20. The reasons that support a thesis are called


a.
b.
c.
d.

Anecdotes
Premises
Requirements
Persuaders

B.True/False
1. Experienced writers rarely know what theyre going to write about when they
start.
2. You should never change your mind.

80

3. Students never write argumentative essays.


4. Writing is often a convoluted process.
5. It is never useful to do a great deal of preparation.
6. Research is essential.
7. Validity is a necessary condition of argument.
8. Deductive arguments can be valid.
9. Argumentative essays are always long.
10. It is enough to have sensible reasons for your views.
11. Readers never need convincing.
12. Personal experience should never be discussed in an argumentative essay.
13. Thus is a transitional word.
14. In conclusion should be used to indicate a transition.
15. Writers can ignore their audience.
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Having to write to convince others is an excellent way to discover the ____ .
2. Its easy to forget ones _____ .
3. You need to know what your audiences worldviews and ________ are.
4. The writing process is an important part of our ________ process.
5. The first draft of an essay can be understood as a _____ device.
6. Essay writing is not a straightforward, ______ process.
7. If research undermines your thesis, then it needs ______ .
8. You should stick to your ____ reasons.
9. Argumentative essays typically divide into _____ parts.
81

10. In addition to the introduction and the conclusion, essays have a _____ .
D.Essay Questions
1. What are the advantages of essay writing, for the writer? The authors mention
some, but in addition to these you should offer at least three further advantages of
your own.
2. Can here ever be any disadvantages in writing essays? If you believe that there
can be, illustrate your argument with examples. If you believe that there cannot
be, develop at least three possible reasons why people might believe that there
are, and argue against them.
3. Take a paper that you have written for a previous class and write a critique of (a)
the method that you used to write it, and (b) its structure, basing your critique on
the discussions of this Chapter and the previous one.
4. Should we strive to have a completely literate population? Argue for your view.
5. Could you write an essay that was persuasive to every audience that could
encounter it? If not, what does this tell you about (a) the effectiveness of logic?
And (b) the human mind?
V.

Additional Sources for Study and Research


A.InfoTrac Search Terms
Academic Freedom, Audience, Bertrand Russell, Education, Essays, Feedback, Gun
Control, Metaphor, Literacy.
B.Internet sites
Monty Pythons Argument Sketch
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k3HaRFBSq9k
Guidelines on Writing a Philosophy Essay
http://www.jimpryor.net/teaching/guidelines/writing.html
How to Write Good Philosophy Coursework
82

http://www.staffs.ac.uk/schools/humanities_and_soc_sciences/philosophy/.resource/style.html
Pathways to Philosophy
http://www.philosophypathways.com/programs/pak4.html
Writing argumentative essays
http://www.rscc.cc.tn.us/owl&writingcenter/OWL/Argument.html
VI.

Answer Key
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. c
2. c
3. d
4. c
5. b
6. c
7. b
8. b
9. a
10. a
11. a
12. a
13. a
14. a
15. d
16. c
17. b
18. d
19. d
20. b
B.True/False
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

F
F
F
T
F
T
83

7. T
8. T
9. F
10. F
11. F
12. F
13. T
14. F
15. F
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Truth
2. Audience
3. Background beliefs
4. Reasoning
5. Learning
6. Linear
7. Revision
8. Best
9. Three
10. Body

CHAPTER 10

84

ADVERTISING: SELLING THE PRODUCT


I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1. Promise and Identification Advertisements
2. Things to watch Out for in Advertisements
Ads Invite Us to Reason Fallaciously
Advertisements Pound Home Slogans and Meaningless Jargon
Ads Play on Weaknesses, Emotions, Prejudices, and Fears
Ads Employ Sneaky Rhetoric
Ads Draw on Trendy Issues in the News
Ads Play to Patriotism and Loyalty
Ads Whitewash Corporate Imagery
Ubiquitous Ads and Sensory Overload
Puffery is legal, but Not Deceptive Advertising
Exercise 10-1
Exercise 10-2
Exercise 10-3
3. The Upside of Ads
4. Marketing Strategies
Advertising on the Internet
Exercise 10-4
5. Political Advertising
Election PollsA Special Case
Noncampaign Campaign Rhetoric
Further Developments
Political Ads on the Internet
Summary of Chapter 10

II.

