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Inversion of Sugar

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You are on page 1of 17

II.

III.

IV.

V.

EXPERIMENT TITTLE

EXPERIMENT DATE

END OF EXPERIMENT

EXPERIMENT PURPOSE :

Determine reaction order

:Inversion of Sugar

:October, 30th 2015 at 06.30 am

:October, 30th 2015 at 09.00 am

and inversion of sugar reaction using

polarimeter

BASIC THEORY

The angle of rotation of polarized light passing through the solution

is measured with a polarimeter. The reaction is:

C12H22O11 + H2O + H+ C16H12O6 + C6H12O6 + H+

Sucrose

Glucose

Fructose

fructose is slightly levorotatory, because the levorotatory fructose has a

greater molar rotation than the dextrorotatory glucose. As the sucrose is

used up and the glucose-fructose mixture is formed, the angle of rotation

to the right (as the observer looks into the polarimeter tube) becomes less

and less, and finally the light is rotated to the left. The rotation is

determined at the beginning () and at the end of the reaction ( ), and

the algebraic difference between these two readings is a measure of the

original concentration of the sucrose.

The reaction proceeds too slowly to be measured in pure water, but

it is catalyzed by hydrogen ions. The water is in such large excess that its

concentration does not change appreciably, and the reaction follows the

equation for a first-order reaction, even though two different kinds of

molecules are involved in the reaction.

This same reaction in biological systems is catalyzed by an enzyme

called invertase. The hydrolysis of sucrose into single sugars is necessary

before the sugars can be metabolized. In humans, the invertase enzyme is

found in saliva.

Theory

The rate law for the inversion of sucrose is in the form:

d [sucrose ]

dt

(1)

The concentration of water in this experiment is large, 55M, and

essentially constant. We will also use a large excess of acid to maintain a

constant hydrogen ion concentration. We can then rewrite Eq. 1 to isolate

the dependence on the concentration of sucrose:

Inversion of Sugar

d [sucrose ]

dt

= keff [sucrose]m

(2)

with keff = k [H2O]n [H+]p

(3)

We will assume that the reaction is first order in sucrose, m=1,

which we will verify by curve fitting to a first-order integrated rate law. In

the equations that follow we will set [sucrose]= c. It is assumed that the

reaction goes to completion so that practically no sucrose remains at

"infinite" time. The integrated form of the first-order-reaction differential

equation is then:

c = co e-keff t

(4)

where co is the concentration of sucrose at the beginning of the reaction.

Taking logarithms,

ln

c

co

= - kt

(5)

Thus the slope of a plot of ln c/c o versus t is -k. However, in this

experiment we don't measure the concentration of sucrose.

Instead of measuring concentration directly, in this experiment the

optical rotation, , is measured. Optical rotation is linear function of the

concentration for each optically active molecule in solution:

i = Ai ci

(6)

for Ai a constant dependent on the molecule i. For a solution of sucrose,

glucose, and fructose:

= Asucrose csucrose + Aglucose cglucose + Afructose cfructose

(7)

At the end of the reaction, no sucrose remains and:

= Aglucose cglucose, + Afructose cfructose,

(8)

From the stoichiometry, cglucose, = cfructose, = csucrose,o

(9)

where csucrose,o is the initial concentration of sucrose. Substituting Eq. 9 in to

Eq. 8 gives:

= (Aglucose + Afructose ) csucrose,o

(10)

Likewise at the beginning of the reaction:

o= Asucrose csucrose,o

(11)

Subtracting Eq. 10 from Eq. 11 gives:

o- = ( Asucrose- Aglucose - Afructose ) csucrose,o

(12)

Inversion of Sugar

= Asucrose csucrose + Aglucose cglucose + Afructose cfructose

(13)

However, from the 1:1 stoichiometry and Eq. 9 we have

cglucose= cfructose = csucrose,o - csucrose

(14)

which when substituted into Eq. 13 and then Eq. 10 is subtracted gives:

- = Asucrose csucrose - Aglucose csucrose - Afructose csucrose

(15)

or grouping terms:

- = ( Asucrose - Aglucose - Afructose ) csucrose

(16)

Dividing Eq. 16 by Eq. 12 then gives the desired concentration ratio:

c sucrose

c sucrose ,o

(17)

Finally substituting Eq. 17 into Eq. 4 gives:

( ) = (o ) ekeff t

(18)

or = (o ) ekeff t

(19)

Substituting Eq. 17 into Eq. 5 gives

ln

= kt

(20)

or ln ( ) = kt + ln(o )

(21)

The slope is the same as it would be if actual concentrations had been

plotted.

VI.

A. MATERIALS

1. Polarimeter

2. Measuring glass 25 ml

3. Beaker glass

4. Stopwatch

B. EQUIPMENT

1. Sugar solution 10%

2. Distillate water

3. HCl 2N solution

Inversion of Sugar

VII.

