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1. Ahlfors pg. 88 #1: Find the fixed points of the linear transformations

z

2z

,

w=

.

3z 1

2z

Is any of these transformations elliptic, hyperbolic, or parabolic?

w=

Solution: For the first one, we find the fixed points by solving z(3z 1) = 2z, or

3z 2 3z = 0, so we get z = 1 and z = 0. Now express

w0

=

w1

2z

3z1

2z

3z1

2z

2z

=

.

2z (3z 1)

z1

For the second one, we get z(2 z) = z which gives z = 0 and z = 1. We write

w1

=

w0

z

2z

z

2z

2(z 1)

z (2 z)

=

,

z

z

2. Ahlfors pg. 88 #2: Suppose that the coefficients of the transformation

az + b

cz + d

are normalized by ad bc = 1. Show that S is elliptic if and only if 2 < a + d < 2,

parabolic if a + d = 2, and hyperbolic if a + d < 2 or > 2.

Sz =

Solution: Observe first that we can compute k as S 0 (z ) where z is either fixed point.

This is because if we write w = S(z) when there are two distinct fixed points and ,

we get

z

S(z)

=k

,

S(z)

z

and thus

S 0 (z) S(z)

S 0 (z)

1

z

.

2 = k

S(z)

z (z )2

S(z)

Hence plugging in z = gives S 0 () = k. Similarly we get S 0 () = 1/k.

Now lets compute those fixed points; we obviously have az + b = (cz + d)z with

solutions

p

a d (d a)2 + 4bc

,

z =

2c

assuming that c 6= 0.

First of all, if c = 0 then the fixed points are and z =

b

,

da

and we have

b

a(d a)z + b(d a) bd

a(d a)z ba

a

b

az + b

wz =

=

=

=

z

,

d

da

d(d a)

d(d a)

d

da

so that k = a/d. Now ad = 1 by the normalization assumption, so that k = a2 .

1

Hyperbolic: k is real and positive if and only if a is real and then a + d = a + 1/a

which is either larger than 2 (if a > 0) or smaller than 2 (if a < 0).

Elliptic: k has unit modulus if and only if a does, and therefore a = ei for some

, which means we have a + d = a + 1/a = 2 cos , which is in (2, 2). Note that

the only way |a + 1/a| = 2 is if a = 1 or a = 1, but in either case we have d = a

and thus the transformation is parabolic.

Parabolic: the fixed points are equal if and only if a = d (so that they are both

infinity), and since d = 1/a we must have a = 1 so that a + d = 2.

Next consider the case when c 6= 0. We then have (using the normalization adbc = 1)

that

p

p

2 + 4(ad 1)

(d

a)

a

(a + d)2 4

a

=

.

z =

2c

2c

Now S 0 (z) = 1/(cz + d)2 so that

k 1 = S 0 (z ) =

d+

ad

(a+d)2 4

2

2 =

4

1

,

p

2 =

( 2 1)2

a + d (a + d)2 4

where = (a + d)/2. Note that the conditions of being hyperbolic or elliptic (depending on k) are symmetric with respect to k 7 1/k, so we can consider whichever is

convenient. For me 1/k will be more convenient. Notice that the fixed points are equal

if and only if = 1, which is the parabolic case; we will therefore assume 6= 1.

real number x, and in that case we have 2 1 = (x )2 which means

=

x2 + 1

.

2x

avoid the parabolic case.

that case we can write + 2 1 = ei for some R. Using the same trick

we have 2 1 = e2i 2ei + 2 to obtain

=

1 + e2i

= cos .

2ei

3. Ahlfors pg. 88 #5 (left over from last week): Find all linear transformations which

represent rotations of the Riemann sphere. Hint: what do the circles C1 and C2 look

like on the Riemann sphere?

Solution: First observe that any rotation of the Riemann sphere must have two fixed

points which are diametrically opposite on the sphere, which corresponds in C to

distinct fixed points a and b satisfying ab = 1.

2

Furthermore the number k must have magnitude 1, since otherwise under iteration

of S points would converge either to a or b (and this certainly does not happen for

rotations). Hence the LFT must be elliptic.

It remains to show that every such elliptic LFT is a rotation. But observe that a

map fixing two points on the sphere is a rotation if and only if it preserves all circles

equidistant between the two fixed points (that is, the latitudes) and moves all circles

through the two fixed points (the longitutes) to each other, and thats exactly what

an elliptic LFT does (by the general properties of the C1 and C2 Steiner circles).

Hence the general LFT which corresponds to rotation must have the form w = S(z)

za

wa

= ei

w + 1/a

z + 1/a

for some a C and R. Of course we can solve this for w if desired.

4. Ahlfors pg. 96 #1: Find a conformal map from the common part of the disks |z| < 1

and |z 1| < 1 on the inside of the unit circle. Choose the mapping so that the

horizonal and vertical reflection symmetries are preserved.