List of Key Terms


Advertising
Campaign rhetoric
Comparative terms
Deceptive advertising
Evaluative terms
Faulty comparisons
Identification advertisements
Internet
Invidious comparisons
Issue advertising
Marketing
Political advertising
Promise advertisements
Product Placement
85

Puffery
Qualitative research
Quantitative research
Sensory overload
Suppression of evidence
Ubiquitous ads
Weasel words
Whitewash
III.

Chapter Summary
Starting with the observation that advertising is obviously useful, the authors move in
this Chapter to discuss how advertisements manipulate consumer attitudes to sell
products.
The authors note that almost all advertisements are of two basic kinds: promise
advertisements, and identification advertisements. They then list a series of things to
watch out for in advertisements, noting that none is immune to the influence of
advertisements, and so it makes sense to become familiar with advertising devices.
With these points in hand the authors note that ads invite us to reason fallaciously, and
that they pound home slogans and meaningless jargon. They also play on weaknesses,
emotions, prejudices, and fears, and employ sneaky rhetoric, such as weasel words.
Ads also draw on trendy issues in the news, play to patriotism and loyalty, and
whitewash corporate imagery. They are now, the authors note, plastered all over the
place, and this can lead to sensory overload. The authors then observe that while
deceptive advertising is not legal, puffery is. The authors observe, too, that some ads
attempt to educate us or to warn us against harmful activities.
The authors then turn to discuss various marketing strategies, distinguishing
between quantitative and qualitative marketing research, and discussing internet
advertising and political advertising. Here, they discuss the role of election polls in

86

elections, and noncampaign campaign rhetoric. The Chapter concludes with a


discussion of further advertising developments, including political ads on the internet.
IV.

Practice Questions
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. According to the authors, ads often
a.
b.
c.
d.

Amuse
Lie
Mislead
Promise

2. Advertising makes mass production


a.
b.
c.
d.

Easy
Profitable
Centralized
Localized

3. The prime target audience for advertisers is aged


a.
b.
c.
d.

45-60
18-49
18-25
21-49

4. According to the authors, advertisers are nothing if not


a.
b.
c.
d.

Criminal
Misleading
Devious
Inventive

5. Promise advertising
a.
b.
c.
d.

Offers enhanced health


Offers enhanced attraction
Promises to satisfy desires or allay fears
Promises to fulfill fantasies

6. According to Samuel Johnson, the soul of advertising is

87

a.
b.
c.
d.

Deceit
Darkness
Promises
Paternalism

7. We tend to identify with


a.
b.
c.
d.

Our own group and those we respect


Advertisers
Attractive cartoon characters
Animals that resonate with psychological needs

8. People tend to purchases products whose brand names are


a.
b.
c.
d.

Familiar
Interesting
Human
Novel

9. When Nicole Kidman advertised Chanel No. 5 sales increased by


a.
b.
c.
d.

28%
30%
67%
126%

10. According to the authors advertising affects persons


a.
b.
c.
d.

Family life
Employment choices
Libido
Preferences

11. Ads are generally designed to invite us to overlook their


a.
b.
c.
d.

Straw man nature


Statement of the obvious
Suppression of evidence
Tokenism

12. Another name for a faulty comparison is a


a.
b.
c.
d.

Invidious comparison
Fallacious comparison
Straw man comparison
False cause comparison
88

13. Being the official supplier to X only means that a company has
a. Supplied more of its products to X than others
b. Has an agreement with X to supply its products
c. Is chosen by X more often than other companies
d. Has paid to be associated with X
14. According to the authors, the term best in advertising simply means
a.
b.
c.
d.

