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)

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

33.81

**This work was conducted under EPSRC Contracts No.
**

GR/J40171 and No. GR/K03951, and under IRTU Contract

No. ST120. The circuits used were fabricated by Philips

Microwave Limeil.

Lower

33.8

33.75

I

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

Bias

**Figure 4 Upper and lower injection-locking frequency limits versus
**

dc operating bias

REFERENCES

1, R. S. Robertson, “A Phase Modulator with Gain for Microwave

Millimeter-Wave Systems,” IEEE MTT-S Digest, 1990, pp. 921.

2. S. Drew and V. F. Fusco, “Phase Modulated Active Antenna,”

Electron. Lett., Vol. 29, No. 10, May 1993, pp. 835-836.

3. V. F. Fusco, S. Drew, “Active Antenna Phase Modulator Performance,” Proc. 23rd European Microwave Conference, 1993.

4. R. Adler, “A Study of Locking Phenomena in Oscillators,” Proc.

I.R.E., Vol. 34, 1946, pp. 351-357.

5. K. Kurokawa, “Injection Locking of Microwave Solid-state Oscillators,” Proc. IEEE, Vol. 61, No. 10, Oct. 1973, pp. 1386-1410.

Received 2-29-96

Phase

120

[

II-GZ

I

**Microwave and Optical Technology Letters, 12/5, 249-2.50
**

0 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

CCC 0895-2477/96

l80

oo

BIas

Figure 5 Phase variation (normahed) versus dc operating bias

**dc bias levels (drain voltage from 1.5 to 3.0 V, gate voltage set
**

to a constant 0.0 V) with the sweeper output power set to 10

dBm ( - 20 dBm injected signal power). The upper and lower

locking range frequencies were noted and plotted against dc

operating bias in Figure 4. From the graph of Figure 4, a

suitable injection locking frequency of 33.785 GHz was chosen for the phase shift measurement. This gives a dc operating bias range from 2.55 to 2.95 V. The phase, relative to the

injection-locking signal, was measured with the MTA, and the

results are plotted in Figure 5 . These results are normalized

with the result at 2.4 V set to 0.”. A total phase variation of

104”was obtained.

When the experiment was repeated for a sweeper output

power of 5 dBm (-25 dBm injected signal power). The

injection-locking frequency chosen for the phase shift experiment was 33.780 GHz corresponding to a dc operating range

from 2.4 to 2.7 V. This time a total phase variation of 85”was

obtained, lower this time than the previous case due to the

reduction in locking range experienced by virtue of a lower

level injected power level.

CONCLUSIONS

**This article has shown that direct phase modulation of a
**

Ka-band signal is possible with the use of a PHEMT MMIC

oscillator. The results obtained indicate that approximately

100”of phase change can be obtained with an injected signal

power level of approximately -20 dBm. If a higher locking

gain was used this phase range could be extended, suggesting

the possible use of the technique for high-data-rate bandwidth conservative signal modulation.

250

ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVE

PROPAGATION THROUGH A

DIELECTRIC GUIDE HAVING PlET HElN

CROSS-SECTIONAL GEOMETRY

Vandana Misra

Department of Applied Physics

Institute of Technology

Banaras Hindu Universlty(1)

Varanasi-221005, India

P. K. Choudhury

Department of Electronics Engineering, Institute of Technology

Banaras Hindu University Varanasi-221005 lndla

P. Khastgir and S. P. Ojha

Department of Applied Physics

lnstitute of Technology

Banaras Hindu University

Varanasi-221005 India

KEY TERMS

Optical waveguides, electromagnetic wave propagation

ABSTRACT

This article deals with a new type of dielectric guide, which has as its

cross-sectional outline a Piet Hein curve. With the use of the scalarfield

approximation, eigenvalue equations for cutoffs have been derived for

modes with different indices. Numerical results exhibit that the cutoff

V ualue for the dielectricguide with Piet Hein cross-sectionalgeomet~is

intermediate between those of similar guides with square and circular

cross sections; therefore, such a guide incorporates the properties of both

square and circular waveguides. A study of these guides is adunntageous

because of the absence of comers, which reduces the scattering losses in

rectangular dielectric waveguides. 0 1996 John Wilq & Sons, Inc.

