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TABLE OF CONTENT

NO.
1
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

TITLE

TABLE OF CONTENT

INTRODUCTION

METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS
- Design of the Dimension of Raft Foundation
- Immediate and Consolidation Settlement
- Total Pore Water Pressure and Effective Stresses below Point A and B
- Consolidation Settlement below Point A and B

SOIL PROPERTIES
- Descriptions
- Soil Classification
- Graphs and Tables

CALCULATIONS

FINAL DESIGN

APPENDIX

REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

PAGE

A raft foundation consists of a raft of reinforced concrete under the whole of a building.
This type of foundation is described as a raft in the sense that the concrete raft is cast on the
surface of the ground which supports it, as water does a raft, and the foundation is not fixed by
foundations carried down into the subsoil. Raft foundations may be used for buildings on
compressible ground such as very soft clay, alluvial deposits and compressible fill material
where strip, pad or pile foundations would not provide a stable foundation without excessive
excavation. The reinforced concrete raft is designed to transmit the whole load of the building
from the raft to the ground where the small spread loads will cause little if any appreciable
settlement.
The two types of raft foundation commonly used are the flat raft and the wide toe raft.
The flat slab raft is of uniform thickness under the whole of the building and reinforced to spread
the loads from the walls uniformly over the under surface to the ground. This type of raft may be
used under small buildings such as bungalows and two storey houses where the comparatively
small loads on foundations can be spread safely and economically under the rafts. The concrete
raft is reinforced top and bottom against both upward and downward bending. Vegetable top soil
is removed and a blinding layer of concrete 50 mm thick is spread and leveled to provide a base
on which to cast the concrete raft. A waterproof membrane is laid, on the dry concrete blinding,
against moisture rising into the raft. The top and bottom reinforcement is supported and spaced
preparatory to placing the concrete which is spread, consolidated and finished level.

When the reinforced concrete raft has dried and developed sufficient strength the walls
are raised. The concrete raft is usually at least 150 mm thick. The concrete raft may be at ground
level or finished just below the surface for appearance sake. Where floor finishes are to be laid
on the raft a 50 mm thick layer of concrete is spread over the raft, between the walls, to raise the
level and provide a level, smooth finish for floor coverings. As an alternative a raised floor may
be constructed on top of the raft to raise the floor above ground. A flat slab recommended for
building in areas subject to mining subsidence is similar to the flat slab, but cast on a bed of fine
granular material 150 mm thick so that the raft is not keyed to the ground and is therefore
unaffected by horizontal ground strains.

Where the ground has poor compressibility and the loads on the foundations would
require a thick, uneconomic flat slab, it is usual to cast the raft as a wide toe raft foundation. The
raft is cast with a reinforced concrete, stiffening edge beam from which a reinforced concrete toe
extends as a base for the external leaf of a cavity wall as shown in Fig. 13. The slab is thickened
under internal load bearing walls. Vegetable top soil is removed and the exposed surface is cut
away to roughly form the profile of the underside of the slab. As necessary 100 mm of hardcore
or concrete is spread under the area of the raft and a 50 mm layer of blinding concrete is spread,
shaped and levelled as a base for the raft and toes. A waterproof membrane is laid on the dried
concrete blinding and the steel reinforcement fixed in position and supported preparatory to
placing, compacting and levelling the concrete raft.

The external cavity and internal solid walls are raised off the concrete raft once it has
developed sufficient strength. The extended toe of the edge beam is shaped so that the external
brick outer leaf of the cavity wall is finished below ground for appearance sake. A floor finish is
laid on 50 mm concrete finish or a raised floor constructed.