Tied for first with other brands


Not the worst
Better than some
Nothing

15. P.T. Barnum said


a.
b.
c.
d.

Keep America Rolling


Theres a sucker born every minute
Let Freedom Ring
Behind every successful company theres a successful advertiser

16. According to the authors, green ads


a.
b.
c.
d.

Whitewash corporate imagery


Are a step in the right direction
Encourage responsible consumption
Are politically charged

17. CBS stamped the names of its television shows on


a.
b.
c.
d.

Underwear
Eggs
Toilet paper
Newspapers

18. In 2003 Philip Morris was found guilty of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Consumer fraud
Political corruption
Price-fixing
Negligent homicide

19. Advertisers are forced by competition to do a good deal of


a. Puffery
89

b. Market research
c. Market placement
d. Deception
20. Quantitative research gathers information by
a.
b.
c.
d.

Observation, experimentation, and surveys


Finding out peoples thoughts and feelings
Telephone interviews and polls alone
Advertising for volunteers

B.True/False
1. Qualitative research grew out of Freuds theory of the unconscious.
2. The object of market research is the low-income consumer.
3. Shopping cards gather useful information.
4. Even well-targeted ads sometimes miss their mark owing to consumer
ignorance.
5. Shopping malls can be marketing tools.
6. Advertisers are starting to focus on individualized marketing strategies.
7. Demand by patients is the most common reason physicians give for
inappropriate prescriptions.
8. Pharmaceutical advertising is entirely benign.
9. Google makes a lot of money from advertising.
10. Advertising is never useful.
11. Franklin Roosevelt conducted radio fireside chats.
12. The first presidential candidate to make full use of television was Eisenhower.
13. Negative campaigning has been honed to a fine art.
14. Thomas Jefferson was derided because he didnt enlist in 1775.
15. Rapid response ads are often ineffective.

90

C.Fill-in-the Blanks
1. There are no legal consequences for _____ in political campaigns.
2. Family names in politics can act like _____ .
3. In all of the presidential debates so far it has been _____ that has determined
the outcome.
4. _____ tell political candidates how to advertise.
5. _____ is a politicians principal task while campaigning.
6. _____ presidents have an advantage in gaining media attention through press
conferences.
7. Nowadays even _____ are marketed.
8. ______ is still the mainstay for campaign advertising.
9. The dictator in 1984 is called _______ .
10. Virtually all ads are of ____ kinds.
D.Essay Questions
1. Given that advertising is expensive, politicians need to spend large sums of
money to run successful campaigns, often involving misleading advertising.
Do you think that the time has come to allow then directly t buy votes from
voters, thus reducing the need to mislead in this way? After all, they need to
buy votes anyway through advertising, so why not do it directly?
2. Choose one advertisement run in favor of a Democrat, and one in favor of a
Republican, and criticize each of them, drawing on the discussion of this
Chapter.
3. Find advertisements that illustrate each of the fallacies discussed in this
volume, and explain why they represent the fallacies you attribute to them.
4. Which do you think is worse: misleading political advertisements, or
misleading commercial advertisements? Explain your answer.
5. Develop an argument in favor of advertising, making sure that it conforms
with the advice offered in the previous chapter.

91

V.

Additional Sources for Study and Research


A.InfoTrac Search Terms
A.C. Nielsen Company, Ads, Advertising, Advertising Age, Billboards,
Campaigning, CNN, Consumer, e-commerce, Election Polls, Ethics, Grassroots,
Image, Image Makers, Magazine Ads, Marketing, Media, Mudslinging, Political
Ads, Political Advertising, PR,, Presidential Debates, Spin Doctor, Television
Ads.
B.Internet sites
Mises.org on Galbraith and Advertising
http://mises.org/story/3057
Wikipedia: Advertising
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Advertising
Wikipedia: Institutional economics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institutional_economics
F.A. Hayek on the Dependence Effect
http://mises.org/etexts/HayNonseq.pdf
Google advertising
http://www.google.com/ads/ads_2.html

VI.