EXPERIMENT PROCEDURE

1. Preparing of sugar 10% solution

5 grams sugar

- weighed

- entered to beaker glass

- added distilled water until the volume reach 50 ml

2. Determination zero point of solvent

Distilled water

- used to wash the cuvette

- entered to cuvette until full

- inserted to polarimeter

- read the scale

3. Determination zero point of sample

- used to wash the cuvette

- entered to cuvette until full

- inserted to polarimeter

4. Measuring the rotation

angle of sample

- read the scale

of sample

2 Rotation

ml sugar angle

10% solution

10 ml HCl 2N

- used to wash the cuvette

- entered to cuvette until full

- inserted to polarimeter

- read the scale

Distilled water

- entered to cuvette until full

- inserted toInversion

polarimeterof Sugar

- read the scale

VIII.

No

RESULT OF EXPERIMENT

Treatment

Result

Before

5 grams sugar

- weighed

- entered to beaker glass

- added distilled water until the volume reach 50 ml

Sugar:

colorless

crystal

Distilled

water:

colorless

solution

Reaction

Conclusion

After

Sugar+ distilled water:

colorless solution

Sugar 10%

solution is a

colorless solution

Distilled water

- used to wash the cuvette

- entered to cuvette until full

- inserted to polarimeter

- read the scale

Distilled

water:

colorless

solution

: -132,2

0o

water is +74,6

sucrose is +66,5

of sample is

+99,275

: +17

Average: 74,6

3.

Sugar 10% solution

- used to wash the cuvette

- entered to cuvette until full

- inserted to polarimeter

- read the scale

Sugar 10%

solution:

colorless

solution

: -154,93

: +44,3

Average: 99,25

Inversion of Sugar

+

H

H2O ,

4.

sample

2 ml sugar 10% solution

10 ml HCl 2N

solution:

colorless solution

colorless

Avg

t(s)

solution

300

96,1

92,15

91,43

90

47,41

46

45,71

45

150

89,08

44,58

0

180

88,75

44,38

0

270

88,35

44,67

0

300

87,12

43,56

0

330

86,48

43,24

0

360

84,3

42,1

600

- used to wash the cuvette

HCl 2N:

900

- entered to cuvette until full Colorless

120

- inserted to polarimeter

solution

0

- read the scale

Inversion of Sugar

are decreases

along with the

increasing of time

H 2O ,

39.9>>66,5

Inversion of Sugar

IX.

EXPLANATION

X.

CONCLUSION

Inversion of Sugar

XI.

Question

Answer

Inversion of Sugar

REFERENCES

10

Inversion of Sugar

ATTACHMENT

CALCULATION

[ ]=

rotationangel

leng h tcuvetprecentage

t=0

[ ]=

99.325

=49.66

0.2 x 10

[ ]=

92.15

=46.08

0.2 x 10

t = 900

t = 300

96.1

[ ]=

=47.41

0.2 x 10

[ ]=

91.43

=45.71

0.2 x 10

t = 1200

t = 600

11

Inversion of Sugar

[ ]=

90

=45.00

0.2 x 10

t = 2700

[ ]=

88.35

=44.17

0.2 x 10

t = 3000

t = 1500

[ ]=

89.08

=44.53

0.2 x 10

t = 1800

[ ]=

12

88.75

=44.38

0.2 x 10

[ ]=

87.12

=43.56

0.2 x 10

t = 3300

[ ]=

86.48

=43.24

0.2 x 10

t = 3600

Inversion of Sugar

[ ]=

84.3

=42.15

0.2 x 10

Graphic Method

t

[ ]

49.66

300

47.41

51.565

600

46.08

53.195

900

45.71

53.565

1200

45.00

54.275

1500

44.53

54.745

1800

44.38

54.895

2700

44.17

55.095

3000

43.56

55.715

3300

43.24

56.035

3600

42.15

57.125

[-x]

Non-Graphic Method

Calculation of k value:

Orde 1

t=300 second k = t ln ( ax )

k=

1

49.66

ln

300

1.95

2

k =1.079 x 10

1

t=600 second k = t ln ( ax )

k=

1

49.66

ln

600

3.58

k =4.38 x 103

ln [-x]

1/[-x]