METHODOLOGY OF ANALYSIS

For fairly small and uniform column spacing and when the supporting soil is not too
compressible, a flat concrete slab having uniform thickness throughout (a true mat) is most
suitable. The slab may be thickened under heavily loaded columns to provide adequate strength
for shear and negative moment. Pedestals may also be provided in such cases. A slab and beam
type of raft is likely to be more economical for large column spacing and unequal column loads,
particularly when the supporting soil is very compressible. For very heavy structures, provision
of cellular raft or rigid frames consisting of slabs and basement walls may be considered. In
granular soils, the ultimate bearing capacity of rafts is generally very large. However, for rafts
placed at considerable depth (for example basement rafts), the possibility of punching mode of
failure should be investigated. The influence of soil compressibility and related scale effects
should also be assessed. For rafts on cohesive soils stability against deep seated failures shall be
analyzed. In cohesive soils, the effect of long term settlement due to consideration shall be taken
into consideration. The depth of foundation shall generally be not less than 1 m.
The essential task in the analysis of a raft foundation is the determination of the
distribution of contact pressure underneath raft which is a complex function of the rigidity of the
superstructure, raft itself and the supporting soil, and cannot except in very simple cases, be
determined with exactitude, This necessitates a number of simplifying assumptions to make the
problem amenable to analysis, Once the distribution of contact pressure is determined, design
bending moments and shears can be computed based on statics.
Dimensional Parameters - The size and shape of the foundation adopted affect the magnitude of
subgrade modulus and long term deformation of the supporting soil and this, in turn, influence
the distribution of contact pressure. This aspect can be taken into consideration in the analysis.
Eccentricity of Loading - A raft generally occupies the entire area of the building and often it is
not feasible and rather uneconomical to proportion it coinciding the centroid of the raft with the
line of action of the resultant force. In such cases, the effect of the eccentricity on contact
pressure distribution shall be taken into consideration.
Properties of the Supporting Soil - Distribution of contact pressure underneath a raft are affected
by the physical characteristics of the soil supporting it. Considerations must be given to the

increased contact pressure developed along the edges of the foundation on cohesive soils and the
opposite effect on granular soils. Long term consolidation of deep soil layers shall be taken into
account in the analysis. This may necessitate evaluation of contact pressure distribution both
immediately after construction and after completion of the consolidation process. The design
must be based on the worst conditions.
Rigidity of the Foundation - Rigidity of the foundation tends to iron out uneven deformations and
thereby modifies the contact pressure distribution. High order of rigidity is characterized by large
moments and relatively small, uniform settlements. A rigid foundation may also generate high
secondary stresses in structural members. The effects of rigidity shall be taken into account in the
analysis.
Rigidity of the Superstructure - Free response of the foundations to soil deformation is restricted
by the rigidity of the superstructure. In the extreme case, a stiff structure may force a flexible
foundation to behave as rigid. This aspect shall be considered to evaluate the validity of the
contact pressure distribution.
Heavy Vibratory Loads - Foundations subjected to heavy vibratory loads should preferably be
isolated.
Expansion Joints - In case the structure supported by the raft consists of several parts with
varying heights and loads, it is advisable to provide expansion joints between these parts. Joints
may also be provided wherever there is a change in the direction of the raft.

DESIGN PROCEDURE
DIMENSION OF RAFT FOUNDATION

12.5m

0.5m

5m

12.5m

1.5m

0.5m

1.5m
0.5m

*the drawing is not drawn upon scale.

CALCULATIONS

SETTLEMENT
Elastic Settlement
Layer

Es

z at

Iz

(Iz/Es)z

2000

middle
2.5

0.2485

6.21 x 10- 4

5.5

7
0.2420

9.68 x 10-4

1500

2
1.59 x10

-3

q = D1
= 1(26.40)
= 26.4 kN/m
q = W = 55 kN/m (load of silo)
C1 = 1 0.5 (q/ q q)
= 1 0.5 [26.4 / (55 26.4 )]
= 0.538m
C2 = 1+ 0.2 log ( t / 0.1 )
years = 0.583334 yrs
= 1 0.2 log (0.583334 / 0.1)
= 0.847 m
Immediate settlement
1s2
S e =q o ( B )
. Is If
Es
'

t = 11 months, convert to

q o=55 kN /m2
Consider at the centre of the foundation,

=4

m = L/B = 12.5/12.5 = 1
n = H/( B/2) = 1/(12.5/2) = 0.16
B = B/2 for center of foundation = 12.5/2 = 6.25 m.
From Table 3.4,

F1

From Table 3.5,

F2 = 0.080

Is

F1

From graph,

= 0.186

12 s
1 s

F2

0.186

If 0.95

0.95

12(0.3)
1(0.3)

(0.080)

= 0.231

1s2
S e =q o ( B )
. Is If
Es
'

55 ( 4 ( 6.25 ) )

1( 0.3 )2
. ( 0.231 ) ( 0.95 )
2000

= 0.137 m.