Answer Key
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. c
2. b
3. b
92

4. d
5. c
6. c
7. a
8. a
9. b
10. d
11. c
12. a
13. d
14. a
15. b
16. a
17. b
18. a
19. b
20. a
B.True/False
1. T
2. F
3. T
4. F
5. T
6. T
7. T
8. F
9. T
10. F
11. T
12. T
13. T
14. T
15. F
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Mudslinging
Brands
Image
Polls
Image building
Incumbent
93

7. Wars
8. Television
9. Big Brother
10. Two

CHAPTER 11
MANAGING THE NEWS
I.

Brief Chapter Outline


1. The Media and the Power of Money
The Power of the People
94

The Power of Advertisers


The Power of Government
The Power of the Media
The Power of Big Business
Power Tends to Cooperate with Power
News as Entertainment
2. News-Gathering Methods Are Designed to Save Money
3. Misdirection and lack of Proportion
4. News Reporting: Theory and Practice
The Unusual Is News, the Everyday Is Not
News Reporting Is Supposed to be Objective, Not Subjective
News is Supposed to be Separated from Analysis and In-Depth Reporting
The Opinions of the Right Authorities Take Precedence
Self-Censorship
Exercise 11-1
5. Devices Used to Slant the News
Stories Can Be Played Up or Down
Misleading, Sensational, or Opinionated Headlines Can Be Used
Images Can Slant the News
Follow-Up Stories Can Be Omitted or Played Down
Points of View Can be Conveyed Via Cartoons and Comic Strips
6. Television, Film, and Electronic Information Sources
Television Is the Best News Source for Many People
The Internet
7. The Non-Mass Media to the Rescue
8. Recent Developments
Summary of Chapter 11
II.

List of Key Terms


Advertisers
Analysis
Beats
Big Business
Cartoons
Comic Strips
Electronic information sources
Entertainment
Everyday
Film
Follow-up stories
Government
Headlines
Images
In-depth reporting
95

Internet
Lack of proportion
Media
Misdirection
Misleading
News-gathering
News-reporting
Non-mass media
Objective
Opinionated
Opinions
Power
Self-censorship
Sensational
Sitcoms
Slant
Sound bite
Subjective
Television
Think-tanks
Unusual
III.

Chapter Summary
The news media is going through a huge transformation, in part for economic
reasons. This transformation means that people need to be even more vigilant in
thinking critically about the way the news is presented.
The authors begin this Chapter by discussing the media and the power of money.
They note that the chief source of news for most people are still the mass media,
which exist to make money. Since this is so, their consumers have a lot of say in what
is presented in the mass media. Advertisers also have power over the mass media, and
so they cater to their interests; the same is true of government influence over the mass
media, which can restrict the freedom of the press in many different ways. The media,
however, are also powerful, and frequently share common interests. Similarly, the
authors note, other Big Business have power over the mass media, while they

96

continue to note that power tends to cooperate with power, and so the various power
factions tend to cooperate rather than to fight. Because money is the bottom line for
the mass media, and vested interests shape the news to their advantage, and the public
wants entertainment more than information, news tends to turn into stories.
The authors discuss how news-gathering methods are designed to save money,
and that the mass medias presentation of news tends to focus on what the powerful
want to tell us, and on news with entertainment value. As such, news stories tend to
involve misdirection and lack of proportion.
The authors then turn to discuss the theory and practice of news gathering. In
theory, the unusual is news, while the everyday is not, although, the authors note,
what happens everyday is generally more important. They also note that news
reporting is supposed to be objective, not subjective, although even news that tries to
be unbiased cannot be completely objective. News is also supposed to be distinct
from analysis and in-depth reporting, which can sometimes lead to a lack of
explanatory value, while the right experts are often those that are consulted, and are
chosen to ensure that their opinions will not be unpopular with the powerful.
Occasionally, journalists engage in self-censorship.
The authors discuss several devices that are used to slant the news, including
playing up or down stories, the use of misleading, sensational, or opinionated
headlines, the selective use of images to slant the news, and the omission of playing
down of follow-up stories. The authors also note that points of view can be conveyed
by cartoons and comic strips.
They then discuss television, film, and electronic information sources, noting that
television has considerable power to change the world, and that it is the best source of
news for many people. They also discuss the way that the Internet is a good source of

97

useful information, and applaud the useful of the non-mass market media as sources
of information. They conclude the Chapter with a discussion of recent developments.