We send a to 0 and b to by an LFT, which takes the form

w=k

3

2

= ei/3 .

z ei/3

z ei/3

For now notice that this conformal map will give a region in the plane bounded by

two rays that come out of the origin. We have S(0) = ke2i/3 and S(1) = e2i/3 , so

therefore S maps to one of the regions enclosed by the rays between angles 2

+ and

3

2

+ for some R. Working out some random value (for example S(1/2) = k)

3

we see that its the smaller of the two regions. Note that k = 1 (corresponding to

= 0) would preserve the vertical symmetry, so we pick that, and we have S1 (z) =

(z ei/3 )/(z ei/3 ).

We now map this region onto the upper half plane by taking a root: the internal angle

of this region is 2

, and therefore the map z 3/2 will flatten out this angle; it sends

3

the region to the left side of the half-plane defined by the angles and 2. Thus

S2 (z) = z 3/2 .

Finally the map from the upper half-plane to the unit disc is standard:

S3 (z) =

zi

.

z+i

5. Ahlfors pg. 96 #3: Find a conformal map from the complement of the arc |z| = 1,

y 0 onto the outside of the unit circle which maps to .

3

Solution: The singular endpoints are 1 and +1, so using the usual trick we send 1

to and 1 to 0 using

z1

.

S1 (z) =

z+1

This map will send the upper semicircle to a ray from 0 to . Since S(i) = i this ray

is the upper imaginary axis. Taking the square root gives a half-plane; our angles will

be from 3

to 2 and the square root will give angles from 3

to 4 . To get this onto

2

4

3i/4

the upper half-plane we multiply by e

. So

S2 (z) = e3i/4 z.

Now there are a variety of ways to get the upper half-plane onto the unit disc (or its

complement), and we need to figure out what happens to . We have S1 () = 1 and

S2 (1) = e3i/4 , so we need a map that sends the upper half-plane to the complement

of the unit disc and sends e3i/4 to . We can do this with an LFT; such a map must

necessarily send e3i/4 to 0 (since it preserves conjugation through circles). Thus

S3 (z) = k

z e3i/4

z e3i/4

for some k C. Since S3 (0) = ki we should choose |k| = 1 to end up on the unit circle;

k = 1 would be fine.

6. Show that every linear fractional transformation that maps the unit disc onto itself is

of the form

z+a

,

R, |a| < 1.

Sz = ei

1 + az

(One way is to do what I said in class and reduce it to the case of an LFT that maps

R to itself. A smarter way is to figure out what must happen to 1, 0, and under S.)

Solution: An LFT that preserves the unit disc must take 0 to some C with

|| < 1. By writing S(z) = ei S(z) we may assume that S(0) = is positive and real

(and obviously less than 1). As a consequence we must have S() = 1/ since is

the conjugate of 0 through the circle and 1/ is the conjugate of .

We must therefore have S(z) = (az + b)/(cz + d) where b = d and a = c/, so we can

write

az + d

S(z) =

.

az + d

Write a = d and we obtain

z +

S(z) =

.

z + 1

Since |S(1)| = 1 we must have

| + |2 = | + 1|2 ,

or in other words we have

||2 + 2Re() + 2 = 2 ||2 + 2Re() + 1.

4

(2 1)(||2 1) = 0.

Since < 1 we must have || = 1.

We may therefore write = ei and obtain

ei z +

,

ei z + 1

S(z) =

and we conclude that

S(z) = ei

i

ei z +

i(+) z + e

=

e

,

ei z + 1

ei z + 1

7. Poincare defined a Riemannian metric on the open unit disc by the formula

4 dz dz

.

(1 |z|2 )2

ds2 =

|v0 |P =

2 |v0 |E

,

1 |z0 |2

where |v|E is its usual Euclidean length. Show that this metric is invariant under any

mapping of the form S in problem 6, in the sense that

|S 0 (z0 )(v0 )|P = |v0 |P ,

where the left side is evaluated at S(z0 ) and the right side is evaluated at z0 .

z+a

Solution: With S(z) = ei 1+az

, we have

S 0 (z) = ei

1 |a|2

.

(1 + az)2

We therefore have

|S 0 (z0 )(v0 )|2S(z0 ) =

|S 0 (z0 )v0 |2

(1 |S(z0 )|2 )2

(1|a|2 )2 |v0 |2

|1+az0 |4

|z0 +a|2 2

1 |1+az

2

0|

2 2

(1 |a| ) |v0 |2

.

|1 + az0 |2 |z0 + a|2 )2

|1 + az0 |2 |z0 + a|2 = 1 + az0 + az0 + |a|2 |z0 |2 |z0 |2 az0 az0 |a|2

= 1 + |a|2 |z0 |2 |z0 |2 |a|2

= (1 |a|2 )(1 |z0 |2 ).

Thus finally we have

|S 0 (z0 )(v0 )|2P =

|v0 |2

= |v0 |2P .

(1 |z0 |2 )2

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