1. INTRODUCTION

**In an attempt to find a closed curve that incorporates the
**

properties of a rectangle and an ellipse, Danish scientist Piet

Hein thought of a superellipse, which is known as a Piet Hein

curve (Figure 1) 111. In rectangular coordinates, such a curve

MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LEUERS / Vol. 12, No. 5, August 5 1996

If N < 2. stud- with In this equation i. The quantities a and b are the semimajor and semiminor axes of the curves. Optical and optoelectronic devices are used in the transmitting and receiving parts of communication systems also. Various aspects of slab waveguides with transverse bending and distortions have been studied by Choudhury and co-workers [13-181. As will be seen later. and k are MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. and circular dielectric waveguides are commonly employed in fiber-optic communications [3-51. Because rectangular dielectric waveguides have been extensively studied for use in optical devices. z ) (the z axis being the direction of propagation perpendicular to the plane of paper as shown in Figure 2) for a structure having Piet Hein geometry (Figure 1) emerges as + Figure 1 The Piet Hein Curve x N A +T P (p4 + 5 4 Y 2 { ( + y N = aN for N = 4 p4 + 54)-1/2 can be represented by the formula Ix/alN + ly/blN = 1. The undesirable effects of the presence of corners in rectangular waveguides (such as scattering) are not expected to occur in the case of waveguides with Piet Hein cross sections. p. even in this preliminary study. The transmitting properties of an optical waveguide essentially depend on its cross-sectional geometry. In this article we report an analytical study of the modal and especially the cutoff properties for sustained modes in waveguides with Piet Hein cross sections under the scalar field approximation [6]. the encouraging result of the modal cutoff values lying midway between those of waveguides with circular and rectangular cross sections is obtained. it can be shown that the wave equation in the coordinate system (p.h is the wave function and n. Slab waveguides and rectangular dielectric waveguides are now well established in the field of integrated optics. Some of the geometries considered so far are polygonal (including triangular) and elliptical cross sections [7-121. a waveguide with a cross section that is midway between the circle and rectangle naturally becomes interesting as a subject for study. the dielectric rectangular waveguide is used in optical devices and in integrated optics [3-51. THEORY After some tedious but rigorous mathematical analysis. fY 2.ies on the propagated power have also been made [19-211. the curves are known as Lam6 curves [2].s. Although the optical fiber is obviously the key ingredient in a communication system as a channel. with N > 2. In addition to modal characteristics. Optical waveguides with noncircular cross sections have been extensively studied. No. noncircular guides are particularly used in the detection of signals. August 5 1996 251 . The present study of optical waveguides with a Piet Hein cross section belongs to this wider field of waveguides with noncircular cross section. A waveguide with a Piet Hein cross section is an example of the situation. 5. 12.