IV.

Practice Questions
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. The news media is currently going through
a.
b.
c.
d.

A crisis
A transformation
A period of excitement
A period of quiet

2. In America, discussions of the media should


a.
b.
c.
d.

Follow the money


Show me the money
Find the woman
Find the smoking gun

3. Citizen journalists are also known as


a.
b.
c.
d.

Pests
Spoilers
Nonprofessionals
Dilettantes

4. The chief source of news for most people is


a.
b.
c.
d.

News blogs
Youtube
The mass media
Radio

5. Mass audiences are most interested in


a.
b.
c.
d.

Light-hearted material
Important material
Foreign news
Political news

6. According to the authors, large numbers of people


98

a.
b.
c.
d.

Are superstitious
Are libertarian
Are ecologically aware
Are financially astute

7. The mass media panders to


a.
b.
c.
d.

Conservative bias
Liberal bias
Short attention spans
Long attention spans

8. Sounds bites have become


a.
b.
c.
d.

Shorter and shorter


Longer and longer
More vacuous
More liberal

9. The medium that supports itself from advertising is


a.
b.
c.
d.

Television news
Radio news
Newspapers
Internet news sites

10. The FCC


a.
b.
c.
d.

Levies fines
Censors
Closes down stations
Blacklists celebrities

11. For failing to identify her source in the Scooter Libby trial reporter Judith
Miller
a.
b.
c.
d.

Was fired
Was fined $10,000
Served three months in jail
Served two years in jail

12. In 2003 the reported Daniel Pearl


a. Was beheaded in Karachi
b. Was imprisoned in Guantanamo Bay
99

c. Was executed in Texas


d. Was shot in Iraq
13. The news is slanted in favor of
a.
b.
c.
d.

The interests of the average person


The interests of those with great political power
The interests of the economy
The interests of liberals

14. The federal poverty line is defined as


a.
b.
c.
d.

$20,000 a year for a single person


$30,000 a year for a family of three
$25,000 a year for two adults
$20,000 a year for a family of four

15. FAIR is
a.
b.
c.
d.

A media watchdog
A media network
A trade organization
A liberal think-tank

16. News has increasingly become a source of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Information
Anxiety
Entertainment
Misinformation

17. News is now mainly gathered through


a.
b.
c.
d.

Beats
Leaks
Investigative reporting
Eavesdropping

18. Most news is given to reports by persons


a.
b.
c.
d.

Who are themselves reporters


Who have or represent power or wealth
Who are ordinary citizens
Who are confidential informants

19. The theory of objectivity requires


100

a.
b.
c.
d.

That every side of a story be presented


That politicians receive media equal time during elections
That facts be reported separately from conclusions or evaluations
That no explanations be given of events

20. An important consideration when choosing experts to interview is whether


a.
b.
c.
d.

Their opinions would be unpopular with power groups


They are photogenic
They are biased
They are experts in the right area

B.True/False
1. The theory that news reporting should be objective requires all the news to be
reported.
2. National security never takes precedence over objective reporting.
3. It is not useful to know the political orientation of think tanks.
4. Self-censorship is automatically evil, according to the authors.
5. The most obvious way to bury the news is to ignore it.
6. Misleading headlines cannot be used.
7. Opinionated headlines can be used.
8. Comic strips never make points graphically.
9. Comic strips are immune from censorship.
10. Television is the most important of the mass media.
11. Television influenced the conduct of the Gulf war.
12. Extra! is a media watchdog.
13. Human interest tends to crowd out important matters.
14. The media are beholden to advertisers.
15. Government has the right to regulate business activity.
101

