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EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM

AS CONTROL SYSTEM

Written by : Muhammad Indra Hazami (4215101035)

Double Degree in Marine Engineering Program


Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember, Kampus ITS Keputih, Sukolilo, Surabaya
60111

PREFACE

Praise for Allah Subhanahu Wa Taala because he has shower his blessing so i
can finish my report with tittle Emergency Power System as Control System. And
dont forget to greet our Nabi Muhammad Shallahu Alaihi Wasallam and pray for his
faithful friend, his family, and his ummat that we hope we are one of ummat that always
obedient with lesson from Nabi Muhammad Shallahu Aliahi Wasallam.
In this report i got many help from other people that i want to say my gratitude
for their help. They are my lecturer, family, friends and other that i cant write their
name by piece. On this report i realize there are many imperfection. So i will accept any
criticism and tips that can make my report better.
I hope my report will have benefit for those who read. Because the best people is
peole that spread benefit to other people.

Surabaya
September 22, 2016

Muhammad Indra Hazami

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CONTENT

Preface

........................................................................
i

Content

........................................................................

ii

Chapter I Introduction

........................................................................

1.1 Motivation

........................................................................

1.2 Problem Statements


1.3 Goals

............................................................

........................................................................

1.4 Benefit of The Topic

.............................................................

1.5 Systematic of Writings

.............................................................

..............................................................

2.1 Control System Through History ..................................................

2.2 Fundamental of Control System ...................................................

2.3 Type of Control System ...............................................................

Chapter II Background Theory

Chapter III Metodology

...........................................................................

3.1 Preparation

...........................................................................

3.2 Planning Stage

...........................................................................

Chapter IV Emergency Power System

...................................................

4.1 Definition of Emergency Power System .......................................

4.2 Component of Emergency Power System

............................

4.3 How Emergency Power System Works ........................................

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4.4 Emergency Power System as Control System ..................................

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Chapter V Summary
Reference

..............................................................................

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.......................................................................................................

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CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Motivation
Control system is device that command, manage and regulate the behaviour of
other device or system. This system is very useful for mankind to make their
activity become easier. If we look back to mankind history, we have tried to control
this world by learned how to control animals to help our work. Then we found
steam machine and found another control system to make our work simpler. And
now we just have to click one button to turn on the control system such as AC,
washing machine and beard toaster.
We can found the control system on ship. There are many control system on ship
like governour, fire system, ballast system, and many others. But in this report i will
explain about emergency generator system that very important when ship main
generator system fail and cant distribute power to system that need it. So, we will
know how this system works and what for.
1.2 Problem Statement
1. What is control system basic concept.
2. Know the five components of the control system and connection between
component.
3. What is emergency power system.
4. What components on emergency power system.
5. How emergency power system works.

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1.3 Goals
1. We know what is control system.
2. We know the components of the control system and the connection between
them.
3. We know what is emergency power system.
4. We know what is component of emergency power system.
5. We know how emergeny power system works.

1.4 Benefits of The Topic


1. We can increase our knowledge about emergency power system.
2. Discover what happen when main power system fail.
3. Discover why emergency power system called control system.
1.5 Systematics of Writing
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
This cahapter provide motivation, problem statement, goals, benefit of the topic, and
systematic of writing.
CHAPTER II BACKROUND THEORY
This chapter contain control system throuh history, definition of control system,
component of control system, type of control system and the example.
CHAPTER III METODOLOGY
This chapter contains preparation and planning stage with flowchart how i make this
report.
CHAPTER IV EMRGENCY POWER SYSTEM
This chapter contains definiton of emergency power system, components of
emergency power system, how emergency power system works, why emergency
power system is control system.
CHAPTER V SUMMARY
This chapter contain summarize all of content in this report.

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CHAPTER II
BACKGROUND THEORY

2.1 Historical Review


Throughout the history manknind has tried to control the world in which
he lives. He realized that the only way to survive is by using his wits and
cunning. Stone age man devised tools and weapons from flint, stone and bone
and realize that he can train animals to do his bidding. It took a long time before
man learned to replace animals with machines.
2.2 Control System Fundamental
2.2.1 Control System Definition
Before discussing the structure of a control system it is necessary
to know the define of system itself. However, all systems have certain
thing in common they require input and output to be specified. In case of
CNC machine table, the input might be the power of the drive motor and
the output is might be the position, velocity and acceleration of the table.
It is necessary to define the boundary of a system
In general system may be defined as a collection of matter, parts,
components or procedures which included within some specified
boundary. A system may have any number of inputs and outputs.
Control itself is manage, commands, or regulate. So, control
system may be define as device that manage, command or regulate the
behaviour of other devices or system.
2.2.2

Basic Components of Control System


1. Sensors and Transmitters
- Measuring devices
- First component in control loop

2. Controller
- The brains of the control loop
- Receives information from the sensors/transmitters and compare
values with the programmed set point

3. Actuator
Receives signal from controller to ad just the manipulated
variable in order to retain a desired set point.
4. Input and output
Input is hardrive that allow information to be input to system
Input

Output

Disturbance
Controlle
r

Actuato
r

Plant

Sensor

2.3 Type of Control System


2.3.1 Open Control System
A control system in which the control action is totally independent of
output of the system.
Input

Output
Interfac
e

Actuato
r

Plant

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Example:
1. Electric Hand Drier
Hot air (output) comes iut as long as you keep your hands below the
machine and not depend on how much your hands dried.
2. Bread Toaster, Coffe Maker, and Tea Maker
This machine runs as per adjusted time we set and not depend on the
bread, coffe or tea that we put on this machine is completely ready to
served for eat or drink.
There are some of advantage from open control system :
1. Simple in construction and design.
2. Economical.
3. Easy to mantain.
4. Generally stable.
And the disadvantage from open control system are:
1. Inaccurate.
2. Unreliable.
3. Any change in output cannot be corrected automatically.
2.3.2