(3) can be reduced to the form -* d2@ 3 dJr c f i 7+ . Solving this equation under the limit s2 + 0. that is. Bz= p 2 .and C(&) is the cosine integral function of 6. (2) which can be rewritten after separating the variables in the form as with c as a constant that represents the modal index. No. z = z. At this point it is to be noted that the equation containing the variable 5 is not of relevance in our study. by applying the approximation p -=K6. respectively. 5. x = 'iF1/p2. in the corner region of the structure.p2. the axial component of the propagation vector (which is perpendicular to the paper) and the free-space propagation constant. Eq. As n2k2 . [ijjjsi+Jm)2-454)1/2 -( t 2+ \/(pd+501}]1/2. where B1= n:k2 . (1) reduces to the form + ( n 2 k 2 . the above Eq.the refractive index (of the material)./3 e c / p 6 . As the structure of Figure 1 deviates from the rectangular structure owing to the absence of sharp curvatures (discontinuities) in the corner regions. - . it is rather important to solve the wave equation in the corner regions rather than in the central region. After some straightforward mathematical steps. as it does not contain the parameter p. Thus. (41. the axial component of the propagation vector. The coordinate transformation equations are x= the cladding regions (Figure 11. by applying the scalar field approximation. This equation is a form of the Bessel equation. the wave functions in the core and 252 -92/Ug1/a t ysin d x x (4) X The solutions of Eq. 12. it can be shown that the solution of Eq. Case 11: p % 5.nIk2. yielding the eigenvalue equation for the structure as follows: Case I: p << (. (6) provide the propagation constants of various field patterns sustained by the guide. el = (cfi)'IZ/2.+ dP PdP P6 = 0. Now two cases can be considered: Now.p 2 ) p 6 $ = 0 . the wave functions and their first derivatives are matched at the corecladding boundary ( p = a). one can get the cutoff MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LEVERS / Vol.will take the following forms: /. in the region away from the corners. We shall now consider two conditions Condition I. August 5 1996 ..

Fl and F2 are the abbreviations for the left-hand sides of Eqs. will provide the cutoff equation as As stated earlier.n:k2))1/2 = b. 5. Again following the same steps as discussed above (Condition I). (7) and (9). In Condition I we assume that c is very large so that n2k2 . for the core region 9’ (say) and W = J (ii). DISCUSSION --93- 120 P 1 144 Equation (8) is the field solution in the core and the cladding regions under the following conditions: = ( f i ( n : k Z . we consider two conditions. F. in particular c = 0. which is as follows i 3 -0. P 3. the solution is obtained as follows: + 46bf({ . that is. which. it is more convenient to consider the cutoff condition. it is desirable to make suitable and physically plausible approximations. We now come to some numerical computation made on the basis of Eqs. Considering the great complexity of the analytical process.0 * I I 6. the present article is addressed to the problem of electromagnetic wave propagation through a waveguide with a Piet Hein cross section. when solved under the limiting condition b.81 0. Even in this particular region of propagation.2 -1. 12. Equation (1) is thus essentially the solution to the problem and contains. to the above described Conditions I and 11. respectively. In this case Eq.. the cases with large and small values of the mode index c. (3) is solved under the approxi- mation c -+ 0. shown as Eqs.iz 9 6 / [ / e d p ] d p 720 ( P d p d p = F2 = 0. For such modes with large c values we have the characteristic equation (6).0 I 1 2.-c. In Condition I1 we can consider the modes corresponding to very small values of c. -+ 0. Figure 3 shows the plots of F.0 Figure 3 Plot of F. in principle.0 I 1 3.0 Condition 11. whereby we obtain a lengthy characteristic equation that is not explicitly shown in this text. (9) for the guided modes. Here J and H represent a Bessel function of the first kind and a Hankel function of the first kind.a -1.0 I I 8. all the information regarding the electromagnetic wave through such waveguides.condition for the guided modes. against the normalized frequency V parameter at cutoff corresponding. respectively. The normalized frequency V parameter at cutoff is given as MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LElTERS / Vol. -1. 1 I 1. for the cladding region 9 = (fi(pz . (say) and W = H. No. August 5 1996 253 . (7) and (9). and F against V and finally. The cutoff conditions corresponding to the above described Conditions I and I1 are. respectively. respectively.. In order to have an understanding of the modal propagation.p2))’/’ = b 1 (i). (7) and (91.0 1 7.0 I I 4. field matching at the core cladding boundary will lead the characteristic eigenvalue equation. We focus our attention on the region of propagation close to the smooth bends at the four corners of the cross-sectional curve.0 V- I I 5. and F.p z << c / p 6 .