C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Government often has the ______ to regulate business activity.
2. The US Government can censor news deemed to be _____ .
3. Possibly the most influential network in the Middle East is _____ .
4. When labor union stories are reported in the press they often have a
_____bias.
5. One section of society given short shrift in the media is the _____ .
6. News-gathering methods are designed to _____ ______ .
7. Very few news stories are from ______ ______ .
8. Theory says that news is what is ______ .
9. Theory says what is _______is not news.
10. News cannot be completely _____ .
D.Essay Questions
1. Assess the authors arguments concerning self-censorship. Do you believe that
they are correct? If so, outline three possible objections to them, and show
how they may be met, If not, argue against their views cogently and
persuasively.
2. Do you believe that the Government should be allowed to regulate commerce?
If yes, to what degree? If not, why not? Argue for your view.
3. Do you think that the proliferation of citizen journalists is a good thing, or
not? Since they often do not abide by the canons of journalism, do you think
they could add to misinformation, even if unwittingly? If so, is this a
problem? Argue for your view.
4. Should journalists be licensed? If so, whyand who would grant the licenses,
and on what basis? If not, why not? Argue for your position.
5. Should a person be allowed to publish information that could be harmful to
large numbers of innocent people, such as information about how to make a
bomb? Argue for your view.
102

V.

Additional Sources for Study and Research


A.InfoTrac Search Terms
ABC, Advertising, Al-Jezeera, Cartoons, Censorship, CNN, Columnists, Comics, CSpan, Experts, Extra!, First Amendment, Fourth Estate, Fox News, Headlines,
Journalism, Libel, Mass Media, Media, NBC, NPR, PBS, Presidential Campaign,
Sound Bites.
B.Internet sites
Wikipedia: Censorship
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Censorship
Censorship
http://www.serendipity.li/cda.html
The Censorship Pages
http://www.booksatoz.com/censorship/index.htm
Mass Media
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass_media
Committee of Concerned Journalists
http://www.concernedjournalists.org/node/332

VI.

Answer Key
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. b
2. a
103

3. c
4. c
5. a
6. a
7. c
8. a
9. a
10. a
11. c
12. a
13. b
14. d
15. a
16. c
17. a
18. b
19. c
20. a
B.True/False
1. F
2. F
3. F
4. F
5. T
6. F
7. T
8. F
9. F
10. T
11. T
12. T
13. T
14. T
15. T
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Power
Obscene
Al-Jazeera
Negative
Poor
Save money
104

7. Investigative reporting
8. Unusual
9. Commonplace
10. Objective

CHAPTER 12
TEXTBOOKS: MANAGING WORLDVIEWS
I

Brief Chapter Outline


1. High School History Textbooks
The Good News
The Bad News
History texts are dull and overly long
History Texts Have Been Dumbed Down
History Texts have Gone Overboard on Multiculturalism
American History is Distorted
United States History is Sanitized
Embarrassing Facts or Topics Are Omitted or Played Down
2. Social Studies (Civics) Textbooks Minimize The Great Gulf between Theory
and Practice
105

3. Textbooks and Indoctrination


4. Textbooks and Politics
How Textbooks Are Selected
The Power of Big Business
How Authors Influence Textbook Content
But Students Have Little Influence on Textbook Content
5. Censorship
The Controversy Concerning the Teaching of Evolution: An instructive
Example
Publisher Self-Censorship
Nontextbooks Also Often Are Censored
Exercise 12-1
6. Textbooks Fail to Give Students Genuine Understanding
7. Postscript on College Textbooks
Summary of Chapter 12
II.

