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University of Santo Tomas

Faculty of Arts And Letters

A Study on the Awareness of Patients in theSelected Public Hospitals in Manila
regarding their Legal Rights

Submitted By:
Libiran, Jared Ruiz A.
Montemayor, Anna Carmela B.
November 6,2015

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CHAPTER 1
The Problem and its Background
This chapter presents the introduction, objectives, theoretical framework, conceptual
framework, statement of the problem, hypothesis, significance of the study, scope and
limitations, and definition of terms.

1.1.Introduction
Beggars cannot be choosers; so are patients in the public hospitals.
The situation of the Philippine public healthcare is alarming.With the lack of public
hospitals, the poor accommodation and sub standard facilities in these hospitals add up
to the problem.
Dr. Rusty Jimenez of the Private Hospitals Association of the Philippines said that there
are only 1,800 hospitals in the country both private and government-owned with a total
bed capacity of 77,000.Jimenez added that with the population of 100 million people, the
bed to patient ratio in Philippine hospitals is at one bed for every 1,000 patients.
(Dagooc, 2014)
Increasing migration of health professionals has also largely depleted the pool of health
practitioners. Doctors and nurses are leaving the country at an ever faster rate.
Dr. Melchor Rey Santos, president of the Philippine Medical Association (PMA), reported
that of the 35,000 doctors in the PMA roster, 6,000 are now working abroad. Another
4,000 have opted to retrain and shift to the nursing profession, in preparation for an
overseas job as a nurse.(Diez, 2010).

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In the statistics of the Philippine HRH Master Plan and Nursing Workforce Management
of the Institute of Health Policy and Development Studies, University of the Philippines
Manila-National Institutes of Health, 221,323 out of 421,467 nurses who passed the
Board were unemployed in 2012,It is also estimated that from 2001 to 2011 there were
132,943 overseas-employed nurses, and only 67,202 were locally employed.
(Ermitanio&Alviar,2014)

Despite the Department of Health’s vibrancy in promoting the selling and buying of
generic medical products, the cheapest generics are still unaffordable by many of the
average Filipinos. (Picazo, 2012)
Moreover, Philippine College of Physicians president Dr. Anthony Leachonpointed out in
their health forum last 2014 that the underprivileged in the Philippines have low health
literacy. Most of the marginalized Filipinos are not educated and inferior in terms of
understandingthe basic health information and services resulting to a higher death rate
in the country.
Lack of facilities and practitioners, high cost of medicine and hospitalization and the
inadequacy of dissemination of basic health information; these are violations of human
rights as Filipino patients are seemingly deprived of those.
The Commission on Human Rights of the Philippines defines human rights as the
supreme, inherent, inalienable rights to man as a human being and those which he may
legally inherit or acquire by title as necessary to his life, liberty, dignity and self
development, including those that may accrue to him in the course of his existence,
resulting either from the dynamic, ever-changing complexities of modern living, or those

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bestowed upon him that make him a more revered human being of even greater stature
than before.
Clear enough, when medical treatment were not availed due to the said existing
problems, it could be considered as deprivation of the patients’ inherent right to life,
especially for those who have serious illness who are badly in need of medical
assistance.
This study is about the awareness of the patients in the selected public hospitals in
Manila regarding their legal rights. In this study, the researchers assessed the current
state of patients’ rights and its implementation in the selected public hospitals in Manila.
The researchers chose Manila as the location of the study for it is the most diverse and
populous city in the Philippines. The factors affecting the patients’ unawareness
regarding their legal rights are also determined.
1.2. Objectives of the Study
The primary objective of this study is to assess the current state of patients’ rights and its
implementation in the selected public hospitals in Manila.
1.2.1 Specific Objectives
The researchers also have the following as specific objectives:
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Find out the laws and jurisprudence establishing patients’ rights in the Philippines
Determine the factors affecting the patients’ unawareness regarding their legal

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rights in the selected public hospitals in Manila
Assess the development and implementation of policies regarding patients’ rights

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of the selected public hospitals in Manila
Raise awareness in the need to address the problem regarding the patients’
unawareness of their legal rights

Equality for each member within the state under the guidance of a ruler is important for there to be a common basis for everyone within the state. human rights. Immanuel Kant’s Theory on Rights According to Immanuel Kant’s Theory on Rights. the constituents derive other rights. The second principle introduces the idea of the equality of every member of society. . is the basis from which rights for every human being originate. creation and implementation of rights are primarily dependent on the government and its respective branches.3. are provided by the government. these laws are founded upon 3 rational principles: 1. In order for a society to be able to function properly. the state must give and enhance fundamental rights. The independence of every member of the commonwealth as a citizen The first principle is based upon the idea of liberty of individuals. and entitlements. Kant emphasizes the importance of the liberty of individuals as the state or commonwealth is not allowed to dictate the lives of individuals.5 1. Everyone must possess the same rights within the state so that laws can be evaluated and be applied in the same equal manner for everyone.3. The liberty of every member of the society as a man 2. Theoretical Framework 1. Equality. According to Kant’s teachings. therefore. The development. as a subject 3. These rights guarantee the freedom of its constituents and from that freedom. within the perspective of politics. laws.1. as stated by Kant. The equality of every member of the society with every other.