8) under the weak guidance approximation. In Figure 3 this variation is designated by the symbol F. i. 19. P. Kak for some useful discussions. pp. K. Oxford. “A Circular Harmonic Computer Analysis of Rectangular Dielectric Waveguides. Vol.revised 4-4-96 Microwave and Optical Technology Letters. 333-335.In order to compare our results with that of a guide having a circular cross-sectional geometry. pp. Kumar. We thus see that as the V parameter is increased. mode occurs at V = 1. P. 5.Vol. Appl. and the square shape of the cross section is expected to make these Piet hein guides more amenable to technological use in integrated optics. No. Varshney. Coming to waveguides with rectangular cross sections. Gridgeman. S. Singh. pp. 1977. 48. K. We also notice that the cutoff values V = 2 and I/ = 2.. Kumar and R. J.” Opt. Received 1-3-96. K. pp.) is also shown. Optoelectron. 21. 3. pp. Ramesh. 1995. P. Choudhury. Ojha. P. The Piet Hein cross section gives a cutoff V value that is intermediate between those of the circular and the square cross sections. They are indebted to two anonymous reviewers for their deep and thorough investigation. 2133-2160. P. “Modal Power Attenuation in a Parabolically Deformed Planar Waveguide Near Cutoff.. and S. The incorporation of corrections through the first-order perturbation theory further reduces the V values. pp. 17. 102-104. Goell. 5685-5688.” J. and the core dimension a = 5 pm. K. 2071-2102. 15. Choudhury. No. Ramesh. 71. 145. 11. Khastgir. K.” Bell Syst. Tech. 1994. It is well known that the zeros of these functions represent the cutoff values for a circular optical waveguide under the scalar wave approximation. modes with higher values of c. Choudhury. Khastgir. “Study of a Circularly Bent Slab Waveguide as a Limiting Case of a Waveguide of Large Annular Cross-Section. K. Choudhury. K. 4. P. pp. K..e. “An Exact Analytical Treatment of Parabolically Deformed Planar Waveguides Near Cutoff. P. K. = 1. 99. 147. Norman T. 1969.. “Glass Fibers of Triangular Cross-Sections with Metal Loading on One or More Sides-A Comparative Modal Study. pp. “Analysis of the Guidance of Electromagnetic Waves by a Deformed Planar Waveguide with Parabolic Cylindrical Boundaries. P. No. Shukla. and the modes corresponding to the smaller values of c (such as zero) do not get cut off until V reaches the value 2. 1992. 153-157.. 240-254. Vol. Lett.” Opt. K. K. J.” Microwave Opt. K. pp. P. Eng.51. 10. square cross section) exhibits the first cutoff of E . pp. 1992. Left. P. P.” Photon. P. pp. = 1.. 4. Khastgir. P. P. Vol. the authors are thankful to P. and L. “On the Dispersion Curves of a Circularly Deformed Planar Waveguide. No. n. “A Rigorous Analytical Expression for Power Flow through Dielectric Planar Guides with Parabolic Cylindrical Deformation. 349-354.. 1983.. that is. 1987. L39-LA2. as expected. 1973.TI(. Ojha. Also. P.. 6. 3.7. 1984. the operating wavelength A = 1. 2. CCC 0895-2477/96 MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. pp. 12. P. 288-290.” Mathematical Gazette. Ojha. “Weak Guidance in Bent and Unbent Four-Layer Planar Waveguides-A Comparative Study of Dispersion Curves.” Bell Syst. No. the first cutoff for the El. “Modes in Weakly Guiding Elliptical Optical Fibers. K. J.” Optik. Thyagarajan. Jpn. England.55 pm. and K. 8. 43-47. Khastgir. Further. J.e. 18. Choudhury. which improved the quality of the article. 1. Ojha. Kala for some help. 1. All these calculations are made by taking n. This result is. pp. the curve crosses the horizontal axis at V = 2 showing the first cutoff V value at this point. Khastgir. 