1/[-x]^2

3.94284

3

3.97396

4

3.98089

6

3.99406

4

4.00268

6

4.00542

2

4.00905

9

4.02024

9

4.02597

6

4.04524

2

0.019392

999

0.018798

759

0.018668

907

0.018424

689

0.018266

508

0.018216

595

0.018150

467

0.017948

488

0.017845

989

0.017505

47

0.000376

088

0.000353

393

0.000348

528

0.000339

469

0.000333

665

0.000331

844

0.000329

439

0.000322

148

0.000318

479

0.000306

441

t=900 second k = t ln ( ax )

k=

1

49.66

ln

900

3.95

3

k =2,81 x 10

1

a

k = ln

t ( ax )

t=1200 detik

k=

1

49.66

ln

1200

4.66

k =1.9 x 103

1

a

k = ln

t ( ax )

t=1500 second

k=

1

49.66

ln

1500

5.13

k =1.5 x 103

1

a

k = ln

t ( ax )

t=1800 detik

k=

1

49.66

ln

1800

5.28

3

k =1.2 x 10

1

a

k = ln

t ( ax )

t=2700 second

k=

1

49.64

ln

2700 5.48 s

4

k =3,62 x 10

t=2460 detik

1

a

k = ln

t ( ax )

k=

1

103,64

ln

2460

37.27

4

k =4.16 x 10

t=2820 detik

k=

1

a

k = ln

t ( ax )

1

103,64

ln

2820

31,82

4

k =4,19 x 10

t=3180 detik

k=

1

a

k = ln

t ( ax )

1

103,64

ln

3180

33,64

k =3,54 x 104

t=3600 detik

k=

1

a

k = ln

t ( ax )

1

103,64

ln

3600

26,36

k =3,81 x 104

t=3978 detik

k=

1

a

k = ln

t ( ax )

1

103,64

ln

3978

15,46

4

k =4,78 x 10

Orde 2

t= 300 detik

1

1

(ax ) a

k=

t

t= 614 detik

1

1

( ax ) a

k=

t

t= 911 detik

1

1

( ax ) a

k=

t

1

1

(93.64) 103.64

k=

300

1

1

( 91.82) 103.64

k=

614

1

1

( 85.46) 103.64

k=

911

k = 0.010647

k = 0.010875

k = 0.011691

t= 1300 detik

t= 1620 detik

t= 1820 detik

1

1

(ax ) a

k=

t

1

1

( ax ) a

k=

t

1

1

( ax ) a

k=

t

1

1

103.64

(63.64 )

k=

1300

1

1

103.64

( 57.27 )

k=

1620

1

1

103.64

( 49.09)

k=

t

k = 0.015706

k = 0.017455

k = 0.020365

t= 2220 detik

t= 2460 detik

t= 2820 detik

1

1

(ax ) a

k=

t

1

1

( ax ) a

k=

t

1

1

( ax ) a

k=

t

1

1

(46.36) 103.64

k=

2220

1

1

(3727) 103.64

k=

2460

1

1

(31.82) 103.64

k=

2820

k = 0.021566

k = 0.026827

k = 0.031423

t= 3180 detik

t= 3600 detik

t= 3978detik

1

1

(ax ) a

k=

t

1

1

( ax ) a

k=

t

1

1

( ax ) a

k=

t

1

1

(33.64 ) 103.64

k=

3180

1

1

(26.36) 103,64

k=

3600

1

1

(15.46) 103.64

k=

3978

k = 0.029723

k = 0.037934

k = 0.064681

Orde 3

t= 300 detik

t= 614 detik

t= 911 detik

k=

1

1

1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k=

1

1

1

2

600 ( 93.64 ) (103.64 )2

k =3,49 x 108

k=

1

1

1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k=

1

1

1

2

1228 ( 91,82 ) (103.64)2

k =2,08 x 108

t= 1300 detik

1

1

1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k=

1

1

1

2

2600 ( 63.64 ) (103.64)2

k =5,92 x 108

k=

1

1

1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k=

1

1

1

2

3240 ( 57.27 ) (103.64)2

1

1

1

2

2

2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1

1

1

2

4440 ( 46.36 ) (103.64)2

k =8,38 x 108

k=

1

1

1

2

2

2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1

1

1

2

4920 ( 37.27 ) (103.64 )2

1

1

1

2

2

2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1

1

1

k =0,12 x 10

)

)

k=

1

1

1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k=

1

1

1

2

3640 ( 49.09 ) (103.64)2

k=

1

1

1

2

2

2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1

1

1

2

5640 ( 31.82 ) ( 103.64)2

k =0,16 x 108

t= 3600 detik

k=

t= 2820 detik

k =0,13 x 108

t= 3180 detik

1

1

1

2

1822 ( 85.46 ) (103.64)2

k =8,84 x 108

t= 2460 detik

k=

k=

t= 1820 detik

k =6,54 x 108

t= 2220 detik

1

1

1

2 t ( ax )2 a2

k =2,41 x 108

t= 1620 detik

k=

k=

t= 3978detik

k=

1

1

1

2

2

2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1

1

1

k =0,19 x 10

)

)

k=

1

1

1

2

2

2 t ( ax ) a

k=

1

1

1

k =0,51 x 10

)

)

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