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Complex Variables & Transforms
Complex Analysis course Material
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Integral Formula

THEOREM 11 (Gauss' Mean Value Theorem) Let f(z) be analytic in a simply

connected domain. Consider any circle lying in this domain. The value assumed by

f(z) at the center of the circle equals the average of the values assumed by f(z) on its

circumference. If z0 is the center of the circle and r its radius, this is equivalent to

Or:

Complex Variables

2

By identifying the real and imaginary parts of the integrand, what identities are

obtained?

Solution. Observe: ei cos i sin and we can use the theorem with z0 0 and r 1

So:

cos ei d 2 cos z z 0 2

Using cosz:

we obtain:

sin cos sinh sin d 0

continuous throughout a closed bounded region R. Let f(z) be analytic at every interior

point of R. Then the maximum value of |f(z)| in R must occur on the boundary of R.

Note: If an analytic function fails to assume a constant value over all the interior

points of a region, then it is not constant in any neighborhood of any interior point of

that region.

2

Complex Variables

Assume z0 is an interior point in R where |f(z)| gets

its maximum :

|f(z0)| = m

So on C0 for non constant and continuous |f(z)| we can find

a point z a point at the circle where |f(z)| < m or:

r

R

f z0 re i m

or

At an arc r we should have:

ML inequality now gives:

f z0 re i m b

b m

f z0 re i m

or

f z0 m

b

2

BUT !! |f(z0)| = m is the MAXIMUM and can not be . So our assumption is FALSE

The maximum must be on the boundary C

3

Complex Variables

THEOREM 13 (Minimum Modulus Theorem) Let a non-constant function f(z) be

continuous and nowhere zero throughout a closed bounded region R. Let f(z) be

analytic at every interior point of R. Then the minimum value of |f(z)| in R must occur on

the boundary of R.

EXAMPLE 2 Consider f(z) = ez in the region |z| 1. Find the points in this region where

|f(z)| achieves its maximum and minimum values.

Solution. Fist:

e x iy e x

the maximum is at : z = -1

Both on the boundary of |z| 1

bounded (that is, does not exceed some constant) throughout the z-plane is a constant.

For a circle C :

| z - z0| = r and L= 2 r

or

4

Complex Variables

For the circle let:

or

and L= 2 r

ML

ML inequality:

The function is bounded : |f(z)| m or

Finally:

f ' z

f z

r2

1

M 2r Mr

2

m

M

r2

m

r

The contour can be chosen with r , or df(z)/dz = 0 which proofs the theorem.

This can be applied to prove the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra about complex

roots of polynomials:

pn ( z )

a z

i 0

degree n 0 (an0) has at last one complex root z0 such that

pn ( z0 ) 0

Complex Variables

Divide the complex plane in two parts : R1 the disc |z| r and the rest R2 : |z|> r

Assume : there is no roots for pn(z) in the complex plane. Then the function pn-1(z) is

continuous and bounded in R1:

1

pn z M

In R2:

n

f ( z ) an z

n 1

f z pn 1 ( z )

pn 1 ( z ) ai z

i 0

n 1

and

pn 1 z ai

n 1

pn ( z ) an z n ai z i

so:

i 0

i 0

n 1

Let: A=Max{|ai|}: ai

i 0

pn ( z ) f z pn1 z

n 1

z i n 1 A z i n 1 nA

i 0

for

or

pn ( z ) an z z

n

n 1

n 1

ai z i n 1

i 0

z 1

1

nA

nA

n

n 1

n

1

n 1

p

(

z

)

a

z

nA

z

a

p

z

z

a

So:

n

n

n

n

z

z

1

nA

~

In its maximum (|z|= r )

pn1 z r n an

pn1 z M

r

The function pn(z) is also constant, which is false.

Complex Variables

The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra suggests that pn(z) of degree n 0 with

complex root z0 can be factorized :

pn z z z0 qn1 z

and then

pn z an

z z

i

i 1

where zi (i =1,2,3,n) are complex numbers. So pn(z) can have no more than n distinct

roots

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