People began living in small communities. Rosseau further explained his theory by explaining that before civil society was formed. Man. Rights develop from this principle because it is up to the individual to act independently if a right or law is to be practiced. However. rights would not be needed. The means by which people could satisfy their needs began to change. Jean-JaquesRosseau’s Social Contract Theory The Social Contract Theory is the theory in which the persons’ moral and legal obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live. as time passed. Discoveries and inventions have made life easier and the concept of leisure time arose. their population increased. competition were non-existent. he further describes the theory by giving the historical process in which man began in a “state of nature” and over time progressed into civil society. . The abundance of nature and the relatively small size of the population. was not inclined to bring harm to one another.2. Such leisure time inevitably led people to make comparison between themselves and others resulting in making public values. much less had reason for conflict or fear. If a member of society is incapable of acting independently without the guidance of the commonwealth. and men rarely see each other.3. people lived solitary and uncomplicated lives. In Rosseau’s Social Contract Theory.6 The last principle is the idea that every member of the state is independent as a citizen. therefore. 1.

conditions of inequality became more pronounced which led to the development of social classes and the eventual formation of the government. acceptance. vanity. the individual will immediately act to remove the deficiency. however. He then proposed the idea that men are endowed with freedom and equality by nature.3.. 3. bodily comforts.3. and if at some future time a deficiency is detected. Physiological – hunger. 1. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs According to Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs.7 The invention of property. by invoking their free will to reconstitute themselves politically. should be regarded as the “fall from grace” out of the State of Nature for it had brought greed. men are motivated to achieve certain needs. competition. along strongly democratic principles. Men can overcome this corruption. Maslow devised a hierarchy of human needs that is based on two groupings: deficiency needs and growth needs. Once each of these needs have been satisfied. inequality and vice. Rosseau further states. each lower need must first be satisfied in order to move to the next level. etc. thirst. In the deficiency needs. however their nature has been corrupted by their history. . 2. The first four levels are: 1. With the introduction of property. Belongingness and Love – Affiliation with others. Rosseau stated in his work that the formation of the government cements the inequalities property has produced. Safety or security – security from danger.

and beauty. and recognition. they should also uphold a competent. Maslow identified two of the first growth needs as part of the more general level of self-actualization and one beyond the general level that focused on growth beyond that oriented towards self. gain approval. It refers to the capacity to think. Maslow further explained his theory by stating that an individual is ready to act upon the growth need when deficiency needs are met.3. order. Esteem – to achieve. 6. Maslow later differentiated the growth need of selfactualization. and 8. Principle of Autonomy The concept of “Autonomy” is one of the four traditional pillars of Bioethics. The following are: 5. to understand. even if it appears medically wrong. physicians and family members are obligated to help the patient come to their own decision by providing full information. decide and act on one’s own free initiative. Maslow’s initial conceptualization included only one growth need however. 1. Self-actualization – to find self-fulfillment and realize one’s potential. In the perspective of the medical field. . competence. 7.8 4. adult patient’s decision. Self-transcendence – to connect to something beyond the ego or to help others find self-fulfillment and realize their potential. Aesthetic – appreciation for symmetry.4. and explore. Cognitive – the urge to know.

9 1.4. Conceptual Framework Theory of Rights Laws Social Contract Theory Hospitals Patients’ Rights Principle of Autonomy Hierarchy of Needs Theory Patients in selectedp ublic hospitals in Manila Survey Method Interview Method Patients in the selected hospitals in Manila are not aware of their legal rights .

10 According to the Theory of Rights.5. the researchers want to prove through interview and survey method that patients in the selected public hospitals in Manila are not aware of their legal rights.5 Statement of the Problem In order to achieve the objectives and realize the significance of the study.2. and determine the factors of their unawareness. Are the laws concerning patients’ rights adequate? .1. 1. rights must be given or enhanced by the government through enactment and implementation of laws in order to have a fully functioning state. General Problem Whether or not patients in selected public hospitals in Manila are aware of their rights as patients 1. stating that all patients must have knowledge about their current status so he may be able to decide for himself without force or coercion. In this study. The patients in the selected public hospitals in Manila on the other hand. the researchers formulated the following problems: 1.5. must be able to know their legal rights by the virtue of the principle of autonomy. These laws gave the moral and legal obligations to hospitals and health practitioners to promulgate the rights of patients following the social contract theory stating that rights are acquired by agreement between the government and the people. and the hierarchy of needs theory which demands the satisfaction of physiological need in which health satisfaction belongs. Specific Problems 1.

6.6. H1: The patients in the selected public hospitals in Manila are aware of their legal rights. Hypothesis 1. 1.6. 2. H0: Philippine laws that govern patients’ welfare and rights are adequate.1 Hypothesis for the General Problem H0: The patients in the selected public hospitals in Manila are unaware of their legal rights.2 Hypotheses for the Specific Problems 1. H0: The factors affecting the unawareness of patients to their legal rights are brought about by the government and the hospital H1:The factors affecting the unawareness of patients to their legal rights are not brought about by the government and the hospital H2 : The factors affecting the unawareness of patients to their legal rights are brought about by the government only . What are the factors affecting the patients’ unawareness regarding their legal rights in the selected public hospitals in Manila? 3. Is the implementation of the policies of the selected public hospitals in Manila regarding the patients’ rights sufficient? 1. H1: Philippine laws that govern patients’ welfare and rights are not adequate.11 2.

7. Significance of the Study The researchers deemed that the study would prove to be significant to the following groups and entities: First and foremost. Third. the University of Santo Tomas would also benefit as the study would contribute to its intellectual property. this study may serve as a reference for future researchers who wish to conduct a study regarding patient rights in the Philippines. . especially the ones who are in public hospitals. Second.12 H3 : The factors affecting the unawareness of patients to their legal rights are brought about by the hospital only 3. Fourth. the study may contribute to the assessment and implementation of policies of public hospitals that would affect the patients’ welfare and the improvement of their accommodation and service to patients. this study will provide the legislative body of the Philippines the facts which would be useful for the creation and development of policies that would genuinely benefit patients. 1. Fifth. H0: The implementation of the policies of the selected public hospitals in Manila regarding the patients’ rights is insufficient H1: The implementation of the policies of the selected public hospitals in Manila regarding the patients’ rights is sufficient. the study would greatly benefit patients as this study aims to improve the lives of patients.