List of Key Terms


Authors
Civics
Censorship
College Texts
Creation science
Distorted
Dumbed down
Evolution
History
Indoctrination
Multiculturalism
Nontextbooks
Politics
Publisher
Sanitized
Social Studies
Textbook
Trail of Tears
Understanding

III

Chapter Summary
The authors begin this Chapter by discussing high school history textbooks. After
noting that the quality of high school history textbooks has improved significantly
since about 1960, they then list the bad news about them, including the fact that they
106

are dull and overly long, that they have been dumbed down, that they have gone
overboard on multiculturalism, that they distort American history and sanitize United
States history, and that embarrassing facts and topics are omitted or downplayed.
They then turn to social studies (civics) textbooks, noting that they minimize the
gulf between theory and practice. With this in hand, they discuss textbooks and
indoctrination, and then textbooks and politics. They discuss how textbooks are
selected, the power of big business concerning textbooks, how authors influence
textbook content, and note that students have little influence over textbook content.
After noting that it is very difficult in particular cases to determine if a book has
been censored, they discuss the issue of censorship through the lens of the controversy
concerning the teaching of evolution, noting that Americans are astonishingly resistant
to accepting this theory as a bedrock idea of science. They note that it is no surprise
that publishers engage in self-censorship, and note too that nontextbooks also often are
censored.
The authors observe that textbooks fail to give students genuine understanding,
and conclude with a postscript on college texts.

IV

Practice Questions
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. The quality of history textbooks has improved since
a.
b.
c.
d.

1930
1940
1950
1960

2. The black persons mentioned in textbooks before 1960 were often


107

a.
b.
c.
d.

George Washington and Booker T. Washington


Denzil Washington and Booker T. Washington
George Washington Carver and Denzil Washington
George Washington Carver and Booker T. Washington

3. The forced move of the Cherokee Indians to Oklahoma was called the
a.
b.
c.
d.

Trail of Lies
Trail of Tears
Trail of Feathers
Trail of Trials

4. According to the authors history texts are


a.
b.
c.
d.

Lively and erudite


Misleading propaganda
Dull and overly long
Too short and biased

5. According to the authors history texts are devoid of


a.
b.
c.
d.

Voice
Facts
Relevance
Blacks

6. According to the authors, history texts have been


a.
b.
c.
d.

Dumbed down
Sanitized
Both dumbed down and sanitized
Sanitized but not dumbed down

7. History texts have become


a.
b.
c.
d.

More bloodthirsty
Less relevant
Politically correct
Monocultural

8. According to the authors, sometimes history textbooks


a. Commit the fallacy of affirming the consequent
b. Commit the fallacy of denying the antecedent
c. Suppress evidence
108

d. Deliberately deceive
9. The teddy bear is named after
a.
b.
c.
d.

Theodore Drake
Theodore Roosevelt
Theodore Washington
Theodora Duncan

10. Theodore Roosevelt could accurately be described as


a.
b.
c.
d.

An expert chessplayer
A fallacious reasoned
A bloodthirsty bigot
An ideal President

11. One political scandal that is often mentioned in textbooks is


a.
b.
c.
d.

Irangate
Whitewatergate
Postgate
Contragate

12. Joseph Hellers novel Catch-22 is about


a.
b.
c.
d.

Mathematics
Gambling
Bomber pilots
Ground troops

13. History textbooks never contain


a.
b.
c.
d.

The truth
Discussions of past glories
Pictures of dead soldiers
Criticism of past events

14. No society wants


a.
b.
c.
d.

Disaffected citizens
Educated citizens
Welfare
Education

15. Textbooks are selected and purchased

109

a.
b.
c.
d.

On a federal level
On a national level
On a city level
On a local level

16. According to the authors, school boards are vulnerable to


a.
b.
c.
d.

Bribery
Lobbying
Ignorance
Prejudice

17. Textbook revisions reflect


a.
b.
c.
d.

The changing truth


The tenor of the times
New evidence
Local business interests

18. In times past, funds spent by school boards in America came from
a.
b.
c.
d.

State government
Federal government
Private donors
Property taxes

19. Pressure groups are especially strong in


a.
b.
c.
d.

