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# I.

II.
III.
IV.

V.

EXPERIMENT TITTLE
EXPERIMENT DATE
END OF EXPERIMENT
EXPERIMENT PURPOSE :
Determine reaction order

:Inversion of Sugar
:October, 30th 2015 at 06.30 am
:October, 30th 2015 at 09.00 am
and inversion of sugar reaction using

polarimeter
BASIC THEORY
The angle of rotation of polarized light passing through the solution
is measured with a polarimeter. The reaction is:
C12H22O11 + H2O + H+ C16H12O6 + C6H12O6 + H+
Sucrose

Glucose

Fructose

## Sucrose is dextrorotatory, but the resulting mixture of glucose and

fructose is slightly levorotatory, because the levorotatory fructose has a
greater molar rotation than the dextrorotatory glucose. As the sucrose is
used up and the glucose-fructose mixture is formed, the angle of rotation
to the right (as the observer looks into the polarimeter tube) becomes less
and less, and finally the light is rotated to the left. The rotation is
determined at the beginning () and at the end of the reaction ( ), and
the algebraic difference between these two readings is a measure of the
original concentration of the sucrose.
The reaction proceeds too slowly to be measured in pure water, but
it is catalyzed by hydrogen ions. The water is in such large excess that its
concentration does not change appreciably, and the reaction follows the
equation for a first-order reaction, even though two different kinds of
molecules are involved in the reaction.
This same reaction in biological systems is catalyzed by an enzyme
called invertase. The hydrolysis of sucrose into single sugars is necessary
before the sugars can be metabolized. In humans, the invertase enzyme is
found in saliva.
Theory
The rate law for the inversion of sucrose is in the form:

d [sucrose ]
dt

## = k [sucrose]m [H2O]n [H+]p

(1)
The concentration of water in this experiment is large, 55M, and
essentially constant. We will also use a large excess of acid to maintain a
constant hydrogen ion concentration. We can then rewrite Eq. 1 to isolate
the dependence on the concentration of sucrose:

Inversion of Sugar

d [sucrose ]
dt

= keff [sucrose]m

(2)
with keff = k [H2O]n [H+]p
(3)
We will assume that the reaction is first order in sucrose, m=1,
which we will verify by curve fitting to a first-order integrated rate law. In
the equations that follow we will set [sucrose]= c. It is assumed that the
reaction goes to completion so that practically no sucrose remains at
"infinite" time. The integrated form of the first-order-reaction differential
equation is then:
c = co e-keff t
(4)
where co is the concentration of sucrose at the beginning of the reaction.
Taking logarithms,
ln

c
co

= - kt

(5)
Thus the slope of a plot of ln c/c o versus t is -k. However, in this
experiment we don't measure the concentration of sucrose.
Instead of measuring concentration directly, in this experiment the
optical rotation, , is measured. Optical rotation is linear function of the
concentration for each optically active molecule in solution:
i = Ai ci
(6)
for Ai a constant dependent on the molecule i. For a solution of sucrose,
glucose, and fructose:
= Asucrose csucrose + Aglucose cglucose + Afructose cfructose
(7)
At the end of the reaction, no sucrose remains and:
= Aglucose cglucose, + Afructose cfructose,
(8)
From the stoichiometry, cglucose, = cfructose, = csucrose,o
(9)
where csucrose,o is the initial concentration of sucrose. Substituting Eq. 9 in to
Eq. 8 gives:
= (Aglucose + Afructose ) csucrose,o
(10)
Likewise at the beginning of the reaction:
o= Asucrose csucrose,o
(11)
Subtracting Eq. 10 from Eq. 11 gives:
o- = ( Asucrose- Aglucose - Afructose ) csucrose,o
(12)

Inversion of Sugar

## During the course of the reaction at time t:

= Asucrose csucrose + Aglucose cglucose + Afructose cfructose
(13)
However, from the 1:1 stoichiometry and Eq. 9 we have
cglucose= cfructose = csucrose,o - csucrose
(14)
which when substituted into Eq. 13 and then Eq. 10 is subtracted gives:
- = Asucrose csucrose - Aglucose csucrose - Afructose csucrose
(15)
or grouping terms:
- = ( Asucrose - Aglucose - Afructose ) csucrose
(16)
Dividing Eq. 16 by Eq. 12 then gives the desired concentration ratio:

c sucrose
c sucrose ,o

(17)
Finally substituting Eq. 17 into Eq. 4 gives:
( ) = (o ) ekeff t
(18)
or = (o ) ekeff t
(19)
Substituting Eq. 17 into Eq. 5 gives
ln

= kt

(20)
or ln ( ) = kt + ln(o )
(21)
The slope is the same as it would be if actual concentrations had been
plotted.
VI.

## MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

A. MATERIALS
1. Polarimeter
2. Measuring glass 25 ml
3. Beaker glass
4. Stopwatch
B. EQUIPMENT
1. Sugar solution 10%
2. Distillate water
3. HCl 2N solution

Inversion of Sugar

VII.

EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE
1. Preparing of sugar 10% solution

5 grams sugar
- weighed
- entered to beaker glass
- added distilled water until the volume reach 50 ml

## Sugar 10% solution

2. Determination zero point of solvent

Distilled water
- used to wash the cuvette
- entered to cuvette until full
- inserted to polarimeter

## Zero point of solvent

3. Determination zero point of sample

## Sugar 10% solution

- used to wash the cuvette
- entered to cuvette until full
- inserted to polarimeter
4. Measuring the rotation
angle of sample

of sample
2 Rotation
ml sugar angle
10% solution

10 ml HCl 2N
- used to wash the cuvette
- entered to cuvette until full
- inserted to polarimeter

Distilled water

## - used to wash the cuvette

- entered to cuvette until full
- inserted toInversion
polarimeterof Sugar

## Zero point of solvent

VIII.
No

RESULT OF EXPERIMENT
Treatment

Result
Before

## Preparing of sugar 10% solution

5 grams sugar
- weighed
- entered to beaker glass
- added distilled water until the volume reach 50 ml

Sugar:
colorless
crystal
Distilled
water:
colorless
solution

Reaction

Conclusion

After
Sugar+ distilled water:
colorless solution

Sugar 10%
solution is a
colorless solution

## Determining zero point of solvent

Distilled water
- used to wash the cuvette
- entered to cuvette until full
- inserted to polarimeter

Distilled
water:
colorless
solution

: -132,2

0o

water is +74,6

sucrose is +66,5

of sample is
+99,275

: +17

Average: 74,6

3.

## Determining zero point of sample

Sugar 10% solution
- used to wash the cuvette
- entered to cuvette until full
- inserted to polarimeter

Sugar 10%
solution:
colorless
solution

: -154,93

: +44,3
Average: 99,25

## Rotation angle of sample

Inversion of Sugar

+
H

H2O ,

4.

## Measuring the rotation angle of

sample
2 ml sugar 10% solution
10 ml HCl 2N

## Sugar 10% Sugar 10% + HCl 2N:

solution:
colorless solution
colorless
Avg
t(s)

solution
300

96,1
92,15
91,43
90

47,41
46
45,71
45

150

89,08

44,58

0
180

88,75

44,38

0
270

88,35

44,67

0
300

87,12

43,56

0
330

86,48

43,24

0
360

84,3

42,1

600
- used to wash the cuvette
HCl 2N:
900
- entered to cuvette until full Colorless
120
- inserted to polarimeter
solution
0

## Zero point of sample

Inversion of Sugar

## The rotation angle

are decreases
along with the
increasing of time

H 2O ,

39.9>>66,5

Inversion of Sugar

IX.

EXPLANATION

X.

CONCLUSION

Inversion of Sugar

XI.

Question

Inversion of Sugar

REFERENCES

10

Inversion of Sugar

ATTACHMENT

CALCULATION

[ ]=

rotationangel
leng h tcuvetprecentage

t=0

[ ]=

99.325
=49.66
0.2 x 10

[ ]=

92.15
=46.08
0.2 x 10

t = 900
t = 300

96.1
[ ]=
=47.41
0.2 x 10

[ ]=

91.43
=45.71
0.2 x 10

t = 1200
t = 600

11

Inversion of Sugar

[ ]=

90
=45.00
0.2 x 10

t = 2700

[ ]=

88.35
=44.17
0.2 x 10

t = 3000
t = 1500

[ ]=

89.08
=44.53
0.2 x 10

t = 1800

[ ]=

12

88.75
=44.38
0.2 x 10

[ ]=

87.12
=43.56
0.2 x 10

t = 3300

[ ]=

86.48
=43.24
0.2 x 10

t = 3600

Inversion of Sugar

[ ]=

84.3
=42.15
0.2 x 10

Graphic Method
t

[ ]

49.66

300

47.41

51.565

600

46.08

53.195

900

45.71

53.565

1200

45.00

54.275

1500

44.53

54.745

1800

44.38

54.895

2700

44.17

55.095

3000

43.56

55.715

3300

43.24

56.035

3600

42.15

57.125

[-x]

Non-Graphic Method
Calculation of k value:
Orde 1

t=300 second k = t ln ( ax )

k=

1
49.66
ln
300
1.95
2

k =1.079 x 10
1

t=600 second k = t ln ( ax )

k=

1
49.66
ln
600
3.58

k =4.38 x 103

ln [-x]

1/[-x]

1/[-x]^2

3.94284
3
3.97396
4
3.98089
6
3.99406
4
4.00268
6
4.00542
2
4.00905
9
4.02024
9
4.02597
6
4.04524
2

0.019392
999
0.018798
759
0.018668
907
0.018424
689
0.018266
508
0.018216
595
0.018150
467
0.017948
488
0.017845
989
0.017505
47