1. The study is only concerned about the patients’ rights which are given in the Philippine jurisprudence The rights which the researchers refer to are the rights that are stated in the bill of rights.13 Sixth. . and who are confined in selected public hospitals in the city of Manila only. The researchers will use survey forms and would be conducting interviews to the patients. the student researchers would greatly benefit as this study is essential to the fulfillment of the requirements needed in the completion of their bachelors’ degree in Legal Management. through this study.Scope and Limitations The researchers’ study aims to determine whether or not the patients in public hospitals in the city of Manila are aware of their rights and the factors that affect their knowledge on the matter. No other methods will be used. namely. medical practitioners and government agencies which are involved in the development and implementation of policies concerning patients’ rights. The research was conducted from August 2015 to April 2016. laws passed by congress.8. and regulations and ordinances of the leading medical associations in the Philippines. The researchers have conducted their study on patients who are not terminally ill. the researchers would to raise awareness to the general public of their rights as patients Lastly. have discernment and are of sound mind.

are entitled to. injury or deformity. a person is harmed as a result of the failure to act. Malpractice is the improper performance of professional duties.9.14 1. by legislation or their inherent nature. disease. Hierarchy of needs is a theory formulated by Abraham Maslow which states that men are motivated by their needs. . Hospital is an institution that devoted primarily to the maintenance and operation of facilities for the diagnosis. Negligence is the failure to act as an ordinary prudent person. a failure to meet the standard of care that resulted in harm to another person. Maslow further explained his theory by formulating a pyramid where men must satisfy the lower ranking needs in order for them to satisfy the needs that Maslow has placed on top of his pyramid. or in need of obstetrical or other medical or nursing care. Bioethics is defined as ethics concerning life. Definition of Terms Autonomy is defined as a moral or ethical principle which means a patient’s right to self determination without outside control. and care for individuals suffering from illness. Rights are privileges that individuals. Patient is defined as an individual who receives medical treatment. treatment. Patients' rights are right enjoyed by the patient.

Social Contract Theory is a theory formulated by Jean-JaquesRosseauwhich states that the persons’ moral and legal obligations are dependent upon a contract or agreement among them to form the society in which they live. the government must develop and enhance rights that their constituents would enjoy. Survey Method is a method used in quantitative researches that uses surveys where the respondents would answer. or by any department. . Theory of Rights is a theory by Immanuel Kant which states that in order to have a fully functioning state.15 Public Hospital is defined as a hospital that is operated and maintained either partially or wholly by the government or any other political subdivision. division. board or other agency thereof. Slovin's Formula is the formula used by the researchers to determine the sample size of a population that must be taken for a specific study.

Harvard University In a resource guide published by Harvard University. the right to information of their rights. right to confidentiality and privacy and the right to informed consent. and management of illness and the preservation of physical and mental well-being through services offered by health professionals and those. they defined patient care as the prevention.2. the resource guide also addressed certain issues regarding these rights. particularly in the right to information. right to participate in making health care decisions.Health and human rights resource guide (2013).16 Chapter 2 2. but 56% did not know what their rights were . has supervision to the patients. which one may exercise upon availing patient care. However. In addition. right to informed consent. the resource guide cited another study in Macedonia where it was found that 82% of respondents stated that there are patient rights. The resource guide also cited six basic aspects of patients’ rights. right to medical treatment. right to refuse medical treatment. All of which are patterned to the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights Moreover. Harvard School of Public Health. treatment results. treatment. where it was found out that 85% of the staff and 56% of the patients in those hospitals said that they heard of and read about patients’ rights laws. only 50% of professionals and 69% of patients thought it was necessary for patients to have information about diagnosis. In the right to information. which even though were non-professionals. and alternative modes of treatment. A patient has an access to such care whether he or she is healthy or sick. the resource guide cited a study conducted at four hospitals in Lithuania. and right to confidentiality and privacy.1. right to dignity and autonomy.

When a . the resource guide defined Informed consent as “not mere acceptance of a medical intervention. such as HIV/AIDS. and circumstances compelling limits on the need for informed consent. respect for personal autonomy. For example. Issues that arise concern the competency or legal capacity of the patient to consent. and also mental illness. from the right to informed consent are necessary at times. while only 41% believed consent forms expressed their own wishes for treatment. and other specific providers.17 The resource guide stated that the right to privacy and confidentiality are crucialespecially for patients seeking diagnosis and treatment of sexually related illnesses. The resource guide suggested that health care centresshould only allow the patients. about 46% believed that the primary function of the written consent form was to protect the hospital. which would value the confidentiality of the patients to access the patient’s health information. protecting the right of the patient to be involved in medical decision-making. consequently exiling them to the society. and assigning associated duties and obligations to health-care providers. or departures.” The right to informed consent is central to the right to health. like those patients who are in comatose and cannot give their consents. the sufficiency and completeness of information. but a voluntary and sufficiently informed decision. for those illnesses give other people negative presumptions regarding the patient. In a study of 732 European surgical patients in obstetrics and gynecology during a sixmonth period. and 68% thought that the form allowed doctors to take control. Derogations. but the question of when derogations may be permitted is a complicated one. a nurse who is vaccinating a patient may not access that individual’s private mental health records because the information is not relevant to the treatment being provided at that current moment Lastly.