1-4. “Dielectric Rectangular Waveguide and Direc- 254 tional Coupler for Integrated Optics. pp. Lett. Yeh. Vol.48. 61. Dyott. Shukla. 10. 31-37. Choudhury. 2. E. 16. J. E. 1970. Optical Communication of Systems. 1580. 1995. P. R. Vandana Misra. Choudhury. 8. 100. 22. 31.7 for large and small c values are both less than the cutoff V value for the standard circular fiber (V = 3. 1995. Vol. K. Choudhury. P. P h p . P. For Condition I1 (with lower values of c) modes show their first cutoff at V = 2.” Optik. Vol.. 9. 1992. S. 250-254 0 1996 John Wiley & Sons. is grateful to Professors B. 3874-3877. P. No. The absence of the corners will reduce the scattering losses.. 1976. “Lam6 Ovals. Appl. P. 41. Harmondsworth. Vol. pp. no cutoff at all) are in decreasing order as one goes from the circular to the square cross section. SPIE. Singh. K. Vol. 10. Clarendon Press. We thus find that under the weak guidance approximation the cutoff V values for the lowest mode other than the fundamental mode (which has a cutoff value at V = 0. P. Ojha. “Propagation Characteristics of Highly Elliptical Core Optical Waveguides: A Perturbation Approach. Technol. 16. Technol.’’ J. Middlsex. . “Analysis of Rectangular-Core Dielectric Waveguides An Accurate Perturbation Approach. 1995. Mathematical Carnival. Khastgir. “Glass-Fiber Waveguide with Triangular Core.. Marcatili. K. Vol. P. SOC. Choudhury.” J. 12. Choudhury. and S. P. 20.. P. Ojha. Basu and s. Thus. Tech. Telecom.” Electron.148. “Comparative Aspects of a Metal-Loaded Triangular Waveguide with Uniform and Non-Uniform Distribution of Goell’s Matching Points. 14. N. mode at I/ = 0. Ojha. pp. we may refer to the earlier published work of Kumar. Vol. Vol. 1994.. A.. 278-287. P.45. or E. P. A. and Ghatak [22]. “A Mathematically Rigorous Cutoff Analysis of Parabolic Cylindrical Waveguides.151. P. Ojha.7. Technol. It is reported there that a waveguide having rectangular cross section with unit aspect ratio (i. Martin Gardner. New Delhi. In Figure 3 one observes that for Condition I. Khastgir. Vol. NO. Phys. H. P.” Optik. “On the Modal Behavior of Rectangular and Deformed Planar Waveguides.. 1991. Choudhury. and K. Prentice-Hall. and L. Vol. P. 1995.6. 1969. 8. 48. and S. 8. 1995. K. pp. and A. 4. a curve that represents the plot of the Bessel function . 5. 39-42. pp. 6. K. No. Inst. S. Choudhury. 12/5. A. K. J. Choudhury. K. S.” Jpn. Vol. Lett. Phys.” Pmc. the modes corresponding to larger values of c get detached first (at V = 21. Ojha. P. Gowar. 2. C. Vol. No. pp. 63-65. Quantum Electron. S. 7. S. August 5 1996 . 11. Vol. and P. “Modal Propagation Analysis of a Waveguide with a Regular Pentagonal Cross-Section with Conducting and Nonconducting Boundaries. Electron. Shukla and P. 13. 9. Vol. P. pp. Quantum Electron. G. pp. 217-220. Planar Optical Waveguides and Fibers. Khastgir. Inc. Khastgir. an outcome of the shape of the Piet hein curve that incorporates the properties of a square and a circle by eliminating the comers and retaining the fourfold symmetry. REFERENCES 1. and S. Thyagarajan. 280-282. K.” Microwave Opt. 54. K. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS One of the authors. 95. Lett. B.” Microwave Opt. Penguin Books Ltd. Ghatak.” Opt. we come to the important conclusion that the behavior of the Piet Hein cross section in firers gives us the scope for combining the properties of a waveguide with a square cross section and those of a standard circular fiber. Vol.. Unger. S. 1975.

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