Se = C1 C2 (q q) ( I2 / Es) z
= (0.538)(0.847) (55-26.4)(1.59 x 10^-3)
= 0.021 m ( will settle at every 7 months )
Consolidation settlement

By using 2:1 method

12.5 x
12.5

Cc = 0.32
Overburdance pressure

vo

= [(0.5/2)(26.4) + (2.5/2)x16.19 + (6/2)(26.0-9.81)]

= 75.41 kN/m2
u

= 1.5 x 9.81
= 14.72 kN/m2

Change in stress

= Load (KN) / (L + z)(B + z)

Load (KN) =

0.5(26.40)+2.5(269.81)+6.0 ( 26.09.81 )

= 150.815/ (23.5 x 23.5)


= 0.273 kN/m2

vo

= 75.41 + 0.273

= 150.815

= 75.683 kN/m2

H o C c
vo + v
+ log
1+e 0
vo

Sc =

11 x 0.32
75.683
+ log
1+ 0.8
75.41

Sc =

= 1.957 m

TOTAL PORE WATER PRESURE AND EFFECTIVE STRESS


' =u

Before construction

( 0.52 ) ( 26.4 )+( 2.52 ) ( 269.81 )+( 62 ) ( 269.81 )

=75.41kN / m2

= 1.5 x 9.81
= 14.72 kN/m2
'

=75.4114.72
'

=60.69 kN /m

Immediately after loading,

v=

Ic

m1 = L/B = 12.5 x 12.5 = 1


n1 = z / (B/2) = 11/(12.5/2) =1.76

Refer Table 5.3 for Ic = 0.4185

55) x 0.4185 = 23.0175 kN/m2 - vertical stress

u= w h
u=14.72 kN /m2

' =60.69+ 23.0175


' =83.71kN /m2

After t months of loading,


2
Take c v =0.003 cm /mm

T v=

T v=

cv t
H dr 2
0.003 ( 7 30 24 60 )
1100 2
2

T v =0.0003

From Table 7.3,


U=2
uo=14.72kN /m2

U z=1

uz
uo

0.02=1

uz
14.72

u z=14.43 kN /m2

At the end of consolidation process

u=0

Footing Size
:
From centre
=
L= B =
2(5)+1.5

12.5 x 12.5
m2
of silo to A (3.53/2)+(3.5
3/2)
=

6.01

12.5

SETTLEMEN
T
- Elastic Settlement / Immediate Settlement
CASE :-

F.S =

3
Soil Parameter (Clay)

Df
Dw

=
=
=

26.4
1
15

KN/M3
m
m

33

D < DW >
(D+B)

#no correction required

q ult = q.Nq.Sq.dq.iq + 0.5 .B.N.S.D.i


Nq=18.4
Sq= 1.65 dq=1.03
N=22.4

S=0.6

D= 1

,c=0

i=1 =26.0-9.81

q ult =3120.57KN/m2
Qallowable=qult/fs
=3120.57/2 =1040.2 kN
Intensity Load (W) =
=

Q ult
=

qult x L x B

Q all = qall x L x B

60 kn/m2 x (r2) x 4 silo


4319.69

KN/M2

Q ult =

674951.5
6

KN/M
2

Q all =

266291.2
0

KN/M
2

3060.57

KN/M
2

Net Ultimate Load , q ult (net)

q ult (net) = q ult q

q ult (net) =

1020.19

KN/M
2

q all (net) = (q ult - q)/ FS

q all (net) =

Q ult (net) = q ult (net) x L x B

Q ult (net) = 261168.64 KN/M


2

Q all (net) = q all (net) x L x B

Q all (net) =

261168.64 KN/M
2

At here we can conlude that, Q all is more than W (intensity load).


= ( Q all > W)
= 261168.64 KN/M2 > 4319.69KN/M2

CONCLUSION

The type of foundation choose is raft foundation. It is a try an error method where we consider of
using raft or pile footing. Both type of footing has its own advantages and disadvantages. The
total load of the 4 silo has been calculated and it is lower compared to the bearing capacity than
can be occupied by the raft footing. Therefore, raft footing is chosen and pile footing calculation
was ignored. The pad footing being used is sized 12.5 m x 12.5 m and thickness of 1m. Pile
footing can also be used for this structure but raft footing is easier to be calculated and
constructed. For this particular site, the ground water table doesnt reach the depth of the footing

making the footing facing less problem. From all the calculation and checking being done, raft
footing is suitable and reliable to support the load of the 4 silo.