The patient needs to give specific authorization or permission to allow a third party to have access to confidential information. Issues of informed consent also arise from public health policies that require compulsory testing. the right to have autonomy.htm The US Center of Disease Control Prevention stated the four basic rights of patients to protect their personal and private information relevant to their medical care. A patient discloses his or her personal information to the health care worker in order to receive appropriate treatment and quality care. compulsory vaccinations.gov/tb/education/ssmodules/module7/ss7reading2.2. Procedural safeguards are crucial to derogations from informed consent. However.18 patient is unconscious. medical providers may presume that consent is given.The patient generally has the right to control who has access to confidential information except as otherwise provided by law. or mandated quarantine during epidemics. and the right to be given information. medical providers must seek consent from a legally entitled representative. what information should be released to each requestor and the duration of the authorization. The right to withhold authorization or disclosure is the act of keeping.2 Protecting Patients' Rights.cdc. Retrieved from http://www. These are the right to give or withhold authorization or disclosures. the patient should have control over who will receive any personal information. . To the extent possible. if there is an emergency situation where the patient’s life is in danger. All of which are also patterned to the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights. (2012). to ensure that proper circumstances are met and to provide a means to challenge the departure from the law. revealing or distributing personal information. the right to maintain privacy. 2.

making Filipinos ‘more sick’. the patient has a right to be given information about his or her medical diagnosis. this concept applies to any adult person who is mentally competent. to learn more about his or her health care or in preparation for a change of health care workers.com/ne ws/story /366216 /lifestyle /healthandwellness/low-health-literacy-level-alarmingmaking-filipinos-more-sick doctor#sthash.gmanetwork. In connection to this right. A patient may want this information.dpufhttp://www.3 Mateo. and progress. and personal information. the patient can request a correction or amendment. Lastly. treatment regimen. (2014) Low health literacy level alarming. the health care workers taking care of the patients should protect information revealed during provider-health care worker encounters.gmanetwork. I. For example. informed decisions about his or her health care. If the record contains errors or omissions. Sometimes the right to autonomy can be overridden in the interest of protecting others who may be harmed by the patient's decisions.19 Regarding the right to maintain privacy. 2.tktmpQuB. a patient also has a right to review the information in his or her medical record. including all written or electronic records of these encounters.Retrieved from:http://www. a patient who has a highlycontagious disease cannot invoke his right of autonomy to refuse medical treatment because his disease might infect others as well.2.doctor. This allows the patient to make appropriate. Only those persons directly involved in the care of the patient's health problem should have access to private information. . Sometimes the right to autonomy can be overridden in the interest of protecting others who may be harmed by the patient's decisions. personal belongings.GMA News online. Autonomy is the right of a patient to determine what will be done with his or her body.

leading further to the dismal health situation in the Philippines. could not afford the medicines that they need due to their high price. intensify the impact of the low health literacy. Anthony Leachonsaid that when a typical Filipino patients come toto seek medical advice. as defined by the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). the National Assessment of Adult Literacy released by the US Department of Education in 2006 revealed that only 12 percent of American consumers have proficient health literacy skills. adds up to the lack of medical facilities and other medical health care problems faced by the Philippines today. Leachon said grinding poverty and the accompanying low level of education among poor Filipinos aggravate the low health literacy among them.In the US. Ibarra Mateo last June 18. the Philippines is not the only country having to deal with the problems caused by low health literacy.20 In a article published by Mr. it was stated that the low health literacy of Filipinos. 2014. is the degree to which an individual has the capacity to obtain. which is a higher rate of hospitalization to Philippine medical centers. and understand basic health information and services to make appropriate health decisions. He said that this is failure of health literacy Health literacy. especially the poor. coupled with the lack of health infrastructure in the countryside. suggesting that nearly nine out . is one of the key drivers causing the ranks of unhealthy and sick Filipinos to swell at an alarming rate. communicate.The shortage of medical doctors and other health professionals in rural areas. Underpriviledge sick Filipinos. they are very sick already. process. Philippine College of Physicians president Dr. The result of low health literacy. who most of the time are suffering from chronic and terminal illnesses. In addition. Still. for example.

meaningful to them. manage chronic diseases.2.4. The CDC said that low health literacy can affect a person’s ability to locate health care providers and services. Gaurav S. Venkteshan M. In the end. understanding and perceptions towards legal nature of informed consent. It was also stated by Leachon that the parents play a vital role in educating their children.21 of 10 adults may lack many of the skills necessary to sufficiently manage their health. it is the fundamental mechanism where the physician informs the patient about the options for the diagnosis and treatment of the patient's illness. attitude and perceptions towards legal nature of informed consent.. About one-third of US adults have trouble reading and acting on health-related information and that even those with higher health literacy skills want health information that is understandable. and engage in self-care.J Indian Acad Forensic Med: India. fill out health forms. According to this study. 2. Informed consent is an autonomous action by a subject or patient that authorizes a professional either to involve the subject in research or to initiate a medical plan for the patient.. Mukul C. and easy to use. attitude. Leachon suggested that the society needs to educate their children at the very young age about health literacy. Balbir K.Patient’s awareness. This study was conducted to ascertain patient’s awareness. and it must start in educating them regarding to what they should eat..Rajesh D. In simple terms.. ..AbhishekS. share personal health information with providers.. (2013). Bhardwaj A. for most of the illness is caused to what people intake to their bodies. &Aggarwal O.

. they would not be treated anymore. the study concludes that there exists a vast discrepancy between the informed consent that perceived by patients. 2. 83.22 Informed Consent originates from the legal and ethical rights of the patient have to direct what happens to his body and from the ethical duty of the physician to involve the patient in his/her health care.Canadian Center of Science and Education: Canada . Current consent procedures seem inadequate as a means for the expression of autonomous choice and their ethical standing can be called into question. .5. seeing bill.8% of the respondents thought that signing the consent meant waving their rights to any compensation. Yaghobian M. 88 % of the patients under study thought that they had no right to change their minds after signing the consent.2. 6 (3). 75% of the patients falsely believed that informed consent was a legal requirement. In this study. The researchers of this study inferred that the patients that they interviewed had several misconceptions regarding their giving of legal consent.8% signed the consent form so that they can undergo required operative procedure In the end.Global Journal of Health Science Vol.Kaheni S. The most important goal of informed consent is that the patient should have an opportunity to be an informed participant in his health care decisions so it acts as a safeguard to ensure the preservation of individual rights. In the results.2% of the respondents alsobelieved that they would be left to die had not they signed the consent.They believe that without signing the informed consent. 75.(2014) Association between awareness of patient rights and patient’s education. a structured interview to 555 patients was conducted in several Indian hospitals from January to June 2011. and age: a crosssectional study. 68. Danesh M. Meanwhile. In connection to this. &Abhar F.