Closed Control System

Control System in which the output has an effect on the input quantity in
such a manner that the input quantity will adjust itself based on the output
generated. Actually the open sistem can be converted to closed control
system by providing the feedback. So this feedback automatically makes
the suitable changes in the output due to external disturbance or external
condition changes.
Disturbance
Input

Controlle
r

Actuato
r

Plant

Output

Sensor

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Example :
1. Servo Voltage Stabilizer
Voltage controller operates depending upon output voltage of the
system.
2. Missile Launched and Auto Tracked by Radar
The direction of missile is controlled by t he target and comparing the
target and position of the missile
The advantage of use closed control system are:
1. More accurate.
2. Has a large operating frequency range.
3. less affected by undesired input signal.
The disadvantage of use closed contorl system are :
1. expensive than open control system
2. complicated to design
3. required more maintenance

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CHAPTER III
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Preparation
This is the step before write this report, and here are few things i do for the
preparation :
1. Decide the title for my report
2. Gathering data from several sources
3. Choose which information from several sources that i will put on my report
3.2 Planning Stages
This stages will show how i compile this report from first step to final step with
flowchart.
Start

Preparation

Gathering Data

Selection information from


several sources

Not good enough

Good Enough
A

Writing the
Report

Finish

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CHAPTER IV
EMERGENCY POWER SYSTEM

4.1 Emergency Power System


Emergency Power system is system that backup main electrical system when the
main system is fail to distribute power to all components that need power. Ship is
like floating city that need basic amenities and sustain life on board and there are
power and electricity. So when the main system fail we must quickly backup the
most necessary system that need power still working.
4.2 Component of Emergency Power System
4.2.1 Emergency Generator
Black out" is a condition considered similar to a dead ship" condition.
It is a condition under which the main propulsion plant, boilers and
auxiliaries are not in operation and also there is no stored energy available to
restore them. This is the time for the emergency generator to take over.
Emergency generator is generator that backup main generator when it fail to
distribute power.
Emergency generator is installed or located outside the main and
auxiliary machinery space and it has own switchboard near vicinity. It is
provided with automatically starting to ensure immediate run up following a
main power failure.
Because emergency power doesnt has enough power to fully backup
main generator it only distribute power to vital system that need the power to
avoid black out condition. The emergency sources of electrical power shall
supply to emergency lighting; for a period of 18 hours to the following:
1. Accommodation, alleyways, stairs, exits, lifts and lifts trunks.
2. In machinery spaces and main generating stations

3. ECR, CCR, main and emergency switchboards


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4. Fire control stations, at S/G, at fire pumps, sprinkler pumps, etc.
5. Cargo pump rooms
This list may extend depending upon the administration
For 18 hours
1. Navigation lights
2. VHF radio installations
3. MF radio installations
4. HF radio installations
5. All internal communication equipment
6. Navigational equipment
7. Fire detection and fire alarm systems
8. One of the main fire pumps if dependent upon emergency generator.
If the ship is engaged in voyages of short duration regularly, the
administration if satisfied, it may be reduced from 8 hours period but not less
than 12 hours.
4.2.2

Emergency Switcboard

It is a switchboard which distributes emergency load that power is supplied from


emergency generator during the main power source failure. It has two sections- one
for 440V and another is 220V. Under normal condition, 440 V supply is taken from
E/R Main Switchboard, through a Circuit Breaker.
4.2.3

Circuit Breaker
Device to break current electricity automatically if the current electricity
through circuit breaker is overload.

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4.2.4

Interlock
It is a device that prevent main generator power and emergency generator
power works simultaneously and cause overload of power.

4.3 How Emergency Power System Works


When the main generator fail to distribute power the first circuit breaker that
connected to main switch board opened the emergency generator system and
supplies power through another circuit breaker An interlock is provided, to prevent
simultaneous closing of both breaker. Then after emergency generator working it
distribute the power to the vital system on the ship in limited time.
4.4 Emergency Power System As Control System
We can conclude the emergency power system is control system if it has main
components of control system itself. There are input/output, sensor, controller,
actuator and plant.
After i analyze the system i can conclude if emergency power system is control
system because it has main components like below :
Input

: Lost power of main generator

Sensor

: Circuit Breaker

Controller

: Emergency Switchboard

Actuator

: Emergency Generator

Plant

: Vital system that need power

Output

: Power distribute to vital system

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CHAPTER V

SUMMARY

Control system is system or device that manage, command, or regulate other


system or device. It has five main component there are sensor, controller, actuator, plant
and input/output. It has two type system there are open loop system and closed loop
system. The diffrence is the open loop system independent from outside system and
closed loop system is calculate the outside system to change the output.
Emergency power system is system that works when main generator is fail to
work. It has severall component there are emergency genertor, emergency switchboard,
circuit breaker and interlock.
It work when main generator fail teh circuit breaker that connected to emergency
switch board and opened the emergency power system and supplies another circuit
breaker that provide interlock to prevent the main generator and the emergency one
simulteneously work together.
Emergency power system is control system because it has five components
contol system. Power that fail distrubuted by main generator as input, circuit breaker as
sensors, switchboard as controller, emergency generator as actuator, and vital system
that need power as plant, so power that distributed by emergency generator as output.

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REFERENCE

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Burns, Roland S., Advance Control Engineering, Butterworth Heinemann 2001


www.dieselship.com
www.brighthubengineering.com
www.marineengineeringonline.com
www.marineinsight.com
www.machineryspaces.com

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