Ohio
Texas
Massachusetts
Louisiana

20. According to the authors social studies textbooks address lobbying


a.
b.
c.
d.

Straightforwardly
By pussyfooting around it
By ignoring it
Deceitfully

B.True/False
1. In Texas, by law textbooks cannot encourage lifestyles that deviate from
accepted standards of society.

110

2. Students have a lot of influence on textbook content.


3. Parents can influence textbook content.
4. Textbooks are sometimes censored.
5. Until 1967 it was illegal to teach evolution in Arkansas.
6. The U.S. Supreme Court considers creation science to be religious advocacy.
7. Evolution is widely accepted by Americans.
8. The second President Bush believed that creation science was scientific.
9. Evolution is widely dismissed in Japan.
10. Publishers sometimes self-censor.
11. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is one of the most frequently censored
books in American schools.
12. Public school book censorship is uniquely American.
13. Censors now focus on censoring depictions of magic.
14. Public school textbooks fail to give students a true understanding of their
society.
15. Students should critically assess this textbook.
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Weighty tomes tend to be ______ in todays college courses.
2. The purposes of public schools is to educate the young to _____ .
3. _____ enters into the textbook business.
4. The most important state agencies concerned with textbook selection are those
of ____ and _____ .
5. Hardly any texts mention _____ .
6. Overstuffed texts used today can harm _____ .
7. History texts have become _____ .
111

8. Since September 11th, 2001 textbooks have been wary of discussing ____ .
9. United States history is _____ in many textbooks.
10. Embarrassing topics are ______ .
D.Essay Questions
1. Is it possible to write a textbook that presents an impartial view of history?
Support your answer argumentatively.
2. Shouldnt children be protected from certain forms of unpleasantness, such as
violence or prejudice? If so, doesnt this support censoring textbooks to help
achieve this? Critically evaluate this view, coming to a conclusion either for or
against it that it supported by reasons.
3. If public schools are funded by taxpayer money, shouldnt taxpayers have a
say in what is taught? And, if so, shouldnt they be allowed to remove the
teaching of things that they do not agree withsuch as the theory of
evolution? Critically evaluate this view, coming to a conclusion either for or
against it that it supported by reasons.
4. Would it be better to eliminate state funded education altogether to avoid the
types of indoctrination that the authors discuss? Argue for your view.
5. Should we require all children to undergo a uniform curriculum to ensure
some degree of national cohesion and shared knowledge? Argue for whether
you think this would be a good idea or a bad idea.

Additional Sources for Study and Research


A.InfoTrac Search Terms
Academic Freedom, Bigotry, Civics, Education, Evolution, Lobbyists, Mass
Media, Multiculturalism, Patriotism, Public Schools, Publishing Houses, Race,
Reasoning, Religion, Schoolboards, Supreme Court, Textbooks.
B.Internet sites
PBS Evolution site
112

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/
Wikipedia: Creation and evolution in public education
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Creation_and_evolution_in_public_education
Milton Friedman: Public SchoolsMake Them Private
http://www.cato.org/pubs/briefs/bp-023.html
Public school vs. private school
http://www.portfolio.com/views/blogs/market-movers/2008/06/06/the-publicschool-vs-private-school-debate
Brian Leiter on textbook censorship
http://www.utexas.edu/law/news/2003/072503_bleiter.html
VI

Answer Key
A.Objective Multiple Choice
1. d
2. d
3. b
4. c
5. a
6. c
7. c
8. c
9. b
10. c
11. a
12. c
13. c
14. a
15. d
16. b
17. b
18. d
113

19. b
20. b
B.True/False
1. T
2. F
3. T
4. T
5. T
6. T
7. F
8. T
9. F
10. T
11. T
12. F
13. T
14. T
15. T
C.Fill-in-the-Blanks
1. Neglected
2. Fit into the adult world
3. Politics
4. California/Texas
5. Homosexuals
6. Student health
7. Politically correct
8. Islam
9. Sanitized
10. Played down

114