25% were illiterate and only 4.5% had received any information from public media. and only 36.4% of the respondents answered negatively to the question inquiring whether or not they had seen the charter of patient rights.4% were women and 44. using a two-section questionnaire based on the bill of patient rights and with verified reliability and validity.2% had a bachelor’s degree.6% were men. 63. Rights of Patients in the International Community . and 29.6% had seen the charter.1% had good knowledge The researchers of this study concluded that patients are not sufficiently aware of their rights. The results indicate that out of 336 individuals. the results indicate that the awareness score ranging from 0 to 10 had a mean value of 3. 55. In the second part of the questionnaire. Most patients were educated below high school level (36%). As for the source of information on the contents of the bill.68.9%) had poor knowledge. The study population consisted of 336 patients recruited from the hospitals affiliated with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences in Sari. through calculating the selection quota of each hospital. Data were collected through face-to-face interview on discharge. Most patients (58.3% mentioned the hospital as their source and only 1. 28.226 and a standard deviation of 3. and this problem requires comprehensive planning to be resolved.23 This study aims to determine the awareness ofpatients from four hospitals located Sari. Iran regarding their legal rights in order to ascertain the effectiveness of their patients’ bill of rights. out of 36. 12% had intermediate knowledge.6% who had responded positively.

” Section 3: “1.24 The United Nations. through the United Nations Educational. nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws. Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Article III of the 1987 Constitution provides the rights that are exercised by a Filipino citizen. or when public safety or order requires otherwise as prescribed by law. The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except upon lawful order of the court. liberty or property without due process of law. have published several documents that emphasize the importance of the rights of patients. and the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights all have emphasized the importance of the importance of the patient’s dignity and rights as a patient. Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. The Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights. It is obvious that these rights should as well be enjoyed by any person that is under the jurisdiction of the Philippine laws even if they are patients. Rights of Patients in the Philippines The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines have been the cornerstone of every law and jurisprudence in the Philippines.” . 2. the International Declaration on Human Genetic Data. As stated under the following sections under the Article III of the Philippine Constitution: Section 1: “No person shall be deprived of life.

If the patient is unable to give the informed consent because of his inability to fulfil the given conditions. the physician must inform the patient of their diagnosis. Generally. the patient’s next of kin may give consent or even the state. the potential danger if the procedure is not applied. One instance is when the disclosure of facts would cause emotional distress to the patients and the other is when the medical procedure is publically known. the patient is the only one who can give informed consent however. . There are also instances where a detailed disclosure of facts is not required. If the listed persons above are not able to give consent. the alternative methods if there are any. The other is when the procedure is innovative and experimental in character. This right is based on the fiduciary relationship of the patient and physician. the Municipal Health Officer. the risks involved. the prospect of success. children. the general nature of the contemplated procedure. his spouse. there are conditions to be fulfilled in giving informed consent. if the listed persons above are absent or are unable to give consent. There are instances where informed consent requires more disclosure of facts. and the contractual nature of the patient-physician relationship. or the Medical Director. One instance is when the procedure entails much risk. The patient must be of legal age and of sound mind. the human being’s right to self-determination.25 It is the patient’s right to give informed consent and in order for this to be observed. represented by the City Health Officer. parents or siblings may give consent in his behalf provided that they are legal age and are of sound mind.

Exploitation and discrimination. The patient’s right to religion is also respected by the hospital. The patient also has the right to privacy. Another case is when the law makes it compulsory for everyone to submit to the procedure. Intrusion may occur in the following ways:   When the patient is expected to be alone Publishing information about the patient which might be objectionable or  offensive to ordinary persons Appropriating for commercial purposes some aspects of personality or facets of the patient’s life The right to privacy of a patient. In cases of emergency. According to Republic Act No. The Act Providing for Stronger Deterrence and Special Protection Against Child Abuse. The patient may refuse treatment if the procedure goes against the teachings of his church. where it mandates a compulsory basic immunization for infants and children who are below eight years of age. where the patient is unconscious and there is no one who can give consent in his behalf. may be violated for the purpose of protecting the public. Providing . and to protect the physician from any consequence for failure to comply with legal requirements. An example of this is the Presidential Decree 996. there are instances where the patient’s consent is not needed. The police power of the state is far more supreme than the welfare of the patient. A member of the Jehova’s Witness may refuse blood transfusions. However. 7610. however.26 This right protects the patient from unnecessary or unwarranted medical procedure without his consent.