0.000376
088
0.000353
393
0.000348
528
0.000339
469
0.000333
665
0.000331
844
0.000329
439
0.000322
148
0.000318
479
0.000306
441

t=900 second k = t ln ( ax )

k=

1
49.66
ln
900
3.95
3

k =2,81 x 10

1
a
k = ln
t ( ax )

t=1200 detik

k=

1
49.66
ln
1200
4.66

k =1.9 x 103
1
a
k = ln
t ( ax )

t=1500 second

k=

1
49.66
ln
1500
5.13

k =1.5 x 103
1
a
k = ln
t ( ax )

t=1800 detik

k=

1
49.66
ln
1800
5.28
3

k =1.2 x 10

1
a
k = ln
t ( ax )

t=2700 second

k=

1
49.64
ln
2700 5.48 s
4

k =3,62 x 10
t=2460 detik

1
a
k = ln
t ( ax )

k=

1
103,64
ln
2460
37.27
4

k =4.16 x 10
t=2820 detik

k=

1
a
k = ln
t ( ax )
1
103,64
ln
2820
31,82
4

k =4,19 x 10
t=3180 detik

k=

1
a
k = ln
t ( ax )

1
103,64
ln
3180
33,64

k =3,54 x 104
t=3600 detik

k=

1
a
k = ln
t ( ax )
1
103,64
ln
3600
26,36

k =3,81 x 104
t=3978 detik

k=

1
a
k = ln
t ( ax )

1
103,64
ln
3978
15,46
4

k =4,78 x 10
Orde 2
t= 300 detik

1
1

(ax ) a
k=
t

t= 614 detik

1
1

( ax ) a
k=
t

t= 911 detik

1
1

( ax ) a
k=
t

1
1

(93.64) 103.64
k=
300

1
1

( 91.82) 103.64
k=
614

1
1

( 85.46) 103.64
k=
911

k = 0.010647

k = 0.010875

k = 0.011691

t= 1300 detik

t= 1620 detik

t= 1820 detik

1
1

(ax ) a
k=
t

1
1

( ax ) a
k=
t

1
1

( ax ) a
k=
t

1
1

103.64
(63.64 )
k=
1300

1
1

103.64
( 57.27 )
k=
1620

1
1

103.64
( 49.09)
k=
t

k = 0.015706

k = 0.017455

k = 0.020365

t= 2220 detik

t= 2460 detik

t= 2820 detik

1
1

(ax ) a
k=
t

1
1

( ax ) a
k=
t

1
1

( ax ) a
k=
t

1
1

(46.36) 103.64
k=
2220

1
1

(3727) 103.64
k=
2460

1
1

(31.82) 103.64
k=
2820

k = 0.021566

k = 0.026827

k = 0.031423

t= 3180 detik

t= 3600 detik

t= 3978detik

1
1

(ax ) a
k=
t

1
1

( ax ) a
k=
t

1
1

( ax ) a
k=
t

1
1

(33.64 ) 103.64
k=
3180

1
1

(26.36) 103,64
k=
3600

1
1

(15.46) 103.64
k=
3978

k = 0.029723

k = 0.037934

k = 0.064681

Orde 3
t= 300 detik

t= 614 detik

t= 911 detik

k=

1
1
1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k=

1
1
1

2
600 ( 93.64 ) (103.64 )2

k =3,49 x 108

k=

1
1
1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k=

1
1
1

2
1228 ( 91,82 ) (103.64)2

k =2,08 x 108

t= 1300 detik

1
1
1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k=

1
1
1

2
2600 ( 63.64 ) (103.64)2

k =5,92 x 108

k=

1
1
1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k=

1
1
1

2
3240 ( 57.27 ) (103.64)2

1
1
1
2
2
2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1
1
1

2
4440 ( 46.36 ) (103.64)2

k =8,38 x 108

k=

1
1
1
2
2
2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1
1
1

2
4920 ( 37.27 ) (103.64 )2

1
1
1
2
2
2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1
1
1

## 6360 ( 33.64 )2 (103.64)2

k =0,12 x 10

)
)

k=

1
1
1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k=

1
1
1

2
3640 ( 49.09 ) (103.64)2

k=

1
1
1
2
2
2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1
1
1

2
5640 ( 31.82 ) ( 103.64)2

k =0,16 x 108

t= 3600 detik

k=

t= 2820 detik

k =0,13 x 108

t= 3180 detik

1
1
1

2
1822 ( 85.46 ) (103.64)2

k =8,84 x 108

t= 2460 detik

k=

k=

t= 1820 detik

k =6,54 x 108

t= 2220 detik

1
1
1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k =2,41 x 108

t= 1620 detik

k=

k=

t= 3978detik

k=

1
1
1
2
2
2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1
1
1

k =0,19 x 10

)
)

k=

1
1
1
2
2
2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1
1
1

k =0,51 x 10

)
)