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Complex Variables 4.

6 Some applications of the Cauchy


Integral Formula
THEOREM 11 (Gauss' Mean Value Theorem) Let f(z) be analytic in a simply
connected domain. Consider any circle lying in this domain. The value assumed by
f(z) at the center of the circle equals the average of the values assumed by f(z) on its
circumference. If z0 is the center of the circle and r its radius, this is equivalent to

Observe: Any z on the circle: z = z0 + r ei (0 2); dz = ireid

Or:

Equivalently ( z0= x0+ i y0 ):

Complex Variables
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EXAMPLE 1 Using Gauss' mean value theorem, evaluate 0 coscos i sin d


By identifying the real and imaginary parts of the integrand, what identities are
obtained?
Solution. Observe: ei cos i sin and we can use the theorem with z0 0 and r 1
So:

cos ei d 2 cos z z 0 2

Using cosz:

we obtain:

coscos coshsin i sin cos sinh sin d 2

cos cos cosh sin d 2


sin cos sinh sin d 0

THEOREM 12 (Maximum Modulus Theorem) Let a non-constant function f(z) be


continuous throughout a closed bounded region R. Let f(z) be analytic at every interior
point of R. Then the maximum value of |f(z)| in R must occur on the boundary of R.

Note: If an analytic function fails to assume a constant value over all the interior
points of a region, then it is not constant in any neighborhood of any interior point of
that region.
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Complex Variables
Assume z0 is an interior point in R where |f(z)| gets
its maximum :
|f(z0)| = m
So on C0 for non constant and continuous |f(z)| we can find
a point z a point at the circle where |f(z)| < m or:

r
R

f z0 re i m

Now we can write for the chosen C0 :

or
At an arc r we should have:

For the rest of the integral:


ML inequality now gives:

f z0 re i m b

b m

f z0 re i m

or

f z0 m

b
2

BUT !! |f(z0)| = m is the MAXIMUM and can not be . So our assumption is FALSE
The maximum must be on the boundary C
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Complex Variables
THEOREM 13 (Minimum Modulus Theorem) Let a non-constant function f(z) be
continuous and nowhere zero throughout a closed bounded region R. Let f(z) be
analytic at every interior point of R. Then the minimum value of |f(z)| in R must occur on
the boundary of R.
EXAMPLE 2 Consider f(z) = ez in the region |z| 1. Find the points in this region where
|f(z)| achieves its maximum and minimum values.
Solution. Fist:

e x iy e x

Obviously the maximum is at : z = 1


the maximum is at : z = -1
Both on the boundary of |z| 1

THEOREM 14 (Liouville's Theorem) An entire function whose absolute value is


bounded (that is, does not exceed some constant) throughout the z-plane is a constant.
For a circle C :

| z - z0| = r and L= 2 r
or
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Complex Variables
For the circle let:

or

and L= 2 r
ML

ML inequality:
The function is bounded : |f(z)| m or

Finally:

f ' z

f z
r2

1
M 2r Mr
2

m
M
r2

m
r

The contour can be chosen with r , or df(z)/dz = 0 which proofs the theorem.

This can be applied to prove the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra about complex
roots of polynomials:

pn ( z )

a z

i 0

THEOREM (Fundamental Theorem of Algebra ) Any non-constant polynomial pn(z) of


degree n 0 (an0) has at last one complex root z0 such that
pn ( z0 ) 0

Complex Variables
Divide the complex plane in two parts : R1 the disc |z| r and the rest R2 : |z|> r
Assume : there is no roots for pn(z) in the complex plane. Then the function pn-1(z) is
continuous and bounded in R1:
1
pn z M

In R2:

pn ( z ) f ( z ) pn 1 ( z ); for large enough r : z r


n
f ( z ) an z


n 1
f z pn 1 ( z )

pn 1 ( z ) ai z

i 0

On the other hand (from the triangle inequalities):


n 1

and

pn 1 z ai

n 1

pn ( z ) an z n ai z i

so:

i 0

i 0

n 1

Let: A=Max{|ai|}: ai
i 0

pn ( z ) f z pn1 z

n 1

z i n 1 A z i n 1 nA
i 0

for

or

pn ( z ) an z z
n

n 1

n 1

ai z i n 1
i 0

z 1
1

nA
nA
n
n 1
n
1
n 1

p
(
z
)

a
z

nA

z
a

p
z

z
a

So:
n

n
n
n
z
z

1
nA
~
In its maximum (|z|= r )
pn1 z r n an
pn1 z M
r

So pn-1(z) is the bounded analytic function and (Liouville's Theorem ) is constant.


The function pn(z) is also constant, which is false.

Complex Variables
The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra suggests that pn(z) of degree n 0 with
complex root z0 can be factorized :

pn z z z0 qn1 z
and then

pn z an

z z
i

i 1

where zi (i =1,2,3,n) are complex numbers. So pn(z) can have no more than n distinct
roots