Rule 130. 6615. the best interests of the children should be paramount in all actions concerning them. Executive Order No. 212. The patient has the right to be treated. sanitarium or other medical establishments. and for other Purposes.27 Penalties for its Violation. courts of law. whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions. whether private or public. 169. An Act requiring Government and Private Hospitals and Clinics to Extend Medical Assistance in Emergency Cases. medical clinic. states that all hospitals. a statute that amends Presidential Decree No. 263. administrative authorities. . states that the attending physician of any hospital. 264 and 265 of the Revised Penal Code shall report the fact of such treatment promptly to the nearest government health authority. Therefore the patient’s right to privacy may be disregarded if it goes against the child’s best interests.” There are instances where the right to privacy of the patient is violated when there is a lawsuit filed by the patient against the doctor. and legislative bodies. Section 21(c) of the Rules of Court provides: “A person authorized to practice medicine cannot in a civil case without the consent of the patient cannot be examined as to any information which he may have acquired in attending such patient. who has treated any person for serious or less serious physical injuries as these injuries are defined in Articles 262. According to Republic Act No. or any other medical practitioner. and clinics that are duly licensed are required to render immediate emergency medical assistance and to provide facilities and medicine within its capabilities to patients in emergency cases who are in danger of dying and/or who may have suffered serious physical injuries.

after the patient or his next of kin consents to said transfer and after the receiving hospital or medical clinic agrees to the transfer: Provided. That such transfer shall be done only after necessary emergency treatment and support have been administered to stabilize the patient and after it has been established that such transfer entails less risks than the patient's continued confinement: Provided. That by reason of inadequacy of the medical capabilities of the hospital or medical clinic. That strict compliance with the foregoing procedure on transfer shall not be construed as a refusal made punishable by this Act. . director. finally. That when the patient is unconscious. demand or accept any deposit or any other form of advance payment as a prerequisite for confinement or medical treatment of a patient in such hospital or medical clinic or to refuse to administer medical treatment and support as dictated by good practice of medicine to prevent death or permanent disability: Provided. 8344.28 Republic Act No. manager or any other officer. solicit. president. it shall be unlawful for any proprietor. An Act Penalizing the Refusal of Hospitals and Medical Clinics to Administer Appropriate Initial Medical Treatment and Support in Emergency or Serious Cases. shall refuse to receive the patient nor demand from the patient or his next of kin any deposit or advance payment: Provided. after being informed of the medical indications for such transfer. Amending for the Purpose Batas Pambansa Bilang 702. states that: In emergency or serious cases. and/or medical practitioner or employee of a hospital or medical clinic to request. furthermore. further. incapable of giving consent and/or unaccompanied. however. That no hospital or clinic. the physician can transfer the patient even without his consent: Provided. the attending physician may transfer the patient to a facility where the appropriate care can be given.

29 Republic Act No.9439. prohibits any hospital or medical clinic in the country to detain or to otherwise cause. directly or indirectly. for reasons of nonpayment in part or in full of hospital bills or medical expenses. I will treat without exception al who seek my ministrations. I will continue with diligence to keep abreast of advances in medicine. an Act Prohibiting the Detention of Patients in Hospitals and Medical Clinics on Grounds of Nonpayment of Hospital Bills or Medical Expenses. the detention of patients who have fully or partially recovered or have been adequately attended to or who may have died. WITH PURITY. To RECKON all who have taught me this art equally dear to me as my parents and in same spirit and dedication to impart knowledge of the art of medicine to others. and my peers that according to my ability and judgement I will keep this Oath and Stipulation. I will neither treat any patient nor carry out any research on any human being without the valid informed consent of the . The Hippocratic Oath I SWEAR in the presence of the Almighty and before my family. and I will seek counsel of particularly skilled physicians where indicated for the benefit of my patient. I will neither prescribe nor administer a lethal dose of medicine to any patient even if asked nor counsel any such thing nor perform the utmost respect for every human life from fertilization to natural death and reject abortion that deliberately takes a unique human life. I WILL FOLLOW the method of treatment which according to my ability and judgement. HOLINESS AND BENEFICIENCE I will pass my life and practice my art. Except for the prudent correction of an imminent danger. I will consider for the benefit of my patient and abstain from whatever is harmful or mischievous. my teachers. so long as to treatment of others is not compromised thereby.

And I will faithfully discharge to the best of my ability the duties and obligations incumbent upon a legally authorized medical practitioner. WHILE I CONTINUE to keep this Oath unviolated may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of the art and science of medicine with the blessing of Almighty and respected by my peers and society. understanding that research must have as its purpose the furtherance that research. I further solemnly swear that at all times and places. Into whatever patient setting I enter. but should I trespass and violate this Oath. legal order and decree promulgated by the duly constituted authorities of the Republic of the Philippines. . Administrative Oath I hereby solemnly swear that I will support and defend the constitution of the Philippines.30 subject or the appropriate legal protector thereof. reckoning that all such should be kept secret. without mental reservation or purpose of evasion. I will not divulge. I will adhere to the ethical and professional rules generally accepted by the medical profession in the Philippines. That I will obey the laws. WHATEVER IN CONNECTION with my professional advice or not in connection with it may see or hear in the lives of my patients which ought not to be spoken abroad. I will go for the benefit of the sick and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief or corruption and further form the seduction of any patient. may the reverse by my lot. must have its purpose the furtherance of health of that individual. and that I impose this obligation upon myself voluntarily.

(2) peer pressure. . particularly (1) social media. The questionnaire that was formed used questions involving the use of Likert scale. For the fulfilment of the course Research Methods and Proposal Writing. (3) family and. only twenty (20) students from the said faculty will be the respondents to answer the data collecting instrument prepared. the nature of this research is quantitative because it employed the process of survey through the use of written questionnaires to objectively gather data. specifically NCR. The procedure of survey through the use of written questionnaires will be utilized in order to gather the data needed for the accomplishment of the research. The survey will be conducted among the students of University of Santo Tomas.31 Chapter III Research Methods 3. (2) peer pressure. and Close-ended statements as designs with the purpose of measuring the respondents’ point of view when it comes to the continuous proliferation of teenage pregnancy in the Philippines. particularly (1) social media. Dichotomous questions. (4) liberality.0 Research Designs The information with regards to the research methods employed in the study on the subject of “Teenage pregnancy: A Growing Problem among the Youth of NCR” will be thoroughly explained in this chapter. have a significant relationship with regards to the continuous rise on the rate of pregnant adolescents. it is correlational for the reason that it establishes a relationship among the independent variables. (4) liberality. and the growing problem of teenage pregnancy among the youth of NCR which is the dependent variable of this study. Those were intentionally employed in order to determine whether the factors specified. Moreover. This research is quantitative in nature. particularly those students from the Faculty of Arts and Letters. To be specific. (3) family and.

whereNis the total population of teenage is the margin of error specified as 5% or 0.873. Likert scale. 300.05. The National Statistics Office has recorded the highest population of Filipinos situated in NCR. tables and charts will enable the researchers as well as the readers to see and appreciate the results that will be gathered. To distinguish whether or not there is a relationship between the dependent and independent variable. the Slovin’s Formula will be utilized.1 Sampling Size and Sampling Design The rise of pregnancy among the youth is rampant in the Philippines specifically in NCR. Moreover. Using the Slovin’s Formula females in NCR and e ¿ N 1+ N e 2 .32 The use of graphs. graphs will be applied to further demonstrate and exemplify the data gathered from the respondents through the use of questionnaires. the researchers would be able to find the n or the sample population needed as respondents. Furthermore. wherein it accounted 11.Pearson Product-Moment Correlation will be employed as the main statistical tool. To be able to know the sample size needed.820 are females aging from 15-19. 3. weighted mean and the computation of percentage will also be utilized as supplementary to support the analysis of data. This is the main reason why the data needed only covered the part of the National Capital Region as in accordance with the scope and limitation which was previously discussed in chapter 1.796. .

only twenty (20) students from the Faculty of Arts and Letters of the University of Santo Tomas were selected as participants for the survey.820 754 n=399.820 2 1+ ( 300. Compared to face-face interviews. For the accomplishment of the course Research Methods and Proposal Writing.47 female teenagers n=399 female teenagers The respondents needed to participate in the performance of the survey with regards to the research is 399 females aging from 15-19 as found using the Slovin’s Formula. using the formula.2 Data Collection Instrument The researchers have constructed a data collecting instrument which will be used in the conduct of surveys. The researchers will conduct surveys on the 23rd and 24th of March 2015 wherein the participation of the said students will provide the responses needed. the sample population will be obtained through the following computations: n= n= N 2 1+N e n= 300. 3.05 ) 300.33 Therefore.820 ) ( 0. the use of written .

all related to the group’s thesis topic: Teenage Pregnancy: A Growing Problem among the Youth of National Capital Region. The data collection instrument was comprised of several questions which were formulated to assess the respondents’ perception on whether or not there is a relationship between the rising number of teenage pregnancy among the youth situated in NCR and among the four factors which are the following: (1) Peer pressure. It can also reduce the bias opinions and perceptions of the researchers for the reason that the data collection instrument that will be used on the surveys will be uniform and precise. on the other hand. the results of the questionnaires can be quantified quickly and easily by the researchers. .34 questionnaires is more cost-effective and time saving. With this type of questions. and (3) close-ended questions. and (4) Liberality. 10 under the dichotomous test and 8 for the close-ended questions. the respondents’ attitude towards the research will be accounted. (3) Family. This is evident in such a way that it can cover a large number of the respondents’ population in a short period of time and in a relatively cost-effective way. The Likert Scale was employed in order for the researchers to assign quantitative value to qualitative data in order to make it amenable to statistical analysis. (2) Dichotomous questions. Dichotomous questions. 8 under the Likert scale. the researchers will be able to simplify the data coding and analysis. Through this way. The instrument incorporated is composed of three main parts which are as follows: (1) questions involving the use of Likert Scale. (2) Media. were used in order to provide the participants with a contingent market of choices. The said instrument was comprised of 26 questions. Lastly.

surveys provide a good statistical significance. Another is that the respondents are most likely to answer sensitive questions.35 The last type of questions were classified as the close-ended questions which were useful for it is easily quantifiable. surveys are cost-effective. Lastly. First. This responses that will be gathered will be easier to compare with one another. Third. a survey will be conducted. and (4) Liberality. The use of survey is preferred in this research because of its advantages.3 Data Gathering Procedure To know if there is a significant relationship between the continuous rise of the rate of teenage pregnancy among the Filipino youths situated at NCR and the factors mentioned such as (1) Peer pressure. . Due to the large number of representatives that a survey can cover. 3. (2) Media. this type of questioning is convenient for both the researchers and the respondents for it is easy to be crafted and as well as to be answered by the respondents.(3) Family. a precise result can also be obtained (Treadwell. The researchers only need to prepare and provide the budget needed for the production of the copies of the data collecting instrument. 2014). surveys offer a high level of capability when it comes to representing a huge number of respondents’ population. Second. Lastly. the researchers will be able to gather data that will be of much help in the investigation and fulfilment of the research. the researchers’ own biased perceptions can be eliminated due to the standardization of the questionnaires that will be presented to the respondents. Through this. Through the application of the following designs. the researchers can easily find a statistically significant results compared to other data gathering methods.

Statistical methods and analyses also give credibility to research methodology and conclusion as well.36 The data that will be used in the research will be gathered through conducting the process of survey using a data collecting instrument. using it only for academic and classroom purposes.4 Data Analysis To scrutinize the data gathered through the conduct of surveys. The copies of the data collecting instrument will be distributed randomly among 20 female students of the Faculty of Arts and Letters of the University of Santo Tomas. formulated by the researchers themselves. These methods will directly help the researchers in illustrating and analysing the data gathered from the questionnaires. the researchers will employ the use of different statistical tools. The use of several statistical tools are significant to determine the reliability and precision of the data collected with regards to the fulfilment of the study. . one must use a statistical method. The questionnaires were created using suitable and modified questions arranged from the simple to the more complicated questions to answer. tables and charts. It will also be of much help in conveying knowledge to its readers. The respondents’ consciousness may affect their honesty and effectiveness in answering the survey which is why the researchers will not require the respondents to write down the students’ actual names. statistical analysis tools are required for a systematic and scientifically valid analysis of the information collected through the surveys conducted. They will also assurethe confidentiality of the respondents’ answers. 3. To communicate and further demonstrate a research finding. graphs. regardless of their year and major. Furthermore.

only shows that as one variable increases. A + 1.00 to + 1. the other variable also increases. These interpretation only indicate the direction of the variables. As defined by the dictionary. the stronger the connection.1. The formula to be utilized in order to determine whether or not there exists a relationship between the variables is: . and (4) Liberality. on the other hand.00 correlation. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Since this research aims to establish the relationship between the proliferation of pregnant teenagers located in NCR and the factors such as (1) Peer pressure. According to Taylor (1990). five statistical analysis tools will be employed and these are the following: A. A correlation of 0 only proves that there is no relationship or connection between the variables. Thesaurus. This only means that as one variable increases. (2) Media.00 correlation means that the dependent and independent variables are perfectly related in a positive direction.(3) Family.37 To test and authenticatethe data gathered.1.00. the more there is a linear relationship between the variables. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation is “the most commonly used method of computing a correlation coefficient between variables that are linearly related”. the other variable decreases. the Pearson Product-Moment Correlation can range from . But regardless of the direction. the Pearson ProductMoment Correlation will be utilized as a statistical tool. A .

Likert Scale Likert scale is employed to further analyse the information collected through the questionnaires. 2008). It is defined as a psychometric scale which are commonly used in surveys in order to measure directly the attitudes of the respondents with regards to the topic of the study (McLeod. The table below shows how each scale is rated: . A four-point-scale was assigned to obtain an accurate gage on the respondents’ outlook towards the variables involved in the research.38 2 r= x −(∑ x)² N ∑ ¿[ N ∑ y 2−(∑ y )²] ¿ ¿ √¿ N ∑ xy−(∑ x)(∑ y ) ¿ Where: N = number of pairs of scores ∑xy = sum of the products of paired scores ∑x = sum of x scores ∑y = sum of y scores ∑x² = sum of squared x scores ∑y² = sum of squared y scores B.

It is defined as the average of all the data gathered.39 Scale Range Interpretation 4 3. mean is the most commonly used method to measure central tendency. the researchers must first accomplish the calculation of the weighted mean.1-3. The formula to be used for the weighted mean is: ∑ X´ w = WiXi ∑ Wi Where: X´ w = Weighted Mean W i = Weight given to each Data Value or each Number of Responses . Weighted Mean According to Manikandan (2011). It is computed by adding all the values in the data set and later on divided by the number of observations involved.1-2.0 Agree 2 1.0 Disagree 1 0-1.1-4.0 Strongly Agree 3 2.0 Strongly Disagree C. The computation of weighted mean is vital for the reason that in order to utilize Likert scale.

The perspective of the respondents’ will definitely be taken into account. The use of frequency distribution is vital in the research for it is helpful in . Frequency Distribution Through the employment of written questionnaires as the instrument for the collection of data. the researchers utilized the computation of percentage. Percentage To further examine the data collected through the conduct of surveys. The formula employed to acquire the percentage needed is: N F /¿ × 100 P=¿ Where: P= Percentage (%) F= Frequency N= Total Number of Population E. Computing the percentage will be substantial for the investigation of whether or not there is a significant relationship between the variables involved in the study.40 X i = Data Value/ Number of Responses Σ= Summation D. scores in the answers of the respondents will be efficiently given.

Three kinds of graphs will be specifically used and these are the following: A. . they serve as a powerful communication tools for they are comprehensive and they can easily impart knowledge to the readers and the researchers as well. Third. it emphasizes important information in a way that data are statistically organized which makes it easier for the readers to locate substantial facts regarding the study. as well. And lastly. making it more understandable. First. The researchers employed this graph because it has the capability of showing whether or not there is an affiliation between the dependent and independent variables present in the study. charts and tables are of much help in further illustrating the data gathered according to Rodrigues (2013). Charts and tables will be utilized as well in order for the researchers and the readers. The use of graphs. Scatter Plot As defined by Gotauco (2012). scatter plot is a set of points plotted on the horizontal and vertical axes of a graph. It shows the relationship between the two sets of data. it visually presents the significant results of the data thus. Second. it is useful in illustrating key points about the results of the data collected. Graphs were also employed to further illustrate the data gathered through the surveys conducted beforehand. Fourth. it clarifies complicated points because it is well-ordered.41 the tabulation of data which will be effective in conveying the substantial information acquired through the responses of the respondents concerning the research. to easily see and appreciate the results of the survey.

.. A. . References Bellosillo. thus. (2010). 2012). Rebosa. Mapili. Through the illustrations created. establishing a well-rounded research. &Rebosa.42 B.). Graphs are preferred to be used by the researchers due to the reason that they are more effective at helping the readers of the research visualize the data rather than reading from the text itself. Pie chart Pie chart will be utilized because aside from the fact that it is appealing. Pie charts are divided into different segments in which each segment represent the relative size of each value (Gotauco. PH: Central Books Supply Inc.It also shows significant dissimilaritiesamong groups which are included under one variable. 2012). J. the researchers can easily impart the information gathered regarding the study.. C. This is the reason why the researchers find it suitable to be utilized in the representation of the collected information through the use of written questionnaires. A. E. Castro. Bar Graph A bar graph displays discrete data in a separate column which makes it easier for the researchers to compare and contrast the data gathered (Gotauco.. they display data in percentage which can be more appreciated by the readers. Basics of Philippine Medical Jurisprudence and Ethics (2010 Ed. B. Quezon City.

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